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Sample records for pineal region tumors

  1. Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale

    Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

  2. Papillary tumor of pineal region: A rare entity

    Meena Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal tumors comprise 0.4-1.0% of intracranial space occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago. This case is being reported for its rarity and aggressiveness in the form of recurrence. Limited/available immunohistochemistry workup has been done.

  3. Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region

    Magalhães, Juliana; Rostad, Steven; Foltz, Greg; Pytel, Peter; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2015-01-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon. PMID:22622671

  4. Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region.

    Magalhães, Juliana; Rostad, Steven; Foltz, Greg; Pytel, Peter; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2013-04-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon.

  5. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  6. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  7. Neurosurgical venous considerations for tumors of the pineal region resected using the infratentorial supracerebellar approach.

    Kodera, Toshiaki; Bozinov, Oliver; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Ulrich, Nils H; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-11-01

    The authors present a microsurgical technique for the resection of a heterogeneous group of pineal-region tumors and discuss the key points for successfully performing this surgery. Twenty-six consecutive patients with pineal-region tumors were resected by the senior author (H.B.) and analyzed retrospectively. For all 26 patients, the operation was conducted using the infratentorial supracerebellar (ITSC) approach in the sitting (23 patients) or Concorde (three patients) positions. Twenty-five patients had symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus and were treated with ventricular drainage, a previously inserted ventriculoperitoneal shunt, or an endoscopic third ventriculostomy before undergoing resection of the pineal-region tumor. The gross total removal of the tumor was achieved in 23 patients and subtotal removal was achieved in three patients. The tumors were pathologically diagnosed mainly as pineocytomas (10), pilocytic astrocytomas (6), or pineal cysts (4). Twenty-five of the patients clinically improved after surgery, and there was no mortality. Two patients experienced transient postoperative neurological deterioration: one patient developed Parinaud syndrome, and one patient developed intermittent diplopia. Successful surgery and patient outcome when treating tumors of the pineal region using the ITSC approach requires: (i) preservation of the venous flow of the Galenic draining system; (ii) preservation of the thick bridging veins of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, especially the hemispheric bridging veins; and (iii) minimizing retraction of the cerebellum during surgery to avoid adverse effects caused by both direct cerebellar compression and disturbance of the venous circulation.

  8. Papillary tumor of the pineal region-report of three cases with literature review

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a rare tumor of the pineal region. Not much is known about the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment protocol of this uncommon entity. We present three cases of PTPR with follow-up from 8 months to 98 months. All patients presented with headache and visual disturbance. One patient also had amenorrhea. Radiology revealed an heterogeneously enhancing mass arising from the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. Histopathologically, all cases showed the papillary architecture, strong pan cytokeratin and cytokeratin 18 positivity, and faint positivity for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. All cases received postoperative radiotherapy. One case showed tumor recurrence after 7 years. Other two cases did not show any recurrence till the last follow-up.

  9. An overview of the current surgical options for pineal region tumors

    Waleed A Azab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The list of pineal region tumors comprises an extensive array of pathological entities originating within one of the most complex areas of the intracranial cavity. With the exception of germ cell tumors, microsurgical excision is still nowadays the mainstay of management for most pineal region tumors. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications addressing surgical options for management of pineal region tumors. Results: The infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial approaches are currently the most frequently used approaches for pineal region tumors. Endoscopic tumor biopsy with simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy has emerged as a minimally invasive and highly effective strategy for initial management since it addresses the issue of tissue diagnosis and offers a solution for the associated hydrocephalus frequently encountered in these patients. Endoscope-assisted microsurgery and purely endoscopic excision have been reported in few reports and are likely to be more utilized in the future. Conclusion : Preoperative planning is very crucial and should most importantly be individualized according to the anatomical features of the lesion and structures encountered during the procedure.

  10. Endoscopic surgery for tumors of the pineal region via a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA).

    Thaher, Firas; Kurucz, Peter; Fuellbier, Lars; Bittl, Markus; Hopf, Nikolai J

    2014-10-01

    The tumors of the pineal region represent a significant challenge in terms of patient selection and surgical approach. Traditional surgical options were commonly used to approach this area causing considerable surgical morbidity and mortality. We report for the first time on a series of endoscopic procedures for lesions of the pineal region performed via an infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA) in the prone position using endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled technique. A single-institution series of 11 consecutive patients (five male and six female patients [11 total cases]; mean age 21 years, range 1-75 years) treated via the endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled PISKA for a pathological entity in the pineal region was retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up time was 24 months. The endoscopic PISKA was successfully used to approach a variety of pineal lesions, including pineocytoma (three patients), pineal cysts (four patients), germinoma, lipoma, medulloblastoma, and glioblastoma (one patient each). Gross total resection was achieved in ten cases and subtotal resection in one case. The mean preoperative tumor volumes were approximately 2 × 2 cm. Five patients developed postoperatively transient Parinaud's syndrome. One patient underwent surgical revision for cerebrospinal fluid leak. There was no mortality. Ten patients had an uneventful postoperative course with restitutio ad integrum after a mean follow-up duration of 13.5 months. The endoscopically PISKA is a safe and effective minimally invasive approach that enables endoscopic treatment of different lesions of the pineal region with comparable results to standard microsurgical technique but less morbidity.

  11. An unusual variant of anlage tumor of pineal region in an infant.

    Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Kothari, Kanchan; Goel, Naina; Mahore, Amit

    2015-04-01

    A 9-month-old male child was brought with complaints of increasing head size for 2 months, increasing lethargy and vomiting for the last 2 days. Radiology revealed a heterogeneously enhancing, globular lesion in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Near total excision of the tumor was carried out. The histopathological examination of the lesion showed heterogenous elements in the form of mature neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal tissue. The pathology and radiology of this unusual lesion is discussed with relevant review of literature.

  12. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings.

  13. A role of trial radiation therapy in the pineal region tumors

    Kim, Yeon Shil; Ryu, Mi Ryung; Chung, Su Mi; Kim, Moon Chan; Yoon, Sei Chul [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the treatment results of 30 patients with pineal region tumors who were underwent radiation therapy under the diagnosis by either CT or MRI. There was no histological verification. We analyzed the prognostic factors that have a significant effect on the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. A total 30 patients with pineal region tumors were treated between March 1983 and August 1995. After a trial radiation therapy of 20 {approx} 30 Gy/2 {approx} 3 weeks, the patients were evaluated for their clinical response and radiological response by either CT or MRI and the final treatment direction was then decided. According to their response to the trial radiation therapy and the involved site, radiation treatment was given in various field i.e., local, ventricle, whole brain and craniospinal field. The radiation dose ranged from 40.8 to 59.4 Gy (Median 50.4 Gy). The median follow up was 36.5 months (4 {approx} 172 months). An improvement or stability in the clinical symptoms was observed in 28 patients (93.3%) after the trial RT. Nineteen patients (63.3%) showed a partial or complete response by CT or MRI. The two-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 66.7% and 55.1%, respectively. No significant difference in the survival rates according to the degree of the radiological response was observed after the trial RT. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, the primary site, the performance status(KPS {>=} 70), the degree of response after completing RT and the RT field were significant prognostic factors affecting the survival and disease free survival rates ({rho} < 0.05). The clinical and histological characteristics of pineal region tumors are quite complex and diverse. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the histological diagnosis and the possibility of radiocurability only with the initial response to RT. We think that the development of less invasive histological

  14. Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami

    Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

  15. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  16. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  17. Lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for microsurgical resection of large midline pineal region tumors: techniques to expand the operative corridor.

    Kulwin, Charles; Matsushima, Ken; Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Pineal region tumors pose certain challenges in regard to their resection: a deep surgical field, associated critical surrounding neurovascular structures, and narrow operative working corridor due to obstruction by the apex of the culmen. The authors describe a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach that was successfully used in the treatment of 10 large (> 3 cm) midline pineal region tumors. The patients were placed in a modified lateral decubitus position. A small lateral suboccipital craniotomy exposed the transverse sinus. Tentorial retraction sutures were used to gently rotate and elevate the transverse sinus to expand the lateral supracerebellar operative corridor. This approach placed only unilateral normal structures at risk and minimized vermian venous sacrifice. The surgeon achieved generous exposure of the caudal midline mesencephalon through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory, while avoiding excessive retraction on the culmen. All patients underwent the lateral approach with no approach-related complication. The final pathological diagnoses were consistent with meningioma in 3 cases, pilocytic astrocytoma in 3 cases, intermediate grade pineal region tumor in 2 cases, and pineoblastoma in 2 cases. The entire extent of these tumors was readily reachable through the lateral supracerebellar route. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases; in 2 cases (20%) near-total resection was performed due to adherence of these tumors to deep diencephalic veins. Large midline pineal region tumors can be removed through a unilateral paramedian suboccipital craniotomy. This approach is simple, may spare some of the midline vermian bridging veins, and may be potentially less invasive and more efficient.

  18. [Pineal region tumors in children: is gross-total resection necessary? A single-center experience].

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Garza-González, María del Carmen; Ortiz-Azpilcueta, Mariana; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Rioscovian-Soto, Ana; de la Cruz-Yañez, Hermilo; Betanzos-Cabrera, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la supervivencia de los niños con tumores de la región pineal se ha incrementado en la última década; estos tienen una evolución insidiosa asociada con los desórdenes endocrinológicos y una alta morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo después de la resección. El objetivo es reportar la supervivencia, la morbilidad y mortalidad según el tipo de cirugía, la histología y el tratamiento en un grupo de niños con tumores de la región pineal. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de la región pineal menores de 17 años de edad que acudieron en un periodo de 10 años a un hospital de pediatría. Se realizó una revisión histopatológica, se determinó la extensión de la resección y se estimó la supervivencia. Resultados: se incluyeron 46 pacientes, 36 de los cuales tenían expediente completo y material de patología adecuado. La resección total se realizó en 24 (66.6 %) y biopsia en 12 (33.3 %); fallecieron 23 pacientes (88 %) y fue el desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico la causa de 14 defunciones (60 %) y la progresión tumoral la causa de las 9 defunciones restantes (39.1 %). La sobrevida a 10 años de los pacientes tratados con resección total y biopsia fue del 52 y 75 %, respectivamente, con una p = 0.7; se presentaron alteraciones endocrinológicas en 13 (36.1%) pacientes de los cuales a 10 (76.9 %) se les realizó la resección de la tumoración. Conclusión: los tumores de la región pineal en niños se pueden tratar con biopsia diagnóstica seguida de tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y radioterapia.

  19. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report.

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Background Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes, > 17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature.

  20. Clinical pathology of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤的临床病理研究

    谢彬; 漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 陆云涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究松果体区肿瘤(PRTs)的病理分布特点及不同病理类型的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析南方医院神经外科自2000年1月至2009年1月经手术治疗并取得完整病理资料的133例PRTs患者的临床资料及病理特点.结果 133例患者中生殖细胞肿瘤61例(45.9%),松果体实质肿瘤17例(12.8%),神经上皮肿瘤28例(21.1%),其他肿瘤27例(20.2%).生殖细胞肿瘤中男女比例为14.25:1,平均15.3岁.松果体实质肿瘤中男女比例为2.4:1,平均24.7岁.神经上皮肿瘤中男女比例为1.15:1,平均28.1岁.有33例血清免疫学检查异常,除1例为转移瘤外,其余均为生殖细胞肿瘤.结论 PRTs病理类型多样,以生殖细胞肿瘤为主;影像学检查、血清免疫学检查及活检均不能准确判断病理类型,积极手术获得完整病理标本对于PRTs的病理研究有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the pathological distribution and clinical characteristics of pineal region tumors (PRTs) with variant pathology.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 133 patients with PRTs that were performed surgical removal from January 2000 to January 2009 in our hospital.Results Sixty-one patients (45.9%) were diagnosed as having germ cell tumors,17 (12.8%) pineal parenchymal tumors,28 (21.1%) gliomas and 27 (20.2%)other resource tumors.Sex ratio of patients with germ cell tumors,pineal parenchymal tumors and gliomas were 14.25:1 (male:female),2.4:1 and 1.15:1,respectively; their median ages were 15.3,24.7 and 28.1,respectively.The serum immunologic test showed abnormal results in 33 patients; except for 1 with metastatic tumors,the others were diagnosed as having germ cell tumors.Conclusion PRTs have many pathological types and patients with PRTs are mainly diagnosed as having germ cell tumors.Correct diagnosis can not be made by imaging,serum immunologic test or biopsy, thus,obtaining complete clinical specimen during the total tumor removal is

  1. Pineal anlage tumor in a 5-month-old boy.

    Olaya, Joffre E; Raghavan, Ravi; Totaro, Laura; Zouros, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Pineal tumors are rare neoplasms that are categorized into pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. Pineal anlage tumors are primary pineal tumors with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. The authors review the literature and report the case of a 5-month-old boy with a pineal anlage tumor. This is only the sixth case of a pineal anlage tumor reported in the English-language literature adding to the understanding of this tumor's presentation, immunomorphological and molecular characteristics, embryological origin, radiological appearance, treatment outcome, and prognosis.

  2. MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    刘海洋; 任英红; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析松果体区肿瘤的MRI表现,提高临床诊断及鉴别诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析经手术及病理证实的松果体区肿瘤21例,均行MRI平扫及增强扫描.结果 本组病例包括囊肿1例,生殖细胞瘤5例,松果体细胞瘤3例,星形细胞瘤(包括多形性和间变性)3例,松果体母细胞瘤2例,原始神经外胚层肿瘤(PNET)1例,畸胎瘤2例,脑膜瘤1例,孤立性纤维瘤1例,转移瘤2例.结论 松果体区肿瘤具有一定特征性的MRI表现,结合患者临床和发病年龄、性别、部位等特点,可进一步提高其诊断准确率.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis rate of pineal region tumor by analyzing the MRI findings. Methods 21 cases of pineal region neoplasms confirmed by operation and pathology were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases were performed plain and enhanced MR scan. Results Our series consisted of 1 pineal cyst ,5 pineal germinomas, 3 pinealocyto-mas, 3 astrocytomas (including pleomorphic and anaplastic) , 2 pineoblastomas, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) ,2 ter-atomas, 1 meningioma, 1 solitary fibroma and 2 metastatic tumors. Conclusion Depending on their characteristics MRI findings and combining clinical features, the accuracy of diagnosis of pineal region neoplasms can be further improved.

  3. [Primary teratocarcinoma of the pineal region].

    Masini, T; Tarocchi, A; Cappricci, E; Gullotta, F

    1989-01-01

    Primary Teratocarcinoma of Pineal Region. A case of a 12 year old boy admitted for intracranial hypertension of sudden onset has been reported. CT scanning and MR showed a triventricular hydrocephalus due to a space-occupying lesion of the pineal region. Tonic-clonic fits of the upper limbs and Parinaud syndrome were followed by loss of consciousness. Intervention I: ventriculo-peritoneal shunt with sampling of CSF and assay for beta-HCG, alpha FP and CEA, which proved negative. Cytology for neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid was negative. Intervention II: grossly total removal of the tumor. This was followed by partial remission of Parinaud syndrome, total remission of the hypertensive symptoms and discharge on day 12. The 3 cm. whitish-pink tumor of rubbery consistency proved on histological examination to be a teratocarcinoma. The patient was further submitted to chemioterapy and irradiation but died 7 months after the second intervention. This is a rare tumor, much more than teratoma of the pineal gland, which is relatively frequent. It is interesting histologically because of the presence not only of chondroid and mesenchymal portions but also of adamantinomatous rudiments and of epithelial zones resembling embryonal carcinoma of the testis.

  4. MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    岑家定

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors. Methods Retrospected and analysed 28 cases of pineal region tumors diagnosed with MRI data. Results 8 cases of germ cell tumor, glioma with teratoma in 5 cases, 2 cases of meningioma, 4 cases of choriocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, pinealoblastoma, arachnoid cyst and skin itching cyst in 1 cases. The diagnostic results showed that only rely on the MRI signal was difficult to accurately diagnose,combined with clinical data was still needed. Conclusion MRI examination could accurately display the pineal region tumor morphology and location, diagnosis and differential diagnosis could be combined with the source to determine the tumor tissue, effectively improved the accuracy diagnosis and differential diagnosis.%  目的探讨松果体区肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断。方法回顾分析28例松果体区肿瘤患者MRI诊断资料。结果生殖细胞瘤8例,胶质瘤及畸胎瘤各5例,脑膜瘤2例,绒毛膜癌4例,神经母细胞瘤、松果体母细胞瘤、蛛网膜囊肿及皮痒囊肿各1例。诊断结果显示,仅依靠MRI信号难以准确诊断,还需结合临床资料,有助于准确诊断。结论 MRI检查能够准确显示松果体区肿瘤的形态以及位置,诊断与鉴别诊断可以结合肿瘤的组织学来源确定,有效提高诊断以及鉴别诊断的准确性。

  5. Microsurgery for Pineal Region Tumors: Report of 21 Cases%松果体区肿瘤的显微手术治疗:21例经验

    苏永永; 白凯; 袁绍纪; 魏亚辉; 吴鹏昌; 刘江峰

    2009-01-01

    背景与目的:松果体区肿瘤治疗目前仍存在争议,为此我们进一步探讨松果体区肿瘤的临床特点及显微手术治疗.方法:回顾性分析2002~2008年收治的21例松果体区肿瘤患者的临床资料.结果:肿瘤全切除15例,次全切除4例,部分切除2例.21例的手术病理结果中,生殖细胞瘤9例、松果体母细胞瘤5例、胶质瘤2例及其他肿瘤5例.结论:松果体区肿瘤的诊断须以病理组织学分类为依据,松果体区静脉系统是阻碍手术操作的主要结构,显微外科手术应可良好地保护此区静脉,是松果体区肿瘤全切除的关键所在.%BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The management of tumors in pineal region remain a challenge for neurosurgeons. In this article, we discussed the clinical characteristics and mierosurgery of these tumors.METHODS: The clinical date of 21 patients with tumors in pineal region treated in our hospital from 2002 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULT: Among 21 patients, total removal was achieved in 15 cases,subtotal removal in 5 cases and partial removal in 2 cases, respectively. As for pathology, 9 cases were diagnosed as germ cell tumor, 5 cases as pinealoblastoma, 2 casess as glioma, and 5 cases as others tumor types,respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of tumors in pineal region should be confirmed by pathology. It,s important to protect the venous system around the pineal region during the tumor resection.

  6. Treatment of hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤导致脑积水的处理

    张治元; 王汉东; 史继新; 杭春华; 成惠林; 樊友武; 潘云曦; 孙康健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment of hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors.Methods The treatment of hydrocephalus caused by 56 pathologically confirmed pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Results Before operation,ventricular drainage was performed in 1 case.ventriculo -peritoneal shunt was in 2 cases.During operation,ventriculo- cisternal shunt was done in 35 cases,no treatment in 15 cases,ventricular drainage in 3 cases.Ventriculo - peritoneal shunt was carried in 12 cases,in which hydrocephalus was not relieved after tumor remove.Conclusions Intraoperative ventriculo-cisternal shunt (Torkildsen's procedure) is safe and effective for the majority of patients with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤脑积水的治疗.方法 回顾性分析56例经手术病理证实的松果体区肿瘤脑积水的处理.结果 术前行脑室外引流1例,脑室-腹腔分流术2例;术中行侧脑室-枕大池分流35例,未作处理15例,行侧脑室外引流3例;术后因脑积水不能缓解行脑室-腹腔分流术12例.结论 术中行脑室-枕大池分流术对大多数松果体区肿瘤脑积水患者是安全有效的.

  7. MRI Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Rare Tumors in Pineal Region%松果体区少见肿瘤MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    李松涛; 汪文胜; 黄泽春

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨松果体区少见肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断情况。方法回顾性分析我院于2007年1月至2013年7月收治的15名松果体区肿瘤患者的临床资料,总结这些患者的临床表现和MRI检查结果。结果诊断结果显示,这些患者患有松果体实质瘤、松果体细胞瘤、成熟与未成熟的畸胎瘤、胚胎发育不良性神经上皮瘤、胶质母细胞瘤、节细胞胶质瘤、神经母细胞瘤、精原细胞瘤、松果体母细胞瘤、胆脂瘤和胚胎癌等松果体区肿瘤。结论单一靠MRI检查无法明确诊断松果体区少见肿瘤, DWI及MRS等功能磁共振检查可以帮助诊断,确诊依旧需要依靠病理检查结果。%Objective To discuss the MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of rare tumors in pineal region. Methods Clinical data of 15 patients with pineal region tumor were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from 2007 January to 2013 July, and their clin-ical manifestations and MRI findings were summarized. Results The diagnosis results showed that the tumors included pineal paren-chymal tumor, pineocytoma, mature or immature teratoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, glioblastoma, ganglioglioma, neu-roblastoma, seminoma, pinealoblastoma, cholesteatoma and embryonal carcinoma. Conclusion Rare tumor in pineal region could not be definitely diagnosed only by MRI check;DWI and MRS functional magnetic resonance imaging examination could also contribute to its diagnosis. However, the diagnosis still depends on the pathological examination results.

  8. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Pineal Region in a Young Adult Male Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Liebigt, Susan; Florschütz, Axel; Arndt, Nicole; Stock, Karsten; Renner, Christof

    2017-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) represents a highly malignant and aggressive embryonal neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS). Histologically it consists of rhabdoid cells with a varying combination of neuroectodermal, epithelial, and mesenchymal tissue. Histologic features and the poor clinical outcome indicate that this tumor corresponds to World Health Organization grade IV. AT/RT mainly occurs in children adults. It often arises from the posterior fossa of infants and has the tendency to spread through the subarachnoid space. In contrast to pediatric cases, most of the AT/RTs in adults are located in the cerebral hemispheres; infratentorial appearance or localization in the spinal cord is relatively uncommon. Likewise there are only a few reports of AT/RT in the pineal region. We present another interesting case of this tumor occurring in the pineal region of a 19-year-old man and discuss our case in the context of the current literature. The patient is alive 18 months since his initial diagnosis without any signs of tumor relapse.

  9. 松果体区肿瘤诊治策略的探讨%Discussion of the diagnosis and therapy strategy for pineal region tumors

    邱炳辉; 漆松涛; 方陆雄; 谢彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the optimal diagnosis and theraputic strategy of pineal region tumors.Method Clinical materials of 154 cases with pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Results The patients with pineal region tumors often complained with increased intracranial pressure and ocular movement deficiency.The procedure of diagnosis was imaging checking included CT and MRI,tumor mark testing.23 cases which were essential exact diagnosed or high doubt germinomas were choosed to direct radiotherapy or radiotherapy after biopsy.All the tumors disappeared during the follow up time.5 years survival rate was 88.9%.Other 131 cases were chosen for operation treatment.Total removal were achieved in 124 cases and subtotal were achieved in 7 cases.The 5 years survival rate was 84.4%.The operation pathological result included 60 germ cell tumors, 17 pineal parenchymal tumors, 27 neural epithelium tumors and 27 other tumors.Conclusions Pineal region tumors are often combined with hydrocephalus.There was some characteristic feature in the imaging appearance.The cases should be chosen to direct radiotherapy and chemotherapy if was diagnosed germinomas, and be choosed to radiotherapy after biopsy or experimental radiotherapy if was high doubt germinomas.The cases which unable determined germionmas should be choosed microsurgery and assist radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperation.Hydrocephalus should be treated in consideration during the procedure of tumor treatment.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤的诊治策略.方法 回顾性分析154例松果体区肿瘤的病例资料.结果 松果体区肿瘤多以颅高压、眼球运动障碍起病,诊断需进行CT、MRI及肿瘤标记物检查.基本确诊或高度怀疑生殖细胞瘤时直接放疗或活检后放疗23例,肿瘤均消失,5年生存率88.9%;其他肿瘤手术治疗131例,肿瘤全切除124例,次全切除7例,5年生存率84.4%.手术患者的病理结果:生殖细胞肿瘤60例,松果体实质肿瘤17

  10. Review of pineal anlage tumor with divergent histology.

    Berns, Stephen; Pearl, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Pineal anlage tumor is an extremely rare tumor that is not listed in the 2000 World Health Organization Classification of nervous system tumors. It has been defined as a primary pineal tumor with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. We review the literature on this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.

  11. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report

    Gasparetto Emerson Leandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

  12. 松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors in the microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumors

    张治元; 王汉东; 史继新; 杭春华; 成惠林; 樊友武; 潘云曦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the related factors in the microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumors. Methods The clinical data of 69 patients with pineal region tumors performed microsurgery were analyzed retrospectively. The tumors and the texture, blood supply, pathology in pineal region and the relationship with microsurgery were analyzed. Results The tumors were totally removed in 43 cases, subtotal in 19 and partial in 7. Conclusion The microsurgical difficulty and degree of resection are closely related to the size, texture, blood supply and pathology of pineal region tumors.%目的 分析松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗的相关因素.方法 回顾性分析显微手术治疗69 例松果体区肿瘤的临床资料,探讨松果体区肿瘤大小、质地、血供及病理类型与显微手术的关系.结果 肿瘤全切除43 例,次全切除19 例,部分切除7 例.结论 松果体区肿瘤的大小、质地、血供、病理类型与显微手术难度和切除程度密切相关.

  13. 松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗及入路比较%Microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumor and comparison of approaches

    陈传新; 虞正权; 王中; 孙雪波; 高薇; 毕永峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the technique,approach and attention of surgical treatment for pineal region tumors.Methods The clinical characteristic,surgical approach and prognosis of 12 patients with pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Of 12 patients,suboccipital supratentorial approach were underwent in 7,transcallosal-interfornix approach in 3,infratentorial supracerebellar approach in 1 and lateral transventricular approach in 1.Results The tumors were totally resected in 11 patients.One patient died of postoperation complications.The follow up from 8 to 41 months showed 10 patients recovered well,one could care of himself and 1 died at three months after operation.Conclusion Mircrosurgical treatment is an effective method for pineal region tumors.Correct choice of microsurgical approach and skillful microsurgical technique are the key to the success of operation.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤外科治疗的方法、入路和注意事项.方法 回顾分析12例松果体区肿瘤直接手术患者的临床特点、手术及预后情况.12例患者中,枕下经小脑幕入路(Poppen入路)7例,经胼胝体-穹窿间入路3例,颞部侧脑室三角部入路1例,幕下小脑上入路(krause入路)1例.结果 肿瘤全切除11例.术后死于并发症1例;随访8个月至3.5年,10例恢复良好,1例生活基本自理,1例术后3月死亡.结论 松果体区肿瘤的手术治疗效果较好,选择合适的手术入路及体位,熟练的显微外科手术技巧是手术成功的关键.

  14. Meningiomas of pineal region in children Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças

    Hamilton Matushita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic examinations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracteristica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral.

  15. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  16. Clinical study of pineal region tumors: experience with 132 patients%132例松果体区肿瘤的临床研究

    邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 张喜安; 漆松涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究松果体区肿瘤的临床表现、影像学特征、肿瘤标记物、病理特征、治疗方法 和临床疗效,探讨其特点和治疗策略.方法 回顾性分析2000年1月至2008年5月间住院治疗的132例松果体区肿瘤患者的资料.结果 132例松果体区肿瘤患者中,男性98例,女性34例,男女之比为2.9:1.临床表现以颅内压升高、眼球运动障碍为主.CT和MRI检查有一定特征,但缺乏特异性的影像表现.132例患者中,合并腩积水117例,占88.6%.甲胎蛋白(AFP)升高14例,人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)升高9例.132例患者中,直接放疗18例,病理活检后放疗7例,手术切除107例.有病理诊断结果 者114例,其中生殖细胞源性肿瘤56例.随访12~132个月,肿瘤复发23例,死亡12例.132例患者的5年牛存率为89.3%.结论 松果体区肿瘤常合并脑积水,定性诊断较困难,影像学检查有助于诊断,但特异性较差.结合肿瘤标记物可诊断生殖细胞源性肿瘤.纯生殖细胞瘤可直接选择放化疗,其他类型肿瘤均应开颅行手术治疗.应根据患者的病理诊断结果 ,施行联合放化疗,效果较好.%Objective To review the clinical manifestations, imaging, tumor markers, treatment methods, pathology results and clinical curative effects of pineal region tumors and to evaluate the characteristics and intervention strategies for those tumors. Methods The clinicopathological data of 132 patients with pineal region tumor treated in our department between January 2000 and May 2008 were retrospectively studied.Results A moderate predominance in males was presented. The clinical manifestations of the disease included increased intracranial pressure and ocular movement impairment. There were some features but no regularity and specific appearance on imaging including CT and MRI. 88. 6% of patients associated with hydrocephalus. A high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was presented in 14 cases and high HCG in 9 cases

  17. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  18. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Sandro Santagata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  19. Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery

    Cho, Heung Lae; Sohn, Seung Chang [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm{sup 3} to 74 cm{sup 3}. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm{sup 3}, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm{sup 3}, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm{sup 3} and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of

  20. Treatment of Tumors in the Pineal Region by X- Knife Radiosurgery%X-刀立体定向放射神经外科技术治疗松果体区肿瘤

    王立根; 郭艳; 章翔; 宋少军; 石梅; 魏丽春

    2001-01-01

    Within three years ,86 cases of tumors in the pineal region were treated by X- Knife radiosurgical technique,using the standard axial serial CT scan for stereotactic localization,the target were localized by the BRW coordinate system.Radionics RSA- 3 X- Knife treatment planning system were used to make plan,Philips SL- 75- 14 Linac was used to produce X- ray.After treatment, follow- up ranged 6~ 42 months (meanly 24 months),most of the patients showed improvements within 1` 6 months. The results of this report proved that the X- Knife treatment for tumors in the pineal region might be an effective,economical and reliable method.

  1. Clinical analysis of 8 cases of male sexual precocity due to pineal region tumor%松果体区肿瘤致男性性早熟8例临床分析

    方陆雄; 郭邦明; 李志勇; 徐书翔; 漆松涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the cause and clinical features ef sexual precocity due to pineal region tumor. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 8 cases of male sexual precocity due to pineal region tumor. The pathology and germ cell tumor markers of 8 cases were compared to 11 cases without sexual precocity presentation. Results The incidence of sexual precocity clue to pineal region tumor was 42%. Sexual precocity was the incipient manifestation in 3 cases and was one of the clinical symptoms in 5 cases. Sexual precocity occurred earlier than other symptoms in most cases, but was often ignored. Pineal region tumors in the sexual precocity cases were all malignant germ cell tumors, and were able to secrete β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG). Conclusion The sexual precocity in male cases of pineal region tumors is pseudo-precocity. The abnormal high level of serum HCG caused by tumor secretion is the main cause of sexual precocity.%目的 探讨男性松果体区肿瘤患儿性早熟的原因和临床特征.方法 对8例有性早熟表现的男性松果体区肿瘤患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析,并在肿瘤病理和生殖细胞肿瘤标志物方面与11例无性早熟表现的患儿进行比较.结果 本组8例性早熟患儿占同时期、同年龄段男性松果体区肿瘤患儿的42%.3例性早熟为首发表现,5例为临床表现之一.性早熟多早于其它症状出现,但常被忽视.性早熟患儿的松果体区肿瘤均为恶性生殖细胞肿瘤,且均能分泌β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG).结论 男性松果体区肿瘤患儿的性早熟是假性性早熟,肿瘤分泌HCG导致血清HCG异常增高是性早熟的主要原因.

  2. Removing pineal region tumor with infratentorial-supracerebellar approach%幕下小脑上入路切除松果体区肿瘤

    郭智霖; 丁美修

    2008-01-01

    目的 评估幕下小脑上入路切除松果体区肿瘤的优点和缺点.方法 回顾性分析53例用该种手术入路所切除肿瘤的临床表现、手术方法 、肿瘤全切程度和术后并发症等.结果 28例显微镜下全切,15例大部切除,8例部分切除,2例活检.术后所有患者均出现不同程度的气颅,但在3-5d后消失.术后38例患者出现眼球上视和会聚功能受限,均在术后2周内恢复.4例出现进行性加重脑积水需行脑室-腹腔分流术.2例患者术后肿瘤残腔出血,虽经积极手术治疗仍死亡.结论 幕下小脑上入路能克服经枕穿幕入路牵拉枕叶、切开小脑幕的缺点,术中解削定位清晰,但暴露范围有限,不适于肿瘤向幕上或偏侧生长者.%Objective To estimate the advantage and disadvantage of infratentorial-supracerebellar approach for removal of pinal region tumor.Method 53 cases of pineal region tumor were retrospectivly reviewed including clinical manifestations,operative approach,degree of tumor resected and complication related to approach.Results Of 53 cases,28 cases were totally removed,subtotally removed in 15 cases,partly in 8 cases and biopsy in 2 cases.After operation air presented in supratentorial cavity in all cases,but disappeared among 3-5 days.38 cases showed limited upgaze and convergency which lasts several days to 2 weeks.4 cases needed to be shunted to eliminate developing hydrocephalus.2 cases developed postopertive hemorrhage in the residual mass,and undergone second operation and died.Conclusions Infratentorial supracerebellar approach can avoid retracting occipital lobe and dividing tent,but it is preferable for small and medium size tumors without lateral expansion.

  3. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.

    Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L

    2000-11-06

    Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

  4. 松果体区肿瘤的MRI表现与其病理学对照研究%Relationship of manifestations of pineal region tumors on MRI with their pathology

    邱炳辉; 肖罡; 莫益萍; 邱晓瑜; 方陆雄; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the manifestations of differently pathological pineal region tumors on MRI and evaluate the MRI value to their diagnosis. Method The pathological data of 131 cases of pineal region tumors, which were removed by microsurgery from January, 1999 to January, 2009, were compared with their manifestations on preoperative MRI. Results Of 131 cases of pineal region rumors, 21 were germinomas, 18 teratomas, 6 choriocarcinomas, 2 embryonal careinomas, 1 endodermal sinus tumor, 12 mixed germ cell tumors, 27 neuroepithelial rumors, 17 pineal parenchymal cell tumors, 14 menigiomas and 13 other tumors. The enhancement of all the lesions which differed in degree on MRI was observed in 60 cases of the germ cell tumors, of which, 39 had little cystic components and 21 did not. There were typical butterfly signs on MRI in 5 cases of germinomas and typical honeycomb-like appearance on MRI in 13 cases of teratomas. MRI showed that there was hemorrhage in 5 of 6 cases of choriocarcinomas. There were clear bounds and strong and homogeneous enhancement on MRI in 14 cases of meningiomas, of which, 6 had the thickening of the adjacent dura and 8 did not. There were significantly different manifestation on MRI among 17 cases of pineal parenchymal cell tumors, 27 cases of neuroepithelial tissue rumors, and 13 cases of the others tumors in the pineal regions. Conclusions The manifestations of the pineal region tumors on MRI were related to their pathological type. Some manifestations of the part pineal region tumors on MRI were highly special, but the MRI sensitivity to the diagnosis of the pineal region tumors was low. It is still difficult to discriminate the accurate pathological quality of the pineal region tumors by MRI.%目的 探讨不同病理性质的松果体区肿瘤MRI表现,评价其临床诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析1999年1月至2009年1月经开颅手术治疗的131例松果体区肿瘤患者的MRI及病理学资料,并进行对比分析.结果 这131

  5. 松果体区肿瘤手术治疗方法的选择%Microsurgical surgery options for tumors in pineal region

    叶劲; 梁有明; 蓝胜勇; 唐秀文; 肖泉; 刘若平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of surgical resection for the pineal region tumor,the extent of tumor resection,the surgical approaches and treatment measures of hydrocephalus.Methods Twentythree patients diagnosed of pineal region cancer were recruited for this study.Thirteen patients received ventriculo-peritoneal shunt(V-P),during which 7 cases received intraoperative end-plate colostomy.Two of the 13 cases received a second V-P procedure.Another 13 cases received operation by corpus callosum- septum-Dome Room-the third ventricle approach to remove the tumor; Eight cases underwent the tumor resection by suboccipital supratentorial approach (Poppen approach )and 2 cases underwent the tumor resection by the infratentorial cerebellar approach( Krause approach).Results Total tumor resection was performed in 11 cases,subtotal or major total resection in 8 cases and partial resection in 4 cases.Nine cases underwent postoperative radiotherapy alone,8 receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy,and 6 cases receiving neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy.Two cases died during treatment.Conclusion Though it is not practicable to completely remove the germ cell tumor in patients with relatively large tumors,cerebrospinal fluid circulation pathways should be reestablished,including ventriculo-peritoneal shunt,colostomy from the end of the third ventricle to the end plate.If tumors are not too large,they would be easy to be removed.The effects on the surrounding brain tissue would not be much significant.If the connection of Ⅲ,V ventricles were normal,the patient may not need shunt or colostomy.Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can be given to this kind of patients after the surgery.To improve the efficacy,other types of tumors,expecially the benign tumors,should be totally removed.%目的 探讨手术切除松果体区肿瘤的意义、肿瘤切除的程度、手术入路的选择以及脑积水的处理方法.方法 我院收治松果体区肿瘤患者23例,为缓解脑

  6. Brain CT of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors

    Lee, Hang Young; Chung, Eun Cheul; Lee, Dong Ho; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    19 cases of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively with both radiologic and clinical features. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was 8 to 32 year old (16 year old of mean age) and the sex distribution shows male predominance (15:4). 2. The histopathologic diagnosis includes 11 cases of germinoma, 2 case of mixed germ cell tumor, 1 case of embryonal cell carcinoma and 5 cases of unknown. 3. The location of tumors was the sarsaparilla region in 8 cases, the left basal ganglia and thalamus in 5 cases, and the right frontal lobe in 1 case. Among 11 cases of germinoma, 6 cases involve the sarsaparilla region and 3 cases the left basal ganglia and thalamus. 4. In clinical features, there were visual disturbance, diabetes indispose, increased ICP signs, motor weakness, hormonal disorders, and personal changes in order. 5. In tumor marker study of 6 cases of germinoma, 5 cases show increase in HCG titer, but all 6 cases were normal in AFP titer. 6. In brain CT, most of all revealed well-defined homogeneous high density with or without small central low density and homogeneous enhancement at solid portion, and there was calcification in only case with mixed germ cell tumor.

  7. Infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor using a high definition video exoscope (VITOM®).

    Mamelak, Adam N; Drazin, Doniel; Shirzadi, Ali; Black, Keith L; Berci, George

    2012-02-01

    A telescope based high definition (HD) video system (VITOM®, Karl Storz GmBH & Co., Tuttlingen, Germany) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the operating microscope for microneurosurgery. It remains unclear which clinical situations will benefit from its advantages. In light of the uncomfortable surgeon position and fatigue often associated with pineal region surgery, we used the VITOM® HD exoscope system to perform an infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor. The VITOM® dramatically improved surgeon comfort and ease of operating by permitting the surgeon to stand upright and in a comfortable position and avoid the need to extend the arm or assume an awkward. position commonly encountered when using the microscope for these approaches. The marked improvement in surgeon comfort afforded by the VITOM® exoscope indicates that this system may have significant advantages over traditional microscope based surgery for tumors of the pineal region approached using an infratentorial supracerebellar approach.

  8. 松果体区乳头状肿瘤临床病理学分析%Clinicopathologic features of papillary tumors of the pineal region

    方静宜; 王军梅; 崔云; 李敬军; 苏玉金; 刘朝霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨松果体区乳头状肿瘤的临床表现、病理诊断、鉴别诊断、组织发生、术后治疗及与生存相关因素.方法 收集松果体区及第三脑室后部肿瘤386例,新生儿松果体组织2例,成人松果体组织2例.HE染色、过碘酸雪夫(PAS)组织化学染色、16种抗体免疫组织化学染色(EnVision法).结果 确诊松果体区乳头状肿瘤5例,患者4例男性,1例女性.1例为复发病例,组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,乳头状结构特征为单层、假复层柱状或立方上皮细胞围绕血管排列,朝向血管的细胞表面和血管形成明显的界限,乳头中心血管玻璃样变,实性细胞区细胞排列呈巢片状,可见核分裂象及坏死.5例PAS染色胞质内均偶见粉色黏蛋白样物质.免疫组织化学染色细胞角蛋白(CK)、CK8/18、突触素、巢蛋白、微管相关蛋白、S-100蛋白、波形蛋白5例均阳性,嗜铬粒素A、神经元特异性烯醇化酶4例阳性,神经丝蛋白2例阳性,Ki-67阳性指数1% ~6%,上皮细胞膜抗原、CK5/6、癌胚抗原、NeuN 5例均阴性.除病例5随访失败外,其余4例患者中,3例健在,1例死亡,死亡病例为复发病例.结论 松果体区乳头状肿瘤从儿童到成人均可发病,男性居多;组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,肿瘤细胞具有上皮细胞学特征;应注意与乳头状结构肿瘤鉴别,特别是室管膜瘤;可能来源于联合下器官室管膜细胞;早诊断、肿瘤小、及早手术、争取全切、术后放疗有助于延长患者生存期.%Objective To study the clinicopathologic features of papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR).Method Three hundred and eighty six cases of pineal region and posterior third ventricle tumors,two newborn and two adult pineal glands were analyzed by HE,PAS and immunohistochemistry of 16 antibodies (EnVision method).Results Five cases of PTPR were diagnosed with mixed papillary

  9. 经胼胝体-穹窿间切除第三脑室松果体区肿瘤%Transcallosal-interfornix approach to remove the tumors of the third ventricle and pineal region

    叶劲; 钟书; 梁有明; 肖泉; 刘若平; 张玉琪; 马振宇

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨经胼胝体-透明隔-穹窿间入路显微手术切除第三脑室松果体区肿瘤的方法及疗效,并对相应的显微解剖学基础加以讨论.方法 经胼胝体-透明隔-穹窿间入路显微手术切除第三脑室松果体区肿瘤16例.结果 术前1例先行脑室-腹腔分流术、1例行神经内镜第三脑室底终板造瘘术.16例在手术显微镜下肿瘤全切除9例,次全切除4例,大部切除3例.5例在处理完肿瘤后做终板造瘘术.结论 经胼胝体-透明隔-穹窿间入路手术切除第三脑室松果体区肿瘤系通过胚胎组织残留的透明隔间隙进入第三脑室,损伤少,肿瘤全切除、次全切除率高,术后并发症少.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of microsurgical resection of the pineal region tumors of the third ventricle through trans-corpus-callosum approach.Methods From January 2006 to June 2008, sixteen pineal region tumors of the third ventricle were resected through trans-corpus-callosum approach.In sixteen cases, two hypothalamic astroeytoma eases received ventricle shunt before operations;four germ cell tumors and one hypothalamic astrocytoma cases received end-plate-ostomy after operations.Of Sixteen eases, there were 4 astrocytomas,2 ependymomas, 2 central nervous system tumors,1 teratoma,1 cerebral cysticercosis, 6 pineal region tumors(including 4 germ cell tumor, 1 teratoma and 1 dermoid cyst). Results Of 16 microsurgical resections, 9 achieved total resection, 4 subtotal resection, 3 major resection (tumors in third ventricle: 7 achieved total resection, 2 subtotal resection,1 major resection;tumors in pineal region: 2 achieved total resection, 2 subtotal resection, 2 major resection). There was no postoperative coma or death.A postoperative hematoma in ventricle was found in one case with central nervous system tumor and the hematoma was removed.After operation,3 patients could not watch upwards,4 had the last obstacle to memory,1 had mutism. All patients were

  10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Radical surgical treatment of pineal region tumors: report of 158 cases%松果体区肿瘤的手术治疗(附158例报告)

    漆松涛; 樊俊; 张喜安; 方陆雄; 邱炳辉; 潘军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate surgical strategies and key techniques of pineal region tumors.Methods The records of 158 patients with pineal region tumors surgically removed by occipital transtentorial approach,including their clinical data,surgical methods and follow-up results,were retrospectively reviewed.Results A gross total tumor removal was accomplished in 137 patients (86.7%),subtotal in 19 (12.0%),and partial in 2 (1.3%).The histological diagnosis was germ cell tumor in 52.5%,pineal parenchymal tumor in 11.4%,glioma in 18.4% and miscellaneous in 17.7%.The mortality and permanent morbidity were 1.9% and 18.4%,respectively.Early or delayed hydrocephalus occurred in 19 cases.Conclusions Radical surgery plays an important role in the management of pineal region tumors.Reasonable approach selection,developed knowledge about arachnoid membranes and deep veins in pineal region,and skilled microsurgical techniques are critical to achieve a safe tumor removal.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤的手术治疗策略和技术要点.方法 对采用枕部经小脑幕入路切除的158例松果体区肿瘤患者进行回顾性研究,总结分析其临床资料、手术方法及术后随访结果.结果 肿瘤全切除137例,次全切除19例,部分切除2例.病理证实生殖细胞肿瘤83例,松果体实质肿瘤18例,神经上皮肿瘤29例,其他类型肿瘤28例.术后死亡3例(1.9%),出现同向偏盲、眼球运动障碍等永久性并发症29例(18.4%).19例出现早期或迟发性脑积水.结论 手术切除是松果体区肿瘤的必要治疗手段,合理的手术入路、对松果体区蛛网膜及深静脉系统的深入了解以及娴熟的显微操作技巧,是保障手术安全有效的关键因素.

  12. Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report

    Walter José Fagundes-Pereyra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

  13. Endoscopic treatment strategy of obstructive hydrocephalus induced by pineal region tumors%神经内镜治疗松果体区肿瘤致梗阻性脑积水的策略

    宋志军; 陈晓雷; 唐运林; 周连银; 余新光; 周定标

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨神经内镜辅助肿瘤活体组织检查加三脑室底造瘘术在松果体区肿瘤致梗阻性脑积水的诊疗效果.方法 对2012年2月至2014年2月解放军总医院神经外科65例松果体区肿瘤致梗阻性脑积水患者,采用神经内镜辅助肿瘤活体组织检查加三脑室底造瘘术,在获取肿瘤标本进行病理组织学检查的同时一期解决脑积水,根据肿瘤病理学诊断决定下一步治疗策略.结果 65例患者在脑室镜辅助下行肿瘤活体组织检查加三脑室底造瘘术均顺利完成手术,98.5%(64/65)成功获得病理组织学诊断,对37例生殖细胞肿瘤和6例松果体母细胞瘤行PEB方案(顺铂+依托泊苷+博来霉素)化疗和放疗,生殖细胞肿瘤放化疗有效率为91.7% (33/36);6例松果体母细胞瘤患者中4例放化疗后肿瘤缩小,总共56.9%(37/65)的患者无需开颅手术而获益.结论 采用神经内镜辅助肿瘤活体组织检查加三脑室底造瘘术治疗松果体区肿瘤致梗阻性脑积水,可以以较小的代价明确肿瘤的病理性质,使大部分患者(病理为生殖细胞瘤和松果体母细胞瘤)避免开颅手术,同时一期解决梗阻性脑积水,可考虑作为松果体区肿瘤合并梗阻性脑积水的常规治疗方案.%Objective To explore the efficacies of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy in surgical treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus induced by pineal region tumors.Methods For 65 patients of obstructive hydrocephalus induced by pineal region tumors,endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy were performed from 2012 to 2014.Tumor specimens were harvested and analyzed histopathologically.According to pathological diagnosis,appropriate treatment strategies were followed.Results Sixty-five patients underwent successfully ETV and pineal region tumor biopsy.And the histological diagnosis yield rate was 98.5% (64/65).PEB chemotherapy (cisplatin + etoposide + bleomycin) and

  14. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

    2001-06-01

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  15. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may...... manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful...

  16. Pineal germ cell tumors: Two cases with review of histopathologies and biomarkers.

    Nagasawa, Daniel T; Lagman, Carlito; Sun, Michael; Yew, Andrew; Chung, Lawrance K; Lee, Seung J; Bui, Timothy T; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Robison, R Aaron; Zada, Gabriel; Yang, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Pineal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are primarily seen in pediatric and Asian populations. These tumors are divided into germinomatous and non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). GCTs are thought to arise by misplacement of totipotent stem cells en route to gonads during embryogenesis. Intracranial GCTs display an affinity to develop along the pineal-suprasellar axis and have variable manifestations dependent upon the location of the tumor. Management and outcomes are driven by histopathologies. In this study, we highlight two cases of pineal GCTs and present a review of the literature with an emphasis on histopathologies and biomarkers.

  17. 应用改良Poppen入路切除儿童松果体区肿瘤的手术体会%Resection of pineal region tumors in children through modified Poppen approach

    李庆国; 佟小光; 周煜; 李亚斌; 王宏; 闫学江; 姚鑫; 杨玉山

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the surgical procedure to deal with the tumors in pineal region of children.Methods 9 children who suffered from the pineal region tumors received the modified Poppen approach in TianjinHuanhu hospital from January 2008 to October 2011.Three main techniques were included in the reformative Poppen approach:straight incision of scalp starting from the external occipital jut and then extending just between the lines of transversesinus and superiorsagittal sinus for 5 ~ 7 cm,a little rounded skull window with a diameter of 3.5 cm,and instead of along the straight sinus as the classical Poppen approach,the tentorial was incised just from the confluence of sinus and then agley go to the tentorial edge.The results were evaluated with indexes such as the rate of gross total resection (GTR) of tumors,the complication derived from the approach,the duration between cranial opening and closing.Results The GTR was 77.8%.The rate of bridging vein injury was 11.1%.The homonymous hemianopia rate was 22.2%.The duration between cranial opening and closing was ( 25.4 ± 4.4 ) mins.There was no death.Conclusions The modified Poppen approach could offer enough visual field and space to resect the pineal region tumorsof children drasticallyand safely.%目的 探讨直切口小骨窗斜行切开小脑幕技术切除儿童松果体区肿瘤的效果.方法 总结2008年1月至2011年10月环湖医院收治9例应用改进Poppen入路手术的松果体区肿瘤患儿.统计肿瘤全切除率、并发症发牛率和开关颅时间.结果 肿瘤显微镜下全切除率为77.8%,桥静脉损伤率为11.1%,一过性同向性偏盲发生率为22.2%,开关颅时间平均(25.4±4.4) min.全切除病例脑积水缓解率100%,1例取活检后行第三脑室底造瘘术,无脑室-腹腔分流病例,无手术死亡病例.结论 改进Poppen入路为松果体区肿瘤切除手术提供了充足的视野和操作空间,使手术安全

  18. Endoscope-Assisted Combined Supracerebellar Infratentorial and Endoscopic Transventricular Approach to the Pineal Region: A Technical Note.

    Felbaum, Daniel; Syed, Hasan R; Ryan, Joshua E; Jean, Walter C; Anaizi, Amjad

    2016-03-06

    Neoplasms of the pineal region comprise less than 2% of all intracranial lesions. A variety of techniques have been adapted to gain access to the pineal region. Classic approaches employ the use of the microscope. More recently, the endoscope has been utilized to improve access to such deep-seated lesions. A 62-year-old female presented with a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. On exam, the patient exhibited Parinaud's syndrome. The patient initially underwent a single burr hole endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the lesion. Initial pathology was consistent with a grade III astrocytoma. Following a period of recuperation, she returned for definitive surgical resection. A suboccipital craniectomy was performed in the sitting position. Prior to dural opening, an endoscope was inserted into the right lateral ventricle through the prior burr hole.The endoscope was passed through the foramen of Monro and the tumor could be visualized along the posterior third ventricle. The patient underwent a standard supracerebellar infratentorial approach aided by the microscope. After initial debulking of the pineal lesion, an endoscope was utilized to guide the depth of resection and assist in dissection with transventricular manipulation of the tumor. During the final stages of resection from the craniotomy, the endoscope was used to help visualize the posterior supracerebellar corridor. This assisted in the assessment of the extent of resection. The endoscope was also utilized for the removal of intraventricular blood products following tumor resection. The patient was extubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. A postoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed greater than 95% resection, with expected residual within the midbrain. The combined supracerebellar infratentorial and transventricular endoscope-assisted approach provided maximum visualization and aided in optimal

  19. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

    Taísa Davaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

  20. Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology

    Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between

  2. Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report

    Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

  3. Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.

    Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab.

  4. Surgical strategy for pineal region tumors by the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal route-microsurgical anatomy and clinical study%后纵裂经胼胝体入路处理松果体区肿瘤的解剖与临床

    王玉海; 蔡学见; 董吉荣; 刘斌; 王剑超; 朱军; 杨理坤; 冯毅

    2009-01-01

    averaged 71.40 mm and 70.14 mm,respectively.11 patients in pineal region lesions were operated with infratentorial supracerebellar approach and severe disability in 1,death in 2 and tumor excision was complete in 4.4 patients were operated with the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal route and severe disability in 1,death in 0 and tumor excision was completed in all.Conclusion The choice among the surgical approaches depends on the size and the location of the lesion in the pineal area,especially its relation to the ventricular system,the median line,the splenium and the vein of Galen.MRV,DSA and T2RMRI before surgery could be helpful for the choice of surgical approaches.

  5. The nursing of the resection of the tumor in the pineal region by the intraoperative MRI and neuronavigator - assisted microsurgery%核磁共振及神经功能导航下行松果体区肿瘤切除术的护理

    孙彩红; 陈蕾

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨核磁共振及神经功能导航下行松果体区肿瘤切除术的护理方法.方法:总结分析24例在术中核磁共振1及神经功能导航下行松果体区肿瘤切除术的护理措旋.结果:24例患者中,全切除肿瘤18例,次全切除6例.6例术后出现梗阻性脑积水,后行第三脑室造瘘术好转,术后随访1-8个月,18例恢复良好,3例遗留部分视力、视野损害.3例出现一侧肢体轻瘫.结论:术后加强病情观察,及时发现并发症,制定行之有效的护理措施,是促进患者及早康复的关键.%Objective: To explore the nursing of the resection of the tumor in the pineal region by the intraoperative MRI and neuronavigator - assisted microsurgery. Methods: Analysis of the nursing of 24 cases in the intraoperative MRI and neuronavigator - assisted microsurgery for the tumor in the pineal region. Results ;24 cases were operated, of which 18 cases were removed totally and 6 cases cases were removed subtotally. 6 were treated by the third ventric-ulostomy because of post - operative obstructive hydrocephalus. Following up one month to eight months postoperatively ,no abnormality was found clinical in 18 cases, visual defect was found in 3 cases and mild paresis in 3 cases. Conclusion: To promote postoperative rehabilitation of patients with the tumor in the pineal region keys are strengthening the observation,discovering complications timely, and establishing effective nursing measures.

  6. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Akshya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  7. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region

    QI Gui-jun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

  8. Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review

    Li Ye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

  9. Clinical experience of microsurgery in resection of 30 cases of pineal region tumors through the modified Poppen approach%改良Poppen入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤30例临床体会

    霍峻峰; 陈小兵; 刘献志; 翟广

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨改良Poppen入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤的经验.方法 经改良Poppen入路松果体区肿瘤切除患者30例,归纳和总结术中重要的静脉间隙解剖结构和手术操作要点.结果 肿瘤全切28例,次全切2例.病理结果证实恶性肿瘤22例,良性肿瘤8例.术后并发脑积水加重4例,颅内血肿3例,同向偏盲2例,高热昏迷死亡1例.随访29例,随访时间为2个月~6年,其中Bathel指数评定:生活需要较大帮助(20~40分)2例,生活基本自理(40分~60分)9例,生活完全自理(>60分)18例.结论 采用改良Poppen入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤效果良好,术中小脑幕切迹后间隙的静脉复合体为松果体区,为手术操作的主要阻碍,通过适合的静脉间隙进行显微操作能够完整、安全的将肿瘤切除.第三脑室后壁的打通可能对术后脑积水的改善具有积极作用.%Objective To investigate the experience of microsurgical anatomy in resection of the pineal region tumors through the modified poppen approach.Methods The clinical data of 30 patients with tumor in the pineal region resected by microsurgery through modified Poppen approach were analyzed retrospectively,and the key anatomic gaps between the veins in the region and the key operation points in the surgical procedure were summarized.Results The total tumor removal was achieved in 28 cases,subtotal removal in 2 cases.The tumors were benign in 22 patients and malignant in 8 cases,which were confirmed by biopsy.Hydrocephalus aggravated in 4 cases,and intracranial hematoma occurred in 3 cases,and homonymous hemianopia presented in 3 cases,and one died of high temperature and coma.Twentynine patients were followed up for 2 month to 6 years.According to Bathel index,18 cases acquired scores above 60,9 cases acquired scores between 40 and 60,and 2 cases acquired scores between 20 and 40.Conclusions The effect of microsurgery in resection of the tumor in the pineal region

  10. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. [Pineal anlage tumor in a 8-month-old boy. The first case reported in Spanish language].

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el tumor pineal anlage es una neoplasia maligna muy poco frecuente. Aunque ya ha sido informado en la literatura, aún no se encuentra listado en la última clasificación de los tumores del sistema nervioso central de la Organización Mundial de la Salud publicada en 2007. Es un tumor primario de la pineal con diferenciación neuroepitelial y ectomesenquimal. Debido a su poca frecuencia, el entendimiento de su comportamiento biológico y su tratamiento apropiado son incompletos. En una búsqueda realizada en PubMed como pineal anlage tumor solo se identificaron siete casos informados entre 1989 y 2011. CASO CLÍNICO: niño de ocho meses de edad que fue llevado a consulta por aumento progresivo del perímetro cefálico y estrabismo convergente de dos meses de evolución. Se identificó tumor pineal conformado por glia, células ganglionares, neuroepitelio pigmentado y células musculares estriadas. Se realizó derivación ventrículo-peritoneal para mitigar la hidrocefalia y resección quirúrgica completa. El paciente recibió dos cursos de quimioterapia con carboplatino, ifosfamida y mesna. Al año permanecía asintomático.

  12. Neurosurgical experience with tumours of the pineal region at Clinica Puerta de Hierro.

    Vaquero, J; Ramiro, J; Martínez, R; Bravo, G

    1992-01-01

    The clinicopathological experience with 50 cases of pineal region tumours at Clinica Puerta de Hierro is presented. In this series, 88% of the patients were evaluated by CT-scan. Pineal region tumours make up approximately 0.7% of the intracranial expansive processes in the Spanish population. The largest group of lesions appearing in this localization is that of the germinomas (38%), followed by nontumoural lesions (20%) and tumours generally considered to be of the vicinity, such as meningiomas, gliomas and metastases (18%), tumours of the pineal parenchyma (14%), and non-germinoma germinal tumours (10%). In our series, in addition to an intracranial hypertension syndrome, an ophthalmological and, to a minor degree, an endocrinological syndrome predominate in germ-cell tumours, with a cerebellar syndrome appearing in gliomas of the pineal region. All the patients in the series diagnosed as having a germinoma and treated by irradiation are alive, and free of disease, after follow-up ranging from 2 to 20 years (mean: 8 years). The experience obtained with the present series supports the opinion that, in radiosensitive tumours, surgical resection adds no therapeutic benefit to treatment with radiotherapy alone. We suggest that when dealing with a tumour of the pineal region, CT-scan and clinical assessment now permit an initial selection of patients susceptible to surgery as a first therapeutic option, indicating those patients who, because they are considered to have either a "probable germinoma" or a "tumour of uncertain diagnosis", should undergo stereotaxic biopsy or trial radiotherapy and, only when this has proved a failure, should be subjected to open surgery.

  13. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or

  14. Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.

    Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

    2014-07-01

    VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area.

  15. Comparison of three methods for the estimation of pineal gland volume using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Acer, Niyazi; Ilıca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI) on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males) who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55 ± 51.34, 102.69 ± 40.39, and 104.33 ± 40.45 mm(3), respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P > 0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.

  16. Application of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal germ cell tumor%神经内镜在松果体区生殖细胞瘤诊治中的应用

    赵虎林; 田增民; 徐永革

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨神经内镜在松果体区生殖细胞瘤诊治中的应用价值. 方法 对20例松果体区占位患者运用神经内镜行第三脑室底造瘘,解除梗阻性脑积水,同时在神经内镜下行活检以明确肿瘤的性质. 结果 20例患者均解除脑积水,并同时明确病理,均为生殖细胞瘤. 结论 在松果体区生殖细胞瘤的诊治中,神经内镜是一种安全有效的微侵袭诊疗方法 .%Objective To investigate the value of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal germ cell tumors. Methods Endoscopic biopsy and third ventricuiostomy were performed in 20 patients with pineal tumors to relieve obstructive hydrocephalus and determine the nature of the neoplasms. Results CT and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed successful third ventriculostomy and biopsy in the 20 cases with total relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnoses of germ cell tumors were established in all this cases. Conclusions Endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy are effective and safe neuroendoscopic procedures in minimally invasive management of pineal region germ cell tumors.

  17. 合并梗阻性脑积水的松果体区脑膜瘤的手术治疗%Surgery of pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephelus

    Wei Xiang; Gang Zhao; Xianli Lv

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to find out the best operative therapeutic regimen by reviewing the comprehension of operation, the improvement of operative method and the selection of operative approach concerning pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods:We retrospected the clinic data, comprehension of operation and prognosis of 6 cases of pineal region meningioma. Results:Six tumors were all removed, after that the back wall of the up, the manifestation of hydrocephalus disappeared, other symptoms were relieved more or less without any complication with one patient dismissing. The regular MRI examination indicated that the lesions had not reoccur and the cerebral ventricles had been normal. Conclusion:We identify the nourish arteries of the tumor and anatomy relationship between the tumor and its peripheral blood vessels through modern imaging devices, to select reasonable operative method are the premier therapy of pineal region meningioma. The back wall of the third ventricle becomes thin and the suprapineal recess develops shallow and wide, so the third ventricle-quadrigeminal cistern fistulation can effectively eliminate the obstructive hydrocephalus due to the long-term compression on the aqueduct after removing the tumor.

  18. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  19. 松果体区畸胎瘤的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region teratomas

    漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 张喜安

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment method of pineal region teratomas. Methods 16 cases of pineal region teratomas were surgically treated. The clinical data and long-term follow-up of these patients were reviewed. Results All 16 patients complained of intracranial hypertension. 14 cases with calcification on CT scan, 7 cases with cystic change and all with distinct degree enhancement on MRI scan. 2 cases with high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum. All cases were received microneurosurgical operations via occipital transtentorial approach and were achieved total resection. There were 6 cases with mature teratomas and 10 with immature teratomas. There was no operative death, only 3 cases complicated with defect of field vision. During followed-up period, there were 5 cases with tumor recurrence and 3 cases of death. Conclusion Pineal region teratomas patients were predominantly boy and children. Signs of intracranial hypertension and ataxia are the common clinical manifestation. There are some special appearance on imaging, such as irregular shape, calcification, cystic change and uneven enhancement. Imaging and serum examination can be useful to distinguish mature and immature types. When radiation therapy is not effective, the patient should be actively received surgical treatment. Early diagnosis and early operative treatment with postoperative adjacent treatment can provide a good prognosis in pineal region teratomas.%目的 探讨松果体区畸胎瘤的临床特征和治疗方法.方法 对16例开颅手术的松果体区畸胎瘤的临床资料及其随访结果进行回顾性分析.结果 以颅高压起病16例,CT扫描钙化14例,MRI囊变7例,血清学甲胎蛋白(AFP)增高2例.行枕部经小脑幕入路手术,成熟畸胎瘤6例,未成熟畸胎瘤10例,无手术死亡,术后并发视野缺损3例,随访6个月至5年,复发5例,死亡3例.结论 松果体区畸胎瘤多见于儿童男性,常见临床表现是颅高压

  20. Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal

    Antonio Ronaldo Spotti

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984. Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por Stein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor.

  1. 松果体实质肿瘤的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and treatment for pineal parenchymal tumors

    于洮; 王光华; 任晓辉; 姜中利; 张懋植; 林松

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pineal parenchymal tumors are rare intracranial tumors.We studied the clinical features,neuro- radiology and pathology of pineal parenchymal tumors and discussed the treatment strategy.Methods There were 35 pineal parenchymal tumors patients (10 pineocytoma,13 pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation,12 pineoblastoma) involved in this study.CT and MRI revealed pineocytoma to be round and have regular margins. Pineal paranchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma were lobular,irregular marginal and heterogenous enhancement.Poppen approach was performed in 16 cases,transcallosum approach in 16 cases,subtentorial -supracerebellar approach in 1 case and transtrigone lateral ventricle approach in 1 case.Results All of the tumors were surgically removed,including 13 totally removed,16 subtotally removed and 6 partially removed.23 patients received radiotherapy after operation.During the follow up there was 7 patients died because of tumor recurrence.Conclusions Pineocytoma patients have good survival prognosis after surgical treatment.Microsurgery combining with radiotherapy represents the most effective therapy for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma.Although these tumors have poor prognosis and more efforts should be made to improve the level of treatment.%目的 探讨松果体实质肿瘤的诊断和治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析35例松果体实质肿瘤患者(松果体细胞瘤10例,中分化松果体实质肿瘤13例,松果体母细胞瘤12例).CT及MRI示松果体区团块样肿物,松果体细胞瘤边界规则、清楚,增强均匀.恶性松果体实质肿瘤边界不清、分叶状,不均匀增强.手术选择Poppen入路16例,经胼胝体-穹窿间入路16例,幕下小脑上入路1例和三角区入路2例.结果 肿瘤全切除13例,近全切除16例,部分切除6例.术中多数肿瘤与周围组织有粘连.术后23例患者进行了放射治疗.随访7例患者因

  2. Pathological features and origin of primary pineal mixed germ cell tumors%原发性松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤病理特点及其起源探讨

    肖罡; 方陆雄; 邱炳辉; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过影像学表现、术中所见及病理成分探讨松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的起源.方法 回顾分析我院2000年1月致2010年9月间经术后病理证实的15例松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的术前影像学表现和病理标本.结果 影像学表现,12例存在钙化,10例含有囊变,5例含有脂质.矢状位类圆或类椭圆状6例,边缘均较光滑,不规则形状9例,边缘多突起;术中所见,所有肿瘤均位于大脑大静脉蛛网膜袖套包绕形成的松果体隐窝内;病理成分,13例含有生殖细胞成分,9例含有畸胎瘤成分,4例含有胚胎性癌成分,3例含有绒癌成分,7例含有卵黄囊瘤成分,3例含有横纹肌瘤成分.在7例标本边缘发现牛殖细胞瘤,10例患者生殖细胞瘤成分与其余成分相互穿插或被其它成分包绕.结论 松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤起源于松果体周围残余生殖细胞,其极有可能来自单一的原始生殖细胞.%To investigate the origin of mixed germ cell tumors in the pineal region based on the image data,surgical findings and pathological examination of the tumor. Methods The preoperative CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed in 15 cases of pineal mixed germ cell tumors confirmed by postoperative histological examination between January 2000 and September 2010. Results Radiographic examination of the tumor revealed calcification in 12 cases, cystic changes in 10 cases, and the presence of lipid in 5 cases. On the anteroposterior images, the tumors appeared round or elliptic with smooth edge in 6 cases,and showed irregular shape with multiple processes on the edge in 9 cases. Surgical exploration found all the tumors located in the the suprapineal recess enclosed by the arachnoidal envelope of the Galen vein. Pathologically, 13 specimens contained germinoma component, 9 contained teratoma component, 4 had embryonic carcinoma component, 3 had

  3. 松果体实质肿瘤25例临床病理观察%Pineal parenchymal tumors: a clinicopathologic analysis of 25 cases

    吴楠; 彭李博; 吴晋蓉; 余波; 陆珍凤; 马恒辉; 石群立

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察松果体实质肿瘤(pineal parenchymal tumors,PPTs)的临床病理学特征、免疫表型,探讨其诊断、鉴别诊断、治疗和预后.方法 回顾性分析25例PPTs的临床病理资料、免疫表型等,结合文献分析其临床病理学特征.结果 25例PPTs中,男性14例,女性11例,年龄1.3~63岁,中位年龄42岁.其中,13例为松果体细胞瘤(52%),4例为中分化松果体实质肿瘤(pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation,PPTID)(16%),8例为松果体母细胞瘤(32%).结论 PPTs以松果体细胞瘤最常见,多见于成人,其次为松果体母细胞瘤,多发生于婴幼儿及青少年,PPTID最罕见.PPTs确诊依赖病理检查和免疫表型,电镜检查对确诊有一定帮助.肿块完整切除是PPTs适宜的治疗方法.

  4. 成人松果体实质细胞肿瘤的治疗%Treatment for pineal parenchymal tumors in adult patients

    张斌; 林松; 于洮

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨成人松果体实质肿瘤的手术疗效.方法 回顾性分析北京天坛医院神经外科2007年1月至2013年10月收治了39例成人(≥18岁)松果体实质细胞肿瘤的临床资料并进行随访.结果 肿瘤全切除19例,次全切除12例,部分切除6例,仅行肿瘤活检2例,无手术死亡病例.术后病理结果:松果体细胞瘤14例,中分化松果体实质肿瘤15例,松果体母细胞瘤10例.随访到的32例患者中,5例患者因肿瘤复发而死亡,中分化和松果体母细胞瘤中位生存期分别为34.5个月和29.8个月.结论 松果体细胞瘤手术治疗效果良好,中分化松果体实质肿瘤和松果体母细胞瘤治疗应首选手术,放化疗的效果尚待确定.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics,surgical treatment and outcome of pineal parenchymal tumors(PPT) in adult patients.Methods The adult patients (≥18 years old) with PPT diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively studied and their surgical results were followed-up.Results 37 PPT tumors were surgically removed,including 19 total removal,12 subtotal removal and 6 partial removal.The biopsy was made in 2 patients.The pathological type of 14 cases was pineocytoma,15 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation,and 10 pinealoblastoma.In 32 patients of follow-up,there were 5 patients died because of tumor recurrence.The median overall survival was 34.5 months for intermediate differentiation and 29.8 months for pinealoblastoma.Conclusions Pineocytomas' patients have good survival prognosis after surgical treatment.Microsurgery is the most effective therapy for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma.The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be defined.

  5. 松果体区神经内镜解剖学研究%Neuroendoscopic anatomy of the pineal region

    陈红庆; 师蔚; 刘重霄; 王睿智; 宋琴; 方进玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the charateristics of neuroendoscopic anatomy of the pineal region,discuss the anatomy passage and surgical tips of 2 different procedures,and provide anatomical application fundamentals for neuroendoscope-assisted operation of the pineal region.Methods Fifteen specimens of Chinese adult cadaveric head were selected randomly to simulate neuroendoscope-assisted microneurosurgery via suboccipital transtentorial and infratentorial supracerebellar routes.The exposure range and endoscopic adjustable degrees of anatomical structure of the pineal region through different routes were obsevred,and the related data of the anatomical structure via different routes were measured.Results In the simulating operation through suboccipital transtentorial route,the regulation of neuroendoscopy was flexible and both lateral anatomical structures of the pineal region were exposed clearly; in the simulating operation through inffatentorial supracerebellar route,inferior colliculis were not exposed clearly and the view of this route was stiffness and fixed with difficult regulation of the endoscope.The lengh of Galen's vein (GV) is (10.2±4.1) mm,that of internal cerebral vein (ICV) is (35.0±2.8) mm,that of basal vein (BV) is (35.4±6.4) mm and that of straight sinus is (51.1 ±5.2) mm; the angle GV and straight sinus formed (75.20±10.4)°,including acute angle in 14 cases and obtuse angle in 1.The imaginary extension of straight sinus located inferiorly to the splenium of corpus callosum was observed in 3 cases,located tangently to the splenium of corpus callosum in 11 cases,and located superiorly to the splenium of corpus callosum in 1 case.Conclusion Anatomic structures of the pineal region via neuroendosopic suboccipital transtentorial approach are exposed clearly than those via infratentorial supracerebellar approach,however,dissection oftentorium can improve the regulation ofneuroendoscope and exposition ofcontralateral anatomic structure.%目的 观察

  6. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  7. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  8. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  9. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  10. The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data.

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yuchun; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Qi, Hengtao; Li, Zhenping; Liu, Shuwei

    2009-11-01

    It is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via routine or enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scan. The knowledge of normal pineal size is helpful to detect small pineal lesions, while very few true volumetric data of pineal glands have been reported. Therefore, we obtained the accurate reference range of normal pineal volumes in 112 individuals aged 20-30 years recruited randomly from a healthy community sample. Transverse and sagittal 3.0T magnetic resonance data were obtained using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted FSPGR and T2-weighted SE sequences. True pineal volumes were measured from T1-weighted images, while estimated volumes were calculated using pineal length, width and height. All the glands were divided into three types according to the maximum inner diameter of pineal cysts. The prevalence of asymptomatic pineal cyst is 25.00%, with a slight female predominance. In the whole sample, we found no gender differences of pineal volume, but a significant gender difference of pineal volume index. A significant correlation between pineal volume and asymptomatic cyst was found. After excluding cases with big pineal cysts, there were significant correlations between pineal volume and head circumference, body height and body weight, respectively. This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume.

  11. 松果体区脑池和蛛网膜的显微解剖研究%Microsurgical anatomy of cisterns and arachnoid membranes in pineal region

    樊俊; 漆松涛; 张喜安; 石瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统研究松果体区脑池及其蛛网膜结构的显微解剖学特点,为手术入路及手术操作提供解刮学依据.方法 在手术显微镜下观察20例尸头松果体区各个脑池的形态、边界、内容物及相关蛛网膜结构.结果 松果体区的蛛网膜结构包括蛛网膜袖套、环中脑后膜和小脑前中央膜.其中蛛网膜袖套由枕叶底、内侧面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕尖处汇合而成,包裹Galen静脉系统、松果体及松果体七隐窝;环中脑后膜由枕叶底面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕切迹处汇合形成,环绕并附着于中脑背侧;小脑前中央膜由小脑上表面蛛网膜和蛛网膜袖套汇合处发出,前下方附着于下丘.四叠体池与小脑上池通过小脑前中央膜分隔,与后胼周池通过蛛网膜袖套分隔.与环池后部通过环中脑后膜的升段分隔,环池后部与小脑中脑裂池通过环中脑后膜的水平段分隔.结论 重新划分了松果体区各个脑池的范围与交通情况,明确了蛛网膜的形态与分布.%Objective To study micro-anatomical features of cisterns and their arachnoid membranes in pineal region. Methods Cisterns in pineal region including their shapes, borders, contents and arachnoidal membranes were observed in 20 cadaveric brains using an operating microscope. Results Arachnoid membranes of the pineal region include the arachnoidal envelope, the posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane. At the level of the tentorial apex, arachnoid membranes covering the inferior-medial surface of occipital lobe and the superior surface of cerebellum converge to form the arachnoidal envelope, which encloses the vein of Galen with its tributaries, the pineal gland and the suprapineal recess. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane arises from the outer arachnoid membranes covering the inferior occipital lobe and the superior cerebellum at the tentorial edge. It surrounds and is attached

  12. Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report

    Azimi Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

  13. Classification of the venous architecture of the pineal gland by 7T MRI.

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Choi, Sang-Han; Chi, Je-Gun; Kim, Young-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7.0 Tesla (7T) can show many details of anatomical structures with unprecedented resolution and contrast. In this report, we describe for the first time the unexpected wide variation in pineal gland structure, as visualized by MR images obtained with 7T in a group of healthy young volunteers. A total of 34 volunteers (22 men and 12 women) were enrolled in the study. Their 7T MR images revealed such wide variations in pineal gland shape that it led us to attempt to classify the patterns seen in these pineal glands. Indeed, they were successfully correlated with a previous human cadaver study of venous structures by Tamaki et al., who classified the venous structures of the pineal gland into three categories. This is the first human in vivo pineal vein imaging study using 7T MRI. Pineal venous imaging may permit the early diagnosis of a pineal tumor.

  14. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know.

  15. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Grading Pineal Parenchymal Tumors:a Preliminary Study%表观弥散系数对松果体实质肿瘤分级作用的初步研究

    朱莉; 梁宗辉; 汤伟军; 李克; 耿道颖

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prediction value of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC)in grading of pineal parenchymal tumors. Methods: Image Data of 16 patients (8 males, 8 females, 7- 55 years old, mean age 27) with pineal parenchymal tumors which were pathologically proved (5 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation and 6 pineoblastomas) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The minimum ADC values were measured onADC maps and compared. Results: The mean minimum ADC values for pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastomas were( 8.99 ± 0.59) × 10-4mm2/s, (6.94 ± 0.36) × 10-4mm2/s, (4.64 ± 0.38) × 10-4mm2/s, respectively. And the tendency of the values from high to low can be observed. Conclusion: The minimum ADC values of pineal parenchymal tumors can provide additional information in predicting of tumor grade.%目的:探讨最小表观弥散系数(ADC)在松果体实质肿瘤分级中的作用.方法:回顾性分析经手术病理证实的松果体实质肿瘤16例(男性8例,女性8例,年龄7~55岁,平均27岁),其中松果体细胞瘤5例,中间分化型松果体实质肿瘤5例,松果体母细胞瘤6例.在肿瘤实质部分测定最小ADC值,比较不同病理类型之间最小ADC值.结果:松果体细胞瘤平均最小ADC值(8.99±0.59)X 10-4mm2/s;中间分化型松果体实质肿瘤平均最小ADC值(6.94±0.36)X 10-4mm2/s;松果体母细胞瘤平均最小ADC值(4.64±0.38)X 10-4mm2/s.从低级别到高级别,松果体实质肿瘤的平均最小ADC值呈依次降低的趋势.结论:最小ADC值与肿瘤细胞密度有一定相关性,可以为松果体实质肿瘤的良恶性分级提供更多的信息.

  16. Pineal organs in deep demersal fish.

    Wagner, H J; Mattheus, U

    2002-01-01

    We studied ten species of demersal fish from depths of 1500-4800 m, i.e. regions of the abyss outside the reach of sunlight. A pineal window in the skin and/or the skull, often found in mesopelagic fish, was never observed in demersal specimens. Nine species had a well-developed pineal organ, with light- and electron-microscopic features, well known in other teleosts living in surface waters, including photoreceptor cells with inner and outer segments, synaptic ribbons, neuronal perikarya, and (radial) glial cells. One species ( Bathypterois dubius) showed signs of regression; it also had reduced eyes. We observed considerable morphological variation in location, size, microscopic structure and ultrastructural organisation, including the frequency of photoreceptor cells, size of outer segments and the number of myelinated and unmyelinated axons. No systematic trend in the sense of an increase of sensitivity with greater depths was observed. Melatonin contents varied between 4 pg and 92 pg per pineal in the grenadier Coryphaenoides ( Nematonurus) armatus and between 2 pg and 70 pg per pineal in the eel Synaphobranchus kaupi. Differences between day and night values and between autumn and spring suggest that pineal melatonin acts as neurochemical signal mediating rhythmic processes and behaviour. The role of an alternative non-solar zeitgeber in the demersal environment is discussed.

  17. Contrasted study between thin coronal sectional anatomy of the pineal region and MRI image%松果体区的薄层冠状断层解剖与MRI的对照研究

    孙博; 刘树伟; 汤煜春; 樊令仲; 林祥涛; 李振平; 亓恒涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphology and relationships with the adjacent structures in the pineal region on the thin sections and to provide anatomic data for imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases in this region. Methods By CT and MRI examination, one normal head specimen was selected for this study. Using the computerized freezing milling technique, the specimen was sliced from anterior to posterior. The in vivo MR images were obtained from ten normal Chinese male adult volunteers using a 3.0 T GE scanner. The base lines of the sectioning and the MR scan were perpendicular to the AC-PC line. Then primary sections were contrasted with the corresponding MR images. Results By the appearance of the pineal peduncle and the disappearance of the pineal gland, the pineal region could be divided into three parts from anterior to posterior, and the shape changed from an inverted triangle to a trapezoid and a triangle gradually. The first interspace was getting wider in the anterior and middle parts of the pineal region, while in the posterior part of the pineal region, it was getting narrower and disappeared finally. From anterior to posterior, the bilateral internal cerebral veins were always in the midline of the pineal region and descended gradually.Conclusion By the computerized freezing milling technique, the anatomic details and adjacent relationships of the pineal region could be exhibited clearly in the thin serial sections, which could help the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatments for minute diseases in this region.%目的 探讨松果体区结构在连续薄层冠状断面上形态结构的变化规律,为该区病变的影像学诊断和外科治疗提供解剖学依据. 方法 选择1例成人头部标本,应用冷冻数控铣削技术由前向后垂直于连合间线(AC-PC线)进行铣削.另选择健康成年男性10名,应用3D SPGR序列行与标本基线一致的3.0 T MR扫描.选取典型的断面标本图像与相应活体的MRI图

  18. Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso

    RICARDO RAMINA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira manifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região.

  19. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  20. Spontaneous Involution of Pineal Cyst in an Infant

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A full-term newborn girl presenting at birth with macrocephaly and a large pineal region hemorrhagic cyst without neurologic deficit is reported from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida.

  1. Neuroendoscopic Anatomy of Pineal Region Through Suboccipital Transtentorial Approach%枕叶下经天幕入路松果体区神经内镜解剖学研究

    陈红庆; 师蔚; 刘重霄; 王睿智; 宋琴; 白宗旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate neuroendoscopic anatomy passage and surgical tips of suboccipital transtentorial approach ,and supply anatomic application fundamentals for neuroendoscope - assisted operation of pineal region. Methods Fifteen specimens of Chinese adult cadaveric head were selected randomly to simulate neuroendoscope - assisted microneurosurgery approach including suboccipital transtentorial approach. We observed the anatomic structure extention of pineal region of this approach in different gaps,and measured the data of approach and related anatomic structure. Results In simulating operation through suboccipital transtentorial approach, the regulation of neuroendoscopy was flexible. Both lateral anatomic structure of pineal region were exposed clearly with dissection of tentorium,which made operation easily. Conclusion With neuroendosopic suboccipital transtentorial approach,lateral vascular anatomic structure of pineal region is exposed clearly through gap Ⅲ. Dissection of tentorium can improve the re8ulation of neuroendoscopy and exposition of contralateral anatomic structure. Neuroendosopic suboccipital transtentorial approach can be mainly performed in surgical operation of pineal region. Gap  Ⅲ can be mainly used in this approach.%目的 探讨内镜下枕叶下经天幕入路的解剖通路及操作技巧,为临床神经内镜下松果体区手术操作提供应用解剖基础.方法 随机选取10%甲醛固定的国人成年尸体头颅标本15例,在神经内镜下模拟枕叶下经天幕入路,观察各种不同静脉间隙下此手术入路中松果体区解剖结构暴露范围与内镜可调整程度,测量其手术入路相关解剖结构数据.结果 模拟枕叶下经天幕入路中,天幕切开后内镜视野及角度调整宽松灵活,松果体区解剖结构显露清楚,手术操作方便.结论 枕叶下经天幕入路中,内镜下第Ⅲ间隙同侧血管解剖结构暴露良好,天幕切开可改善内镜调整及对侧解剖暴

  2. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  3. 三维可视化图像引导立体定位脑干及松果体区病灶活检术的研究%The technical report of three-dimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem

    王亚明; 于新; 李志超; 惠瑞; 刘锐; 尹丰; 张雷鸣; 程岗; 张剑宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methodology,technical essential and significance of threedimension visualized image-guided stereotactic biopsy (SB) for lesions in pineal region and brain stem.Methods A total of 88 cases of lesions in pineal region and brain stem underwent image-guided SB in our department were retrospectively studied.Frame-based and CAS-2 type frameless SBs were performed in 57 and 31 cases respectively.Pre-biopsy three-dimension visualized image reconstruction was performed by SB planning software and the structure related to possible trajectory in each image slice was confirmed.The most suitable trajectory was selected accordingly.For lesions in pineal region,anterior-frontal trans-tentorium cerebella hiatus trajectory for avoiding tentorial margin was used.For lesions in mesencephalon,posteriorfrontal trans-lateral ventrical-thalamus trajectory via the vertical axis of brain stem was used.For pontal lesions,supra-occipital trans-pedunculus cerebellaris medius trajectory was used.Results Histological diagnosis was established in all 88 cases,which gave a high diagnostic yield (100%).Fifty-six lesions (64%) located in brain stem (middle brain and pons) and 32 (36%) in pineal region.In 56 brain stem lesions,there were 38 cases (68%) of glioma,3(5%) lymphoma,2(4%) neurodegenerative disease,6 (11%) multiple sclerosis and tumefactive demyelinating lesion,2 (4%) non-specific inflammation,2 (4%)brain infarct,2(4%) brain metastases,and 1 (2%) radiation necrosis.For lesions in pineal region,there were 18 cases (56%) of germ cell tumor,4(13%) glioma,9 (28%) pineal cell tumor,and 1 (3%) Wemicke encephalopathy.One case (1%) died of biopsy-related hemorrhage.The neurological deficits became severe because of hemorrhage in 5 cases,the medical treatment was adopted in 3 cases (3%)and drainage in 2 (2%).Conclusions Stereotactic biopsy for lesions in pineal region and brain stem was a safe and effective procedure that could help

  4. 原发性松果体区胚胎癌的诊断与治疗(附二例报告及文献复习)%Diagnosis and treatment of primary embryonal carcinoma in pineal region: report of two cases and literatures review

    肖罡; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective Primary embryonal carcinoma in pineal region is extremely rare.Here we report two such cases and combined literatures review to discuss its diagnosis,treatment and prognosis.Method Two primary embryonal carcinoma in pineal region verified histologically were presented.In one cases,the pre -operative serum alpha -fetoprotein (AFP) level reached significantly high level,6 810μg/L,but showed negative staining forβ-human chorionic gonadotropin (β- HCG).In the other one,accompanied by elevation of β-HCG level,5 260 mlU/ml,the serum AFP was negative.The tumors were microsurgically removed by transoccipito -tentorial approach.Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was used after tumor removal because of recurrent hydrocephalus.Both patients received adjunctive treatments included radiation therapy (whole central nervous system 30 Gy and tumor bed 50 Gy) and 4 course of chemotherapy.Results In both patients,the tumors were totally removed.Postoperative tumor immunohistochemistry indicators were present in case 1 with positive reaction for cytokeratin(CK) and AFP,in case 2 with positive CK and β-HCG.After adjunctive treatments,the serum AFP and β - HCG of two patiants were decreased to normal ranges.After post - operative follow - up of one year,two patients still survived and the serum markers were almost normal.Conclusions Measurement of serum β-HCG and AFP is extraordinarily significant for the diagnosis and post - treatment monitoring of pineal region embryonal carcinoma.Pathological differential diagnosis requires immunohistochemical indicators including cytokeratin (CK),AFP andβ - HCG.With radically surgical removal and combined adjunctive therapy including radiation and chemotherapy,good consequence could be obtained.%目的 原发性松果体区胚胎癌非常罕见,本文报道2例,并结合文献探讨其诊断、治疗和预后.方法 2例经病理证实的原发性松果体区胚胎癌,术前例1患者血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)6 810μg/L,人绒毛膜

  5. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70% of the Lhx9(-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9(-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

  6. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region%松果体区成熟畸胎瘤的临床特点及治疗分析

    戚贵军; 陈步东; 张春智; 姚鑫; 杨玉山

    2012-01-01

    Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures) were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years). The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.%采用经枕部小脑幕入路手术治疗9例松果体区成熟畸胎瘤患者,无一例围手术期死亡,术后均经病理检查明确诊断.术后4例发生手术相关性并发症(双眼上视困难、视野缺损、癫(疒间)发作).术后共随访3个月至7年,平均3.70年.松果体区成熟畸胎瘤多见于男性儿童,以颅内高压和共济失调为主要临床表现,神经外科手术治疗可获得满意疗效.

  7. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  8. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  9. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    Heidbüchel, U; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  10. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    ... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal ...

  11. [Tumors in the region of the sella turcica].

    Reith, W

    2009-07-01

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter 10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.

  12. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F;

    2007-01-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which...... time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during...... development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p

  13. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition.

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Wei; Cao, Shuangliang; Yang, Ru; Yang, Wei; Yun, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Zhijian; Feng, Qianjin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI) plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor) in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and bag-of-words (BoW) model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI.

  14. Enhanced Performance of Brain Tumor Classification via Tumor Region Augmentation and Partition.

    Jun Cheng

    Full Text Available Automatic classification of tissue types of region of interest (ROI plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. In the current study, we focus on the classification of three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor in T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI images. Spatial pyramid matching (SPM, which splits the image into increasingly fine rectangular subregions and computes histograms of local features from each subregion, exhibits excellent results for natural scene classification. However, this approach is not applicable for brain tumors, because of the great variations in tumor shape and size. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the classification performance. First, the augmented tumor region via image dilation is used as the ROI instead of the original tumor region because tumor surrounding tissues can also offer important clues for tumor types. Second, the augmented tumor region is split into increasingly fine ring-form subregions. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed method on a large dataset with three feature extraction methods, namely, intensity histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, and bag-of-words (BoW model. Compared with using tumor region as ROI, using augmented tumor region as ROI improves the accuracies to 82.31% from 71.39%, 84.75% from 78.18%, and 88.19% from 83.54% for intensity histogram, GLCM, and BoW model, respectively. In addition to region augmentation, ring-form partition can further improve the accuracies up to 87.54%, 89.72%, and 91.28%. These experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and effective for the classification of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MRI.

  15. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  16. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...

  17. A Comparison between Pathologic, Clinical and MRI Findings of 57 Cases with Germinomas in Pineal Region%57例松果体区生殖细胞瘤病理、临床与MRI对照分析

    韩仰同; 戴建平; 王雅洁; 李少武; 刘翔; 刘凤英

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨松果体区生殖细胞瘤的MR影像特征并分析其病理、临床与MR影像三者之间的相关性。 材料与方法 搜集1989年1月~1999年12月57例病例,对其MRI和病理结果进行回顾性分析,其中42例经手术及病理证实,15例经立体定向取活检证实。 结果 病理上9例有囊变坏死,33例边界清晰,3例有出血,8例有钙化灶,MR像上52例边界清晰,12例可见囊变坏死,绝大多数显著强化,临床上43例有颅内压增高症状,17例有尿崩症,14例有小脑症状。 结论 松果体区生殖细胞瘤临床上多见于男性青少年,且很少超过30岁,临床表现能高度提示为松果体区肿瘤,但缺乏特异性,病理和MR影像的相关性较好,MRI是其诊断的重要依据。%Objective To analyze the MRI features and to study the correlation between pathologic, clinical and MRI findings of germinoma in pineal region. Materials and Methods MRI and pathologic findings in 57 patients with pathologically-proved germinoma in pineal region were retrospectively analyzed. Results Pathologically, cystic degeneration was seen in 9 cases, clear border in 33, hemorrhage in 3 and calcification in 8. On MRI, cystic degeneration was seen in 12 cases and clear border in 52, while most lesions showed marked enhancement. Clinically, symptoms due to elevated intracranial pressure were observed in 43 cases, diabetes insipidus in 17 and symptoms due to cerebellar lesions in 17. Conclusion Pineal region germinomas are common in juvenile under 30 with a predilection for male. Clinically, it lacks specific symptoms and signs. MRI can well mirror its pathologic changes and, therefor, plays an important role in the diagnosis.

  18. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  19. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  20. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Ultradeep analysis of tumor heterogeneity in regions of somatic hypermutation.

    Spence, Janice M; Spence, John P; Abumoussa, Andrew; Burack, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is of growing importance in the treatment of cancers. Mutational hot spots are prime locations for determining number and proportions of low variant allele frequency (VAF) tumor subclones by next generation sequencing. Low VAF detection is complicated by poor mapping efficiency in regions with high mutation density. Our Deep-Drilling with iterative Mapping (DDiMAP) method retains variant allele patterns to aid in single nucleotide variation detection and generation of additional reference alleles, with remapping increasing coverage of highly mutated regions to capture data critical to heterogeneity analysis and enhancing sensitivity. DDiMAP outputs variant patterns with frequencies, enabling rapid phylogenetic analysis of ongoing mutation.

  2. Tumors of the posterior third ventricular region in pediatric patients: The Indian perspective and a review of literature

    Sanjay Behari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse tumors in the posterior third ventricular region (TPTVR frequently occur in children. A decade′s experience with pediatric TPTVR is presented, focusing on the Indian perspective. Materials and Methods: 25 children (age range: 3-18 years; mean age: 13.32 years; presentation range: 7 days-2.5 years had clinico-radiological assessment with contrast computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF alpha feto protein (AFP/beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG estimation was done when radiological suspicion of a germ cell tumor was present. Extent of resection was deemed partial when some tumor mass remained at the end of surgery, near total when <10% was retained over vital neurovascular structures, and total when complete resection was attained. Results: Operations included infratentorial supracerebellar approach (n = 12, occipito-transtentorial approach (n = 2, endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy (n = 1, frontal parasagittal craniotomy, interhemispheric transcallosal subchoroidal approach (n = 2, middle temporal gyrus transcortical transventricular approach (n = 1, fronto-temporo-zygomatic combined transylvian and subtemporal approach (n = 1 and right ventriculoperitoneal shunt and stereotactic biopsy (n = 1. Only CSF diversion was performed for five patients with a small TPTVR. CSF diversion was required in 12 (48% patients. Tumor pathology included pinealoblastoma (n = 4; one with pineocytic differentiation, nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT; n = 3, germinoma (n = 3, pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2, epidermoid (n = 3 and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, fibrillary astrocytoma, glioblastoma, teratoma, and meningioma (n = 1, respectively. A patient with neurocysticercosis was diagnosed solely on MRI (four did not undergo biopsy. Fractionated radiotherapy was administered in 13 patients with primary pineal tumors, PNET, NGGCT, fibrillary astrocytoma

  3. Corpus pineale og MR billeddiagnostik

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig;

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists...

  4. The Pineal and Photoperiodism in Artic Species,

    1977-01-01

    pineal glands with approximately the dimensions of those in 200gm rats (l.22mm/50g ; 1.42mm/200g). It is appropriate at this point to discuss the meaning...of a large pineal gland . In the white rat , both volume and cytological element vary with day length; experimentally the pineal weight is reduced by...more sensitive to cold than normal rats (14). His correlative studies of the supraoptic nucleus suggest that the pineal gland is responsible for the

  5. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C;

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  6. Midline and off-midline infratentorial supracerebellar approaches to the pineal gland.

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Miki, Koichi; Komune, Noritaka; Kurogi, Ryota; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-10-07

    OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope. Twenty CT angiograms were examined to measure the depth of the pineal gland, slope of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, and angle of approach to the pineal gland in each approach. RESULTS The midline supracerebellar route is the shortest and provides direct exposure of the pineal gland, although the culmen and inferior and superior vermian tributaries of the vein of Galen frequently block this exposure. The off-midline routes provide a surgical exposure that, although slightly deeper, may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at both the level of the veins from the superior cerebellar surface entering the tentorial sinuses and at the level of the tributaries of the vein of Galen in the quadrigeminal cistern, and require less cerebellar retraction. Shifting from midline to off-midline exposure also provides a better view of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure, collicular plate, and trochlear nerve than the midline approaches. Endoscopic assistance may aid exposure of the pineal gland while preserving the bridging veins. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the characteristics of different infratentorial routes to the pineal gland will aid in gaining a better view of the pineal gland and cerebellomesencephalic fissure and may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at the level of the tentorial sinuses draining the upper

  7. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  8. Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor in the Right Post Auricular Region

    Lihong Cao; Huifang Zhou; Hua Chen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report a case of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) in the right postauricular region, and to describe the clinical and histopathologic findings.METHODS Interventional case report and literature review.RESULTS A 46-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a nodule of 30×30×10 mm in diameter in the right postauricular region. It was diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. A local mass excision was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed proliferation of the outer hair sheath epithelium with multiple central areas of trichilemmal keratinization. The presence of marked cellular atypia and frequent mitoses indicated a malignant transformation. A second operation employing an enlarged excision was conducted followed by a histopathologic examination showing that there was no malignant tumor remaining. Two weeks after the second operation, 50 cGy of regional prophylactic radiotherapy was applied. The patient was well after 26 months of follow-up and neither recurrences nor metastases were observed.CONCLUSION Malignant PTT is a rare skin neoplasm, with its diagnosis depending on a histopathologic examination. An extend excision is the main treatment after diagnosis.

  9. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for metastatic tumors to the periampullary region.

    Medina-Franco, H; Halpern, N B; Aldrete, J S

    1999-01-01

    Although operative resection of metastatic lesions to the liver, lung, and brain has proved to be useful, only recently have there been a few reports of pancreaticoduodenectomies in selected cases of metastases to the periampullary region. In this report we present four cases of proven metastatic disease to the periampullary region in which the lesions were treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy. Metastatic tumors corresponded to a melanoma of unknown primary site, choriocarcinoma, high-grade liposarcoma of the leg, and a small cell cancer of the lung. All four patients survived the operation and had no major complications. Two patients died of recurrence of their tumors, 6 and 63 months, respectively, after operation; the other two patients are alive 21 and 12 months, respectively, after operation. It can be inferred from this small but documented experience, as well as a review of the literature, that pancreaticoduodenectomy for metastatic disease can be considered in selected patients, as long as this operation is performed by experienced surgeons who have achieved minimal or no morbidity and mortality with it.

  10. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A;

    2009-01-01

    to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new......Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity...... foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function....

  11. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland.

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F; Shi, Qiong; Morin, Fabrice; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2007-08-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p < 0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

  12. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  13. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  14. [Double suprasellar and pineal germinoma with potomania].

    Schnegg, J F; Burckhardt, P; de Tribolet, N

    1980-06-14

    A case is reported of suprasellar and pineal germinoma in a 16-year-old male initially presenting with potomania without diabetes insipidus. The role of stimulation of the hypothalamus in producing pathological thirst is discussed.

  15. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  16. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  17. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  18. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  19. Tumorer

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  20. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland.

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit; Morin, Fabrice; Shi, Qiong; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2006-04-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

  1. The pineal gland from development to function.

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations remote from the site of intracranial tumors

    Endo, H; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in 12 patients with brain tumors, using a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. In nine of the 12 cases, hyperemic regions with loss of autoregulation were seen in sites remote from the tumor (the area around the tumor was in most cases also...... hyperemic). These remote rCBF abnormalities were found in the lower posterior part of the hemisphere in six cases, and in the frontal region in three. The location of the remote rCBF abnormality seemed to depend on the site of the tumor: cases with frontal and posterior fossa mass lesions had hyperemia...

  3. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Mansour Heidari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

  4. The value of electromyography in differentiating intramedullary tumor from inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region

    王红芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of needle electromyography(EMG)in differentiating intramedullary tumor from inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region.Methods Patients hospitalized in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 2008 to June 2013 with abnormalities on MRI of cervical vertabra and preliminary diagnosed as intramedullary tumor or inflammatory demyelinating disease of cervical region were enrolled in the

  5. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology.

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay

    2011-06-01

    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  6. An improved infratentorial-supracerebellar approach to pineal region tumors%一种改良的天幕下小脑上手术入路

    张远征

    2004-01-01

    目的介绍一种改进的天幕下小脑上入路的术式.方法改良的部分包括病人的体位和骨皮瓣的切口.结果采用此入路进行16例松果体区的肿瘤手术,其中松果体胶质瘤2例,胆脂瘤3例,小脑山坡血管母细胞瘤2例,生殖细胞瘤3例,皮样囊肿2例,小脑幕顶脑膜瘤1例,畸胎瘤1例,Galen静脉性动脉瘤l例,蛛网膜囊肿1例.手术进行顺利.结论与其他经典术式相比,此改良术式具有体位摆放简单,操作轻松,关颅时可做到解剖学复位等优点.

  7. Oncostatic activity of pineal neuroendocrine treatment with the pineal indoles melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine in untreatable metastatic cancer patients progressing on melatonin alone.

    Lissoni, Paolo; Rovelli, Franco; Frassineti, Andrea; Fumagalli, Luca; Malysheva, Ola; Conti, Ario; Maestroni, Georges

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recent advances in psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology have demonstrated the existence of several endogenous neuroendocrine substances, capable of affecting both tumor growth and host anticancer immune defenses. The pineal gland would represent one of the most important organs releasing antiproliferative and immunostimulating substances, the most known of them is melatonin (MLT). However, MLT would not be the only pineal indole provided by antitumor activity. Other pineal indoles, namely 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTT), would play antitumor effects, by either inhibiting cancer cell proliferation or stimulating the anticancer immunity. Preliminary data have shown that MLT may deserve antitumor activity in the treatment of human neoplasms, whereas at present there are no clear data about 5-MTT. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data about the anticancer properties of 5-MTT in humans, we have evaluated the efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable advanced cancer patients progressing on MLT alone. METHODS: The study included 73 untreatable advanced solid tumor patients, who had progressed after two months of MLT therapy alone. According to tumor histotype, patients were randomized to receive MLT alone (20 mg/day orally in the evening) or MLT plus 5-MTT (1 mg at noon orally), every day for at least two months. The clinical response was evaluated according to WHO criteria. RESULTS: A partial response (PR) occurred in two patients treated with MLT + 5-MTT and in none of the patients receiving MLT alone. A stable disease (SD) was achieved in only 2/37 patients on MLT therapy alone, and in 8/36 patients receiving MLT plus 5-MTT. Therefore, the percent of non-progressing patients (SD + PR) obtained with MLT plus 5-MTT was significantly higher than that obtained with MLT alone. Moreover, the relief of asthenia and depressant symptoms was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with 5-MTT. DISCUSSION: This preliminary study would suggest that

  8. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  9. Central nervous system tumors with ependymal features: a broadened spectrum of primarily ependymal differentiation?

    Lehman, Norman L

    2008-03-01

    Ependymomas are well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) tumors that occur most often in children and young adults. Several other CNS tumor entities, including astroblastoma, chordoid glioma, papillary tumor of the pineal region, angiocentric glioma, and pilomyxoid astrocytoma, variably display histopathologic features of ependymal differentiation. The ependymal differentiation in some of these tumors is generally accepted, whereas in others, it is controversial. This article briefly reviews ependymal cell development and conventional ependymomas, the pathologic findings and clinical behavior of tumors with variable ependymal features, and the rationales for their inclusion with ependymomas or exclusion from a larger family of ependymal tumors. These issues are addressed in the context of early morphologic insights of Bailey and Cushing, Friede, and others; contemporary oncologic concepts; and recent relevant molecular and tumor stem cell studies.

  10. Pineal function : Impact of microarray analysis

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony K.; Chik, Constance L.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Moller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retin

  11. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  12. X-刀治疗颅内疾病44例疗效分析%Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of X-knife on Intracranial Tumors in 44 Cases

    张海江; 麦洁文; 梁艺湖; 张瑞澜; 温尊北; 陈宗友; 林启富; 曾业辉

    2001-01-01

    Objective to investigate therapeutic methods and effect of X-knife for on intracranial diseases. Method Recent effect of 44pqtients with cranial diseases by X-knife was observed. Radiological follow-up was performed on 40 cases with mean 5.65 months of followup time. Result 92.5% of tumors were controlled locally, stability and recovery rate was 90.0%. The local control of metastatic tumors of brain was higher, but most patients with metastatic tumors died of primary lesion. New metastatic lesions appeared in patients without panencephalic radiotherapy in 1~5months. Tumors of pineal region were sensitive to X-knife. Conclusion X-knife has a definite effect on intracranial diseases. For patients with tumors of pineal region complicated by serious hydrocephalus, shunting should be conducted before X-knife treatment. For patients with mild or morderate hydrocephalus, X-knife chould be utilized only under correct interventions such as dehydration. The local control rate of intracranial metastatic tumors was high, but survival time postoperation depended on panencephalic radiotherapy or control of primafry lision. For tumors with diameter> 3cm, pituitary tumors, brains stem tumors and tumors in cerebellopontine angle region repeated X-knife were suggested, which could improve cure rate and decrease complications.

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the sellar region treated with adjuvant radiation therapy

    Sahai, Puja; Singh, Geetika; Mondal, Dodul; Suri, Vaishali; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor of central nervous system is rare. Herein, a case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from sellar region is described. A 60-year-old man underwent subtotal excision of the tumor because of extensive infiltration of optical and vascular structures. In view of the presence of residual tumor, he was treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. After a follow-up period of 1 year, there was no progression of the lesion evident on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Solitary fibrous tumor should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of a mass lesion arising in sellar region. Immunohistochemistry with CD34 is valuable for discerning the diagnosis. Complete surgery should be the goal of treatment and adjuvant radiation therapy may be considered for residual or recurrent disease. PMID:27695561

  14. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  15. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs.

  16. Inter- and intra-tumor profiling of multi-regional colon cancer and metastasis.

    Kogita, Akihiro; Yoshioka, Yasumasa; Sakai, Kazuko; Togashi, Yosuke; Sogabe, Shunsuke; Nakai, Takuya; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-02-27

    Intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity may hinder personalized molecular-target treatment that depends on the somatic mutation profiles. We performed mutation profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumors of multi-regional colon cancer and characterized the consequences of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and metastasis using targeted re-sequencing. We performed targeted re-sequencing on multiple spatially separated samples obtained from multi-regional primary colon carcinoma and associated metastatic sites in two patients using next-generation sequencing. In Patient 1 with four primary tumors (P1-1, P1-2, P1-3, and P1-4) and one liver metastasis (H1), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations was observed in four primary tumors. Mutations in primary tumors were identified in three regions; KARS (G13D) and APC (R876*) in P1-2, TP53 (A161S) in P1-3, and KRAS (G12D), PIK3CA (Q546R), and ERBB4 (T272A) in P1-4. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P1-4 and H1. The ERBB4 (T272A) mutation observed in P1-4, however, disappeared in H1. In Patient 2 with two primary tumors (P2-1 and P2-2) and one liver metastasis (H2), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations were observed in two primary tumors. We identified mutations; KRAS (G12V), SMAD4 (N129K, R445*, and G508D), TP53 (R175H), and FGFR3 (R805W) in P2-1, and NRAS (Q61K) and FBXW7 (R425C) in P2-2. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P2-1 and H2. The SMAD4 (N129K and G508D) mutations observed in P2-1, however, were nor detected in H2. These results suggested that different clones existed in primary tumors and metastatic tumor in Patient 1 and 2 likely originated from P1-4 and P2-1, respectively. In conclusion, we detected the muti-clonalities between intra- and inter-tumors based on mutational profiling in multi-regional colon cancer using next-generation sequencing. Primary region from which metastasis originated could be speculated by mutation profile. Characterization of inter- and

  17. Entinostat in Treating Pediatric Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors

    2017-03-16

    Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm; Childhood Lymphoma; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Pineal Region Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Refractory Central Nervous System Neoplasm

  18. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.;

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...

  19. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  20. Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica

    Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

  1. The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids

    Julien Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some extant ectotherms, the third eye (or pineal eye is a photosensitive organ located in the parietal foramen on the midline of the skull roof. The pineal eye sends information regarding exposure to sunlight to the pineal complex, a region of the brain devoted to the regulation of body temperature, reproductive synchrony, and biological rhythms. The parietal foramen is absent in mammals but present in most of the closest extinct relatives of mammals, the Therapsida. A broad ranging survey of the occurrence and size of the parietal foramen in different South African therapsid taxa demonstrates that through time the parietal foramen tends, in a convergent manner, to become smaller and is absent more frequently in eutherocephalians (Akidnognathiidae, Whaitsiidae, and Baurioidea and non-mammaliaform eucynodonts. Among the latter, the Probainognathia, the lineage leading to mammaliaforms, are the only one to achieve the complete loss of the parietal foramen. These results suggest a gradual and convergent loss of the photoreceptive function of the pineal organ and degeneration of the third eye. Given the role of the pineal organ to achieve fine-tuned thermoregulation in ectotherms (i.e., “cold-blooded” vertebrates, the gradual loss of the parietal foramen through time in the Karoo stratigraphic succession may be correlated with the transition from a mesothermic metabolism to a high metabolic rate (endothermy in mammalian ancestry. The appearance in the eye of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells replacing the photoreceptive role of the pineal eye could also have accompanied its loss.

  2. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  3. Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region

    Wang Shou-sen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

  4. Neurogenic tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region: A clinicopathological study

    Ohoud Alotaibi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This analysis showed that neural lesions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region were rare and mostly benign in nature. Such lesions should be carefully diagnosed because of their association with life-threatening syndromes and the possibility of malignant transformation.

  5. [Tumors of the vaterian region indications, findings and prognosis : about 49 cases].

    Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam; Beyrouti, Ramez; Louhichi, Skander; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Gargouri, Faouzi; Frikha, Foued; Bouaziz, Mounir; Karoui, Abdelhamid; Boudawara, Tahia; Krichen, Mohamed Salah; Sellami, Abdelhafidh

    2006-04-01

    This retrospective study is about 49 cases of tumors of the vaterian region collected between 1976 and 2001. Tumors of the vaterian region represented 7% of the bilio-pancreatic tumors. The study was about 18 women and 31 men, with sex-ratio of 1.7. The mean age was 61 years. Treatment was surgical : cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy (28 patients) or ampullectomy (5 patients). Rate of tumor resectability was 69.4%. Bilio-digestive derivation was practiced on 13 patients and therapeutic abstention was decided for 3 patients. Age over 65 years, rate of bilirubine superior to 120 mmol/l and surgery done in emergency were elements of bad prognosis that increased post-operative mortality of following cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy. Global mortality and morbidity were respectively 16% and 24%. Factors of poor prognosis were essentially: Tumor of large size, infiltration of the surrounding structures and tumor with metastases. The survival after bilio-digestive derivation didn't pass the 8 months. Five year survivals cephalic duodeno-pancréatectomy represented 20%. It depended on the degree of the local invasion. This 5 years survival rate to was 85% for stage I (classification of Martin) and 10% for stage IV.

  6. Light and electron microscopic study on the pineal complex of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae Smith.

    Hafeez, M A; Merhige, M E

    1977-03-01

    The pineal complex of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae was studied light and electron microscopically. It consists of two vesicles representing parapineal and pineal organs. Both occur intracranially and openly communicate with each other and the brain ventricle. The entire complex shows a striking photoreceptor morphology with sensory, ependymal and nerve cells. The last cell type is more abundant in the parapineal vesicle than in the pineal organ. The following ultrastructural details of the parapineal are noteworthy: 1. The sensory cells possess large inner and outer segments protruding freely in the vesicular cavity. The outer segments measure 8-10 mum in length and consist of as many as 275 lamellae. The basal processes of these cells terminate in neuropil-like regions. Occasionally, dense granules (500-1000 A) of uncertain identity occur in the perinuclear and inner segment cytoplasm of the cells. 2. The supporting cells are of the ependymal type. Their cytoplasm contains a filamentous feltwork and pinocytotic vesicles, but lacks secretory granules. Cytosomes are particularly abundant in cell processes in the neuropil-like zones. The basal end-feet of these cells isolate the receptor and nerve cells from the perivascular space. 3. In the neuropil-like regions, terminals of sensory cells make synaptic contacts with neuronal dendrites. Synaptic ribbon-like profiles in the terminals characterize the contact zones. Only unmyelinated nerve fibers could be observed in the small area of the tissue examined. The results are discussed with regard to photoreceptive and secretory functions of the pineal complex and its evolution in lower vertebrates.

  7. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  8. Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case

    Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

  9. 'TRPing' synaptic ribbon function in the rat pineal gland: neuroendocrine regulation involves the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    Reuss, Stefan; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Binzen, Uta; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons (SRs) are presynaptic structures thought to regulate and facilitate multivesicular release. In the pineal gland, they display a circadian rhythm with higher levels at night paralleling melatonin synthesis. To gain more insight into the processes involved and the possible functions of these structures, a series of experiments were conducted in rodents. We studied the regional distribution of a molecular marker of pineal SRs, the kinesin motor KIF3A in the gland. Respective immunoreactivity was abundant in central regions of the gland where sympathetic fibers were less dense, and vice versa, revealing that intercellular communication between adjacent pinealocytes is enhanced under low sympathetic influence. KIF3A was found to be colocalized to the transient receptor potential channel of the vanilloid receptor family, subtype 1 (TRPV1). The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin increased melatonin secretion from perifused pineals in a dose-dependent manner that was blocked by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. No change in free intracellular calcium was observed in response to TRPV1 ligands applied to pinealocytes responding to norepinephrine, bradykinin and/or depolarization. These data clearly indicate that TRPV1 actively regulates pineal gland function.

  10. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  11. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  12. Genomic Characterization and Comparison of Multi-Regional and Pooled Tumor Biopsy Specimens.

    Joung, Je-Gun; Bae, Joon Seol; Kim, Sang Cheol; Jung, HyunChul; Park, Woong-Yang; Song, Sang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    A single tumor biopsy specimen is typically used in cancer genome studies. However, it may represent incompletely the underlying mutational and transcriptional profiles of tumor biology. Multi-regional biopsies have the advantage of increased sensitivity for genomic profiling, but they are not cost-effective. The concept of an alternative method such as the pooling of multiple biopsies is a challenge. In order to determine if the pooling of distinct regions is representative at the genomic and transcriptome level, we performed sequencing of four regional samples and pooled samples for four cancer types including colon, stomach, kidney and liver cancer. Subsequently, a comparative analysis was conducted to explore differences in mutations and gene expression profiles between multiple regional biopsies and pooled biopsy for each tumor. Our analysis revealed a marginal level of regional difference in detected variants, but in those with low allele frequency, considerable discrepancies were observed. In conclusion, sequencing pooled samples has the benefit of detecting many variants with moderate allele frequency that occur in partial regions, but it is not applicable for detecting low-frequency mutations that require deep sequencing.

  13. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells.

    Shera, K A; Shera, C A; McDougall, J K

    2001-12-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, simian virus 40, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. We show that viral integrations in tumor cells lie near cellular sequences identified as nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs), while integrations in nonneoplastic cells show no significant correlation with these regions. In mammalian cells, the nuclear matrix functions in gene expression and DNA replication. MARs play varied but poorly understood roles in eukaryotic gene expression. Our results suggest that integrated tumor virus genomes are subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional regulation, providing insight into mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the viral oncoproteins serve as invaluable tools for the study of mechanisms controlling cellular growth. Similarly, our demonstration that integrated viral genomes may be subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional effects should facilitate elucidation of fundamental mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression.

  14. Tumor

    2008-01-01

    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  15. Radiosurgery in the management of pediatric brain tumors.

    Raco, A; Raimondi, A J; D'Alonzo, A; Esposito, V; Valentino, V

    2000-05-01

    A total of 114 patients with benign and malignant intracranial tumors were treated by Valentino at the Flaminia Radiosurgical Center using a Philips 6-MeV linear accelerator between 1987 and 1995. The tumor locations break down as follows: 36 in the cerebral hemispheres, 14 in the region of the hypothalamus/optic chiasm, 21 in the III ventricle/pineal region, 3 in the basal ganglia, 27 in the posterior fossa, 13 in the brain stem. Seventy-nine patients had multivariate/combined treatment consisting of surgery or biopsy followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery. Thirty-five were not operated on or biopsied but were treated primarily by radiosurgery, which was associated with chemotherapy and conventional radiotherapy. The short- and long-term results were evaluated separately for each pathology in an attempt to derive guidelines for future treatment. For tumors of the pineal region, we are of the opinion that radiosurgery is the treatment of choice in children and that more than one-third of patients can be cured by this means. The remaining patients require surgery and/or chemotherapy in addition. For medulloblastomas radiosurgery may be useful to control local recurrence if coupled with chemotherapy. In the case of ependymomas, partly because of the extreme malignancy of the lesions in our series, radiosurgery did not succeed in controlling local recurrence. We fear that limiting treatment to radiosurgery, rather than prescribing conventional radiotherapy when indicated, could permit CNS seeding. For craniopharyngiomas radiosurgery proved useful for controlling solid remnants. In glial tumors radiosurgery helped either to "sterilize" the tumor bed after removal or to treat remnants of the lesions in critical areas; for diffuse brain stem gliomas it should be considered the treatment of choice.

  16. A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

  17. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-09-07

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

  18. [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging].

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution is considered in this review. The research data about influence of thymus peptides on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus is summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (epithalamin, epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (thymalin, thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  19. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  20. Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma

    Harrison, R.L.; Abernethy, L.J. [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

  1. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  2. Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

  3. Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region

    Barjaktarović Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ≥ 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom

  4. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  5. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  6. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  7. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  8. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

    2011-08-01

    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine).

  9. Clinical topographical correlation upon brain tumors in children

    A.M. Dolgov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the most characteristic clinical manifestations of brain tumors in children, depending on their localization, and to detect the earliest of them. Patients and methods. A total of 56 children (32 boys and 24 girls with brain tumor, aged from 1.5 months to 15 years, were examined. The time elapsed between the onset of disease to the emergence of clinical symptoms was assessed. Neurological symptomatology was compared to the localization of a tumor diagnosed using neuroimaging techniques (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and during surgery. Surgery was performed in 18 children (in all of them, localization of the process was observed in the posterior cranial fossa, PCF. Results. The highest incidence of brain tumors was revealed in children aged 3–13 years; most patients became ill at the age between 3 and 6 years. Tumors of the PCF predominated in terms of their localization (67.9% of cases. Intracerebral tumors of the hemispheres or vermis were observed in most (63.2% patients with tumors of the PCF. In 11 (61% of the 18 operated children with subtentorial tumors, astrocytomas of various degrees of differentiation and medulloblastomas were detected using the histological examination. Tumors of the IV ventricle were ependymal. Tumors of the cerebral hemispheres (19.6%, of the pineal and chiasmosellar regions (8.9% predominated among supratentorial tumors. The time between the emergence of initial symptoms of a disease and admission to hospital ranged from 1 month to 3 years. The most characteristic and earliest symptoms for tumors of the PCF and brain ventricles were headache, nausea and vomiting. For tumors of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, these symptoms included impairment of the coordination of movements and the muscle tone change. For brain stem tumors, these symptoms included dysfunction of the cranial nerves. For tumors of the cerebral hemispheres, these were seizures and motor

  10. Simian virus 40 regulatory region structural diversity and the association of viral archetypal regulatory regions with human brain tumors.

    Lednicky, J A; Butel, J S

    2001-02-01

    The regulatory region (RR) of simian virus 40 (SV40) contains enhancer/promoter elements and an origin of DNA replication. Natural SV40 isolates from simian brain or kidney tissues typically have an archetypal RR arrangement with a single 72-basepair enhancer element. A rare simpler, shorter SV40 RR exists that lacks a duplicated sequence in the G/C-rich region and is termed protoarchetypal. Occasionally, SV40 strain variants arise de novo that have complex RRs, which typically contain sequence reiterations, rearrangements, and/or deletions. These variants replicate faster and to higher titers in tissue culture; we speculate that such faster-growing variants were selected when laboratory strains of SV40 were initially recovered. SV40 strains with archetypal RRs have been found in some human brain tumors. The possible implications of these findings and a brief review of the SV40 RR structure are presented.

  11. Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.

    Man-Hung Eric eTang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...... meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not receive any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow...... maps, regardless of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain...

  13. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P.; Noctor, Stephen C.; Muñoz, Estela M.

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the...

  14. Daytime Unresponsiveness of the Human and Syrian Hamster Pineal to Adrenergic Stimulation

    1989-01-01

    depresses nighttime melatonin content without changing N-acetyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland . Neuroendocrinology 47, 55-60. Vaughan, G.M...exposure) raises pineal melatonin content; injection outside this sensitive period does not. (CajP-" This dramatic change in response of the pineal gland ...in rats , though the change is small in rats with functional pineal nerve endinvs. Ether anesthesia (G.M. Vaughan and J.P. Allen, unpublished results

  15. Rhythmic Melatonin Response of the Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland to Norepinephrine In Vitro and In Vivo

    1986-01-01

    pineal and body size. However, it appears that even after correction for estimated pineal weight or for body weight, rat glands made several-fold more...R.J. Reiter (1985) Hamster and rat pineal gland i- adrenoceptor characterization with iodocyanopindolol and the effect of decreased catecholamine...serotonin N-acetyl- transferase activity to synthesis of 3H-N-acetylserotonin and 3H-melatonin in the cultured rat pineal gland . J. Pharmacol. Exp

  16. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures.

  17. Combined autofluorescence and Raman spectroscopy method for skin tumor detection in visible and near infrared regions

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Artemyev, D. N.; Myakinin, O. O.; Khristoforova, Y. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The combined application of Raman and autofluorescence spectroscopy in visible and near infrared regions for the analysis of malignant neoplasms of human skin was demonstrated. Ex vivo experiments were performed for 130 skin tissue samples: 28 malignant melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas, 15 benign tumors, 9 nevi and 59 normal tissues. Proposed method of Raman spectra analysis allows for malignant melanoma differentiating from other skin tissues with accuracy of 84% (sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 72%). Autofluorescence analysis in near infrared and visible regions helped us to increase the diagnostic accuracy by 5-10%. Registration of autofluorescence in near infrared region is realized in one optical unit with Raman spectroscopy. Thus, the proposed method of combined skin tissues study makes possible simultaneous large skin area study with autofluorescence spectra analysis and precise neoplasm type determination with Raman spectroscopy.

  18. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    Frisardi, Gianni; Iani, Cesare; Sau, Gianfranco; Frisardi, Flavio; Leonardis, Carlo; Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Staderini, Enrico Maria; Chessa, Giacomo Innocenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods: Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcrania...

  19. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  20. [Ultrahard longitudinal pendulum irradiation of tumors in the region of the visceral cranium (author's transl)].

    Voss, A C; Junker, A; Sailer, U; Heilmann, H P

    1979-09-01

    An analysis of 71 patients with malignant, mostly extended tumors in the region of the visceral cranium is made, and the irradiation technique as well as the results of a longitudinal pendulum irradiation with high-energy ultrahard X-rays are reported. The advantages in comparison with rays of another quality and with other techniques of irradiation consist in a very small radiation exposure of the skin and in a homogeneous distribution of the dose in the target volume as well as a sparing of the contralateral eye. The adjustment is simple and easy to reproduce, the acute side-effects are small and reversible, the cosmetic result is very good.

  1. Meningioma: The role of a foreign body and irradiation in tumor formation

    Saleh, J.; Silberstein, H.J.; Salner, A.L.; Uphoff, D.F. (Hartford Hospital, CT (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A case of meningioma is reported. At the age of 18 years, the patient had undergone insertion of a Torkildsen shunt through a posteroparietal burr hole for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tumor of the pineal region, of which no biopsy had been made. After the hydrocephalus was relieved, he underwent irradiation of the tumor. Thirty years later, he was treated for an intracranial meningioma wrapped around the shunt. The tumor followed the shunt in all of its intracranial course. Microscopy disclosed pieces of the shunt tube within the meningioma. The role of a foreign body and irradiation in the induction of meningiomas is discussed, and a comprehensive review of the literature is presented. 47 references.

  2. Anti-tumor activities of peptides corresponding to conserved complementary determining regions from different immunoglobulins.

    Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Massaoka, Mariana H; Polonelli, Luciano; Travassos, Luiz R

    2014-09-01

    Short synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from different immunoglobulin families have been shown to induce antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities regardless of the specificity of the original monoclonal antibody (mAb). Presently, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of synthetic peptides derived from conserved CDR sequences of different immunoglobulins against human tumor cell lines and murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma aiming at the discovery of candidate molecules for cancer therapy. Four light- and heavy-chain CDR peptide sequences from different antibodies (C36-L1, HA9-H2, 1-H2 and Mg16-H2) showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma and a panel of human tumor cell lineages in vitro. Importantly, they also exerted anti-metastatic activity using a syngeneic melanoma model in mice. Other peptides (D07-H3, MN20v1, MS2-H3) were also protective against metastatic melanoma, without showing significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro. In this case, we suggest that these peptides may act as immune adjuvants in vivo. As observed, peptides induced nitric oxide production in bone-marrow macrophages showing that innate immune cells can also be modulated by these CDR peptides. The present screening supports the search in immunoglobulins of rather frequent CDR sequences that are endowed with specific antitumor properties and may be candidates to be developed as anti-cancer drugs.

  3. The Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland Responds to Isoproterenol in Vivo at Night

    1987-01-01

    Society Printed in U.S.A. A THE SYRIAN HAMSTER PINEAL GLAND RESPONDS TO ISOPROTERENOL IN VIVO AT NIGHT George M. Vaughan 1 and Russel J. Reiter 2 1US...then kept in light for 2 h, pineal melatonin was equally low 0 • after ISO or vehicle injection. The Syrian hamster pineal gland can respond in vivo...responsiveness during the day, pineal highly concentrated at the pinealocyte glands taken 6 1/2 h into the night after a during the nocturnal surge of pineal

  4. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions.

  5. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  6. Dose to craniofacial region through portal imaging of pediatric brain tumors.

    Hitchen, Christine J; Osa, Etin-Osa; Dewyngaert, J Keith; Chang, Jenghwa; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2012-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) from portal imaging (PI) of the craniofacial region in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Twenty pediatric brain tumor patients were retrospectively studied. Each received portal imaging of treatment fields and orthogonal setup fields in the craniofacial region. The number of PI and monitor units used for PI were documented for each patient. Dose distributions and dose-volume histograms were generated to quantify the maximum, minimum, and mean dose to the PTV, and the mean dose to OARs through PI acquisition. The doses resulting from PI are reported as percentage of prescribed dose. The average maximum, minimum, and mean doses to PTV from PI were 2.9 ± 0.7%, 2.2 ± 1.0%, and 2.5 ± 0.7%, respectively. The mean dose to the OARs from PI were brainstem 2.8 ± 1.1%, optic nerves/chiasm 2.6 ± 0.9%, cochlea 2.6 ± 0.9%, hypothalamus/pituitary 2.4 ± 0.6%, temporal lobes 2.3 ± 0.6%, thyroid 1.6 ± 0.8%, and eyes 2.6 ± 0.9%. The mean number of portal images and the mean number of PI monitor units per patient were 58.8 and 173.3, respectively. The dose from PI while treating pediatric brain tumors using IMRT is significant (2%-3% of the prescribed dose). This may result in exceeding the tolerance limit of many critical structures and lead to unwanted late complications and secondary malignancies. Dose contributions from PI should be considered in the final documented dose. Attempts must be made in PI practices to lower the imaging dose when feasible.

  7. Effects of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha on regional brain neurotransmitters in mice.

    Cho, L; Tsunoda, M; Sharma, R P

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in regional brain concentration of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were investigated in male BALB/c mice injected intraperitoneally with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg kg(-1)) or recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha, 0.1 mg kg(-1)) at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection. At 2 h post-injection the LPS administration resulted in hypothermia, which was not apparent at later time points. No consistent effects were observed by either LPS or TNFalpha on peripheral leukocyte counts or plasma transaminase levels. Both LPS and TNFalpha slightly elevated NE metabolism in the striatum at 2-12 h. Concentrations of DA and its metabolites were significantly elevated only in the hypothalamus following TNFalpha at 24 h. Tumor necrosis factor alpha exerted pronounced effects on 5-HT metabolism in most brain regions at 2 h. Results suggest that the effect of LPS is more complex compared with TNFalpha because of the endogenous production of other cytokines including the TNFalpha.

  8. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  9. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

  10. Protein phosphorylation in rat pineal gland and its regulation in supersensitive and subsensitive states

    Cimino, M.; Benfenati, F.; Farabegoli, C.; Cattabeni, F.; Agnati, L.F.

    1987-04-01

    The phosphorylation of specific proteins in pineal homogenate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Cyclic AMP had the capacity to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of /sup 32/P in protein bands of apparent molecular weights 59K, 56K, and 35K with a maximal effect at 1 microM. On the other hand, calcium alone did not induce a marked increase in /sup 32/P incorporation with the exception of a dose-dependent phosphorylation of a 46K protein with a peak effect at 0.2 mM calcium concentration. The addition of exogenous calmodulin enhanced /sup 32/P incorporation in proteins migrating in the 62K and 52K regions, an effect that was antagonized by the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine. However, also under these conditions, the stimulation of pineal protein phosphorylation was rather weak compared to that observed in other brain areas. In an attempt to investigate the functional changes of these biochemical processes during environmental lighting and adrenergic stimulation, it was found that the administration of (-)-isoproterenol (5 mg/kg, s.c.), a beta-receptor agonist, induced a clear-cut enhancement of /sup 32/P incorporation into the cyclic AMP-sensitive 59K and 56K proteins only in animals exposed for 18 h to the light, whereas it was almost ineffective in those kept in the dark for the same period. This effect was antagonized by (-)-propranolol pretreatment (20 mg/kg), suggesting that the changes in cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation observed in supersensitive pineals may represent a beta-receptor mediated process.

  11. Mutational Analysis of Region-cytotoxicity Relationship in Human Transmembrane Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

    ZHENGFang; GONGFeili; LIZhuoya; JIANGXiaodan; XIONGPing; FENGWei; XUYong

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To determine the region of human transmembrane tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TM-TNFa), essential for cytotoxic activity a-gainst human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Methods:Single amino-acid-substituted TM-TNFα mutant proteins (muteins) were produced by in vitro transcription linked translation techniques. The cDNA of TM-TNFα was site-directed mutagenized by recombinant PCR. Results:13 single amino-acid substituted TM-TNFα muteins were generated and assayed for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activities of TM-TNFα muteins, eg, TM-TNFα-71/Lys, -28/Phe and 117/Leu were significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to that of parent TM-TNFα, 143/Tyr decreased 4-folds, and-17/Thr,-39/Ser,ll9/His,35/Gly,95/Cys and 147/Phe decreased 1.5-2.5-folds, respectively. However, the cytotoxic activities of TM-TNFα-8/Arg, 31/Gly and 87/Phe showed no significant change. Conclusion:These results indicate that the regions associated with cytotoxic-activity of TM-TNFα are different with that of secretory TNF-lpha (S-TNFα). The inner cell region and transmembrane region of TM-TNFα are related to the cytotoxic activity of TM-TNFα.

  12. Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing.

    Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2006-11-01

    A retino-hypothalamic-sympathetic pathway drives the nocturnal surge of pineal melatonin production that determines the synchronization of pineal function with the environmental light/dark cycle. In many studies, melatonin has been implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available. Here we analyzed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and corticosterone on the transcription of the Aa-nat, hiomt and 14-3-3 protein genes in denervated pineal glands of rats stimulated for 5 hr with norepinephrine, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcription of Aa-nat, a gene encoding the key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, together with the synthesis of the melatonin precursor N-acetylserotonin, was inhibited by TNF-alpha. This inhibition was transient, and a preincubation of TNF-alpha for more than 24 hr had no detectable effect. In fact, a protein(s) transcribed, later on, as shown by cycloheximide, was responsible for the reversal of the inhibition of Aa-nat transcription. In addition, corticosterone induced a potentiation of norepinephrine-induced Aa-nat transcription even after 48 hr of incubation. These data support the hypothesis that the nocturnal surge in melatonin is impaired at the beginning of an inflammatory response and restored either during the shutdown of an acute response or in a chronic inflammatory pathology. Here, we introduce a new molecular pathway involved in the feedback of an inflammatory response on pineal activity, and provide a molecular basis for understanding the expression of circadian timing in injured organisms.

  13. Emerging tumor entities and variants of CNS neoplasms.

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Giangaspero, Felice

    2004-03-01

    Since the appearance in 2000 of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, numerous descriptions of new entities or variants have appeared in the literature. In the group of neuronal and mixed glioneuronal neoplasms are lesions with distinctive morphological features that are still not included in a precise classification, including extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosette-forming glioneuronal of the fourth ventricle, glioneuronal with neuropil-like rosette, and DNT-like tumor of the septum pellucidum. The glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like rosette and oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation represent morphological variants of genetically proven diffuse gliomas. The lipoastrocytoma and the pilomixoid astrocytoma enlarge the group of astrocytic lesions. Rare, low-grade gliomas of the spinal cord with extensive leptomeningeal dissemination associated with unusual neuroimaging are described. The chordoid glioma of the third ventricle and the papillary tumor of the pineal region seem to be correlated by a common histogenesis from the specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ. An embryonal tumor with neuropil and true rosettes combining features of neuroblastoma and ependymoblastoma is discussed. These new, recently described lesions indicate that the complex morphologic spectrum of CNS tumors is far from being completely delineated.

  14. [Leather dust and systematic research on occupational tumors: the national and regional registry TUNS].

    Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Consonni, Dario; Riboldi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The sinonasal cancer (SNC) are a rare tumors characterized by high occupational etiologic fraction. For this reason their incidence and etiology can be actively monitored by a dedicated cancer registry. The National Registry of these tumours is situated at the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) and is based on Regional Operating Centres (ROCs). In Lombardy Region the ROC has been established at the end of 2007 with the purpose to make a systematic surveillance and therefore to support in the most suitable way the scientific research and the prevention actions in the high risk working sectors. The aims of this surveillance are: to estimate the regional incidence of SNC, to define different sources of occupational and environmental exposure both known (wood, leather, nickel, chromium) and unknown. The registry collects all the new incident cases of epithelial SNC occurring in residents in Lombardy Region since 01.01.2008. The regional Registry is managed according to National Guidelines. Until January 2010 we received 596 cases of suspected SNC; only 91 (15%) of these were actually incident cases according to the inclusion criteria of the Registry, and they were preferentially adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. In 2008 the regional age-standardized incidence rate of SNC for males and females, respectively, is 0.8 and 0.5 per 100,000. Occupational or environmental exposure to wood or leather dust is ascertained in over the 50% of cases. The occupational exposure to leather dust was duo to work in shoe factories. Our preliminary findings confirm that occupational exposure to wood and leather dusts are the more relevant risk factors for SNC. The study of occupational sectors and job activity in cases without such exposure could suggest new etiologic hypothesis.

  15. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  16. Primary (Poorly Differentiated Sclerosing Liposarcoma of Temporal Region. An Uncommon Tumor in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    Anuradha CK Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma (LS in the head and neck region is a rare tumor. The sclerosing variant of LS is a subtype of well-differentiated LS characterized by areas of conventional LS admixed with hypocellular areas of stromal sclerosis that show atypical lipomatous cells. The (poorly differentiated sclerosing LS, on the other hand, is more cellular with atypical, pleomorphic and often bizarre giant tumor cells admixed with atypical lipoblasts. We report a case of poorly differentiated sclerosing LS of temporal region in a 49-year-old man. Radiologically, the tumor was dumbbell shaped with intra and extra cranial extension. In this case, we discuss the clinico-radiological and pathological findings of an unusual tumor in a rare location. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 33-35

  17. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  18. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland.

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N

    2006-10-01

    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  19. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F;

    2012-01-01

    pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian...

  20. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men.

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-10-01

    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.

  1. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  2. Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats.

    Tomonari, Yuki; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age.

  3. Pineal Gland Calcification in Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study of 480 Roentgenograms.

    Kahee A Mohammed

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare the incidence of Pineal Gland Calcification (PGC by age group and gender among the populations living in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq.This prospective study examined skull X-rays of 480 patients between the ages of 3 and 89 years who sought care at a large teaching public hospital in Duhok, Iraq from June 2014 to November 2014. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used for analysis.The overall incidence rate of PGC among the study population was 26.9% with the 51-60 age group and males having the highest incidence. PGC incidence increased after the first decade and remained steady until the age of 60. Thereafter the incidence began to decrease. Logistic regression analysis revealed that both age and gender significantly affected the risk of PGC. After adjusting for age, males were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.26-2.99 times more likely to have PGC compared to females. In addition, a one year increase in age increases the odds of developing PGC by 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03 units after controlling for the effects of gender.Our analysis demonstrated a close relationship between PGC and age and gender, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these factors. This study provides a basis for future researchers to further investigate the nature and mechanisms underlying pineal gland calcification.

  4. Malignant hair follicle tumors of the periorbital region: A review of literature and suggestion of a management guideline.

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Allende, Alexandra; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-06-01

    Malignant hair follicle tumors are rare skin adnexal malignancies that have a predilection for the head and neck region. They can be categorized into a number of different subtypes. Histologically, they are distinct from their benign counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive review of these malignancies, especially in the periorbital region. We aim to provide a literature review and a guideline for management of these malignant tumors in the periorbital region. Database from Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 16 cases from the literature on hair follicle malignancies in the periorbital region were included in this review. The clinical presentations, diagnostic patterns, investigations used, and best management approach of these tumors are discussed. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7(th) edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system was used to describe their behaviors. We recommend wide excision surgery and a close follow-up for these tumors. Tumors presenting with a late stage require work-up for distant metastasis and consideration for exenteration procedures. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this context is still uncertain.

  5. The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

  6. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  7. The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood

    Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

  8. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  10. An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2014-09-01

    Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death.

  11. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  12. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  13. Leptin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carvalho, Carla Roberta de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE ( 1 µM) reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT) activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  14. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb. Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM associated with NE (1 µM reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  15. Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland.

    Itoh, Masanori T; Hosaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2006-08-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) influences the secretion of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal gland. The present study examined the possible presence of LH/chorionic gonadotropin (CG) receptor in the pineal gland of adult female rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that LH/CG receptor mRNA is expressed in the pineal gland. Western blotting showed that the pineal gland, like the ovary, contains an 80 kDa receptor protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LH/CG receptor, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (a regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) and serotonin (a melatonin precursor) are localized primarily to the same cells of the pineal gland. We further found that the levels of pineal LH/CG receptor protein in normal cycling female rats change significantly during the estrous cycle, being lowest at early metestrus. These results demonstrate that LH/CG receptor is expressed in the pineal gland, primarily in melatonin-synthesizing cells, namely pinealocytes. Furthermore, it is suggested that LH influences pineal melatonin secretion through binding to this receptor. In addition, LH/CG receptor levels in the pineal gland are regulated during the estrous cycle under normal physiological conditions.

  16. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Jéssica Andrade-Silva; José Cipolla-Neto; Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE (1 µM)...

  17. Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig

    Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using primers specific...... for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs....

  18. Functional Neuronavigation: Comparison of spatial congruence between fMRI and electrocortical stimulation in central region tumor surgery

    Wachter, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of lesions in or around the central region confronts the neurosurgeon with a great challenge. Radical tumor resection leads to a better outcome but it also bears the risk of postoperative neurological deficit due to the functional importance of the central region. Throughout the last couple of years different techniques made it possible to identify the patient’s specific functional and anatomical topography. The central sulcus and the adjacent gyri...

  19. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  20. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic...... stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected...... the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept...

  1. Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Dwedary, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb; Sikander, Mohammed Hilal; Mankar, Sunil; Amrin, M. Nidha

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient. PMID:26538960

  2. Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report.

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Dwedary, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb; Sikander, Mohammed Hilal; Mankar, Sunil; Amrin, M Nidha

    2015-08-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient.

  3. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P;

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  4. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Georges J. M. Maestroni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  5. A model for the neural control of pineal periodicity

    de Oliveira Cruz, Frederico Alan; Soares, Marilia Amavel Gomes; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was verify if a computational model associating the synchronization dynamics of coupling oscillators to a set of synaptic transmission equations would be able to simulate the control of pineal by a complex neural pathway that connects the retina to this gland. Results from the simulations showed that the frequency and temporal firing patterns were in the range of values found in literature.

  6. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  7. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    2017-01-17

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  8. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; Đujić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

  9. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. 两种改良微创手术治疗松果体区肿瘤效果分析%Treatment effects of the pineal region tumors by kinds of minimally invasive operation

    朱玉辐; 兰青; 虞正权

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察两种改良微创手术治疗松果体区肿瘤的效果.方法 对26例松果体区肿瘤患者行微创手术,采用改良Poppen入路手术11例,其中横窦矢状窦夹角处约3 cm×2 cm的小骨窗7例,2 cm×(4~5)cm跨矢状窦的横行骨窗4例;采用Krause人路手术15例,均经松果体区、帆间池进入三脑室.结果 手术均顺利,行肿瘤全切除术21例、次全切除术3例、大部切除术2例,无死亡、感染及术后出血;术后并发小脑肿胀1例,行后颅窝减压,术后7 d小脑肿胀消退;出现一过性缄默1例.结论 改良Poppen人路和Krause入路用于松果体区肿瘤手术具有微创性、有效性、实用性,其中后者风险更小;肿瘤位于幕上、部分幕上兼幕下且向侧方生长较大者宜采用Poppen人路,幕下、长入三脑室和幕下兼幕上者宜采用Krause入路.

  11. 幕下小脑上入路显微切除松果体区肿瘤%Microsurgical resection of tumors in pineal region through infratentorial supracerebellar approach

    徐国政; 秦尚振; 龚杰; 李俊; 胡军民; 姚国杰; 张新元; 潘力

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨经幕下小脑上入路(Krause入路)显微外科切除松果体区肿瘤的方法和治疗效果.方法分析1998年3月至2002年4月收治的松果体区肿瘤8例,其中生殖细胞瘤4例,胶质瘤2例,松果体瘤和松果体囊肿各1例.所有病人均采用坐位、气管内插管全麻、经Krause入路显微肿瘤切除,其中2例术中辅助影像导航定位.结果除1例胶质瘤与大脑大静脉粘连,残存少许肿瘤外,其余病例均达解剖切除,脑脊液循环通畅,无后遗症状.结论坐位Krause入路显示三脑室后部病变解剖结构清晰,病变暴露良好,基本能达到病灶全切.

  12. 幕下小脑上锁孔入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤%Infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach for microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumors

    康德智; 兰青

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨幕下小脑上锁孔入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤的可行性和安全性.方法依据术前神经影像学检查结果,制定个体化手术方案,采用经幕下小脑上锁孔入路,显微手术切除病变7例.骨窗大小约2.0 cm×2.5 cm,上缘达横窦和窦汇下缘.结果7例中,胚生殖细胞瘤2例;松果体细胞瘤2例;松果体母细胞瘤1例;胶质瘤1例;胆脂瘤1例.术后均行MRI检查,肿瘤全切除6例,1例次全切除.并发术后小脑肿胀、脑积水1例,再次行手术减压;1例术后出现一过性缄默及凝视;无死亡、感染及术后出血病例.近期随访效果良好.结论应用幕下小脑上锁孔入路显微手术切除松果体区肿瘤不仅可取得满意的切除率,而且手术创伤小、疗效好.

  13. Remove Tumors of Pineal Region Via the Infratentorial and Supra-cerebellar Approach in Sitting Position%坐位经小脑上幕下入路切除松果体区肿瘤临床分析

    姚洁民; 谢华; 郭春雨; 朱晟; 魏风; 卢科

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨坐位经小脑上幕下入路切除松果体区肿瘤的临床疗效.方法:采用坐位经小脑上幕下入路手术治疗松果体区肿瘤5例,其中生殖细胞瘤2例,畸胎瘤1例,脑膜瘤1例,脂肪瘤1例.肿瘤直径2.3~5.5 cm.结果:肿瘤全切除3例,次全切除1例,大部切除1例.术后脑积水加重1例,行分流术后失访.余4例随访9个月~5 a,1例于术后9个月死于肿瘤复发,另3例无复发.结论:坐位经小脑上幕下入路切除松果体区中小型及后位肿瘤,术区显露良好、脑组织损伤小.合理应用可提高肿瘤的全切除率,减少手术并发损害.

  14. Influence of anatomical variations of the straight sinus on infratentorial supracerebellar approach for pineal region tumors%直窦解剖变异对松果体区幕下小脑上入路手术的影响

    顾向进; 冯东侠; 张怡璐

    2005-01-01

    目的评估直窦解剖变异对幕下小脑上入路治疗松果体区病变手术的影响.方法选取200例检查结果为阴性的头颅MRI影像学资料,在正中矢状面T1WI上对直窦的长度、倾斜度、与胼胝体压部的关系进行测量和分析.结果直窦平均长(51±5.3)mm;直窦与硬腭水平的夹角为49.6°±7.2°:与胼胝体压部的位置关系可分为低角度型(24.5%),常见型(69.5%),高角度型(6.0%).结论直窦的解剖变异较大.术前应用MRI了解直窦的倾斜度,明确手术路径与松果体区病变的空间位置关系,对手术具有重要的指导意义.

  15. Comparative ultrastructural observations on the pineal organ of the pipefish, Syngnatus acus, and the seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius.

    Herwig, H J

    1980-01-01

    A comparative ultrastructural study was made of the pineal organ of two related species of the Syngnathidae, the pipefish, Syngnathus acus, and the seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius. Both species have a relatively small pineal organ, which ultrastructurally shows several similarities with the pineal of other teleosts. In the pineal organ of Syngnathus acus, the photoreceptor cells have well-developed outer segments consisting of about 15 to 60 saccules. The pineal supporting cells are characterized by the presence of numerous myeloid bodies. In Hippocampus hudsonius the pineal outer segments are scarce and poorly developed; generally, they show not more than 20 saccules. The apical parts of the supporting cells contain dense-core vesicles with a diameter varying from 100 to 180 nm. Corresponding vesicles were not observed in the pineal organ of Syngnathus acus. Arguments are presented for the suggestion that the pineal organ of the Syngnathidae, in spite of its relatively small size, still has a functional significance. In Syngnathus acus, light reaching the pineal organ directly might have a regulating effect on pineal activity. In Hippocampus hudsonius, however, light acting directly on the pineal organ appears to have minor effect on pineal function.

  16. Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling

    Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L; Carter, John David;

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal...

  17. Radiation-induced vasculopathy implicated by depressed blood flow and metabolism in a pineal glioma

    Mineura, K.; Sasajima, T.; Kowada, M. (Akita University Hospital (Japan). Neurosurgical Service); Saitoh, H. (Oodate Municipal Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Shishido, F. (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    A case of radiation-induced vasculopathy of a pineal glioma was presented with haemodynamic and metabolic changes before and after radiotherapy. After radiation of 60 Gy with conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy daily, 5 days per week), regional blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, kinetic metabolic rate of glucose and the rate constants (K2, K3) were markedly depressed (20% or greater) compared with the pre-irradiated study. 7 months after radiotherapy, the patient developed transient episodes of both right and left upper limb convulsion, terminating in generalized convulsion. When she developed status epilepticus, computed tomography showed extensive low density areas in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral and the right posterior cerebral arteries. (author).

  18. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  19. PG25, a pineal-specific cDNA, cloned by differential display PCR (DDPCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).

    Wang, X; Brownstein, M J; Young, W S

    1997-05-16

    Synthesis of melatonin in the mammalian pineal gland is regulated by the rhythmic expression of acetyl-CoA: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and other unknown factors. To screen for pineal-specific mRNAs potentially involved in melatonin synthesis and/or regulation, differential display PCR (DDPCR) was employed. We used 80 primer pairs and examined 40 bands of interest. One of the pineal specific clones (relative to brain and eye), PG25, was studied further. Hybridization histochemical and Northern analyses confirmed its tissue specificity. The size of the corresponding mRNA is 2.4 kb. A cDNA (2 kb) containing the coding region was obtained using a long-template PCR-based RACE technique. A data base search indicates that PG25 is highly homologous to a recently identified human lung endothelial cell-specific gene, ESM-1. Interestingly, not only the amino acid sequences but also the cDNA sequences, including the long 3' untranslated regions, are highly similar. This suggests that the conserved 3' untranslated region may carry information to regulate its own expression. Northern analysis revealed that PG25 is also expressed in the rat lung, but at a much lower (10%) level compared to the pineal. Finally, our work shows the feasibility of a fast, integrated PCR-based cloning method for obtaining long, potentially full-length cDNAs with restricted expression in anatomically complex regions of the brain. This protocol combining several existing methodologies is suitable for use with limited tissue sources and uses minimal amounts of isotopes.

  20. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  1. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx...

  2. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance.

    Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

  3. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  4. The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is a central structure in the circadian system which produces melatonin under the control of the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and the output of the pineal gland, i.e. melatonin, are synchronized to the 24-hr day by environmental light, received by the re

  5. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  6. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  7. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  8. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  9. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland.

  10. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P; Noctor, Stephen C; Muñoz, Estela M

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  11. The role of miR-182 in regulating pineal CLOCK expression after hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Ding, Xin; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Tao, Yanfang; Hu, Shukun; Li, Ronghu; Han, Xing; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Yu, Jian; Feng, Xing

    2015-03-30

    Circadian rhythm disorder is a common neurological deficit caused by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed a significant elevation of clock genes at the protein, but not mRNA, levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD. To investigate the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation on clock genes, we screened changes of miRNA levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD using high-throughput arrays. Within the miRNAs whose expression was significantly down-regulated, we identified one miRNA (miR182) that targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Clock, a key component of clock genes, and played a crucial role in regulating CLOCK expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primarily cultured pinealocytes. Our findings therefore provide new insight on studies of therapeutic targets for circadian rhythm disturbance after neonatal HIBD.

  12. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    Dario Marcotullio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  13. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  14. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  15. Shadow response in the blind cavefish Astyanax reveals conservation of a functional pineal eye.

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R

    2008-02-01

    The blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus undergoes bilateral eye degeneration during embryonic development. Despite the absence of light in the cave environment, cavefish have retained a structurally intact pineal eye. We show here that contrary to visual degeneration in the bilateral eyes, the cavefish pineal eye has conserved the ability to detect light. Larvae of two different Astyanax cavefish populations and the con-specific sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) respond similarly to light dimming by shading the pineal eye. As a response to shading, cavefish larvae swim upward vertically. This behavior resembles that of amphibian tadpoles rather than other teleost larvae, which react to shadows by swimming downward. The shadow response is highest at 1.5-days post-fertilization (d.p.f.), gradually diminishes, and is virtually undetectable by 7.5 d.p.f. The shadow response was substantially reduced after surgical removal of the pineal gland from surface fish or cavefish larvae, indicating that it is based on pineal function. In contrast, removal of one or both bilateral eye primordia did not affect the shadow response. Consistent with its light detecting capacity, immunocytochemical studies indicate that surface fish and cavefish pineal eyes express a rhodopsin-like antigen, which is undetectable in the degenerating bilateral eyes of cavefish larvae. We conclude that light detection by the pineal eye has been conserved in cavefish despite a million or more years of evolution in complete darkness.

  16. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    Tan, S [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xue, M; Chen, W; D' Souza, W; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO. (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The

  17. A region growing method for tumor volume segmentation on PET images for rectal and anal cancer patients.

    Day, Ellen; Betler, James; Parda, David; Reitz, Bodo; Kirichenko, Alexander; Mohammadi, Seyed; Miften, Moyed

    2009-10-01

    The application of automated segmentation methods for tumor delineation on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images presents an opportunity to reduce the interobserver variability in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. In this work, three segmentation methods were evaluated and compared for rectal and anal cancer patients: (i) Percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV% max), (ii) fixed SUV cutoff of 2.5 (SUV2.5), and (iii) mathematical technique based on a confidence connected region growing (CCRG) method. A phantom study was performed to determine the SUV% max threshold value and found to be 43%, SUV43% max. The CCRG method is an iterative scheme that relies on the use of statistics from a specified region in the tumor. The scheme is initialized by a subregion of pixels surrounding the maximum intensity pixel. The mean and standard deviation of this region are measured and the pixels connected to the region are included or not based on the criterion that they are greater than a value derived from the mean and standard deviation. The mean and standard deviation of this new region are then measured and the process repeats. FDG-PET-CT imaging studies for 18 patients who received RT were used to evaluate the segmentation methods. A PET avid (PETavid) region was manually segmented for each patient and the volume was then used to compare the calculated volumes along with the absolute mean difference and range for all methods. For the SUV43% max method, the volumes were always smaller than the PETavid volume by a mean of 56% and a range of 21%-79%. The volumes from the SUV2.5 method were either smaller or larger than the PETavid volume by a mean of 37% and a range of 2%-130%. The CCRG approach provided the best results with a mean difference of 9% and a range of 1%-27%. Results show that the CCRG technique can be used in the segmentation of tumor volumes on FDG-PET images, thus providing treatment planners with a clinically

  18. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  19. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    Mukda, Sujira; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  20. Immune monitoring of the circulation and the tumor microenvironment in patients with regionally advanced melanoma receiving neoadjuvant ipilimumab.

    Ahmad A Tarhini

    Full Text Available We evaluated neoadjuvant ipilimumab in patients with surgically operable regionally advanced melanoma in order to define markers of activity in the blood and tumor as assessed at baseline (before ipilimumab and early on-treatment. Patients were treated with ipilimumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks ×2 doses bracketing surgery. Tumor and blood biospecimens were obtained at baseline and at surgery. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry for select biomarkers were performed. Thirty five patients were enrolled; IIIB (3; N2b, IIIC (32; N2c, N3, IV (2. Worst toxicities included Grade 3 diarrhea/colitis (5; 14%, hepatitis (2; 6%, rash (1; 3%, elevated lipase (3; 9%. Median follow up was 18 months: among 33 evaluable patients, median progression free survival (PFS was 11 months, 95% CI (6.2-19.2. There was a significant decrease in circulating myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC. Greater decrease in circulating monocyte gate MDSC Lin1-/HLA-DR-/CD33⁺/CD11b⁺ was associated with improved PFS (p = 0.03. There was a significant increase in circulating regulatory T cells (Treg; CD4⁺CD25hi⁺Foxp3⁺ that, unexpectedly, was associated with improved PFS (HR = 0.57; p = 0.034. Baseline evidence of fully activated type I CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ antigen-specific T cell immunity against cancer-testis (NY-ESO-1 and melanocytic lineage (MART-1, gp100 antigens was detected and was significantly potentiated after ipilimumab. In tumor, there was a significant increase in CD8⁺ T cells after ipilimumab (p = 0.02. Ipilimumab induced increased tumor infiltration by fully activated (CD69⁺ CD3⁺/CD4⁺ and CD3⁺/CD8⁺ T cells with evidence of induction/potentiation of memory T cells (CD45RO⁺. The change in Treg observed within the tumor showed an inverse relationship with clinical benefit and greater decrease in tumor MDSC subset Lin1-/HLA-DR-/CD33⁺/CD11b⁺ was associated with improved PFS at one year. Neoadjuvant evaluation revealed a

  1. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

    Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.

  2. Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region

    Kaminaga, T.; Takeshita, T.; Kimura, I. [Dept. of Radiology/Pathology, Teikyo Univ. Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  4. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  5. Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal

    Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

  6. Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat

    Wilson, B.W.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Philips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, with lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.

  7. [Haemorrhagic pineal cysts: two clinical cases successfully treated by means of microsurgery].

    Arevalo, A; Pulido-Rivas, P; Gilo-Arrojo, F; Sola, R G

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Los quistes pineales son un hallazgo incidental relativamente frecuente en las pruebas de imagen; sin embargo, la apoplejia pineal se considera rara y se asocia a sintomas graves. Casos clinicos. Varon de 25 a˜os y mujer de 15 a˜os, que acudieron a urgencias con clinica de hipertension intracraneal; mediante pruebas de imagen se confirmo la existencia de una hemorragia pineal. Se les trato con exito mediante microcirugia. Conclusion. En nuestra experiencia, y avalado por la bibliografia, creemos que el mejor tratamiento de esta infrecuente patologia es el abordaje microquirurgico. Sin embargo, no se excluye la posibilidad de que, en un futuro, las tecnicas endoscopicas puedan tener un lugar importante en el tratamiento de la apoplejia pineal.

  8. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F; Klein, David C

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal...... gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive...... for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland....

  9. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change...... significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax...... transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes...

  10. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: possible role of the pineal gland.

    Wilson, B W; Stevens, R G; Anderson, L E

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequency (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animals and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  11. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Lee, Y. M.; Hur, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jeong, M. H.; Park, J. W. [Kyungbook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2.

  12. Minimally invasive keyhole approaches for removal of tumors of the third ventricle

    LAN Qing; DONG Jun; HUANG Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, keyhole microsurgery has become an important subject of modem minimally invasive neurosurgery. In this study, minimally invasive techniques avoiding unnecessary tissue injuries were applied to refine traditional approaches for the removal of third ventricular tumors within a limited operative filed.Methods Individualized keyhole approaches were designed according to the characteristics of third ventricular tumors and their growth patterns. A series of keyhole approaches such as supraorbital subfrontal approach,infratentorial supracerebellar approach, interhemispheric transcallosal approach, pterional approach were taken to enter the third ventricle anteriorly, posteriorly, superiorly or laterally, respectively. A total of 34 removed tumors in or extended into the third ventricle included 11 craniopharyngiomas, 10 pituitary adenomas, 2 pinealomas, 1cholesteatoma, 3 germinomas, and 7 gliomas.Results Total tumor resection was done in 27 (79.4%) of the patients, and subtotal resection in 7 patients (20.6%). Residual tumor was due to tight adherence of germinoma to the vein of Galen (1 patient),craniopharyngioma to the pituitary stalk (3), supratentorial extension of pineal region gliomas (1), suprasellar extension of gliomas (1) and giant pituitary adenoma (1). Complications such as brain contusion, postoperative hemorrhage and infection were not associated with keyhole approaches. Extended incision or enlarged bone flap was not made because of episode during operation or inadequate exposure.Conclusions Keyhole approaches are safe, effective and minimally invasive in the surgical treatment of tumors deeply seated in the third ventricle. Individualized keyhole approach ensures a successful treatment. Tumors in the upper middle part of the third ventricle can be exposed by the interhemispheric transcallosal keyhole approach. Tumors of the posterior third ventricle may be well exposed by the infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach

  13. Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis: regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland.

    Rohde, Kristian; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  14. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Kristian Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  15. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  16. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  17. Participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation. [X radiation

    Rudnicki, T.; Boguslawski, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions.

  18. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

  19. Shadow response in the blind cavefish Astyanax reveals conservation of a functional pineal eye

    2008-01-01

    The blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus undergoes bilateral eye degeneration during embryonic development. Despite the absence of light in the cave environment, cavefish have retained a structurally intact pineal eye. We show here that contrary to visual degeneration in the bilateral eyes, the cavefish pineal eye has conserved the ability to detect light. Larvae of two different Astyanax cavefish populations and the con-specific sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) respond similarly to ...

  20. Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification.

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Lewczuk, B; Prusik, M; Bulc, M

    2009-04-01

    The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calcium at the light and electron microscopy level. In light microscopy, calcified concretions with diameters from 300 microm to 2 mm and quantities from 3 to 6 per gland were observed in all the examined pineals. They were stained red with alizarin S and showed the presence of collagen in Mallory's staining. Two types of cells were noted inside the concretion: polygonal and elongated ones. Using electron microscopy, three parts were distinguished within the calcification area. The peripheral part contained densely packed collagen fibrils, some elongated cells and numerous pyroantimonate precipitates demonstrating the presence of calcium ions. In the intermediate part, the fibrils were covered by almost continuous sheets of pyroantimonate precipitates and fused side by side. The central part showed an appearance of calcified hard tissue and contained some polygonal (osteocyte-like) cells. The obtained data demonstrated that the formation of the pineal concretions in the turkey is associated with the mineralization of collagen. This process is completely different from the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the concretions in the mammalian pineal.

  1. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing.

  2. Rax : developmental and daily expression patterns in the rat pineal gland and retina.

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2011-09-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until embryonic day 20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

  3. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions.

  4. Evidence of Pineal Gland Calcification on CBCT is Not Insignificant: What Else You Might Discover about Your Patient.

    Fore, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The use of CBCT technology in the dental office is increasing rapidly. These scans provide information on anatomy not previously evaluated with traditional 2D films. One structure often mentioned in a CBCT radiology report is the pineal gland. The pineal gland will show evidence of calcification, but this calcification is often dismissed as a normal aging process. This review of the function and influence of the pineal gland may influence the doctor to complete further evaluation of the patient.

  5. Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.

    Arendt, J; HO, A.K.; Laud, C.; Marston, A.; Nohria, V.; Smith, J A; Symons, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

  6. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells

    Thayanithy, Venugopal [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Babatunde, Victor [Moore Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Dickson, Elizabeth L. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wong, Phillip [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy [Molecular Cytology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Moreira, André L. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Downey, Robert J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Steer, Clifford J. [Departments of Medicine and Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Subramanian, Subbaya [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Manova-Todorova, Katia [Molecular Cytology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Moore, Malcolm A.S. [Moore Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Lou, Emil, E-mail: emil-lou@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24–48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3–1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. - Highlights: • Exosomes derived from malignant cells can stimulate an increased rate in the formation of tunneling nanotubes. • Tunneling nanotubes can serve as conduits for intercellular transfer of these exosomes. • Most notably, exosomes derived from benign mesothelial cells had no effect on nanotube formation. • Cells forming nanotubes were enriched in lipid rafts at a greater number compared with cells not forming nanotubes. • Our findings suggest causal and potentially synergistic association of exosomes and

  7. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L;

    2009-01-01

    . Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression...... and whether thyroid hormone controls expression of other genes in the pineal gland.......Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression...

  8. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Demajo M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

  9. Regional white matter volume and the relation with attentional functioning in survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors

    Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; White, Holly A.; Wilkinson, Gina M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative assessment of MR examinations in 37 survivors of childhood cancer treated with central nervous system prophylaxis revealed that normal appearing white matter (NAWM) volume is associated with attention-related problems, localized specifically in the right prefrontal region. T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted images were segmented and divided into pre-frontal, frontal, parietal/temporal, and parietal/occipital regions for each hemisphere. These eight regions were analyzed in five slices centered at the level of the basal ganglia. The patient's age at diagnosis and time elapsed from diagnosis were used as covariates in the regressions. Attentional measures showed significant deficiency when compared to age and gender normative values. Total, frontal and/or prefrontal NAWM volumes from the range of slices examined were significantly associated with 5 of the 8 attentional measures. The frontal/prefrontal region of the brain is associated with executive functioning tasks and could potentially be spared as much as possible during therapy planning. The results of the present study further support the contention that NAWM is an important substrate for treatment-induced neurocognitive problems among survivors of malignant brain tumors of childhood.

  10. Radiation Treatment for Malignant Small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region Primitive Pluripotent Histogenesis and Differential Diagnosis-A Case Report and Review of Literatures-

    Oh, Won Young; Yang, Jin Yeong; Whang, In Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-06-15

    Malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of the thoracopulmonary region appears to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. A differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma of bone and soft tissue, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Askin tumor, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteogenic sarcoma and lymphoma are after difficult by light microscopy alone. In recent, by the extensive studies electron microscopic examination, histochemical study, immunochemical study, cytogenetics and gene analysis, these tumors may be derived from the primitive and pluripotential cells, differentiating into mesenchymal, epithelial and neural features in variable proportions. Treatment for SRCT of thoracopulmonary regin is not determined because of massive involvement of the lung, pleura or soft tissues of the chest wall resulted in a dismal outcome despite aggressive surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.

  11. Quantifying local heterogeneity via morphologic scale: Distinguishing tumoral from stromal regions

    Andrew Janowczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The notion of local scale was introduced to characterize varying levels of image detail so that localized image processing tasks could be performed while simultaneously yielding a globally optimal result. In this paper, we have presented the methodological framework for a novel locally adaptive scale definition, morphologic scale (MS, which is different from extant local scale definitions in that it attempts to characterize local heterogeneity as opposed to local homogeneity. Methods: At every point of interest, the MS is determined as a series of radial paths extending outward in the direction of least resistance, navigating around obstructions. Each pixel can then be directly compared to other points of interest via a rotationally invariant quantitative feature descriptor, determined by the application of Fourier descriptors to the collection of these paths. Results: Our goal is to distinguish tumor and stromal tissue classes in the context of four different digitized pathology datasets: prostate tissue microarrays (TMAs stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE (44 images and TMAs stained with only hematoxylin (H (44 images, slide mounts of ovarian H (60 images, and HE breast cancer (51 images histology images. Classification performance over 50 cross-validation runs using a Bayesian classifier produced mean areas under the curve of 0.88 ± 0.01 (prostate HE, 0.87 ± 0.02 (prostate H, 0.88 ± 0.01 (ovarian H, and 0.80 ± 0.01 (breast HE. Conclusion: For each dataset listed in [Table 3], we randomly selected 100 points per image, and using the procedure described in Experiment 1, we attempted to separate them as belonging to stroma or epithelium.

  12. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions

    Alexander Opitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  13. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  14. Localization of the human {beta}-catenin gene (CTNNB1) to 3p21: A region implicated in tumor development

    Kraus, C.; Liehr, T.; Ballhausen, G. [Institut fuer Humangenetik der Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The human {beta}-catenin locus (CTNNB1) was mapped by in situ fluorescence analysis to band p21 on the short arm of chromosome 3, a region frequently affected by somatic alterations in a variety of tumors. PCR primers for the genomic amplification of {beta}-catenin sequences were selected on the basis of homology to exon 4 of the Drosophila armadillo gene. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids confirmed the localization of {beta}-catenin on human chromosome 3. Furthermore, exclusion mapping of three hybrids carrying defined fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 3 allowed us to determine the position of the CTNNB1 locus close to the marker D3S2 in 3p21. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Pineal gland involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease detected on (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging: a case report and review of literature.

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Dhull, Varun Singh; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis affecting multiple organ systems. The most common systemic manifestations are bone lesions, infiltration of the pituitary stalk sometimes leading to diabetes insipidus, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac failure and exophthalmus. Neurological symptoms as the first clinical manifestations of ECD have been reported in less than one third of cases. We report a rare presentation of a patient of ECD on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography which revealed abnormal (18)F-FDG accumulation in the region of pineal gland, pericardium and bilateral distal tibiae.

  16. Prevention and treatment of the effects of radiation treatment of tumors in the oral and maxillo-facial regions; Prophylaxe und Therapie der Folgen therapeutischer Tumor-Bestrahlung im Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtsbereich

    Groetz, K.A.

    2001-07-01

    The headings of this book are: Indications for and therapeutic value of radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumors; literature review of radiation injuries and side effects of radiotherapy in the orofacial region; peri-radiotherapeutic regimen; radiation induced caries; radiation induced xerostomia; radiation induced changes of the jaw and osteoradionecrosis.

  17. Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  18. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  19. Pineal clock gene oscillation is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, due to functional disconnection from the "master clock".

    Wu, Y.-H.; Fischer, D.F.; Kalsbeek, A.; Garidou-Boof, M.-L.; Vliet, J. van der; Heijningen, C. van; Liu, R.-Y.; Zhou, J.-N.; Swaab, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the "master clock" of the mammalian brain. It coordinates the peripheral clocks in the body, including the pineal clock that receives SCN input via a multisynaptic noradrenergic pathway. Rhythmic pineal melatonin production is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD

  20. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    were diffusely positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and focal positive for AFP, CD99 and CD117, but negative for PLAP, CD30, S-100, CD45 and CD34. There was no evidence of mixture of other germ cell tumor component in this tumor by serial sections. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of pure primary orbital yolk sac tumor, WHO grade Ⅳ, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient has not received chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion Despite the lower incidence, intracranial yolk sac tumors usually develop in the midline at the pineal or suprasellar regions occurring in children with distinctive histological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In general, intracranial yolk sac tumors are known to entail poor prognosis even after multidisciplinary treatment of operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is noted that intracranial yolk sac tumor should be differentiated histologically from other types of germ cell tumors and mixed germ cell tumor.

  1. 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in pineal gland, a rare physiological variant: case series.

    Riaz, Saima; Syed, Rizwan; Skoura, Evangelia; Alshammari, Alshaima; Gaze, Mark; Sajjan, Rakesh; Halsey, Richard; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2015-11-01

    (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT is widely used for the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumours. Knowledge of the physiological distribution of the radiotracer is of critical importance in characterizing focal areas of uptake. In this case series, we report three paediatric cases (average age 4.7 years ± 0.6 SD) with diagnosed advanced stage IV Neuroblastoma. Two had (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT scans and one underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-MRI scan to assess for suitability of molecular therapy. Focal increased tracer uptake in the pineal gland was noted in all cases with no morphological abnormality on the corresponding CT and MRI scans. The uptake within the gland was thought to be a physiological variant rather than metastases owing to the heterogeneity of somatostatin receptors expression. The pineal gland has been reported to express somatostatin receptors. The physiological distribution of (68)Ga-DOTATATE uptake in the pineal gland is not routinely seen. Furthermore, the possibility of pineal meningioma is very unlikely as pineal meningiomas are very rare and there was no convincing morphological evidence of meningiomas on CT/MRI scan.

  2. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland.

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endogenous oscillations of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα genes in rat pineal explants and to investigate their regulation by adrenergic ligands. Our results show a significant and sustained rhythm of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα gene expression for up to 48 h in cultured pineal gland with a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. By contrast, the rhythms of Per1 and Aa-nat, the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, were strongly attenuated after 24 h in culture. Addition of the exogenous adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on cultured pineal glands induced a short-term increase in mRNA levels of Per1 and Aa-nat, but not those of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα. This study demonstrates that the rat pineal gland hosts a circadian oscillator as evidenced by the sustained, noradrenergic-independent, endogenous oscillations of Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα mRNA levels in cultured tissues. Only expression of Per1 was stimulated by adrenergic ligands suggesting that, in vivo, the adrenergic input could synchronize the pineal clock by acting selectively on Per1.

  4. [Pineal gland glutathione peroxidase activity in rats and its age-associated change].

    Razygraev, A V

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activity has been studied in the pineal gland (epiphysis) of young and aging female Wistar rats (2-4 and 17-19 month old). For comparison the same activity was studied in the pyramids of medulla oblongata and in the olfactory tubercle. These two brain structures represent white and gray matter respectively. The determination of the activity was performed with H2O2 as a substrate and with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) for estimation of the decrease of restored form of glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in the pineal gland than in the brain structures used. Pineal glutathione peroxidase activities (micromole of GSH per minute per milligram of protein, M +/- m) in young and old rats were 1,52 +/- 0,07 and 1,27 +/- 0,06 respectively (prats is the age-associated decrease of the selenium content in the pineal gland. The decline found may be one of the reflections of the pineal gland functional involution.

  5. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

    Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  6. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in 3.0 Tesla Breast MRI: Diagnostic Performance and Tumor Characterization Using Small Subregions vs. Whole Tumor Regions of Interest.

    Otso Arponen

    Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values are increasingly reported in breast MRI. As there is no standardized method for ADC measurements, we evaluated the effect of the size of region of interest (ROI to diagnostic utility and correlation to prognostic markers of breast cancer.This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Board; the need for written informed consent for the retrospective analyses of the breast MRIs was waived by the Chair of the Hospital District. We compared diagnostic accuracy of ADC measurements from whole-lesion ROIs (WL-ROIs to small subregions (S-ROIs showing the most restricted diffusion and evaluated correlations with prognostic factors in 112 consecutive patients (mean age 56.2±11.6 years, 137 lesions who underwent 3.0-T breast MRI.Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were substantial (κ = 0.616-0.784; Intra-Class Correlation 0.589-0.831. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was excellent (area under curve 0.957-0.962, cut-off ADC values for WL-ROIs: 0.87×10-3 mm2s-1; S-ROIs: 0.69×10-3 mm2s-1, P<0.001. WL-ROIs/S-ROIs achieved sensitivities of 95.7%/91.3%, specificities of 89.5%/94.7%, and overall accuracies of 89.8%/94.2%. In S-ROIs, lower ADC values correlated with presence of axillary metastases (P = 0.03, high histological grade (P = 0.006, and worsened Nottingham Prognostic Index Score (P<0.05. In both ROIs, ADC values correlated with progesterone receptors and advanced stage (P<0.01, but not with HER2, estrogen receptors, or Ki-67.ADC values assist in breast tumor characterization. Small ROIs were more accurate than whole-lesion ROIs and more frequently associated with prognostic factors. Cut-off values differed significantly depending on measurement procedure, which should be recognized when comparing results from the literature. Instead of using a whole lesion covering ROI, a small ROI could be advocated in diffusion

  7. Towards respiration management in radiation treatment of lung tumors: transferring regions of interest from planning CT to kilovoltage X-ray images.

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Bas, Erhan; Yousuf, M; You, Sheng; D'Souza, Warren D; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Tracking of lung tumors is imperative for improved radiotherapy treatment. However, the motion of the thoracic organs makes it a complicated task. 4D CT images acquired prior to treatment provide valuable information regarding the motion of organs and tumor, since it is manually annotated. In order to track tumors using treatment-day X-ray images (kV images), we need to find the correspondence with CT images so that projection of tumor region of interest will provide a good estimate about the position of the tumor on the X-ray image. In this study, we propose a method to estimate the alignment and respiration phase corresponding to X-ray images using 4D CT data. Our approach generates Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) using bilateral filter smoothing and computes rigid registration with kV images since the position and orientation of patient might differ between CT and treatment-day image acquisition processes. Instead of using landmark points, our registration method makes use of Kernel Density Estimation over the edges that are not affected much by respiration. To estimate the phase of X-ray, we apply template matching techniques between the lung regions of X-ray and registered DRRs. Our approach gives accurate results for rigid registration and provides a starting point to track tumors using the X-ray images during the treatment.

  8. Sequences near both termini of the C/EBPβ mRNA 3' untranslated region are important for its tumor suppression activity

    Haizhen Wang; Ying Wang; Li Sun; Dinggan Liu

    2009-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of eukaryotic mRNA is an important regulation element that affects not only mRNA translation, but also cell growth. We had found that the 3' UTR of CCAAT-enhancerbinding protein 13 (C/EBPβ) mRNA had tumor suppression activity. Herein, we reported that deletion of two short sequences at both termini of the C/EBPβ 3'UTR reduced the tumor suppression activity of this 3' UTR, as demonstrated by reduced cell growth, colony formation ability, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. It is noteworthy that the only deletion of a single such sequence was enough for the reduction of tumor suppression effect, and the reducing effect of deletion of the sequence near 3' terminus was stronger. Therefore,specific short sequences in the C/EBPβ 3' UTR are crucial for the tumor suppression activity of C/EBPβ.

  9. Glucose transporter Glut-1 is detectable in peri-necrotic regions in many human tumor types but not normal tissues: Study using tissue microarrays.

    Airley, Rachel; Evans, Andrew; Mobasheri, Ali; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2010-05-20

    The hypoxic tumor microenvironment is associated with malignant progression and poor treatment response. The glucose transporter Glut-1 is a prognostic factor and putative hypoxia marker. So far, studies of Glut-1 in cancer have utilized conventional immunohistochemical analysis in a series of individual biopsy or surgical specimens. Tissue microarrays, however, provide a rapid, inexpensive means of profiling biomarker expression. To evaluate hypoxia markers, tissue cores must show the architectural features of hypoxia; i.e. viable tissue surrounding necrotic regions. Glut-1 may be a useful biomarker to validate tissue microarrays for use in studies of hypoxia-regulated genes in cancer. In this study, we carried out immunohistochemical detection of Glut-1 protein in many tumor and normal tissue types in a range of tissue microarrays. Glut-1 was frequently found in peri-necrotic regions, occurring in 9/34 lymphomas, 6/12 melanomas, and 5/16 glioblastomas; and in 43/54 lung, 22/84 colon, and 23/60 ovarian tumors. Expression was rare in breast (6/40) and prostate (1/57) tumors, and in normal tissue, was restricted to spleen, tongue, and CNS endothelium. In conclusion, tissue microarrays enable the observation of Glut-1 expression in peri-necrotic regions, which may be linked to hypoxia, and reflect previous studies showing differential Glut-1 expression across tumor types and non-malignant tissue.

  10. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland.

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J H; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C; Klein, David C

    2012-08-14

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

  11. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  12. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    B. Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some special stains were used to observe connective tissue elements (Reticulin,collagen and elastic fibers along with conventional H and E stains. Result and conclusion: The lobular character of the gland, connective tissue septa, shape and size of the pinealocytes were found to be almost common in both species. Major differences seen in fowl pineal gland are the presence of ependymal cells on the walls of the lumen of the lobules and absence of corpora arenacea.

  13. Ontogeny of circadian clock gene expression in the pineal and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of chick embryo.

    Okabayashi, Naritoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Watanabe, Miwa; Namikawa, Takao; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2003-11-14

    Avian circadian rhythms are regulated by a multiple oscillatory system consisting of the pineal, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the eye. In the present study, ontogeny of circadian clock in the pineal and the SCN of chick embryo was examined using Per2 expression as a marker. A daily rhythmicity of Per2 expression was first detectable at embryonic day (ED) 18 in the pineal and at ED 16 in the SCN under light-dark (LD) cycles. The amplitude of the rhythmicity increased during the development. In contrast, little expression was observed during the development in constant darkness. These results suggest that although circadian clock matures by the end of the embryonic life in chicken, LD cycles are required for the expression of the Per2.

  14. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira

    2006-11-01

    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  15. Daily rhythm and regulation of clock gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Simonneaux, V; Poirel, V-J; Garidou, M-L; Nguyen, D; Diaz-Rodriguez, E; Pévet, P

    2004-01-05

    Rhythms in pineal melatonin synthesis are controlled by the biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The endogenous clock oscillations rely upon genetic mechanisms involving clock genes coding for transcription factors working in negative and positive feedback loops. Most of these clock genes are expressed rhythmically in other tissues. Because of the peculiar role of the pineal gland in the photoneuroendocrine axis regulating biological rhythms, we studied whether clock genes are expressed in the rat pineal gland and how their expression is regulated.Per1, Per3, Cry2 and Cry1 clock genes are expressed in the pineal gland and their transcription is increased during the night. Analysis of the regulation of these pineal clock genes indicates that they may be categorized into two groups. Expression of Per1 and Cry2 genes shows the following features: (1) the 24 h rhythm persists, although damped, in constant darkness; (2) the nocturnal increase is abolished following light exposure or injection with a beta-adrenergic antagonist; and (3) the expression during daytime is stimulated by an injection with a beta-adrenergic agonist. In contrast, Per3 and Cry1 day and night mRNA levels are not responsive to adrenergic ligands (as previously reported for Per2) and daily expression of Per3 and Cry1 appears strongly damped or abolished in constant darkness. These data show that the expression of Per1 and Cry2 in the rat pineal gland is regulated by the clock-driven changes in norepinephrine, in a similar manner to the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. The expression of Per3 and Cry1 displays a daily rhythm not regulated by norepinephrine, suggesting the involvement of another day/night regulated transmitter(s).

  16. Thirty-two-channel coil 3T magnetic resonance-guided biopsies of prostate tumor suspicious regions identified on multimodality 3T magnetic resonance imaging: technique and feasibility.

    Hambrock, T.; Futterer, J.J.; Huisman, H.J.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Basten, JP van; Oort, I van; Witjes, J.A.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the technique and feasibility of translating tumor suspicious region maps in the prostate, obtained by multimodality, anatomic, and functional 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to 32-channel coil, T2-weighted (T2-w), 3T MR images, for directing MR-guided biopsies. Furtherm

  17. Analysis of a new homozygous deletion in the tumor suppressor region at 3p12.3 reveals two novel intronic noncoding RNA genes

    Angeloni, Debora; ter Elst, Arja; Wei, Ming Hui; van der Veen, Anneke Y.; Braga, Eleonora A.; Klimov, Eugene A.; Timmer, Tineke; Korobeinikova, Luba; Lerman, Michael I.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Homozygous deletions or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at human chromosome band 3p12 are consistent features of lung and other malignancies, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene(s) (TSG) at this location. Only one gene has been cloned thus far from the overlapping region deleted in lung

  18. Tumor markers for early diagnosis for brain metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case series and literature review for effective loco-regional treatment.

    Kamimura, Kenya; Kobayashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kumaki, Daisuke; Yokoo, Takeshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Sakai, Norihiro; Sakamaki, Akira; Abe, Satoshi; Takamura, Masaaki; Kawai, Hirokazu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-02-01

    Intrahepatic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been controlled by significant advances in treatment using loco-regional therapies, including, surgery, ablative therapy, catheter-based chemotherapy, and embolization. Consequently, the number of patients with extrahepatic metastatic lesions has increased. Their prognosis remains poor with approximately loco-regional treatment, including surgical resection and radiation therapy should be performed for better prognosis by preventing re-bleeding from the tumors.

  19. Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region at human chromosome 14.32 in giant cell tumor of bone

    Lehner, Burkhard; Kunz, Pierre; Saehr, Heiner; Fellenberg, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing evidence exists that the neoplastic stromal cell population (GCTSC) within giant cell tumors (GCT) originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In a previous study we identified a microRNA signature that differentiates between these cell types. Five differentially expressed microRNAs are located within the Dlk1-Dio3 region on chromosome 14. Aberrant regulation within this region is known to influence cell growth, differentiation and the development of cancer. The aim of th...

  20. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).

    Xie, Zhaohui H; Gan, Ping

    2013-05-28

    The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  1. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

  2. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

    Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine. Purpose Using the Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Conjugation Database (UUCA) we identified ubiquitin ligases and conjugases, and deubiquitinases in the Hartley dataset for the purpose of determining whether expression of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were significantly influenced by day/night variations and if these variations were regulated by autonomic innervation of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglia. Methods In the Hartley experiments pineal glands groups of rats sacrificed during the day and groups sacrificed during the night were examined for gene expression. Additional groups of rats had their superior cervical ganglia removed surgically or surgically decentralized and the pineal glands likewise examined for gene expression. Results The genes with at least a 2-fold day/night significant difference in expression included genes for 5 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, genes for 58 ubiquitin E3 ligases and genes for 6 deubiquitinases. A 35-fold day/night difference was noted in the expression of the gene Sik1, which codes for a protein containing both an ubiquitin binding domain (UBD) and an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain. Most of the significant differences in these genes were prevented by surgical removal, or disconnection, of the superior cervical ganglia, and most were

  3. Light-dependent changes in the chick pineal temperature and the expression of cHsp90 alpha gene: a potential contribution of in vivo temperature change to the photic-entrainment of the chick pineal circadian clock.

    Doi, Masao; Nakajima, Yoshito; Okano, Toshiyuki; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-06-01

    The circadian clock is entrained to the diurnal alteration of environmental conditions such as light and temperature, but the molecular mechanism underlying the entrainment is not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a differential display-based screening for a set of genes that are induced by light in the chick pineal gland, a structure of the central clock entrainable to both light and temperature changes. We found that the level of the mRNA encoding chicken heat shock protein 90 alpha (cHSP90 alpha) was rapidly elevated in the pineal gland within a 5-min exposure of chicks to light. Furthermore, the pineal cHsp90 alpha mRNA was expressed rhythmically under both 12-hr light/12-hr dark (LD) cycles and constant dark (DD) conditions. The total amount of the pineal cHSP90 alpha protein was, however, kept at nearly constant levels under LD cycles, and immunohistochemical analyses of the pineal cHSP90 alpha showed invariable localization at the cytoplasm throughout the day. In vivo measurement of the chick pineal temperature demonstrated its light-dependent and time-of-day-dependent change, and the profile was very similar to that of the pineal cHSP90 alpha mRNA level. These observations suggest that the in vivo temperature change regulates the expression of temperature-responsive genes including cHSP 90 alpha in the pineal gland. The temperature change may induce a phase-shift of the pineal clock, thereby facilitating its efficient entrainment to environmental LD cycles.

  4. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

  5. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects.

  6. Discovery of transcription factors and regulatory regions driving in vivo tumor development by ATAC-seq and FAIRE-seq open chromatin profiling.

    Kristofer Davie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression by recruiting specific combinations of transcription factors (TFs. When TFs are bound to active regulatory regions, they displace canonical nucleosomes, making these regions biochemically detectable as nucleosome-depleted regions or accessible/open chromatin. Here we ask whether open chromatin profiling can be used to identify the entire repertoire of active promoters and enhancers underlying tissue-specific gene expression during normal development and oncogenesis in vivo. To this end, we first compare two different approaches to detect open chromatin in vivo using the Drosophila eye primordium as a model system: FAIRE-seq, based on physical separation of open versus closed chromatin; and ATAC-seq, based on preferential integration of a transposon into open chromatin. We find that both methods reproducibly capture the tissue-specific chromatin activity of regulatory regions, including promoters, enhancers, and insulators. Using both techniques, we screened for regulatory regions that become ectopically active during Ras-dependent oncogenesis, and identified 3778 regions that become (over-activated during tumor development. Next, we applied motif discovery to search for candidate transcription factors that could bind these regions and identified AP-1 and Stat92E as key regulators. We validated the importance of Stat92E in the development of the tumors by introducing a loss of function Stat92E mutant, which was sufficient to rescue the tumor phenotype. Additionally we tested if the predicted Stat92E responsive regulatory regions are genuine, using ectopic induction of JAK/STAT signaling in developing eye discs, and observed that similar chromatin changes indeed occurred. Finally, we determine that these are functionally significant regulatory changes, as nearby target genes are up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, we show that FAIRE-seq and ATAC-seq based open chromatin profiling

  7. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  8. The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards.

    Moore, Ashli F; Menaker, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is important for regulating circadian rhythms in many animals. Light at night causes an acute suppression of melatonin in nearly all vertebrate species. A previous study found that light failed to suppress melatonin in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. This is a surprising result given that the Anolis pineal gland is intrinsically photosensitive, is a key pacemaker controlling locomotor activity, and can be directly entrained to a light-dark cycle. To find out if the lack of photic suppression is widespread in the Anolis genus, we investigated the acute effects of light on melatonin secretion in five different species of Anolis using flow-through tissue culture. We administered a two-hour pulse of bright light to isolated pineal glands during the night. The results show photic suppression of melatonin in all five Anolis species, but the suppression is weak relative to that seen in other vertebrates. Moreover, Anolis species differ in the magnitude of the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of vertebrate pineal evolution and the ecology of Anolis lizards. Given their extensive phylogenetic and ecological divergence, Anolis lizards provide a promising system for investigating the ecology and evolution of circadian organization.

  9. Parasympathetic inhibition of pineal indole metabolism by prejunctional modulation of noradrenaline release

    Drijfhout, WJ; Grol, CJ; Westerink, BHC

    1996-01-01

    The role of the parasympathetic nervous system in rat pineal indole metabolism was investigated by transpineal in vivo microdialysis. On-line coupling to a high performance liquid chromatography system with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) allowed simultaneous analysis of three major indolic compoun

  10. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  11. Melatonin and pineal gland peptides are able to correct the impairment of reproductive cycles in rats.

    Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Ljudmila; Milyutina, Yulia; Korenevsky, Andrew; Stepanov, Michael; Arutyunov, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin- releasing hormone, or gonadoliberin. We have shown that melatonin and the pineal gland peptides (epithalamine and epitalon) exert a correcting influence on the diurnal dynamics of norepinephrine (NE) in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and of dopamine (DA) in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei (ME-Arc) disturbed by single administration of the neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female rats. It has been found that experiments with DMH administration can be used as an animal model of female reproductive system premature aging. The investigation of epithalamine (a polypeptide preparation from the bovine pineal gland) effect on circadian rhythms disturbed by the neurotoxic compound DMH has shown a recovery of the diurnal dynamics of NE in MPA. In addition, NE was found to decrease from 9:30 till 11 o'clock, Circadian Time (CT), which was typical of control animals. Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) proved to be more effective in ME-Arc. This peptide prevents the xenobiotic caused disturbance of DA diurnal rhythm, keeping this metabolite low at 5 o'clock (CT) with it having increased by 11 o'clock (CT). The data obtained suggest that the pineal gland is important for the circadian signal normalization needed for gonadoliberin surge on the day of proestrus. Melatonin and peptides of the pineal gland can be considered as effective protectors of female reproductive system from xenobiotics and premature aging.

  12. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  13. Characterization of the Expression of Basigin Gene Products Within the Pineal Gland of Mice.

    Tokar, Derek; van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J; Ochrietor, Judith D

    2016-11-04

    The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that MCT1 and Basigin variant-2, but not Basigin variant-1, are expressed within the mouse pineal gland. The expression of Basigin variant-2 and MCT1 was localized to the capsule surrounding the gland. The position and relative amounts of the gene products suggest that they play a much less prominent role within the pineal gland than in the neural retina.

  14. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  15. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan.

  16. /sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

    Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.

    1986-05-01

    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

  17. Tryptophan hydroxylase is modulated by L-type calcium channels in the rat pineal gland.

    Barbosa, Roseli; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; Terra, Ilza Mingarini; Cipolla-Neto, José; Simonneaux, Valérie; Afeche, Solange Castro

    2008-02-27

    Calcium is an important second messenger in the rat pineal gland, as well as cAMP. They both contribute to melatonin synthesis mediated by the three main enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The cytosolic calcium is elevated in pinealocytes following alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation, through IP(3)-and membrane calcium channels activation. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, reduces melatonin synthesis in rat pineal glands in vitro. With the purpose of investigating the mechanisms involved in melatonin synthesis regulation by the L-type calcium channel, we studied the effects of nifedipine on noradrenergic stimulated cultured rat pineal glands. Tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities were quantified by radiometric assays and 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin contents were quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The data showed that calcium influx blockaded by nifedipine caused a decrease in tryptophan hydroxylase activity, but did not change either arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities. Moreover, there was a reduction of 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin intracellular content, as well as a reduction of serotonin and melatonin secretion. Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland.

  18. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari; Afeche, Solange Castro; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; dos Santos, Sabrina Heloísa José; Lima, Fabio Bessa; Young, Martin Elliot; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2008-01-02

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various physiological processes, including modulation of insulin secretion and action. In contrast, a role for insulin as a modulator of melatonin synthesis has not been investigated previously. The aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin modulates norepinephrine (NE)-mediated melatonin synthesis. The results demonstrate that insulin (10(- 8)M) potentiated norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) activity in ex vivo incubated pineal glands. When ex vivo incubated pineal glands were synchronized (12h NE-stimulation, followed by 12h incubation in the absence of NE), insulin potentiated NE-mediated melatonin synthesis and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity. Insulin did not affect the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltranferase (HIOMT), nor the gene expression of tpoh, aanat, or hiomt, under any of the conditions investigated. We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events.

  19. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland.

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai; Roepstorff, Peter; Vorum, Henrik

    2007-06-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE. Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation of the protein levels in the rat pineal gland. Some proteins are up-regulated during the night concomitant with the melatonin secretion of the gland. Other proteins are up-regulated during the day indicating a pineal metabolism not related to the melatonin synthesis.

  20. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland

    E Redondo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin indicates that the second cell population in the developing ovine pineal gland is, in fact, a combination of glial-astrocyte cells at varying stages of maturity. Pineal interstitial cells started to show signs of functional activity evident in vascular tropism; such activity, evident from around day 98 of gestation, appeared to relate to the exchange of substances between the pineal parenchyma and blood vessels and, though it continued throughout postnatal development, was most evident in animals slaughtered between 9 months and 2 years of age (group II. Morphologically, functional activi- ty in interstitial cells in this age-group was apparent in: 1, formation of specific contact sites between interstitial cells and nerve fibres in the perivascular space; and 2, the presence of numerous gap junctions between the bulbous endings of cytoplasmic processes.

  1. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    A. P. Herman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL- 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December. Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1 medium 199 (control explants, (2 norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM, (3 IL-1β (75 pg/mL, or (4 NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P<0.05 NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P<0.05 expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P<0.05 expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  2. A transcription factor network controls cell migration and fate decisions in the developing zebrafish pineal complex

    Clanton, Joshua A.; Dean, Benjamin J.; Gamse, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish pineal complex consists of four cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, projection neurons and parapineal neurons) that are derived from a single pineal complex anlage. After specification, parapineal neurons migrate unilaterally away from the rest of the pineal complex whereas rods, cones and projection neurons are non-migratory. The transcription factor Tbx2b is important for both the correct number and migration of parapineal neurons. We find that two additional transcription factors, Flh and Nr2e3, negatively regulate parapineal formation. Flh induces non-migratory neuron fates and limits the extent of parapineal specification, in part by activation of Nr2e3 expression. Tbx2b is positively regulated by Flh, but opposes Flh action during specification of parapineal neurons. Loss of parapineal neuron specification in Tbx2b-deficient embryos can be partially rescued by loss of Nr2e3 or Flh function; however, parapineal migration absolutely requires Tbx2b activity. We conclude that cell specification and migration in the pineal complex are regulated by a network of at least three transcription factors. PMID:27317804

  3. MICRODIALYSIS OF MELATONIN IN THE RAT PINEAL-GLAND - METHODOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    DRIJFHOUT, WJ; GROL, CJ; WESTERINK, BHC

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new technique to measure melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats, by means of on-line microdialysis. The transcerebral cannula was modified, and a sensitive assay of melatonin, using HPLC with fluorimetric detection, was set up. W

  4. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of neuroblastic tumors reveals clinically relevant epigenetic events and large-scale epigenomic alterations localized to telomeric regions.

    Buckley, Patrick G; Das, Sudipto; Bryan, Kenneth; Watters, Karen M; Alcock, Leah; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Stallings, Raymond L

    2011-05-15

    The downregulation of specific genes through DNA hypermethylation is a major hallmark of cancer, although the extent and genomic distribution of hypermethylation occurring within cancer genomes is poorly understood. We report on the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation alterations in different neuroblastic tumor subtypes and cell lines, revealing higher order organization and clinically relevant alterations of the epigenome. The methylation status of 33,485 discrete loci representing all annotated CpG islands and RefSeq gene promoters was assessed in primary neuroblastic tumors and cell lines. A comparison of genes that were hypermethylated exclusively in the clinically favorable ganglioneuroma/ganglioneuroblastoma tumors revealed that nine genes were associated with poor clinical outcome when overexpressed in the unfavorable neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Moreover, an integrated DNA methylation and copy number analysis identified 80 genes that were recurrently concomitantly deleted and hypermethylated in NB, with 37 reactivated by 5-aza-deoxycytidine. Lower expression of four of these genes was correlated with poor clinical outcome, further implicating their inactivation in aggressive disease pathogenesis. Analysis of genome-wide hypermethylation patterns revealed 70 recurrent large-scale blocks of contiguously hypermethylated promoters/CpG islands, up to 590 kb in length, with a distribution bias toward telomeric regions. Genome-wide hypermethylation events in neuroblastic tumors are extensive and frequently occur in large-scale blocks with a significant bias toward telomeric regions, indicating that some methylation alterations have occurred in a coordinated manner. Our results indicate that methylation contributes toward the clinicopathological features of neuroblastic tumors, revealing numerous genes associated with poor patient survival in NB.

  5. Thermal ablation versus conventional regional hyperthermia has greater anti-tumor activity against melanoma in mice by upregulating CD4~+ cells and enhancing IL-2 secretion

    Yingying Zhang; Wei Zhang; Cuanying Geng; Tongjun Lin; Xiaowen Wang; Lingyun Zhao; Jintian Tang

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether conventional hyperthermia (42-45℃) or ablation therapy (>50℃) achieves better synergistic effects on direct cytotoxicity and anti-tumor immunity,we compared the therapeutic effects of two hyperthermia temperatures,43 and 55℃,in terms of cytotoxicity and upregulation of immune functions in a mouse malignant melanoma model.Melanoma-bearing mice were treated by directly applying regional hyperthermia to the tumor nodule with a heating light at a temperature of 43℃ for 30 min or 55℃ for 10 min.The tumor growth curve and mice survival rate were observed.To investigate the hyperthermia-induced immunological response,peripheral blood CD4~+ and CD8~+ T cells and the serum IL-2 level were determined.Our results indicated that application of regional hyperthermia at the ablation temperature (such as 55℃) achieved better synergistic anti-tumor effects than did conventional hyperthermia (43℃).Significant increases in the number of peripheral blood CD4~+ T cells and the serum IL-2 level likely contributed to the underlying mechanism.

  6. Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms

    Reiter, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    A number of long day breeding rodents depend on seasonal changes in photoperiodic length to synchronize their breeding seasons with the appropriate time of the year. These relationships are particularly conspicuous in the Syrian hamster where day length is vitally important in determining periods of sexual activity and inactivity. The organ in the body whose activity is most closely attuned to the photoperiodic environment is the pineal gland. During periods of darkness the biochemical and secretory activity of the pineal is enhanced with the resultant production of antigonadotrophic principles which are strongly suppressive to reproductive physiology. In this manner, decreasing day lengths of the fall are involved with suppressing sexual capability in male and female hamsters. Throughout the winter months darkness (because of the shorter day lengths and the fact that hamsters remain underground in lightless burrows) holds the gonads in an atrophic condition and thereby prevents hamsters from breeding. As spring approaches the neuroendocrine reproductive axis becomes refractory to the inhibitory effects of darkness and the pineal gland and, as a consequence, the gonads recrudesce allowing the animals to successfully reproduce. The long days of the spring and summer serve to interrupt the refractory period so that when winter approaches shortening day lengths will again, by way of the pineal gland, induce gonadalinvolution. In this scheme both light and darkness are critically important in synchronizing the phases of the annual reproductive cycle of the hamster with the appropriate season of the year. Melatonin may be the pineal hormone which mediates the effects of darkness on reproductive physiology.

  7. Histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland: adrenergic regulation and diurnal variation.

    Chik, C L; Arnason, T G; Dukewich, W G; Price, D M; Ranger, A; Ho, A K

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we investigated phosphorylation of Ser10 in histone H3 by norepinephrine (NE) in the rat pineal gland. In whole-animal studies, we demonstrated a marked increase in histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland during the first half of the dark period. Exposure to light during this period caused a rapid decline in histone H3 phosphorylation with an estimated t1/2 of less than 15 min, indicating a high level of dephosphorylation activity. Corresponding studies in cultured pineal cells revealed that treatment with NE produced an increase in histone H3 phosphorylation that peaked between 2 and 3 h and declined rapidly by 4 h. The NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation was blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, but not by prazosin or other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP but not other kinase activators mimicked the effect of NE on histone H3 phosphorylation. The NE-stimulated H3 phosphorylation was markedly increased by cotreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, tautomycin or okadaic acid, supporting a high level of ongoing histone H3 dephosphorylation activity. Together, our results indicate that histone H3 phosphorylation is a naturally occurring event at night in the rat pineal gland that is driven almost exclusively by a NE-->beta-adrenergic-->cAMP/protein kinase A signaling mechanism. This transient histone H3 phosphorylation probably reflects the nocturnal activation of multiple adrenergic-regulated genes in the rat pineal gland.

  8. Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland.

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Lu, J; Ling, E A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factors that may be involved in altering the function of pineal gland in hypoxic conditions. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia and the pineal gland was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS) at 3 hr-14 days after hypoxic exposure by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS was observed in response to hypoxia. VEGF concentrations as determined by enzyme immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) production measured by colorimetric assay were significantly higher after hypoxic exposure when compared with the controls. Melatonin content of the pineal gland, as determined by ELISA, was significantly reduced after the hypoxic exposure. Dilated blood vessels expressing eNOS were observed in hypoxic rats. Cells immunoreactive for VEGF were identified as the astrocytes whereas those immunoreactive for iNOS were pinealocytes and macrophages. Our findings indicate that excess production of VEGF and NO in pineal gland in response to hypoxia may be involved in increased vascular permeability as evidenced by an enhanced leakage of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RhIC). The increased vascular permeability may allow free access of serum-derived substances in the pineal gland that may affect the secretory function of the pinealocytes. Administration of exogenous melatonin may be beneficial as it reduced VEGF concentration and NO production significantly in hypoxic rats, and leakage of RhIC was concomitantly reduced.

  9. The nicotinic receptor in the rat pineal gland is an alpha3beta4 subtype.

    Hernandez, Susan C; Vicini, Stefano; Xiao, Yingxian; Dávila-García, Martha I; Yasuda, Robert P; Wolfe, Barry B; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    The rat pineal gland contains a high density of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We characterized the pharmacology of the binding sites and function of these receptors, measured the nAChR subunit mRNA, and used subunit-specific antibodies to establish the receptor subtype as defined by subunit composition. In ligand binding studies, [3H]epibatidine ([3H]EB) binds with an affinity of approximately 100 pM to nAChRs in the pineal gland, and the density of these sites is approximately 5 times that in rat cerebral cortex. The affinities of nicotinic drugs for binding sites in the pineal gland are similar to those at alpha3beta4 nAChRs heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In functional studies, the potencies and efficacies of nicotinic drugs to activate or block whole-cell currents in dissociated pinealocytes match closely their potencies and efficacies to activate or block 86Rb+ efflux in the cells expressing heterologous alpha3beta4 nAChRs. Measurements of mRNA indicated the presence of transcripts for alpha3, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits but not those for alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, or beta3 subunits. Immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific antibodies showed that virtually all [3H]EB-labeled nAChRs contained alpha3 and beta4 subunits associated in one complex. The beta2 subunit was not associated with this complex. Taken together, these results indicate that virtually all of the nAChRs in the rat pineal gland are the alpha3beta4 nAChR subtype and that the pineal gland can therefore serve as an excellent and convenient model in which to study the pharmacology and function of these receptors in a native tissue.

  10. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed

  11. Enantioselective micro-2D-HPLC determination of aspartic acid in the pineal glands of rodents with various melatonin contents.

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Oyama, Tsubasa; Konishi, Ryoko; Mita, Masashi; Hamase, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Enantioselective determination of aspartic acid (Asp) in the pineal gland of rodents with various melatonin contents was performed using a highly sensitive and selective two-dimensional HPLC system. After derivatization of the amino group with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F), NBD-Asp was separated using a capillary monolithic ODS column in the first dimension. The fraction of NBD-Asp was automatically collected and transferred to the second dimension, and the D- and L-Asp were separated and determined using a narrowbore enantioselective column. Large amounts of D-Asp were observed in the pineal gland of the rats and specific strains of mice (C3H and CBA) possessing a high concentration of melatonin in their pineal gland. On the other hand, the amounts of D-Asp were small in the pineal gland of mice possessing a trace or no melatonin in their pineal gland (ddY, ICR, C57BL and BALB/c). In other tissues and physiological fluids, no significant strain-dependent changes of the D-Asp amounts were observed. These results indicate that large amounts of D-Asp are present only in the pineal gland containing large amounts of melatonin, and special care should be taken when selecting mouse strains for the investigation of D-Asp.

  12. Differential control of tryptophan hydroxylase expression in raphe and in pineal gland: evidence for a role of translation efficiency.

    Dumas, S; Darmon, M C; Delort, J; Mallet, J

    1989-12-01

    In a previous study, we characterized two tryptophan hydroxylase mRNAs (TPH mRNAs) in the pineal gland. However, we failed to detect these species in the raphe by Northern blot experiments. Here, we report by S1 nuclease analysis and in situ hybridization that these two TPH mRNAs, as well as a third species, are expressed both in pineal gland and in raphe. In both tissues, the three mRNAs are transcribed predominantly from the same promoter. Strikingly, from the results of S1 maping analysis, it was observed that the total level of TPH mRNA per tissue is at least 150 times lower in the raphe than in the pineal gland. In contrast, TPH antigen as quantified by immunoblot experiments is about threefold more abundant per raphe than per pineal gland. TPH mRNA from one raphe and one pineal gland yield in vitro about the same amount of TPH antigen, suggesting that the discrepancy in the ratios of TPH mRNA and TPH antigen between the raphe and the pineal gland results, at least in part, from a difference in the translation efficiency of TPH mRNAs in the two structures.

  13. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    , with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern...... that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated...... similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating...

  14. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    Seiji Wada; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identifi...

  15. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  16. Circadian dynamics of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor in the rat pineal gland and its role in regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2014-08-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  17. Regional and voxel-wise comparisons of blood flow measurements between dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) in brain tumors.

    White, Carissa M; Pope, Whitney B; Zaw, Taryar; Qiao, Joe; Naeini, Kourosh M; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Wang, J J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the regional and voxel-wise correlation between dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with brain tumors. Thirty patients with histologically verified brain tumors were evaluated in the current study. DSC-MRI was performed by first using a preload dose of gadolinium contrast, then collecting a dynamic image acquisition during a bolus of contrast, followed by posthoc contrast agent leakage correction. Pseudocontinuous ASL was collected using 30 pairs of tag and control acquisition using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo spin-echo (GRASE) acquisition. All images were registered to a high-resolution anatomical atlas. Average CBF measurements within regions of contrast-enhancement and T2 hyperintensity were evaluated between the two modalities. Additionally, voxel-wise correlation between CBF measurements obtained with DSC and ASL were assessed. Results demonstrated a positive linear correlation between DSC and ASL measurements of CBF when regional average values were compared; however, a statistically significant voxel-wise correlation was only observed in around 30-40% of patients. These results suggest DSC and ASL may provide regionally similar, but spatially different measurements of CBF.

  18. The evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial tumors by stable xenon CT; The effect of glycerol administration on regional cerebral blood flow

    Shimoda, Masami; Kawamata, Fumio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Mitsuru; Oda, Shinri; Shibuya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Isao; Sato, Osamu (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    In evaluating cerebral regional blood flow (rCBF), stable xenon-enhanced tomography (XeCT) study associated with simultaneous blood sampling was applied in 15 cases of intracranial neoplasms. The effect of intravenous glycerol infusion on rCBF was also investigated. The results indicated that intratumoral rCBF values were not only variable and unrelated to their histological types and grades, but also were not correlated with the vascularity of the lesion as demonstrated by angiography. When a tumor mass was enhanced after the injection of iodinated contrast media, it proved to be useful in distinguishing tumor mass and its associated edema that the rCBF of the peritumoral edematous region was predominantly low (10{plus minus}5 ml/100 g/min). The regional cerebral blood flow in remote areas, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion, was low in value, and there was no statistical significance between affected and sound sides. Following glycerol administration, rCBF was increased in the whole intracranial region, but not inside of the neoplasm, particularly when the intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased. It was assumed that the elevated rCBF after glycerol administration was due to the increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from the ICP reduction, the hemodilution effect, cerebral vessel dilatation after metabolic acidosis, and/or mechanically rectified microcirculation after edema reduction. (author).

  19. Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão

    Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

  20. Gastric adenocarcinoma with features of endodermal sinus tumor

    Malvinderjit Singh; Mukul Arya; Sury Anand; Nan Sandar

    2007-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare. The most common sites for EGGCTs are in midline locations such as the mediastinum, retroperitoneum and pineal gland.These tumors rarely present in the stomach. We describe here a case where a middle aged man presented with typical symptoms of gastric cancer. After extensive workup, which included blood work, CT abdomen scan,upper endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound, the patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer. However,due to very high blood levels of alpha-fetoprotein, the specimen was sent for special histochemical staining,which demonstrated that the tumor had features of both adenocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumor. This is a very aggressive tumor with a very poor prognosis.

  1. Toward the gene(s) for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and associated tumors in two different regions of 11p15

    Henry, J.; Chehenase, V.; Boulevin, C. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a malformation syndrome associated with predisposition to different types of tumors (WT, ADCC). Cytogenetic and familial studies mapped the WBS locus to 11p15.5. Genomic imprinting has been implicated in the expression of the syndrome. Using 11p15 specific markers we have determined the parental origin of both chromosomes 11 in sporadic WBS cases. Probands in 5 out of 26 informative families (25%) displayed uniparental disomy (UPD) corresponding to a paternal isodisomy for region 11p15.5. Mosaic phenotypes reflect the timing of their origin and the fate of cells involved as well as the cell-specific pattern of imprinting. Somatic mosaicism for UPD may thus explain the incomplete forms of WBS, the association of hemihypertrophy in sporadic WBS and even some cases of isolated hemihypertrophy. Moreover, the risk (60%) of developing a tumor seems higher for patients with paternal 11p UPD than for WBS patients in general (7.5%). Two different genomic libraries specific for region 11p15.5 were constructed and screened to isolate and characterize the gene(s) responsible for WBS and/or tumor progression. The characterization and and the localization of these cDNAs are in progress. 5 CA repeats genetically mapped in 11p15 were used to isolate YACs (CEPH). These CA repeats are now physically mapped using a panel of hybrids specific for the 11p15 region, and the contigs of YACs mapping in the regions of interest will be used to isolate coding sequences.

  2. Sex-determining Region of Y Chromosome-related High-mobility-group Box 2 in Malignant Tumors: Current Opinions and Anticancer Therapy

    Shi-Guang Cao; Zong-Juan Ming; Yu-Ping Zhang; Shuan-Ying Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To gain insight into the mechanism by which sex-determining region of Y chromosome (SRY)-related high-mobility-group box 2 (SOX2) involved in carcinogenesis and cancer stem cells (CSCs).Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly published in English from 2000 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "SOX2," "cancer," "tumor" or "CSCs."Study Selection:Articles studying the mitochondria-related pathologic mechanism and treatment of glaucoma were selected and reviewed.Results:SOX2,a transcription factor that is the key in maintaining pluripotent properties of stem cells,is a member of SRy-related high-mobility group domain proteins.SOX2 participates in many biological processes,such as modulation of cell proliferation,regulation of cell death signaling,cell apoptosis,and most importantly,tumor formation and development.Although SOX2 has been implicated in the biology of various tumors and CSCs,the findings are highly controversial,and information regarding the underlying mechanism remains limited.Moreover,the mechanism by which SOX2 involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression is rather unclear yet.Conclusions:Here,we review the important biological functions of SOX2 in different tumors and CSCs,and the function of SOX2 signaling in the pathobiology ofneoplasia,such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway,Hippo signaling pathway,Survivin signaling pathway,PI3K/Akt signaling pathway,and so on.Targeting towards SOX2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.

  3. Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal no cão

    Lucas Alécio Gomes

    2003-01-01

    A glândula pineal animal por muito tempo foi uma estrutura “esquecida” ou considerada de pouca importância para muitos estudiosos ligados à anatomia. Após a descoberta da melatonina, hormônio por ela secretado novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram. Neste trabalho, efetuamos estudo morfológico desta glândula no cão, mediante análise macroscópica, mesoscópica e microscópica (microscopia de luz). Para este estudo, foram utilizados 20 cães. A glândula pineal revelou um formato variando de cônic...

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes during development of the zebrafish pineal complex using RNA sequencing.

    Khuansuwan, Sataree; Gamse, Joshua T

    2014-11-01

    We describe a method for isolating RNA suitable for high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from small numbers of fluorescently labeled cells isolated from live zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos without using costly, commercially available columns. This method ensures high cell viability after dissociation and suspension of cells and gives a very high yield of intact RNA. We demonstrate the utility of our new protocol by isolating RNA from fluorescence activated cell sorted (FAC sorted) pineal complex neurons in wild-type and tbx2b knockdown embryos at 24 hours post-fertilization. Tbx2b is a transcription factor required for pineal complex formation. We describe a bioinformatics pipeline used to analyze differential expression following high-throughput sequencing and demonstrate the validity of our results using in situ hybridization of differentially expressed transcripts. This protocol brings modern transcriptome analysis to the study of small cell populations in zebrafish.

  5. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE....... Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle......, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation...

  6. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    David Lagman

    Full Text Available Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  7. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E; Larhammar, Dan; Abalo, Xesús M

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  8. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Hartley, Stephen W; Coon, Steven L; Savastano, Luis E; Mullikin, James C; Fu, Cong; Klein, David C

    2015-01-01

    The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age) surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction). Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX) or decentralization (DCN) of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35%) following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell biology.

  9. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  10. The ontogenic expressions of multiple vesicular glutamate transporters during postnatal development of rat pineal gland.

    Yoshida, S; Ina, A; Konno, J; Wu, T; Shutoh, F; Nogami, H; Hisano, S

    2008-03-18

    The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period. To explore the biological significance of these VGLUT expressions in pineal development, we studied the ontogeny of VGLUT in this gland by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using rats. Histological analysis revealed that intensities of VGLUT1 hybridization signal and immunostaining drastically increase by postnatal day (P) 7, whereas VGLUT2 expression exhibits high levels of mRNA and protein at birth and decreases gradually from P7 onward. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis supported these histological observations, showing that expressions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit opposite patterns to each other. Coinciding with VGLUT1-upregulation, RT-PCR data showed that expressions of dynamin 1 and endophilin 1, which are factors predictably involved in the endocytotic recovery of VGLUT1-associated vesicle, are also increased by P7. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VGLUT1v demonstrated that its mRNA expression is upregulated by P7, kept at the same level until P14, and apparently decreased at P21, suggesting its functional property required for a certain developmental event. Moreover, a comparison of mRNA expressions at daytime and nighttime revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT1v shows any difference in both P7 and P21 glands, whereas VGLUT2 is significantly lower at daytime than at nighttime at P21 but not P7, the time point at which the melatonin rhythm is not yet generated. The present study shows that expressions of these VGLUT types are differentially regulated during postnatal pineal development, each presumably participating in physiologically distinct glutamatergic functions.

  11. Determination of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (EC 2. 1. 1. 4) activity in rat pineal gland

    Morton, D.J.; Potgieter, B. (Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown (South Africa))

    1982-01-01

    This study was an attempt to ascertain optimum conditions for in vitro HIOMT activity with regard to concentration of enzyme, pH, buffer, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and velocity maxima. Pineal glands were obtained from rats of the Wistar strain kept in a cycle of 12 hours dark / 12 hours light and fed a balanced diet. Methyl /sup 14/C, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin were used. The assay technique used was based on modification of that of Axelrod.

  12. [Influence of pineal hormone melatonin on behavioral disturbances and neurological status of animals after hemorrhagic stroke].

    Arushanian, E B; Naumov, S S

    2011-01-01

    Experimental hemorrhagic stroke causes behavior and locomotor activity with memory impairment and neurological disturbances in rats. These shifts are weaker in the evening hours than after morning testing. The repeated administration of the pineal gland hormone melatonin (melaxen) during one week significantly decreases behavior and neurological deficits as well as pathomorphological signs in the lesion focus. The normalizing effect of the hormone is more distinct in the evening.

  13. [The role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of autoimmunity, aging and lifespan].

    Csaba, György

    2016-07-03

    Thymus is an immunoendocrine organ, the hormones of which mainly influence its own lymphatic elements. It has a central role in the immune system, the neonatal removal causes the collapse of immune system and the whole organism. The thymic nurse cells select the bone marrow originated lymphocytes and destroy the autoreactive ones, while thymus originated Treg cells suppress the autoreactive cells in the periphery. The involution of the organ starts after birth, however, this truly happens in the end of puberty only, as before this it is overcompensated by developmental processes. From the end of adolescence the involution allows the life, proliferation and enhanced functioning of some autoreactive cells, which gradually wear down the cells and intercellular materials, causing the aging. The enhanced and mass function of autoreactive cells lead to the autoimmune diseases and natural death. This means that the involution of thymus is not a part of the organismic involution, but an originator of it, which is manifested in the lifespan-pacemaker function. Thus, aging can be conceptualized as a thymus-commanded slow autoimmune process. The neonatal removal of pineal gland leads to the complete destruction of the thymus and the crashing down of the immune system, as well as to wasting disease. The involution of the pineal and thymus runs parallel, because the two organs form a functional unit. It is probable that the pineal gland is responsible for the involution of thymus and also regulates its lifespan determining role. However, the data reviewed here do not prove the exclusive role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of aging and lifespan, but only call attention to such possibility.

  14. Functional development of the circadian clock in the zebrafish pineal gland.

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish constitutes a powerful model organism with unique advantages for investigating the vertebrate circadian timing system and its regulation by light. In particular, the remarkably early and rapid development of the zebrafish circadian system has facilitated exploring the factors that control the onset of circadian clock function during embryogenesis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular basis underlying functional development of the central clock in the zebrafish pineal gland. Furthermore, we examine how the directly light-entrainable clocks in zebrafish cell lines have facilitated unravelling the general mechanisms underlying light-induced clock gene expression. Finally, we summarize how analysis of the light-induced transcriptome and miRNome of the zebrafish pineal gland has provided insight into the regulation of the circadian system by light, including the involvement of microRNAs in shaping the kinetics of light- and clock-regulated mRNA expression. The relative contributions of the pineal gland central clock and the distributed peripheral oscillators to the synchronization of circadian rhythms at the whole animal level are a crucial question that still remains to be elucidated in the zebrafish model.

  15. Nocturnal headache associated with melatonin deficiency due to a pineal gland cyst.

    Karadaş, Omer; Ipekdal, Ilker H; Ulaş, Umit H; Odabaşi, Zeki

    2012-02-01

    The cyclic nature of some of headache disorders is closely related to melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland. We report a 29-year-old male patient with a 2.5-year history of headaches that woke him in the middle of the night. These headaches were pulsatile and continued until sunrise. During these attacks he also suffered from allodynia over the scalp, bilateral conjunctival hyperemia, and nervousness. His brain MRI showed a 5mm by 4mm neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland. The peak plasma melatonin level that was measured at 2 am was 28 pg/mL. The patient underwent oral melatonin treatment (6 mg/day). After 1 month he experienced a 70% reduction in his symptoms. When the melatonin dosage was increased to 10mg/day he became headache-free, and 5 months after the treatment began, had no complaints. His 5-month follow-up plasma melatonin level at 2 am was 61 pg/mL. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with nocturnal headache associated with a low level of melatonin due to a neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland.

  16. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  17. [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Gevorkian, A R

    2009-01-01

    On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied. It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production. Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization. Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis. It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland.

  18. A rhythmic change of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hira, Yoshiki; Ehara, Ayuka; Mimura-Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawano, Michihiro; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes melatonin under circadian control via nocturnal noradrenergic stimulation, and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v). Although we previously reported that VGLUT2 mRNA level of rat pineal gland at postnatal day 21 is higher in the nighttime than in daytime, questions remained as to the time of postnatal onset of this phenomenon and a 24-h change in the mRNA or protein level at postnatal days. The day-night difference in VGLUT2 mRNA level was evident 14 days after birth. In the adult, VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels increased in the dark phase, with the protein level showing a 6-h delay. The nocturnal elevation in VGLUT2 mRNA level diminished under the constant light condition but persisted under the constant dark condition. The present data suggest that VGLUT2 in the rat pineal gland is involved in some nocturnal glutamatergic function.

  19. Melatonin formation in pineal gland from rats with hexachlorobenzene experimental porphyria.

    Llambías, Elena B C; Mazzetti, Marta B; Lelli, Sandra M; Aldonatti, Carmen; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene produces an experimental hepatic porphyria in rats, which is similar to human porphyria cutanea tarda, with hyperpigmentation as one of its characteristic features. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism have been previously observed in this chronic porphyria. Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda. Results show that in animals with this experimental porphyria some tryptophan metabolite levels (serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) increase only during the light period, whereas tryptophan content remained equal to the controls. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats. On the other hand, tryptophan is converted to melatonin in the dark period, but this route is not exacerbated in hexachlorobenzene porphyria. The relevance of these alterations is discussed in relation to hyperpigmentation, neoplastic and oxidative stress processes associated with this porphyria.

  20. Analysis of daily and circadian gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Tosini, Gianluca

    2008-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is an important component of the circadian system. In the present study, we examined the expression of roughly 8000 genes in the rat pineal gland as a function of time of day under light-dark (LD) cycles and in constant dark (DD) using oligo DNA microarray technique. We identified 47 and 13 genes that showed higher levels at night and day, respectively, under LD. The same patterns of expression were also observed in DD. About half of the genes that peaked at night have a known biological function, i.e., transcription factors and proteins that are involved in signaling cascades, whereas 14 are expressed sequence tags and 8 have an unknown biological function. Twelve of the genes that were up-regulated at night were also up-regulated after 1h NE stimulation, thus suggesting that the expression of these genes is controlled by adrenergic mechanisms. Of the 13 genes that were up-regulated in the daytime, 6 coded for proteins that are involved in intracellular signaling pathways. The results obtained with microarray analysis were well correlated with data obtained using real time quantitative RT-PCR. The present results provide new materials to dissect and understand the pineal physiology.

  1. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A

    1999-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  2. Ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and the testis in the male rat.

    Kuş, I; Sarsilmaz, M; Ogetürk, M; Yilmaz, B; Keleştimur, H; Oner, H

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and testis was evaluated in the rat. Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups I and II were sham-orchidectomized and orchidectomized rats, respectively. Rats in group III were orchidectomized and daily injected with testosterone propionate (TP) for 1 month. Groups IV and V were sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized, respectively. Group VI was pinealectomized and daily injected with melatonin for 2 months. All animals were anesthetized with ketamine for fixation by vascular perfusion. Pineal glands of groups I, II, and III and the testes of groups IV, V, and VI were removed and weighed. All specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Orchidectomy caused an increase of lipid droplets, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and lysosomes. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were extensive in the cytoplasm. TP administration to orchidectomized rats resulted in formation of less extensive lipid droplets and mitochondria. In pinealectomized rats, golgi complex, mitochondria, and enlarged smooth endoplasmic reticulum were extensive in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. Formation of cytoplasmic secretory granules and osmiophilic bodies was observed. Testicular weight increased compared to group IV. Melatonin decreased testicular weight in comparison to group V and prevented ultrastructural changes. Pinealectomy and orchidectomy caused hyperactivity in Leydig cells and pinealocytes, respectively, which suggests a mutual relationship between the pineal gland and testis in the rat.

  3. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.

    Maronde, Erik; Saade, Anastasia; Ackermann, Katrin; Goubran-Botros, Hany; Pagan, Cecile; Bux, Roman; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stehle, Jörg H

    2011-08-01

    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime. Whereas in most rodents transcriptional regulation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene is essential for rhythmic melatonin synthesis, investigations into nonrodent mammalian species have shown post-transcriptional regulation to be of central importance, with molecular mechanisms still elusive. Therefore, human pineal tissues, taken from routine autopsies were allocated to four time-of-death groups (night/dawn/day/dusk) and analyzed for daytime-dependent changes in phosphorylated AANAT (p31T-AANAT) and in acetyl-serotonin-methyltransferase (ASMT) expression and activity. Protein content, intracellular localization, and colocalization of p31T-AANAT and ASMT were assessed, using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation techniques. Fresh sheep pineal gland preparations were used for comparative purposes. The amount of p31T-AANAT and ASMT proteins as well as their intracellular localization showed no diurnal variation in autoptic human and fresh sheep pineal glands. Moreover, in human and sheep pineal extracts, AANAT could not be dephosphorylated, which was at variance to data derived from rat pineal extracts. P31T-AANAT and ASMT were often found to colocalize in cellular rod-like structures that were also partly immunoreactive for the pinealocyte process-specific marker S-antigen (arrestin) in both, human and sheep pinealocytes. Protein-protein interaction studies with p31T-AANAT, ASMT, and S-antigen demonstrated a direct association and formation of robust complexes, involving also 14-3-3. This work provides evidence for a regulation principle for AANAT activity in the human pineal gland, which may not be based on a p31T-AANAT phosphorylation/dephosphorylation switch, as described for other mammalian species.

  4. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  5. The surgical treatment of musculo- skeletal tumors in dangerous region%危险区骨骼肌肉系统肿瘤的外科治疗

    张杏泉; 李开华; 陈刚; 刘军; 蔡平; 方仁义; 王民政; 范清宇

    2012-01-01

    目的:介绍一种安全处理危险区骨骼肌肉系统良性或低度恶性肿瘤的外科治疗方法.方法:对骶2脊索瘤先施行前路经腹结扎双侧髂内动脉,然后再切除肿瘤,可减少出血.对腹股沟区或腘窝区较大肿瘤与股、腘大血管及神经紧密粘连者,先从肿瘤远近端血管、神经正常部分解剖出血管神经,再向病变区解剖,容易完整切除肿瘤.对锁骨上区肿瘤,先截除一段锁骨,然后从肿瘤远近端正常锁骨下动、静脉及臂丛神经处,向肿瘤部游离并保护好胸膜,可较安全地切除肿瘤.而对于腓骨头、颈及其周围部肿瘤,先解剖出腓总神经及其各肌支,尽可能保留肌支.结果:11例危险区(紧邻大血管、神经区域)良性或低度恶性骨骼肌肉系统肿瘤,采用先从肿瘤远近端正常血管、神经处游离出神经、血管,再向肿瘤部解剖,均顺利解剖出大血管及神经,并完整切除肿瘤.所有病例无复发,亦无肢体功能障碍.结论:对紧邻重要血管及神经的较大良性或低度恶性骨骼肌肉系统肿瘤,先从正常段血管、神经向肿瘤部解剖游离,既可彻底切除肿瘤,又可避免损伤血管、神经引起肢体功能障碍,是一种较好方法.%Objective:To introduce a surgical treatment of the innocent or low - degree malignant musculo - skeletal tumors in dangerous region. Methods: For the sacral 2 chordoma,to perform (he ligation of the two — side internal iliac artery first through abdominal cavity and then excise the tumors in order to reduce bleeding. For the large tumors especially adhering tightly with important nerves and vessels in inguinal region or popliteal fossa, to dissect first the normal vascular nerve of tumors distantly and proximally and then disconnect the lesion for excision of tumors completely. For the tumors in supraelavicular region, to dissect the normal vascular nerve of infraclavicula and brachial plexus of tumors distantly and proximally

  6. Screening for microsatellite instability identifies frequent 3'-untranslated region mutation of the RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 gene in colon tumors.

    Bogdan C Paun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coding region microsatellite instability (MSI results in loss of gene products and promotion of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H carcinogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that MSI within 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs may post-transcriptionally dysregulate gene products. Within this context, we conducted a broad mutational survey of 42 short 3'UTR microsatellites (MSs in 45 MSI-H colorectal tumors and their corresponding normal colonic mucosae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to estimate the overall susceptibility of MSs to MSI in MSI-H tumors, the observed MSI frequency of each MS was correlated with its length, interspecies sequence conservation level, and distance from some genetic elements (i.e., stop codon, polyA signal, and microRNA binding sites. All MSs were stable in normal colonic mucosae. The MSI frequency at each MS in MSI-H tumors was independent of sequence conservation level and distance from other genetic elements. In contrast, MS length correlated significantly with MSI frequency in MSI-H tumors (r=0.86, p=7.2x10(-13. 3'UTR MSs demonstrated MSI frequencies in MSI-H tumors higher than the 99% upper limit predicted by MS length for RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1(RB1CC1, mutation frequency 68.4%, NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1(NUAK1, 31.0%, and Rtf1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (RTF1, 25.0%. An in silico prediction of RNA structure alterations was conducted for these MSI events to gauge their likelihood of affecting post-transcriptional regulation. RB1CC1 mutant was predicted to lose a microRNA-accessible loop structure at a putative binding site for the tumor-suppressive microRNA, miR-138. In contrast, the predicted 3'UTR structural change was minimal for NUAK1- and RTF1 mutants. Notably, real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed significant RB1CC1 mRNA overexpression vs. normal colonic mucosae in MSI-H cancers manifesting RB1CC1 3'UTR MSI (9.0-fold; p = 3.6x10(-4. CONCLUSIONS: This

  7. A novel tumor-promoting function residing in the 5' non-coding region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA.

    Kiyoshi Masuda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is one of the key regulators of tumor development, hence it is considered to be an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s in cancer cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Knockdown of VEGF with vegf-targeting small-interfering (si RNAs increased susceptibility of human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 to apoptosis caused with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, or doxorubicin. Recombinant human VEGF165 did not completely inhibit this apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF165 increased resistance to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis, while an anti-VEGF165-neutralizing antibody did not completely block the resistance. We prepared plasmids encoding full-length vegf mRNA with mutation of signal sequence, vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs, or mutated 5'UTRs. Using these plasmids, we revealed that the 5'UTR of vegf mRNA possessed anti-apoptotic activity. The 5'UTR-mediated activity was not affected by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. We established HCT116 clones stably expressing either the vegf 5'UTR or the mutated 5'UTR. The clones expressing the 5'UTR, but not the mutated one, showed increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and formed progressive tumors when implanted in athymic nude mice. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that the vegf 5'UTR-expressing tumors had up-regulated anti-apoptotic genes, multidrug-resistant genes, and growth-promoting genes, while pro-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. Notably, expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1 was markedly repressed in the 5'UTR-expressing tumors, resulting in down-regulation of a STAT1-responsive cluster of genes (43 genes. As a result, the

  8. Bone tumor

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  9. TAGLN expression is upregulated in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors by hypomethylation in its promoter and subpromoter regions.

    Park, Gun-Hoo; Lee, Su-Jin; Yim, Hyunee; Han, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyon J; Sohn, Young-Bae; Ko, Jung Min; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by NF1 gene mutation is a commonly inherited autosomal dominant disorder. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a type of aggressive sarcoma, are a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. The malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) to MPNSTs is a marked peculiarity in NF1 patients, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We found that an actin-associated protein transgelin (SM22) was highly expressed in NF1-deficient MPNST tissues compared to NF1-deficient PN tissues using immunohistological staining and primary cultured MPNST cells in western blot analysis. We further found that this transgelin upregulation was caused by increased transcriptional expression of the TAGLN gene encoding transgelin. Comparison of DNA methylation values in the promoter and subpromoter regions of the TAGLN gene in three types of NF1-deficient primary-cultured cells, derived from an NF1 patient's normal phenotype, a benign PN and MPNST tissues, revealed that the TAGLN gene was hypomethylated in the MPNST cells. Next, to determine the functional role of transgelin in MPNST pathogenesis, we manipulated the TAGLN gene expression and investigated the alteration of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the normal-phenotypic and malignant tumor cells. The downregulation of TAGLN expression in NF1-deficient MPNST tumor cells through the treatment of the small interfering RNA resulted in a decrease in the RAS activation (GTP-RAS) and the downstream ERK1/2 activation (phosphorylated ERK1/2), while the overexpression of TAGLN in normal-phenotypic NF1-deficient cells caused an increase in RAS and ERK1/2 activation. These results indicate that upregulation of transgelin caused by hypomethylation of the TAGLN gene is closely involved in tumor progression in NF1.

  10. The in vitro maintenance of clock genes expression within the rat pineal gland under standard and norepinephrine-synchronized stimulation.

    Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    Although the norepinephrine (NE) synchronization protocol was proved to be an important procedure for further modulating in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis, the maintenance of clock genes under the same conditions remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the maintenance of the clock genes expression in pineal gland cultures under standard and NE-synchronized stimulation. The glands were separated into three experimental groups: Control, Standard (acute NE-stimulation), and NE-synchronized. The expression of Bmal1, Per2, Cry2, Rev-erbα, the clock controlled gene Dbp and Arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase were investigated, as well as melatonin content. No oscillations were observed in the expression of the investigated genes from the control group. Under Standard NE stimulation, the clock genes did not exhibit a rhythmic pattern of expression. However, in the NE-synchronized condition, a rhythmic expression pattern was observed in all cases. An enhancement in pineal gland responsiveness to NE stimulation, reflected in an advanced synthesis of melatonin was also observed. Our results reinforce our previous hypothesis that NE synchronization of pineal gland culture mimics the natural rhythmic release of NE in the gland, increasing melatonin synthesis and keeping the pineal circadian clock synchronized, ensuring the fine adjustments that are relied in the clockwork machinery.

  11. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  12. Cancer-associated mutations in the protrusion-targeting region of p190RhoGAP impact tumor cell migration.

    Binamé, Fabien; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Magnan, Laure; Piquet, Léo; Montibus, Bertille; Chabadel, Anne; Saltel, Frédéric; Lagrée, Valérie; Moreau, Violaine

    2016-09-26

    Spatiotemporal regulation of RhoGTPases such as RhoA is required at the cell leading edge to achieve cell migration. p190RhoGAP (p190A) is the main negative regulator of RhoA and localizes to membrane protrusions, where its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is required for directional migration. In this study, we investigated the molecular processes responsible for p190A targeting to actin protrusions. By analyzing the subcellular localization of truncated versions of p190A in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, we identified a novel functional p190A domain: the protrusion localization sequence (PLS) necessary and sufficient for p190A targeting to leading edges. Interestingly, the PLS is also required for the negative regulation of p190A RhoGAP activity. Further, we show that the F-actin binding protein cortactin binds the PLS and is required for p190A targeting to protrusions. Lastly, we demonstrate that cancer-associated mutations in PLS affect p190A localization and function, as well as tumor cell migration. Altogether, our data unveil a new mechanism of regulation of p190A in migrating tumor cells.

  13. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qingbing Wang,1,2 Jianfeng Li,3 Sai An,3 Yi Chen,1 Chen Jiang,3 Xiaolin Wang1,2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 3Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Gene therapy is a very promising technology for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, its application has been limited by the abundant stromal response in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to prepare a dendrimer-based gene-free loading vector with high permeability in the tumor stroma and explore an imaging-guided local gene delivery strategy for PDAC to promote the efficiency of targeted gene delivery.Methods: The experimental protocol was approved by the animal ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Third-generation dendrigraft poly-L-lysines was selected as the nanocarrier scaffold, which was modified by cell-penetrating peptides and gadolinium (Gd chelates. DNA plasmids were loaded with these nanocarriers via electrostatic interaction. The cellular uptake and loaded gene expression were examined in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in vitro. Permeability of the nanoparticles in the tumor stroma and transfected gene distribution in vivo were studied using a magnetic resonance imaging-guided delivery strategy in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PDAC.Results: The nanocarriers were synthesized with a dendrigraft poly-L-lysine to polyethylene glycol to DTPA ratio of 1:3.4:8.3 and a mean diameter of 110.9±7.7 nm. The luciferases were strictly expressed in the tumor, and the luminescence intensity in mice treated by Gd-DPT/plasmid luciferase (1.04×104±9.75×102 p/s/cm2/sr was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those treated with Gd-DTPA (9.56×102±6.15×10 p/s/cm2/sr and Gd-DP (5.75×103± 7.45×102 p/s/cm2/sr

  14. Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases

    Patrícia Imperatriz Porto Rondinelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos. Na admissão, os mais comuns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14, vômitos (6/14 e visuais (6/14. Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença.This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years. On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14, vomiting (6/14 and visual (6/14. The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

  15. 正常成人松果体MRI研究%MRI imaging studies of pineal gland in normal human brain

    邓玲; 钱学华; 周庭永; 刘敏; 白桂芹; 吕发金

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the parameter standard of pineal gland and discuss the changing rule of different groups by gender and age in health adults on MRI. Methods A total of 327 adult heads were scanned by using 3D MR sequences,pineal gland and its related structures were observed and analyzed. Results The length of the pineal gland was(7.12±1.11)mm in the female group,and (6.52±1.01) mm in the male group(female>male,Pmale,P男性,P男性,P<0.05)。结论松果体矢径和体积女性大于男性,松果体体积性别差异出现在31~60岁。

  16. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Predictive value of tumor response as evaluated by computed tomography

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Miyagi, Koichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Sawada, Satoshi [Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the outcome in patients with intracranial germ-cell tumors to determine whether tumor response during radiation therapy can predict achievement of primary local with radiation therapy alone. Between 1983 and 1993, 22 patients with untreated primary intracranial germ cell tumors received a total whole brain radiation dose of between 18 Gy and 45 Gy (mean 31.3 Gy) with or without a localized field of 10 to 36.4 Gy (mean, 22.4 Gy), or local irradiation only (1 patient). In 10 patients with pineal tumor only, who were treated first with radiation therapy, tumor response to radiation therapy was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) (at baseline, and approximately 20 Gy and 50 Gy). Areas of calcification in the tumor were subtracted from total tumor volume. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 12 years. Five-year actuarial survival rates for patients with germinoma were 71%, 100% for patients with a teratoma component, and 100% for patients without histologic verification. Patients with germinomas or tumors suspected of being germinomas who were given more than 50 Gy had no local relapse. There was no correlation between primary local control by radiation therapy alone and initial tumor volume. The rate of tumor volume response to irradiation assessed by CT was significantly different in those patients who relapsed compared to those who did not relapse. Tumor response during radiation therapy using CT was considered to be predictive of primary local control with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  17. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  18. MicroRNAs in the pineal gland: miR-483 regulates melatonin synthesis by targeting arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase.

    Clokie, Samuel J H; Lau, Pierre; Kim, Hyun Hee; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C

    2012-07-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a broad range of roles in biological regulation. In this study, rat pineal miRNAs were profiled for the first time, and their importance was evaluated by focusing on the main function of the pineal gland, melatonin synthesis. Massively parallel sequencing and related methods revealed the miRNA population is dominated by a small group of miRNAs as follows: ~75% is accounted for by 15 miRNAs; miR-182 represents 28%. In addition to miR-182, miR-183 and miR-96 are also highly enriched in the pineal gland, a distinctive pattern also found in the retina. This effort also identified previously unrecognized miRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs. Pineal miRNAs do not exhibit a marked night/day difference in abundance with few exceptions (e.g. 2-fold night/day differences in the abundance of miR-96 and miR-182); this contrasts sharply with the dynamic 24-h pattern that characterizes the pineal transcriptome. During development, the abundance of most pineal gland-enriched miRNAs increases; however, there is a marked decrease in at least one, miR-483. miR-483 is a likely regulator of melatonin synthesis, based on the following. It inhibits melatonin synthesis by pinealocytes in culture; it acts via predicted binding sites in the 3"-UTR of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA, the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis, and it exhibits a developmental profile opposite to that of Aanat transcripts. Additionally, a miR-483 targeted antagonist increased melatonin synthesis in neonatal pinealocytes. These observations support the hypothesis that miR-483 suppresses Aanat mRNA levels during development and that the developmental decrease in miR-483 abundance promotes melatonin synthesis.

  19. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  20. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  1. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So;

    2009-01-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed...... in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels...... occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found...

  2. Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland.

    Piesiewicz, A; Kedzierska, U; Podobas, E; Adamska, I; Zuzewicz, K; Majewski, P M

    2012-11-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that the timing of the nocturnal peak of activity of the pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase - a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway - in 3-wk-old chickens kept from the day of hatch under controlled laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12) varies depending on the season of hatch (summer vs. winter). The present study was undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) are season-related differences seen in the level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway? (2) Does the pineal content of the main precursor (serotonin) and the final product (melatonin) exhibit age- and season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on L:D 16:8, were kept from the day of hatch under L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2, 9, or 16 d, chickens were sacrificed every 2 h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands, isolated under dim red light, were processed for the measurement of (i) the level of Aanat and Asmt (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) mRNAs encoding the two last enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, (ii) the activity of these enzymes, and (iii) the pineal content of serotonin and melatonin. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The levels of Aanat mRNA, AANAT enzymatic activity, and the pineal melatonin content changed during postembryonic development in a manner that was dependent on the season of hatch. Furthermore, the diurnal profile of Asmt mRNA was elevated during the light phase. In "winter" birds, the pattern and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of accumulation of this transcript did not change with age, while in "summer" birds it increased in an age-related way. In contrast, the enzymatic activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT

  3. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. β-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.

  4. Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.

    Spessert, R; Gupta, B B P; Rohleder, N; Gerhold, S; Engel, L

    2006-12-01

    The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.

  5. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  6. Characteristics of the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat pineal cell dispersions

    Hauser, G.; Smith, T.L.

    1981-10-01

    Dispersed rat pineal cells can be used for the study of the phosphatidylinositol effect. The response to ( - )-norepinephrine of the incorporation of 32Pi into phospholipids is linear with time and cell concentration, stereospecific, and mediated through alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. Na+ in the incubation medium is obligatory for labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine by 32P. In the absence of K+, incorporation of 32P is drastically lowered and no stimulation by norepinephrine occurs. Rb+ can replace K+. Omission of Ca2+ or substitution with Sr2+ preferentially lowers incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine. Mg2+ is not required for basal or stimulated labeling.

  7. Therapeutic strategy for lower limb lymphedema and lymphatic fistula after resection of a malignant tumor in the hip joint region: a case report.

    Hara, H; Mihara, M; Hayashi, A; Kanemaru, M; Todokoro, T; Yamamoto, T; Iida, T; Hino, R; Koshima, I

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic fistula complicating lymphedema is thought to occur due to communication between lymph vessels and the skin, which has yet to be shown objectively. The objective of this case report is to show the pathology and treatment using simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA). A 40-year-old woman underwent extended resection and total hip arthroplasty for primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the right proximal femur 23 years ago. Right lower limb lymphedema developed immediately after surgery and lymphatic fistula appeared in the posterior thigh. On ICG lymphography, lymph reflux toward the distal side dispersing in a fan-shape reticular pattern from the lymphatic fistula region was noted after intracutaneous injection of ICG into the foot. We performed simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and of LVA. Pathological examination showed that the epidermis and stratum corneum of the healthy skin were lost in the lymphatic fistula region. Dilated lymph vessels were open in this region. The examinations provide the first objective evidence that the cause of lymphatic fistula may be lymph reflux from lymphatic stems to precollectors through lymphatic perforators.

  8. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes.

  9. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  10. Diffusion weighted imaging for differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors: Diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient based on region of interest selection method

    Xu, Xiao Quan; Hu, Hao Hu; Su, Guo Yi; Liu, Hu; Shi, Hai Bin; Wu, Fei Yun [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements based on three different region of interest (ROI) selection methods, and compare their diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant orbital tumors. Diffusion-weighted imaging data of sixty-four patients with orbital tumors (33 benign and 31 malignant) were retrospectively analyzed. Two readers independently measured the ADC values using three different ROIs selection methods including whole-tumor (WT), single-slice (SS), and reader-defined small sample (RDSS). The differences of ADC values (ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS}) between benign and malignant group were compared using unpaired t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine and compare their diagnostic ability. The ADC measurement time was compared using ANOVA analysis and the measurement reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman method and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Malignant group showed significantly lower ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} than benign group (all p < 0.05). The areas under the curve showed no significant difference when using ADC-ROI{sub WT}, ADC-ROI{sub SS}, and ADC-ROI{sub RDSS} as differentiating index, respectively (all p > 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} and ROI{sub RDSS} required comparable measurement time (p > 0.05), while significantly shorter than ROI{sub WT} (p < 0.05). The ROI{sub SS} showed the best reproducibility (mean difference ± limits of agreement between two readers were 0.022 [-0.080–0.123] × 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; ICC, 0.997) among three ROI method. Apparent diffusion coefficient values based on the three different ROI selection methods can help to differentiate benign from malignant orbital tumors. The results of measurement time, reproducibility and diagnostic ability suggest that the ROI{sub SS} method are potentially useful for clinical practice.

  11. Association of polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region with outcome of hepatitis B virus infection

    Hong-Quan Li; Zhuo Li; Ying Liu; Jun-Hong Li; Jian-Qun Dong; Ji-Rong Gao; Chun-Yan Gou; Hui Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether -238G/A and -857C/T polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), gene promoter and hepatitis B (HB) viral genotypes were associated with outcomes of HBV infection.METHODS: A total of 244 HBV self-limited infected subjects, 208 asymptomatic carriers, and 443 chronic HB patients were recruited to conduct a case-control study.TNF-α -238G/A and -857C/T gene promoter polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and HBV genotypes were examined by nested PCR.RESULTS: The positive rate of HBV DNA in asymptomatic carrier group and chronic HB group was 46.6% and 49.9%,respectively. HBV genotype proportion among the asymptomatic carriers was 2.1% for genotype A, 25.8% for genotype B, 68.0% for genotype C, and 4.1% for genotype B+C mixed infection, and 0.9% for genotype A,21.7% for genotype B, 71.5% for genotype C, 5.9% for genotype B+C mixed infection in chronic HB group. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution between the asymptomatic carrier group and chronic HB group (x2 = 1.66, P = 0.647). The frequency of -238GG genotype in self-limited group was 95.1%, significantly higher than 90.7% in chronic HB group and 89.0% in asymptomatic carrier group (P = 0.041 and P = 0.016,respectively).The frequency of TNF-α-857 CC in chronic HB group was 79.7%, significantly higher than 64.4% in asymptomatic carrier group and 70.9% in self-limited group (P<0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that TNF-α-238GA and -857CC were independently associated with chronic HB after gender and age were adjusted.CONCLUSION: TNF-α promoter variants are likely to play a substantial role in the outcome of HBV infection.

  12. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    2013-01-01

    Background In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal roots, analysis of the jaw jerk reflex, recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex, and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain. Results The neuromuscular responses of the left- and right-side bilateral trigeminal motor potentials showed a high degree of symmetry in latency (1.92 ms and 1.96 ms, respectively) and amplitude (11 mV and 11.4 mV, respectively), whereas the jaw jerk reflex amplitude of the right and left masseters was 5.1 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively. The test stimulus for the recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex evoked both silent periods at an interstimulus interval of 150 ms. The duration of the second silent period evoked by the test stimulus was 61 ms and 54 ms on the right and left masseters, respectively, which was greater than that evoked by the conditioning stimulus (39 ms and 35 ms, respectively). Conclusions We found evidence of activation and peripheral sensitization of the nociceptive fibers, the primary and secondary nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system, and the endogenous pain control systems (including both the inhibitory and facilitatory processes), in the tested subject. These data suggest that bruxism and central orofacial pain can coexist, but are two independent symptoms, which may explain why numerous experimental and clinical studies fail to reach unequivocal conclusions. PMID:24165294

  13. Expression of Clock genes in the pineal glands of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Bin Sun; Xing Feng; Xin Ding; Li Bao; Yongfu Li; Jun He; Meifang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Clock genes are involved in circadian rhythm regulation,and surviving newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may present with sleep-wake cycle reversal.This study aimed to determine the expression of the clock genes Clock and Bmall,in the pineal gland of rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.Results showed that levels of Clock mRNA were not significantly changed within 48 hours after cerebral hypoxia and ischemia.Expression levels of CLOCK and BMAL1 protein were significantly higher after 48 hours.The levels of Bmall mRNA reached a peak at 36 hours,but were significantly reduced at 48 hours.Experimental findings indicate that Clock and Bmall genes were indeed expressed in the pineal glands of neonatal rats.At the initial stage (within 36 hours) of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage,only slight changes in the expression levels of these two genes were detected,followed by significant changes at 36 48 hours.These changes may be associated with circadian rhythm disorder induced by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  14. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins and prolactin in the laboratory rat. Role of maternal pineal gland.

    Vázquez, N; Díaz, E; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2007-01-01

    The laboratory rat, a non-photoperiodic rodent, exhibits seasonal fluctuations of melatonin. Melatonin has been found to be readily transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. No data exist on the possible influence of maternal pineal gland upon seasonal variations of the offspring. The aim of the present study was to asses the influence of the maternal melatonin rhythm on the offspring postnatal development of the reproductive hormones LH, FSH and prolactin. Male offspring from control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) and PIN-X + melatonin (PIN-X+MEL) mother Wistar rats were studied at 21, 31, and 60 days of age. Seasonal age-dependent variations were found for all hormones studied in control offspring but PIN-X offspring showed a tendency to have reduced duration or altered seasonal variations. Maternal melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the effect of pinealectomy. The chronological study of LH, FSH, and prolactin in PIN-X offspring also showed an altered pattern as compared to control-offspring. Melatonin treatment to the mothers partially restored the developmental pattern of reproductive hormones. Results of this study indicate that maternal pineal gland of the laboratory rat is involved in the seasonal postnatal development variations of reproductive hormones of the offspring.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (phospholipase C) activity in the pineal gland: characterization and photoneural regulation

    Ho, A.K.; Klein, D.C.

    1987-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (PL-C) appears to be a key element in the adrenergic regulation of pineal cyclic AMP levels. In the present study, the rat pineal enzyme was characterized using exogenous (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol (0.5 mM) as substrate. Half the enzyme activity was found in the cytosolic fraction, but the highest specific concentration was associated with the membrane fraction. Two pH optima (5.5 and 7.5) of enzyme activity were observed for the membrane fraction but only one in the cytosol fraction (pH 5.5). Enzyme activity in both fractions was Ca2+ dependent. In the case of the membrane protein in pH 7.5, the enzyme activity was sensitive to changes in Ca2+ in the 10-100 nM range. Addition of an equimolar concentration of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate nearly completely inhibited the hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol; other phospholipids (1.0 mM) were less potent. This may reflect our present finding that (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate is a better substrate than (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol for the enzyme. Stimulus deprivation (2 weeks of constant light or superior cervical ganglionectomy) reduced the cytosolic activity by 30% and had no effect on the membrane-associated enzyme.

  16. Pineal melatonin is a circadian time-giver for leptin rhythm in Syrian hamsters

    Ibtissam eChakir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland may affect central and peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known involvement in the control of seasonal physiology. The Syrian hamster is a photoperiodic species, which displays gonadal atrophy and increased adiposity when adapted to short (winter-like photoperiods. Here we investigated whether pineal melatonin secreted at night can impact daily rhythmicity of metabolic hormones and glucose in that seasonal species. For that purpose, daily variations of plasma leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose were analyzed in pinealectomized hamsters, as compared to sham-operated controls kept under very long (16h light/08h dark or short photoperiods (08h light/16h dark. Daily rhythms of leptin under both long and short photoperiods were blunted by pinealectomy. Furthermore, the phase of cortisol rhythm under a short photoperiod was advanced by 5.6 h after pinealectomy. Neither plasma insulin, nor blood glucose displays robust daily rhythmicity, even in sham-operated hamsters. Pinealectomy, however, totally reversed the decreased levels of insulin under short days and the photoperiodic variations in mean levels of blood glucose (i.e., reduction and increase in long and short days, respectively. Together, these findings in Syrian hamsters show that circulating melatonin at night drives the daily rhythmicity of plasma leptin, participates in the phase control of cortisol rhythm and modulates glucose homeostasis according to photoperiod-dependent metabolic state.

  17. Norepinephrine release in the rat pineal gland : The input from the biological clock measured by in vivo microdialysis

    Drijfhout, WJ; vanderLinde, AG; Kooi, SE; Grol, CJ; Westerink, BHC

    1996-01-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat pineal gland was investigated, measuring the norepinephrine (NE) release by on-line in vivo microdialysis, NE was assayed using an HPLC method with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. Its high sensitivity and reliability made it very suitable t

  18. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, co

  19. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  20. Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats.

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Orellana, Juan A; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Montiel, Juan; Díaz-Velíz, Gabriela; Serón-Ferré, María; Wyneken, Ursula; Concha, Miguel L; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. Although most studies have concentrated on the effect of stress on limbic-related brain structures, in this study we investigated whether chronic stress might induce impairments in diencephalic structures associated with limbic components of the stress response. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the expression of sympathetic markers in the rat epithalamic pineal gland by immunohistochemistry and western blot, whereas the plasma melatonin concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. We found that chronic stress decreased the expression of three sympathetic markers in the pineal gland, tyrosine hydroxylase, the p75 neurotrophin receptor and alpha-tubulin, while the same treatment did not affect the expression of the non-specific sympathetic markers Erk1 and Erk2, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, these results were correlated with a significant increase in plasma melatonin concentration in stressed rats when compared with control animals. Our findings indicate that stress may impair pineal sympathetic inputs, leading to an abnormal melatonin release that may contribute to environmental maladaptation. In addition, we propose that the pineal gland is a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  1. This pineal gland does not mediate phase shifts in the disc shedding rhythm of the rat retina

    Goldman, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were subjected to pinealectomy, superior cervical ganglionectomy, or the appropriate sham preparation and were placed in lighting conditions so that light onset was advanced by 10 hr. After 6 days of this regimen, all animals exhibited a complete shift in their outer segment disc shedding rhythm, indicating that the pineal gland is not a factor in mediating such a shift.

  2. Some properties of acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2. 3. 1. 5) from rat pineal gland

    Morton, D.J. (Department of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe)

    N-acetylation of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin in the pineal gland is catalysed by acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). The present investigation was an attempt to design an assay technique which would permit sensitive evaluation of SNAT in order to evaluate some kinetic properties of the enzyme.

  3. Separation of pineal extracts on sephadex G-10 : III. Isolation and comparison of extracted and synthetic melatonin

    Ebels, I.; Balemans, M.G.M.; Tommel, D.K.J.

    1972-01-01

    Melatonin has been isolated from 300 gm of sheep pineal bodies by filtration of an aqueous extract on Sephadex G-10. Excitation and fluorescence maxima of the fractions of the column were measured and the fractions were tested for their blanching activity in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis. The microgram

  4. SEASONAL VARIATION OF PINEAL MELATONIN CONTENT IN THE TOAD-HEADED LIZARD (PHRYNOCEPHALUS PRZEWALSKII)%荒漠沙蜥松果体褪黑激素含量的季节性变化

    李仁德; 李云鸿; 陈强

    2002-01-01

    应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)-UV检测了不同季节荒漠沙蜥(Phrynocephalus przewalskii)松果体内褪黑激素的含量.结果显示,其高峰值发生在春季,为1 017±209 pg/pineal.低峰值出现在冬季(实验室内冬眠,2~4℃),为355±68.5 pg/pineal,秋季的含量(735±133.7 pg/pineal)高于夏季的含量(597±94.9 pg/pineal).表明荒漠沙蜥松果体褪黑激素含量呈现明显的年周期节律并与光周期和生殖周期的年节律基本相符.%Seasonal variation in the pineal melatonin content of toad-headed lizards was determined by HPLC. The highest melatonin content (1 017±209 pg/pineal) occurred in spring and the lowest (335±68.5 pg/pineal) in winter. Melatonin levels in autumn (735±133 pg/pineal) were higher than in summer (597±94.9 pg/pineal). We conclude that pineal melatonin content has remarkable seasonal variation that coincides with photoperiod and reproductive rhythms.

  5. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  6. [Effects of recombinant interleukin-2 on several characteristics of functional activity of lymphocytes from the lymph nodes regional to tumor and mononuclear cells of peripheral blood in cancer patients].

    Semenova-Kobzar', R A; Kushko, L Ia; Iakhimovich, L V; Protsyk, V S; Tolstopiatov, B A; Konovalenko, V F; Berezhnaia, N M

    1990-01-01

    The level of endogenous production of IL-2 by lymphocytes of lymph nodes regional to tumour and by mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, proliferative response of these cell to recombinant IL-2, as well as a modifying influence of autologous serum and actively proliferating bioptats of autologous tumours on enumerated parameters have been studied in cancer patients (tumours of the head and neck and locomotor system). Regional IL-2-dependent immunotherapy of malignant tumors with obligatory preliminary testing for individual sensitivity of the tumor bioptat to the influence of the RIL-2 and RIL-2 activated lymphocytes is shown to be promising.

  7. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  8. Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland.

    Bai, Lin; Zimmer, Sybille; Rickes, Oliver; Rohleder, Nils; Holthues, Heike; Engel, Lydia; Leube, Rudolf; Spessert, Rainer

    2008-04-08

    The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals. To contribute to our understanding of the functional integrity of the circadian system and the melatonin forming system we have compared the daily oscillation of the two tissues under various seasonal lighting conditions. For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions. We have found that the cyclical patterns of all genes are phase-advanced in the retina, often with a lengthened temporal interval under short day conditions. In both tissues, the AA-NAT gene expression represents an indication of the output of the relevant pacemakers. The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland. We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues.

  9. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE). The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes. However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown. We examined the expression and regulation of several clock genes (Per1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha) under different lighting conditions or following adrenergic treatments in the Syrian hamster, a seasonal rodent. We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol. In contrast, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha exhibited a different pattern of expression and regulation. mRNA levels of both clock genes displayed a marked daily variation, maintained in DD, with higher values at midday for Bmal1 and at day/night transition for Rev-erb alpha. Remarkably, the daily variation of both Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA was maintained in LL conditions and was not affected by propranolol. This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.

  10. Photoperiodism as a modifier of effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on morphological properties of pineal gland.

    Lukac, Tamara; Matavulj, Amela; Matavulj, Milica; Rajković, Vesna; Lazetić, Bogosav

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine, using histological and stereological methods, whether photoperiodism has any impact on the effects that chronic (three-month long) exposure to LF-EMF (50Hz) has on morphological characteristics on rat's pineal gland. The experiment was performed on 48 Mill Hill male rats (24 experimental and 24 control). Upon birth, 24 rats were exposed for 7h a day, 5 days a week for 3 months to LF-EMF (50 Hz, 50-500microT, 10V/m). In the winter (short days, long nights), the activity of the pineal gland and neuroendocrine sensitivity is increased. The study was performed both during summer and winter, following the identical protocol. After sacrifice of animals, samples of pineal gland were processed for HE staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The most significant changes in epiphysis in the first group of animals in wintertime are: altered glandular feature, hyperemia, reduced pinealocytes with pale pink, poor cytoplasm and irregular, stick-form nuclei. In the second group (II) pinealocytes are enlarged, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyper chromatic, enlarged nucleus. Morphological changes of pineal gland at rats in the summertime were not as intense as in the winter and finding of the gland in the group II is compatible with those from the control group. Stereological results show both in winter and summer in the first group the decrease of volume density of pinealocytes, their cytoplasm and nuclei and in the second group in winter increase the volume density of pinealocytes, cytoplasm and nuclei, while in the second group the results in summertime are equal to those from the control group. Photoperiodism is modifier of effect of LF-EMF on morphological structure of pineal gland, because the gland recovery is incomplete in winter and reversible in summer.

  11. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Singhaniya Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  12. hSmad5 gene, a human hSmad family member: its full length cDNA, genomic structure, promoter region and mutation analysis in human tumors.

    Gemma, A; Hagiwara, K; Vincent, F; Ke, Y; Hancock, A R; Nagashima, M; Bennett, W P; Harris, C C

    1998-02-19

    hSmad (mothers against decapentaplegic)-related proteins are important messengers within the Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) superfamily signal transduction pathways. To further characterize a member of this family, we obtained a full length cDNA of the human hSmad5 (hSmad5) gene by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and then determined the genomic structure of the gene. There are eight exons and two alternative transcripts; the shorter transcript lacks exon 2. We identified the hSmad5 promoter region from a human genomic YAC clone by obtaining the nucleotide sequence extending 1235 base pairs upstream of the 5' end of the cDNA. We found a CpG island consistent with a promoter region, and we demonstrated promoter activity in a 1232 bp fragment located upstream of the transcription initiation site. To investigate the frequency of somatic hSmad5 mutations in human cancers, we designed intron-based primers to examine coding regions by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Neither homozygous deletions or point mutations were found in 40 primary gastric tumors and 51 cell lines derived from diverse types of human cancer including 20 cell lines resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta1. These results suggest that the hSmad5 gene is not commonly mutated and that other genetic alterations mediate the loss of TGF-beta1 responsiveness in human cancers.

  13. Heterogeneous breakpoints on the immunoglobulin genes are involved in fusion with the 5' region of BCL2 in B-cell tumors.

    Yonetani, N; Ueda, C; Akasaka, T; Nishikori, M; Uchiyama, T; Ohno, H

    2001-09-01

    The 5' flanking region of the BCL2 gene (5'-BCL2) is a breakpoint cluster of rearrangements with immunoglobulin genes (IGs). In contrast to t(14;18)(q32;q21) affecting the 3' region of BCL2, 5'-BCL2 can fuse to not only the heavy chain gene (IGH), but also two light chain gene (IGL) loci. We report here cloning and sequencing of a total of eleven 5'-BCL2 / IGs junctional areas of B-cell tumors, which were amplified by long-distance polymerase chain reaction-based assays. The breakpoints on 5'-BCL2 were distributed from 378 to 2312 bp upstream of the translational initiation site and, reflecting the alteration of regulatory sequences of BCL2, 5'-BCL2 / IGs-positive cells showed markedly higher levels of BCL2 expression than those of t(14;18)-positive cells. In contrast, the breakpoints on the IGs were variable. Two 5'-BCL2 / IGH and two 5'-BCL2 / IGLkappa junctions occurred 5' of the joining (J) segments, suggesting operation of an erroneous variable (V) / diversity (D) / J and V / J rearrangement mechanism. However, two other 5'-BCL2 / IGH junctions affected switch regions, and the kappa-deleting element, which is located 24 kb downstream of the constant region of IGLkappa, followed the 5'-BCL2 in another case. One 5'-BCL2 / IGLkappa and two 5'-BCL2 / IGLlambda junctions involved intronic regions where the normal recombination process does not occur. In the remaining one case, the 5'-BCL2 fused 3' of a Vlambda gene that was upstream of another Vlambda / Jlambda complex carrying a non-producing configuration, indicating that the receptor editing mechanism was likely involved in this rearrangement. Our study revealed heterogeneous anatomy of the 5'-BCL2 / IGs fusion gene leading to transcriptional activation of BCL2, and suggested that the mechanisms underlying the formation of this particular oncogene / IGs recombination are not identical to those of t(14;18).

  14. Importance of light in temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system in the pineal of carp Catla catla.

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2010-05-01

    The importance of light in the temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system has been investigated for the first time in the pineal of a tropical fish. In this study, an identical experimental paradigm was followed during the four distinct phases of an annual cycle in adult carps (Catla catla) maintained either under natural photoperiod (NP) or continuous illumination (LL) or darkness (DD) for 30 days. At the end of each experiment, the pineal from fish in each experimental group was collected either at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00, or 24:00 in a daily cycle and assessed by Western blot analysis for pineal rod-like opsin, alpha-transducin, and AANAT. The same animals were also used for measurement of serum melatonin levels, and the serum as well as intra-pineal Ca(++) levels at each timepoint. The study revealed a daily rhythmicity with a peak at 12:00 h and nadir at 24:00 h in the band intensity of pineal rod-like opsin and alpha-transducin in NP fish, while the band intensities of these photo-pigment proteins remained high under LL and low under DD, irrespective of clock hour during the 24 h cycle. The band intensity of pineal AANAT, levels of serum melatonin, and both serum Ca(++) and intra-pineal Ca(++) were maximum at 24:00 h and minimum at 12:00h in NP fish, and they were significantly lower under LL and higher under DD at each point of study. The results showed loss of daily rhythm in each studied variable in both LL and DD carps, suggesting that their circadian organization is dependent on the external light-dark conditions, rather than an endogenous circadian oscillator in the pineal.

  15. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  16. Movement training of shoulder after radical clearance of cervical lymph nodes on malignant tumor of maxillofacial region%颌面部恶性肿瘤根治性颈清扫术后肩部的运动训练

    洪霞

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Radical clearance of cervical lymph nodes is an effective method to treat malignant tumor of maxillofacial region and prevent diffusion and relapses. But postoperative contour and dysfunction of shoulder due to dysfunction of trapezius muscle that is caused by injury of accessory nerve affect patients' living quality.

  17. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.

  18. Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Zepeda-Carreño, Rodrigo; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-05-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. These alterations have been related with the development of cognitive deficits in major depression. Moreover, stress induces deleterious actions on the epithalamic pineal organ, a gland involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the stress effects on the pineal gland are related with changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland. We found that BDNF is produced in situ in the pineal gland. Chronic immobilization stress induced upregulation of BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland but did not produce changes in beta-actin mRNA or in GAPDH expression. Stressed animals also evidenced an increase in anxiety-like behavior and acute gastric lesions. These results suggest that BDNF and integrin alpha5 may have a counteracting effect to the deleterious actions of immobilization stress on functionally stimulated pinealocytes. Furthermore, this study proposes that the pineal gland may be a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  19. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  20. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4th-5th-6th decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described. PMID:22639521

  1. Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.

    Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-03-01

    Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

  2. The 5′-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Ramdohr, Pablo; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Tapia, Karla; Rodriguez, Felipe E.; Lowy, Fernando; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Dangerfield, John A.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The 5′-UTR of the full-length mRNA derived from the infectious, complete MMTV genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (FLuc). In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the MMTV 5′-UTR was capable of driving translation of the second cistron. In vitro translational activity from the MMTV 5′-UTR was resistant to the addition of m7GpppG cap-analog and cleavage of eIF4G by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L-protease. IRES activity was also demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by micro-injection of capped and polyadenylated bicistronic RNAs harboring the MMTV-5′-UTR. Finally, transfection assays showed that the MMTV-IRES exhibits cell type-dependent translational activity, suggesting a requirement for as yet unidentified cellular factors for its optimal function. PMID:19889724

  3. Association of-238G/A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region with outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese Han population

    Liang-Ping Lu; Xing-Wang Li; Ying Liu; Guo-Chang Sun; Xue-Ping Wang; Xi-Lin Zhu; Quan-You Hu; Hui Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether -238G/A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene promoter region was associated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Han population of northem China, and to analyze the geneenvironment interaction between -238G/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to analyze the association of TNF-α gene promoter polymorphism with HBV infection outcomes. A total of 207 patients with chronic hepatitis B (HB) and 148 cases of self-limited HBV infection from Ditan Hospital and Shunyi District Hospital in Beijing,respectively were recruited. History of smoking and alcohol drinking was inquired by a questionnaire. The -238G/A polymorphism of TNF-α gene promoter was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).RESULTS: The frequencies of GG and GA genotypes were 98.07% and 1.93% in chronic HB patients and 93.24% and 6.76% in self-limited HBV infection individuals, respectively (x2=5.30, P=0.02). The frequency of G allele was significantly higher in patients with chronic HB that in individuals with self-limited HBV infection (99.03% vs 96.62%, x2=5.20,P=0.02). Only modestly increased risk of onset of chronic HB was found in smokers (OR=1.40, 95% CI: 0.87-2.28,P=0.14) and drinkers (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 0.78-2.05, P=0.32).There was a positive interaction between genotype GG and cigarette smoking with an interaction index (Ⅱ) of 2.95, or alcohol consumption with an Ⅱ of 1.64.CONCLUSION: The -238G/A polymorphism of TNF-α gene promoter region is independently associated with different outcomes of HBV infection.

  4. Functional characterization of P2X7 receptors in the rat pineal gland

    Luis Henrique de Souza Teodoro

    2013-01-01

    A sinalização purinérgica tem sido demonstrada como um um importante modulador dediversos processos fisiológicos e fisiopatológicos. Dentre os receptores purinérgicos, o receptor P2X7 distingui-se por requerir altas concentrações de ATP em sua ativação. As demonstrações prévias de que a glândula pineal responde a diferentes estímulos purinérgicose a altas concentrações de ATP sugere um papel para os receptores P2X7 nesta glândula, embora sua expressão e função não estivesse estabelecida. O ob...

  5. Clorgyline effect on pineal melatonin biosynthesis in adrenalectomized rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Reuss, S; Requintina, P J; Riemann, R; Oxenkrug, G F

    1994-01-01

    The response to administration of the specific monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) blocker clorgyline was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which were adrenalectomized four days prior to treatment or were additionally sympathectomized as newborns by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. In both groups, the contents of pineal indoles melatonin and N-acetylserotonin were augmented, and the contents of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoletryptophol decreased 90 min following clorgyline injections when compared to rats receiving saline. The observed responses were less pronounced in rats both adrenalectomized and sympathectomized. The results are in line with the hypothesis that preservation from oxidation of both MAO-A substrates, noradrenaline and serotonin, upon clorgyline administration contributes to the observed increase in melatonin biosynthesis thought to be associated with the anti-depressant effects of MAO inhibition.

  6. Pineal gland hormone and idiopathic scoliosis: possible effect of melatonin on sleep-related postural mechanisms.

    Pompeiano, O; Manzoni, D; Miele, F

    2002-04-01

    Experimental and clinical evidences indicate that endocrine mechanisms, particularly involving the pineal gland, exert a role in the development of postural deficits leading to the occurrence of idiopatic scoliosis (IS). In particular, experiments performed in bipedal animals have shown that removal of the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin (M), induced a scoliosis, and that in such preparations, administration of this hormone prevented the development of this deformity (cf. 131). It appears also that adolescents with IS showed a reduced level of serum M with respect to age-related control subjects. The possible mechanisms involved in the M regulation of the tonic contraction of the axial musculature have been discussed. It is known that the pineal gland is implicated in the control of circadian rhythms, including the sleep-waking cycle, and that during this cycle there are prominent changes in postural activity, which affect not only the limbs, but also the axial musculature. These changes are characterized by a decrease followed by a suppression of postural activity, which occur particularly during transition from wakefulness to synchronized sleep and, more prominently, to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Episodes of postural atonia may also occur during the cataplectic episodes, which are typical of narcolepsy. Cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons located in the dorsal pontine reticular formation (pRF) and the related medullary inhibitory reticulospinal (RS) system, intervene in the suppression of posture during REM sleep, as well as during the cataplectic episodes which occur in narcolepsy. These structures are under the modulatory (inhibitory) influence of the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, where serotoninergic raphe nuclei (RN) neurons and noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons are located. We postulated that M may act not only on the circadian pacemaker, but also directly on the pontine tegmental structures involved in the

  7. Increased melatonin synthesis in pineal glands of rats in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes.

    Peschke, Elmar; Wolgast, Sabine; Bazwinsky, Ivonne; Pönicke, Klaus; Muhlbauer, Eckhard

    2008-11-01

    It is well-documented that melatonin influences insulin secretion. The effects are mediated by specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT(1) as well MT(2)), which are present in both the pancreatic tissue and islets of rats and humans, as well as in rat insulinoma cells (INS1). Via the Gi-protein-adenylatecyclase-3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and, possibly, the guanylatecyclase-cGMP pathways, melatonin decreases insulin secretion, whereas, by activating the Gq-protein-phospholipase C-IP(3) pathway, it has the opposite effect. For further analysis of the interactions between melatonin and insulin, diabetic rats were investigated with respect to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and plasma insulin levels. In this context, recent investigations have proven that type 2 diabetic rats and humans display decreased melatonin levels, whereas type 1 diabetic IDDM rats or those with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) of the present study show increased plasma melatonin levels and elevated AA-NAT-mRNA. Furthermore, the mRNA of pineal insulin receptors and beta1-adrenoceptors, including the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 and the clock-controlled output gene Dbp, increases in both young and middle-aged STZ rats. The results therefore indicate that the decreased insulin levels in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes are associated with higher melatonin plasma levels. In good agreement with earlier investigations, it was shown that the elevated insulin levels observed in type 2 diabetes, are associated with decreased melatonin levels. The results thus prove that a melatonin-insulin antagonism exists. Astonishingly, notwithstanding the drastic metabolic disturbances in STZ-diabetic rats, the diurnal rhythms of the parameters investigated are maintained.

  8. A novel function for the pineal organ in the control of swim depth in the Atlantic halibut larva

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2002-02-01

    The pineal organ of vertebrates is a photo-sensitive structure that conveys photoperiod information to the brain. This information influences circadian rhythm and related metabolic processes such as thermoregulation, hatching time, body growth, and the timing of reproduction. This study demonstrates extra-ocular light responses that control swim depth in the larva of the Atlantic halibut, Hyppoglosus hyppoglosus. Young larvae without a functional eye (=29 days), which possess a functional eye, swim immediately downwards (microsecond delay) following the onset of the light stimulus, but proceed to swim upwards several seconds later. These two response patterns are thus opposite in polarity and have different time kinetics. Because the pineal organ of the Atlantic halibut develops during the embryonic stage, and because it is the only centre in the brain that expresses functional visual pigments (opsins) at early larval stages, it is the only photosensory organ capable of generating the extra-ocular responses observed.

  9. Pineal gland as an endocrine gravitational lunasensor: manifestation of moon-phase dependent morphological changes in mice.

    Gerasimov, A V; Kostyuchenko, V P; Solovieva, A S; Olovnikov, A M

    2014-10-01

    We found that some morphological properties of the pineal gland and submandibular salivary gland of mice are significantly distinct at the new and full moon. We suppose that the differences are initiated by the displacements of the electron-dense concretions in the secretory vesicles of pinealocytes. This presumably occurs under the influence of the gravitational field, which periodically changes during different phases of the moon. It seems that the pinealocyte is both an endocrine and gravisensory cell. A periodic secretion of the pineal gland probably stimulates, in a lunaphasic mode, the neuroendocrine system that, in turn, periodically exerts influence on different organs of the body. The observed effect probably serves, within the lifelong clock of a brain, to control development and aging in time.

  10. Neuroendoscopic biopsy and the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus of the ventricular and paraventricular region in pediatric patients: a nationwide study in Japan.

    Miwa, Tomoru; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro; Ohira, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    A neuroendoscopic biopsy is a minimally invasive and useful procedure for the diagnosis and initial management of tumor-associated hydrocephalus. We describe the nationwide investigation of the current status of neuroendoscopic biopsy for intra- and paraventricular tumors in children, as well as the treatment of tumor-associated hydrocephalus in pediatric patients. The main items examined included the patient's age and sex, location of the tumor, pathological diagnosis, complications, treatment and efficacy of treatment of the tumor-associated hydrocephalus, and the dissemination during the postoperative course. Two hundred twenty-one pediatric patients (mean 8.6 years) from 67 institutions were registered. Endoscopic tumor biopsies were performed in 206 patients (93.2 %), and a histopathological diagnosis could be performed in 195 of these 206 patients (94.7 %). The most frequently histopathologically diagnosed tumor was a germ cell tumor (41.5 %), followed by astrocytic tumors (24.1 %) and cystic lesions (15.9 %). Associated hydrocephalus was observed in 177 patients (80.1 %), 101 of whom underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). The efficacy rate of the ETV in the perioperative period was 99.0 %, and the long-term response rate was 90.1 %. Perioperative complications other than fever were found in 24 patients (10.9 %). In the statistical analysis, pediatric long-term response rate to ETV (p = 0.025) showed significantly more favorable results for pediatric than adult patients (p < 0.05). Neuroendoscopic procedures involving pediatric intra- and paraventricular tumors were considered to be very useful, with a low incidence of complication, and were associated with higher safety.

  11. Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat

    Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

  12. Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction.

    Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Rickes, Oliver; Kelleher, Debra K; Rohleder, Nils; Weyer, Veronika; Spessert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons and represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. As reported previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes. As with the transcript, the amount of PDE10A protein was found to be under daily and seasonal regulation. The observed cyclicity in the amount of PDE10A mRNA persists under constant darkness, is blocked by constant light and is modulated by the lighting regime. It therefore appears to be driven by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since adrenergic agonists and dibutyryl-cAMP induce PDE10A mRNA, the in vitro clock-dependent control of Pde10a appears to be mediated via a norepinephrine → β-adrenoceptor → cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. With regard to the physiological role of PDE10A in the pineal gland, the specific PDE10A inhibitor papaverine was seen to enhance the adrenergic stimulation of the second messenger cAMP and cGMP. This indicates that PDE10A downregulates adrenergic cAMP and cGMP signaling by decreasing the half-life of both nucleotides. Consistent with its effect on cAMP, PDE10A inhibition also amplifies adrenergic induction of the cAMP-inducible gene arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) which codes the rate-limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin formation. The findings of this study suggest that Pde10a expression is under circadian and seasonal regulation and plays a modulatory role in pineal signal transduction and gene expression.

  13. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity

    Gayathri P Amonkar; Asha Rupani; Ajay Shah; Ramesh Deshpande

    2016-01-01

    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  14. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis.

  15. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.

  16. Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wei, I-Hua; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Jou, Ming-Jia; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Chen, Hui-Min; Wu, Ching-Hsiang

    2008-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a well-known factor in reducing nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, the mechanism underlying diabetes-induced insufficiency of pineal melatonin has remained uncertain. This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis. The number of the pinealocytes and the volume of pineal were also estimated using stereologic quantification including the optical fractionator and Cavalieri's method. It has also shown a progressive reduction of the total area of the pineal gland and the nuclear size of pinealocytes beginning at 4 weeks of induced diabetes. Surprisingly, the immunoreactive intensities and protein amounts of serotonin (5-HT) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the pineal gland were progressively increased from 4 weeks of diabetes. Meanwhile, nerve fibers immunoreactive for PGP 9.5 had disappeared. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was observed in nerve fibers containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The affected nerve fibers appeared swollen and smooth in outline but they showed a distribution pattern, packing density and protein levels comparable to those of the age-matched control animals. Ultrastructural observations have revealed diabetes-induced deformity of Schwann cells and basal lamina, accumulation of synaptic vesicles and deprivation of the dense-core vesicles in the axon terminals and varicosities. The increase in immunoreactivities in 5-HT and PGP 9.5 and shrinkage of pineal gland in the diabetic rats suggest an inefficient enzyme activity of the pinealocytes. This coupled with the occurrence of anomalous TH nerve fibers, may lead to an ineffective sympathetic innervation of the pinealocytes resulting in reduced melatonin production in STZ-induced diabetes.

  17. Down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects in region of high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor

    ZHANG Zhi-mian; LI Ying-jie; GUAN Xiao; YANG Xiao-yun; GAO Xi-mei; YANG Xiao-jing; WANG Li-shui; ZOU Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Many types of human tumors can suppress the immune system to enhance their survival. Loss or down-regulation of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I on tumors is considered to be a major mechanism of tumor immune escape. Our previous studies found that HLA class I on peripheral-blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. The present study made an analysis of HLA class I expression on peripheral-blood T lymphocytes and NK cells from subjects of Lijiadian village, a village with high-incidence gastrointestinal tumor. Methods A total of 181 villagers from Lijiadian village and 153 normal controls from the Department of Health Examination Center were enrolled in this study. Using a multi-tumor markers detection system, these villagers were divided into two groups: high-risk group (tumor markers positive group) and low-risk group (tumor markers negative group). The percentage of T lymphocytes and NK cells and levels of HLA class I on their surface were determined in these subjects by flow cytometry.Results Percentages of T lymphocytes and NK cells in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells did not vary with age. The expression level of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells was not affected by age or gender, but was significantly down-regulated in Lijiadian villagers (P<0.05), especially on the surface of NK cells (P<0.01). Compared with the low-risk group, there was a significant reduction of HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes (P <0.05) and NK cells (P <0.05) in the high-risk group.Conclusions HLA class I on peripheral T lymphocytes and NK cells may be involved in tumorigenesis and development of gastrointestinal tumor, and understanding their changes in expression may provide new insights into the mechanism of tumor immunity.

  18. Specific anti-tumor effect induced by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine expressing extracellular region of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    YANG Jun; DONG Jian; PU Ping; WANG ZhiQiang; HONG Min; CHEN MingQing

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to study the stable expression of exogenous gene encoding therapeutic protein in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium, observe the metabolism of oral gene vac-cine carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium in BALB/c mouse, and investigate the feasibility of prevention and treatment of tumors by the recombinant bacteria. Recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1+ VEGFR2(n1-7) was transformed into competent attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261 to develop oral DNA vaccine SL3261-pcDNA3.1+VEGFR2(n1-7). To observe whether the exogenous gene can be ex-pressed in the recombinant bacteria, PCR was performed to amplify the CMV promoter of the eu-karyotic expression vector as the proof of stable expression of exogenous protein; transmission elec-tron microscopy (TEM) was applied to observe the morphology of the recombinant bacteria to confirm that the exogenous gene has no impact on the growth of the bacteria, and then BALB/c mice were immunized with the gene vaccine. After inoculation of the gene vaccine, the recombinant bacteria SL3261 could be detected in the tissues such as small intestine, colon, liver and spleen. And then, mice in each group were challenged with tumor cells. The results of animal experiment showed that tumor growth of the mice in experimental group was inhibited and survival time of immunized mice was pro-longed compared with control groups. A higher lymphocyte infiltration in tumors from animals treated with DNA vaccine was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples revealed an en-hanced accumulation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, as well as an increase in CD4+ cells in the tu-mors of animals treated with the oral gene vaccine compared to tumors from control group mice. UI-trastructure of the tumor tissue showed that tumor cells in the samples of the immunized mice were well-differentiated. Our research confirmed that the exogenous gene can be stably expressed in the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and has no

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region alter the risk of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Junqing Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA. In contrast, the reported association of TNFα gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV or psoriatic arthritis (PsA but also of PsV&PsA. METHODS: Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNFα promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNFα promoter SNPs. RESULTS: A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNFα -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861. However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685. Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681. In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759, whereas TNFα -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1

  20. Hypothalamic tumor

    Complications of brain surgery may include: Bleeding Brain damage Death (rarely) Infection Seizures can result from the tumor or from any surgical procedure on the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur with some tumors and ...

  1. Wilms Tumor

    ... Wilms tumor is 1 pound at diagnosis. Some children also may have nausea, stomach pain, high blood pressure (hypertension), blood in the urine, loss of appetite, or fever. Even though Wilms tumors often are ...

  2. CSF generation by pineal gland results in a robust melatonin circadian rhythm in the third ventricle as an unique light/dark signal.

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-01-01

    Pineal gland is an important organ for the regulation of the bio-clock in all vertebrate species. Its major secretory product is melatonin which is considered as the chemical expression of darkness due to its circadian peak exclusively at night. Pineal melatonin can be either released into the blood stream or directly enter into the CSF of the third ventricle via the pineal recess. We have hypothesized that rather than the peripheral circulatory melatonin circadian rhythm serving as the light/dark signal, it is the melatonin rhythm in CSF of the third ventricle that serves this purpose. This is due to the fact that melatonin circadian rhythm in the CSF is more robust in terms of its extremely high concentration and its precise on/off peaks. Thus, extrapineal-generated melatonin or diet-derived melatonin which enters blood would not interfere with the bio-clock function of vertebrates. In addition, based on the relationship of the pineal gland to the CSF and the vascular structure of this gland, we also hypothesize that pineal gland is an essential player for CSF production. We feel it participates in both the formation and reabsorption of CSF. The mechanisms associated with these processes are reviewed and discussed in this brief review.

  3. The morphology of the pineal gland of the yellow-toothed cavy (Galea Spixii Wagler, 1831) and red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina linnaeus, 1758).

    Câmara, Felipe Venceslau; Lopes, Igor Renno Guimarães; de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Bezerra, Ferdinando Vinicius Fernandes; de Oliveira, Radan Elvis Matias; Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Magno; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco

    2015-08-01

    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in all mammals. This article describes the morphology of this important gland in two species of Caviideae, namely the yellow-toothed cavy and the red-rumped agouti. Ten adult animals of the two species used in current analysis were retrieved from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA) and euthanized. The glands were removed and photographed in situ and ex situ. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% or glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and submitted to routine histological techniques respectively for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the pineal gland with its elongated structure may be found between the cerebral hemispheres facing the rostral colliculi. Microscopically, pinealocytes and some glia cells were predominant. Contrastingly, to the cavy's pineal gland, a capsule covered the organ in the agouti, with the emission of incomplete septa to the interior, which divided it into two lobules. Light and scanning electron microscopes failed to show calcareous concretions in the pineal gland. Based on the topography of the cavy's and agouti's pineal gland, it may be classified as supra-callosum and ABC type.

  4. Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats.

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-06-01

    A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans. Melatonin has a protective role in type 2 diabetes; however, its synthesis itself is affected in the disease. The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Therefore, plasma melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point). Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated. We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats. This is the first time that melatonin synthesis is examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model in a diurnal manner. The present data unveil several reasons for a reduced melatonin secretion in diabetic animals and present an important link in the interaction between melatonin and insulin.

  5. Pineal gland expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 is restricted to a population of glia that are distinct from nestin-immunoreactive cells.

    Man, Pui-Sin; Carter, David A

    2008-02-01

    Egr-1 is a plasticity-related transcription factor that has been implicated in circadian regulation of the pineal gland. In the present study we have investigated the cellular expression pattern of Egr-1 in the adult rat pineal. Egr-1 protein is restricted to the nucleus of a sub-population of cells. These cells were characterised using a new transgenic rat model (egr-1-d2EGFP) in which green fluorescent protein is driven by the egr-1 promoter. Cellular filling by GFP revealed that Egr-1-positive cells exhibited processes, indicating a glial cell-type morphology. This was confirmed by co-localizing the GFP-filled processes with vimentin and S-100beta. However, GFP/Egr-1 is expressed in only a tiny minority of the previously identified Id-1/vimentin-positive glial cells and therefore represents a novel sub-set of this (GFAP-negative) glial population. We have also demonstrated for the first time an extensive network of nestin-positive cells throughout the adult pineal gland, however these cells do not co-express Egr-1. Our studies have therefore broadened our understanding of the cell populations that constitute the adult pineal. Cellular localization of Egr-1 has revealed that this factor does not appear to be directly involved in pinealocyte production of melatonin but is required in a sub-set of pineal glia.

  6. Urogenital tumors

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Brain Tumors

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  8. Polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor genes and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma in a population of high incidence region of North China

    GUO Wei; WANG Na; LI Yan; ZHANG Jian-hui

    2005-01-01

    Background We investigated the possible association of the functional polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) genes with susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA). Methods The TNF-α-308G/A and TNF-β+252G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using polymerase-chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, in 555 cancer patients (291 ESCC and 264 GCA) and 437 healthy controls in a high incidence region of North China. Results Among healthy controls, frequencies of the TNF-α 1/1, 1/2 and 2/2 genotypes were 89.4%,9.2% and 1.4% respectively, while frequencies of the TNF-β B1/B1, B1/B2 and B2/B2 genotypes were 12.6%,32.3% and 55.1%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the overall genotype and allelotype distribution of the TNF-α-308G/A and TNF-β+252G/A SNPs among cancer patients and controls. However, both the B1/B1 genotype and B1/B2 genotype significantly increased the risk of developing ESCC [the age and gender adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.04 and 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-4.43 and 1.14-2.60, respectively] and GCA (the age and gender adjusted OR=2.68 and 2.64, 95% CI=1.14-6.29 and 1.47-4.72, respectively) in individuals with negative family history of UGIC, in comparison with the B2/B2 genotype. When the two TNF polymorphisms were combined and analyzed, individuals with the TNF-β B1/B2 and TNF-α1/2 or 2/2 genotypes significantly reduced the risk of developing ESCC and GCA, in comparison with those harboring the TNF-β B2/B2 and TNF-α 1/1 genotypes (the age and gender adjusted OR=0.37 and 0.34, 95% CI=0.15-0.92 and 0.13-0.90, respectively).Conclusions Therefore, the TNF-α-308G/A and TNF-β+252G/A genotyping may be used as a stratification markers to predicate the risk of ESCC and GCA development in North China.

  9. Modulation of metabolic and clock gene mRNA rhythms by pineal and retinal circadian oscillators

    Karaganis, Stephen P.; Bartell, Paul A.; Shende, Vikram R.; Moore, Ashli F.; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Avian circadian organization involves interactions between three neural pacemakers: the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), pineal, and retina. Each of these structures is linked within a neuroendocrine loop to influence downstream processes and peripheral oscillations. However, the contribution of each structure to drive or synchronize peripheral oscillators or circadian outputs in avian species is largely unknown. To explore these interactions in the chick, we measured 2-deoxy[14C]-glucose (2DG) uptake and mRNA expression of the chick clock genes bmal1, cry1, and per3 in three brain areas and in two peripheral organs in chicks that underwent pinealectomy, enucleation, or sham surgery. We found that 2DG uptake rhythms damp under constant darkness in intact animals, while clock gene mRNA levels continue to cycle, demonstrating that metabolic rhythms are not directly driven by clock gene transcription. Moreover, 2DG rhythms are not phase-locked to rhythms of clock gene mRNA. However, pinealectomy and enucleation had similar disruptive effects on both metabolic and clock gene rhythms, suggesting that both of these oscillators act similarly to reinforce molecular and physiological rhythms in the chicken. Finally, we show that the relative phasing of at least one clock gene, cry1, varies between central and peripheral oscillators in a tissue specific manner. These data point to a complex, differential orchestration of central and peripheral oscillators in the chick, and, importantly, indicate a disconnect between canonical clock gene regulation and circadian control of metabolism. PMID:19136000

  10. Novel hypophysiotropic AgRP2 neurons and pineal cells revealed by BAC transgenesis in zebrafish

    Shainer, Inbal; Buchshtab, Adi; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Cone, Roger D.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated. By characterizing these transgenic lines, we showed that agrp1-expressing neurons are located in the ventral periventricular hypothalamus (the equivalent of the mammalian arcuate nucleus), projecting throughout the hypothalamus and towards the preoptic area. The agrp2 gene was expressed in the pineal gland in a previously uncharacterized subgroup of cells. Additionally, agrp2 was expressed in a small group of neurons in the preoptic area that project directly towards the pituitary and form an interface with the pituitary vasculature, suggesting that preoptic AgRP2 neurons are hypophysiotropic. We showed that direct synaptic connection can exist between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting communication and coordination between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons and, therefore, probably also between the processes they regulate. PMID:28317906

  11. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  12. Determination of Melatonin in Rat Pineal Gland and Drug with Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence

    WEI,Shou-Lian; ZHAO,LI-Xia; CHENG,Xiang-Lei; LIN,Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescence(CL)method for the determination of melatonin based on the CL reaction of melatonin with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl)in a basic alkaline solution was developed.The possible CL mechanism has been discussed,and a proposal for the reaction pathway was given that singlet oxygen was clarified to be produced in this reaction system and was responsible for the CL emission.Under the optimized conditions.the linear concentration range of application was 1.0 X 10-7-2.5×10-4 mol·L-1 with a detection Iimit of 5.0X 10-8 mol·L-1(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation for eight repeated measurements of 1.0×10-6 mol·L-1 melatonin was 2.8%.The interferences of several important biological substances.some indole compound,cations and anions were studied.No interference was found for the anions,glucose,starch,most of cations and low concentration(less than 3.0×10-6 mol·L-1)of some biological substances and indole compound.The method was applied to the determination of melatonin in rat pineal gland and drug with satisfactory results.The sample throughput was 90 injections per hour.

  13. Fluoride concentrations in the pineal gland, brain and bone of goosander (Mergus merganser) and its prey in Odra River estuary in Poland.

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Bosiacka-Baranowska, Irena; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Krolaczyk, Katarzyna; Wilk, Aleksandra; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate fluoride concentrations in bone, brain and pineal gland of goosander Mergus merganser wintering in the Odra estuary (Poland) as well as in fish originating from its digestive tract. The fluoride concentrations were determined with potentiometric method. Medians of concentrations in goosander had the highest and the lowest values in pineal gland and brain (>760 and pineal gland was significantly greater than in the bone and the brain of the duck. In fish, the fluoride concentration ranged from 37 to 640 mg/kg and significant correlation was revealed between the fluoride concentration and fish weight and length. Based on own results and data of other authors, a daily fluoride intake by the goosander in the Odra estuary was estimated at 15 mg. So high fluoride concentrations like in the duck have not been found in mammal brains.

  14. Characterization of the relations between morphology and physiological status of the pineal gland in connection with the somatic development level in turkeys reared in Romania

    R. Lazăr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research started from the premises of the existence of some possible relationships between indole and pineal peptide hormones and the somatic development, with participation of hypothalamic-pituitary complex. Experimental factors, which were the subject of the present paper, influenced the dynamics of corporal mass and fodder consumption, leading to the occurrence of some important structural modifications at the level of pineal gland. The exposure of the individuals to continuous light (photic pinealectomy produces increases in corporal mass, showing the involvement of the pineal gland in neuro-endocrine-metabolic reactions, which contributes to the maintenance of homeostatic balance, including somatic ones. Biological material was represented by a number of 50 individuals belonging to B.U.T. Big 6 hybrid, reared on soil, on a permanent litter, which could assure the expanding of knowledge area regarding the relation between rearing technology, modulation of some microclimate parameters and growing performances. Were also realised cytometric and hystometric muscular determinations.

  15. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  16. Melatonin synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is strongly expressed in a subpopulation of pinealocytes in the male rat pineal gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Coon, Steven L.; Amaral, Fernanda G.

    2016-01-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme...... in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell...... and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly...

  17. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer.

  18. Steroid Hormones and Antihormones can Reverse the Castration Induced Stimulation of the Pineal and Adrenal Karyomorphology and Cell Proliferation in Mice (Mus musculus

    S. Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, influence of castration and castrated animals supplemented with steroid hormones and antihormones on pineal-adrenal karyomorphology and dynamics were studied in post pubertal male mice. A group of thirty five mice were orchidectomized and (N = 7 sham operated, were kept in laboratory condition for 30 days. Such castrated were separately supplemented with estradiol at a dose of 5 g, testosterone at a dose of 100 g and antihormones, tamoxifen at a dose of 500 g and flutamide at 2 g daily (all at doses per 100 g.b.w. for ten consecutive days following thirty days of post castration. Present data reveal that both pineal and adrenal gland nuclear size and cell proliferation were significantly increased in thirty days post orchidectomized mice compared to control animals. The values are control pinealocyte nuclear diameter (dim: 4.750.06; castrated pinealocyte nuclear diameter (m: 5.340.04 (p<0.001. Control pineal M% 1.250.07; castrated pineal M% 2.020.11 (p<0.001. In control adrenal, representative of zones was Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m (5.110.04; castrated Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m 5.410.03 (p<0.001. Control adrenal M% (1.030.06 castrated adrenal M% (1.630.09 p<0.001. It was further observed that such pineal and adrenal stimulation in orchidectomized mice were significantly decreased when orchidectomized mice were administered with steroid hormones (estradiol and testosterone and antihormones (tamoxifen and flutamide compared to orchidectomized mice. Our study indicates that there exists a mutual stimulatory relationship between pineal and adrenal under conditions of steroid deprivation. However, exogenous administration of steroid hormones and antihormones to those castrated mice caused inhibition of these two peripheral endocrine glands.

  19. In silico genome wide mining of conserved and novel miRNAs in the brain and pineal gland of Danio rerio using small RNA sequencing data.

    Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subs