WorldWideScience

Sample records for pine wood nematode

  1. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Werf, Van Der W.; Hemerik, L.; Magnusson, C.; Robinet, C.

    2017-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once

  2. Chitosan-based nanoparticles of avermectin to control pine wood nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenlong; Yu, Aixin; Wang, Guodong; Zheng, Feng; Jia, Jinliang; Xu, Hanhong

    2018-06-01

    Pine wood nematode disease is a most devastating disease of pine trees. Avermectin (AVM) is a widely used bio-nematocide which can effectively to kill the pine wood nematode (PWN). However, its poor solubility in water and rapid photolysis are responsible for its poor bioavailability, which causes environmental pollution because of excessive applied rates. Here, a simple electrostatic interaction method was used to encapsulate AVM within nanoparticles composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and chitosan (CS). The loading capacity of the resulting AVM-CS/γ-PGA nanoparticles was as much as 30.5%. The encapsulation of AVM within these nanoparticles reduced its losses by more than 20.0% through photolysis. An in vitro test showed that the rate of release of AVM from the nanoparticles was dependent on the ambient pH, with rapid release occurring in an alkaline environment. The mortality rate of nematodes which were treated with 1ppm of AVM content of AVM-CS/γ-PGA was 98.6% after 24h, while one of free AVM was only 69.9%. In addition, FITC-labeled CS/γ-PGA nanoparticles (FITC-CS/γ-PGA) showed that the nanoparticles could enrich in intestines and head of nematodes. All of these results showed that those nanoparticles of AVM are a potential multifunctional formulation to control the pest and reduce environment pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  4. Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, J C; van der Werf, W; Hemerik, L; Magnusson, C; Robinet, C

    2017-04-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the

  5. How to Identify and Manage Pine Wilt Disease and Treat Wood Products Infested by the Pinewood Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Hanson; Michelle Cram

    2004-01-01

    Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The pinewood nematode is native to North America and is not considered a primary pathogen of native pines, but is the cause of pine wilt in some non-native pines. In countries where the pinewood nematode has been introduced, such as Japan and China, pine wilt is an...

  6. Invasive Species May Disrupt Protected Area Networks: Insights from the Pine Wood Nematode Spread in Portugal

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    Begoña de la Fuente

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of invasive alien species is considered a major threat to forest ecosystems and biodiversity. Their potential impacts range from local changes in species composition to wider-scale effects on forest habitat and landscape functioning, although the latter has been relatively little explored in the literature. Here, we assessed the impact of an invasive forest pest, the pine wood nematode (PWN, in the Natura 2000 network of protected areas (PAs in Portugal, the first European country in which PWN was reported. We considered the impacts of the pest’s spread (up to 2016 on individual PAs, in terms of the fraction of their coniferous forest infected, and on the corridors between PAs, which were mapped and prioritized through least-cost path modelling, geographic information system analysis, and the graph-based probability of connectivity metric. We found that PWN by 2016 had spread into 49% of the Portuguese Natura 2000 coniferous forest habitat, while it had invaded 68% of the coniferous forests that form the priority corridors between the PAs. These impacts are likely to be aggravated in the next years, given the pace of PWN expansion and the predicted rates of natural spread to new areas in Portugal and, increasingly likely, in Spain. Our results suggest that the connectivity of PA systems may be significantly disrupted by alien species, and that spatially prioritized control measures can help mitigate the impacts of invasive species on the coherence and functionality of protected area networks such as Natura 2000.

  7. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2011-08-01

    , Klebsiella, Paenibacillus, Pantoea and Terribacillus genera were identified. General bacterial diversity increased with the progression of the disease. Bacillus spp. were predominant at the earlier stage of disease progression and Klebsiella oxytoca at the later stages. Furthermore, bacterial species isolated from the surface of nematodes were similar to those isolated from the xylem of pines. In the present work new bacterial species were identified which have never been reported before in this type of study and may be associated with their geographical origin (Portugal). P. pinaster, the pine species used in this study, was different from those commonly grown in Japan and China. Furthermore, it was the first time that bacteria were isolated and identified from an avirulent pine wood nematode isolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees...

  9. The influence of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the occurrence of the Pine Wood Nematode in Góis Council, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we propose to investigate the influence of the pine wood nematode in the species pinus pinaster in Góis council and the way it affects the economic activity in this region. In order to do that we are going to analyse the influence of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall in the development of the vector insect of the pine wood nematode. In a first stage we are going to do a homogenisation of the series of temperature and rainfall, since they present a significant lack of data. For that we have chosen a reference station that allows us to determine the correlation coefficient to eliminate the lacks that are present in the other series. After that we are going to do the correlation with the number of nematode episodes that occurred and evaluate the area affected for a single year.

  10. Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe.

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    Tarek Soliman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030, assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.

  11. Development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K; Soejima, T; Suzuki, T; Kawazu, K

    2001-05-01

    Water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. Following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and Polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. This water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year-old trees of the Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, artificially inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a dose of 20 g emamectin benzoate per cubic metre of pine tree.

  12. A nematicidal tannin from Punica granatum L. rind and its physiological effect on pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

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    Guo, Qunqun; Du, Guicai; Qi, Hongtao; Zhang, Yanan; Yue, Tongqing; Wang, Jingchao; Li, Ronggui

    2017-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Punica granatum L. rind was tested to show significant nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Three nematicidal compounds were obtained from the ethanol extract by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as punicalagin 1, punicalin 2, and corilagin 3 by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data analysis. Punicalagin 1 was most active against PWN among the purified compounds with the LC 50 value of 307.08μM in 72h. According to the enzyme assays in vitro, punicalagin 1 could inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase, amylase and cellulase from PWN with IC 50 value of 0.60mM, 0.96mM and 1.24mM, respectively. The morphological structures of PWNs treated by punicalagin 1 were greatly changed. These physiological effects of punicalagin 1 on PWN may helpful to elucidate its nematicidal mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

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    Qunqun Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD, a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA. RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34 orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v. The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight. The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL and RosA (1 mg/mL also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina.

  14. Ecology of the Pinewood Nematode in Southern Pine Chip Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell

    1986-01-01

    The optimum temperature range for pinewood nematodes in southern pine chips was 35 to 40° C. Nematode populations declined at temperatures of -20°C. at temperatures above 45°C. and in anaerobic environments. Wood moisture content and presence of bluestain fungus also influenced nematode populations.

  15. Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Pine Wilt Disease

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    Long-Xi He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03 and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN.

  16. Effects of Endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) on Pathogenesis-Related Gene Expression of Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and Pine Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Long-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Xue, Qi; Qiu, Xiu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is responsible for devastating epidemics in pine trees in Asia and Europe. Recent studies showed that bacteria carried by the PWN might be involved in PWD. However, the molecular mechanism of the interaction between bacteria and the PWN remained unclear. Now that the whole genome of B. xylophilus (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is published, transcriptome analysis is a unique method to study the role played by bacteria in PWN. In this study, the transcriptome of aseptic B. xylophilus, B. xylophilus treated with endobacterium (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSPmBx03) and fungus B. xylophilus were sequenced. We found that 61 genes were up-regulated and 830 were down-regulated in B. xylophilus after treatment with the endobacterium; 178 genes were up-regulated and 1122 were down-regulated in fungus B. xylophilus compared with aseptic B. xylophilus. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were used to study the significantly changed biological functions and pathways for these differentially expressed genes. Many pathogenesis-related genes, including glutathinone S-transferase, pectate lyase, ATP-binding cassette transporter and cytochrome P450, were up-regulated after B. xylophilus were treated with the endobacterium. In addition, we found that bacteria enhanced the virulence of PWN. These findings indicate that endobacteria might play an important role in the development and virulence of PWN and will improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between bacteria and the PWN. PMID:27231904

  17. Larvicidal and Nematicidal Activities of 3-Acylbarbituric Acid Analogues against Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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    Seon-Mi Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Widespread concern for the occurrence of resistant strains, along with the avoidance of the use of highly toxic insecticides and their wide environmental dispersal, highlights the need for the development of new and safer pest control agents. Natural products provide inspiration for new chemical entities with biological activities, and their analogues are good lead compounds for the development of new pest control agents. For this purpose, we evaluated the larvicidal and nematicidal activities of 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, organisms of increasing global concern. Among the 48 3-acylbarbituric acid analogues, four compounds—10, 14d, 14g and 19b—showed >90% larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus at 10 μg/mL concentration, and one (compound 10 showed the strongest larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus, with a LC50 value of 0.22 μg/mL. Only compound 18 showed strong nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Most active compounds possessed similar physicochemical properties; thus, actives typically had ClogP values of around 1.40–1.50 and rel-PSA values of 16–17% and these similar cheminformatic characteristics reflect their similar structure. This study indicates that active 3-acylbarbituric acids analogues have potential as lead compounds for developing novel mosquito control agents.

  18. Influence of Bxpel1 Gene Silencing by dsRNA Interference on the Development and Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

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    Qiu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Lin; Ye, Jian-Ren

    2016-01-01

    As the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes huge economic losses by devastating pine forests worldwide. The pectate lyase gene is essential for successful invasion of their host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. To demonstrate the role of pectate lyase gene in the PWD process, RNA interference (RNAi) is used to analyze the function of the pectate lyase 1 gene in B. xylophilus (Bxpel1). The efficiency of RNAi was detected by real-time PCR. The result demonstrated that the quantity of B. xylophilus propagated with control solution treatment was 62 times greater than that soaking in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) after B. xylophilus inoculation in Botrytis cinerea for the first generation (F1). The number of B. xylophilus soaking in control solution was doubled compared to that soaking in Bxpel1 dsRNA four days after inoculation in Pinus thunbergii. The quantity of B. xylophilus was reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after treatment with dsRNAi compared with that using a control solution treatment. Bxpel1 dsRNAi reduced the migration speed and reproduction of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The pathogenicity to P. thunbergii seedling of B. xylophilus was weaker after soaking in dsRNA solution compared with that after soaking in the control solution. Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD. PMID:26797602

  19. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

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    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  20. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  1. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

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    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  2. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood

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    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  3. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

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    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  4. Bacterial Community Succession in Pine-Wood Decomposition.

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    Kielak, Anna M; Scheublin, Tanja R; Mendes, Lucas W; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here, we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  5. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

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    Anna eKielak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  6. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

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    Richard H. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  7. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...

  8. Insect biodiversity reduction of pine woods in southern Greece caused by the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, P. V.; Spanos, K.; Feest, A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica Gennadius, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Margarodidae) on the insect biodiversity of pinewoods in Attica, Greece. The comparison of biodiversities was done by estimating the biodiversity by the Ewens-Caswells V statistic in a set of nine sites each containing two linetransects. Transects pairs went through free and infested pine woods from the pine scale and each one had several tenth hectare plots on both sides. The ecosystem temperature (= disorder) of the sites was computed and found high, together with the idiosyncratic temperatures (= susceptibility to extinction) of the 158 species in order to detect local extinctions. The indicator values of insect species were computed on the basis of the relative cover of each plant species. The main findings of this study are (1) the reduction of insect species biodiversity because of the introduction of the pine scale, (2) the moderate increase of disorder in pine scale infested sites,(3) many insect species can characterize site groups but none of them can distinguish infested from pine scale free sites. The introduction of pine scale in pine woods disturbs their insect fauna before its influence to the floristic composition and the associated vegetation structure appears. The causes behind this reduction of biodiversity and the anthropogenic influences are discussed. (Author) 64 refs.

  9. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman; Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  10. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  11. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-12-31

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  12. Periodate and hypobromite modification of Southern pine wood to improve sorption of copper ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McSweeny; Roger M. Rowell; George C. Chen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Min Soo-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Milled southern pine wood was modified with sequential treatments of sodium periodate and sodium hypobromite for the purpose of improving copper ion (Cu2+) sorption capacity of the wood when tested in 24-h equilibrium batch tests. The modified wood provided additional carboxyl groups to those in the native wood and substantially increased Cu2+ uptake over that of...

  13. Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2008-01-01

    Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150°C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in...

  14. Growth and wood properties of genetically improved loblolly pine: propagation type comparison and genetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence Schimleck; Lewis Jordan; Benjamin Hornsby; Joseph Dahlen; Richard Daniels; Alexander Clark; Luis Apiolaza; Dudley Huber

    2013-01-01

    The use of clonal varieties in forestry offers great potential to improve growth traits (quantity) and wood properties (quality) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine trees established via somatic embryogenesis (clones), full-sib zygotic crosses, and half-sib zygotic open-pollinated families were sampled to identify variation in growth and wood properties...

  15. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  16. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem D.; Baysal, Ergun; Peker, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. ► Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. ► The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. ► Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. ► Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  17. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  18. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  19. Whole-tree bark and wood properties of loblolly pine from intensively managed plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Bruce E. Borders; Michael B. Kane; Harold E. Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify geographical variation in loblolly pine bark and wood properties at the whole-tree level and to quantify the responses in whole-tree bark and wood properties following contrasting silvicultural practices that included planting density, weed control, and fertilization. Trees were destructively sampled from both conventionally managed...

  20. Tracking monolignols during wood development in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Minako; Rensing, Kim H; Wong, John C T; Banno, Brian; Mansfield, Shawn D; Samuels, A Lacey

    2008-08-01

    Secondary xylem (wood) formation in gymnosperms requires that the tracheid protoplasts first build an elaborate secondary cell wall from an array of polysaccharides and then reinforce it with lignin, an amorphous, three-dimensional product of the random radical coupling of monolignols. The objective of this study was to track the spatial distribution of monolignols during development as they move from symplasm to apoplasm. This was done by feeding [(3)H]phenylalanine ([(3)H]Phe) to dissected cambium/developing wood from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var latifolia) seedlings, allowing uptake and metabolism, then rapidly freezing the cells and performing autoradiography to detect the locations of the monolignols responsible for lignification. Parallel experiments showed that radioactivity was incorporated into polymeric lignin and a methanol-soluble pool that was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. [(3)H]Phe was incorporated into expected lignin precursors, such as coniferyl alcohol and p-coumaryl alcohol, as well as pinoresinol. Coniferin, the glucoside of coniferyl alcohol, was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography but was not radioactively labeled. With light microscopy, radiolabeled phenylpropanoids were detected in the rays as well as the tracheids, with the two cell types showing differential sensitivity to inhibitors of protein translation and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Secondary cell walls of developing tracheids were heavily labeled when incubated with [(3)H]Phe. Inside the cell, cytoplasm was most strongly labeled followed by Golgi and low-vacuole label. Inhibitor studies suggest that the Golgi signal could be attributed to protein, rather than phenylpropanoid, origins. These data, produced with the best microscopy tools that are available today, support a model in which unknown membrane transporters, rather than Golgi vesicles, export monolignols.

  1. Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Ishii, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of nematodes for a study of radiation biology was considered. Structure, generation, rearing method, and genetic nature of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans, Turbatri acetic, etc.) were given an outline. As the advantage of a study using nematodes as materials, shortness of one generation time, simplicity in structure, and smallness of the whole cells, specific regular movement, and heliotaxis to chemical substances and light were mentioned. Effect of x-ray on survival rate of nematodes and effect of ultraviolet on nematodes and their eggs were described. It was suggested that nematodes was useful for studies on aging and radiation biology, and a possibility existed that nematodes would be used in studies of cancer and malformation. (Serizawa, K.)

  2. Disappearance and Compressibility of Buried Pine Wood in a Warm Temperate Soil Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholz, H L; Krazynski, L M; Volk, B G

    1991-02-01

    The rate of disappearance of buried pine wood in Florida was found to be 15%/yr.As consumption by microorganisms and termites proceeded, the wood also became more compressible. After only 5 yr, consumption and compression could account for 60-70% loss of original volume of wood under pavement near the surface of an embankment. This large volume loss occurring in a relatively short time period may be responsible for many surface deformations in pavements and weaknesses in other embankments where wood may occur as a contaminant. © 1991 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  4. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  5. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2010-12-09

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  6. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.

  7. Geographical variation in seasonality and life history of pine sawyer beetles Monochamus spp: its relationship with phoresy by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla S. Pimentel; Matthew P. Ayres; Vallery Erich; Chris Young; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the pinewood nematode and the causal agent of the pine wilt disease, is a globally important invasive pathogen of pine forests. It is phoretic in woodborer beetles of the genus Monochamus (Megerle) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and has been able to exploit novel indigenous species of...

  8. Wood variables affecting the friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett J. Lemoine; Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1970-01-01

    Wood of spruce pine, Pinus glabra Walk., was factorially segregated by moisture content (0, 10, and 18 percent), specific gravity (less than 0.45 and more than 0.45), and extractive content (unextracted and extractive-freE), and the kinetic coefficient of friction on steel (having surface roughness of 9 microinches RMS) determined for tangential...

  9. Color and Surface Chemistry Changes of Pine Wood Flour after Extraction and Delignification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    A detailed study was undertaken to examine the color and chemistry changes of pine wood flour when its extractives are removed and when it is delignified. The solvent systems employed were toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot-water (HW), while sodium chlorite/acetic acid were used for delignification (i.e., lignin removal (LR)). Samples were analyzed by...

  10. Guying to prevent wind sway influences loblolly pine growth and wood properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Burton; Diana M. Smith

    1972-01-01

    Restraining young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from normal swaying in the wind markedly reduced radial growth in the immobilized portion of the bole and accelerated it in the upper, free-swaying portion. Guying also reduced specific gravity, number of earlywood and latewood tracheids, latewood tracheid diameter, and amount of compression wood...

  11. Thermal Conversion of Pine Wood Char to Carbon Nanomaterials in the Presence of Iron Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Fumiya Watanabe; Umesh P. Agarwal; Jilei. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda) wood char powder was thermally treated at 1,000:C in the presence of a 25-nm-size Fe nanoparticle catalyst. The thermally treated carbon materials were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Well-aligned graphitic carbon structures with 15 to 17 layers on...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  13. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  14. Impregnation of bio-oil from small diameter pine into wood for moisture resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Robinson; Brian K. Via; Oladiran Fasina; Sushil Adhikari; Emily Carter

    2011-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis oil consists of hundreds of complex compounds, many of which are phenolic-based and exhibit hydrophobic properties. Southern yellow pine was impregnated with a pyrolysis oil-based penetrant using both a high pressure and vacuum impregnation systems, with no significant differences in retention levels. Penetrant concentrations ranging from 5-50% pyrolysis...

  15. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  16. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  17. Impact of initial spacing on yield per acre and wood quality of unthinned loblolly pine at age 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, III Clark; Richard F. Daniels; Lewis Jordan; Laurie Schimleck

    2010-01-01

    The market for southern pine first thinnings is soft. Thus, forest managers are planting at wider spacings, and using weed control and fertilization to grow chipping-saw and sawtimber trees in shorter rotations. A 21-year-old unthinned spacing study was sampled to determine the effect of initial spacing on wood quality and yield per acre of planted loblolly pine (

  18. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  19. THERMAL AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PINE WOOD IN THE TRANSVERSE DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamiyet Şahin Kol

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal conductivity and dielectric parameters for pine [Pinus sylvestris (L.] woods were determined in transverse directions for moisture conditions from oven-dry to 22 percent at a room temperature of 22 to 24 °C. Results indicate that the behaviors of thermal conductivity and dielectric parameters with moisture content and structural directions were similar. In general, the properties increased within the range studied with increasing moisture content. The radial values were similar to tangential values for both thermal conductivity and dielectric properties. The data presented here should be useful in most design problems where pine wood is subjected to microwave electric fields and heat changes.

  20. Thermopower coefficient of pine-wood biocarbon preforms and the biocarbon-preform/copper composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The thermopower S( T) of the composites prepared by filling empty sap channels in high-porosity biocarbon preforms of white pine wood by melted copper in vacuum and the thermopower S( T) of these preforms have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. The biocarbon preforms have been obtained by pyrolysis of pine wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. An analysis of the experimental data has demonstrated that the thermopower of the composites is determined by the contribution related to the copper filling the channels of the biocarbon preform and exhibits a characteristic temperature dependence with a deep minimum close to 20 K. This suggests that copper in the preform channels is essentially a Kondo alloy with the iron and manganese impurities entering into it from the carbon preform in the course of infiltration of melted copper.

  1. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  2. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in...

  3. Effect of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Wood Properties and Pulp Yield of Young, Fast Growing Southern Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Faust; Alexander Clark; Charles E. Courchene; Barry D. Shiver; Monique L. Belli

    1999-01-01

    The demand for southern pine fiber is increasing. However, the land resources to produce wood fiber are decreasing. The wood industry is now using intensive cultural treatments, such as competition control, fertilization, and short rotations, to increase fiber production. The impact of these intensive environmental treatments on increased growth is positive and...

  4. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  5. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  6. Contamination of pine and birch wood dust with microscopic fungi and determination of its sterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rogoziński, Tomasz; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-06-27

    Wood compounds, especially sterols, are connected with the level of contamination with microscopic fungi. Within this study, tests were conducted on wood dust samples collected at various work stations in a pine and birch timber conversion plant. Their contamination with mycobiota was measured as the concentration of ergosterol (ERG) by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Another aim of this study was to assess the effect of contamination with microscopic fungi on the sterol contents in wood dusts. Analyses were conducted on five sterols: desmosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol using UPLC and their presence was confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results of chemical analyses showed the greatest contamination with mycobiota in birch wood dust. We also observed varied contents of individual sterols depending on the wood dust type. Their highest concentration was detected in birch dust. The discriminant analysis covering all tested compounds as predictors showed complete separation of all tested wood dust types. The greatest discriminatory power was found for stigmasterol, desmosterol, and ergosterol.

  7. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  8. Juvenile wood volume and its proportion to stem volume vs. selected biometric features of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Tomczak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.

  9. Experimental determination of the yield stress curve of the scotch pine wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Ezgi; Aygün, Cevdet; Kaya, Şükrü Tayfun

    2013-12-01

    Yield stress curve is determined for the pine wood specimens by conducting a series of tests. In this work, pinewood is modeled as a composite material with transversely isotropic fibers. Annual rings (wood grain) of the wood specimens are taken as the major fiber directions with which the strain gauge directions are aligned. For this purpose, three types of tests are arranged. These are tensile, compression and torsion loading tests. All of the tests are categorized with respect to fiber orientations and their corresponding loading conditions. Each test within these categories is conducted separately. Tensile and compression tests are conducted in accordance with standards of Turkish Standards Institution (TSE) whereas torsion tests are conducted in accordance with Standards Australia. Specimens are machined from woods of Scotch pine which is widely used in boat building industries and in other structural engineering applications. It is determined that this species behaves more flexibly than the others. Strain gauges are installed on the specimen surfaces in such a way that loading measurements are performed along directions either parallel or perpendicular to the fiber directions. During the test and analysis phase of yield stress curve, orientation of strain gauge directions with respect to fiber directions are taken into account. The diagrams of the normal stress vs. normal strain or the shear stress vs. shear strain are plotted for each test. In each plot, the yield stress is determined by selecting the point on the diagram, the tangent of which is having a slope of 5% less than the slope of the elastic portion of the diagram. The geometric locus of these selected points constitutes a single yield stress curve on σ1-σ2 principal plane. The resulting yield stress curve is plotted as an approximate ellipse which resembles Tsai-Hill failure criterion. The results attained in this work, compare well with the results which are readily available in the literature.

  10. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Sorin A; Hartley, Ian D; Reid, Matthew E; Thring, Ronald W

    2010-12-17

    The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5-24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  11. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  12. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  13. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Carlton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

  14. Wood Cellular Dendroclimatology: A Pilot Study on Bristlecone Pine in the Southwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Heinrich, I.

    2015-12-01

    Tree-rings provide paleoclimatic records at annual to seasonal resolution for regions or periods with no instrumental climatic data. Relationships between climatic variability and wood cellular features allow for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of trees. Given the increasing importance of wood anatomy as a source of dendroecological information, such studies are now starting in the US. We analyzed 10 cores of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) from a high-elevation site included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). Century-long chronologies (1870-2013) of wood anatomical parameters (lumen area, cell diameter, cell wall thickness) can be developed by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope, and then measuring cellular parameters with task-specific software. Measures of empirical signal strength were used to test the strength of the environmental information embedded in wood anatomy. Correlation functions between ring-width, cellular features, and PRISM climatic variables were produced for the period 1926-2013. Time series of anatomical features present lower autocorrelation compared to ring widths, highlighting the role of environmental conditions occurring at the time of cell formation. Mean chronologies of radial lumen length and cell diameter carry a stronger climatic signal compared to cell wall thickness, and are significantly correlated with climatic variables (maximum temperature and total precipitation) in spring (Mar-Apr) and during the growing season (Jun-Sep), whereas ring widths show weaker or no correlation. Wood anatomy holds great potential to refine dendroclimatic reconstructions at higher temporal resolution, providing better estimates of hydroclimatic variability and plant physiological adaptations in the southwest US.

  15. Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1968-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood tracheid length and transverse cellular dimensions of wood removed from stems of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and factorially aegregated by specific gravity, rings from the pith, and growth rate were determined from sample chips. The independent relationships of each factor with fiber morphology are described.

  16. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L

    2009-08-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  17. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity biocarbon precursors of white pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Sharenkova, N. V.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Wilkes, T. E.; Faber, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical conductivity σ of high-porosity (cellular pores) biocarbon precursors of white pine tree wood in the temperature range 5-300 K, which were prepared by pyrolysis of the wood at carbonization temperatures ( T carb) of 1000 and 2400°C. The x-ray structural analysis has permitted the determination of the sizes of the nanocrystallites contained in the carbon framework of the biocarbon precursors. The sizes of the nanocrystallites revealed in the samples prepared at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C are within the ranges 12-35 and 25-70 Å, respectively. The dependences κ( T) and σ( T) are obtained for samples cut along the tree growth direction. As follows from σ( T) measurements, the biocarbon precursors studied are semiconducting. The values of κ and σ increase with increasing carbonization temperature of the samples. Thermal conductivity measurements have revealed that samples of both types exhibit a temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity κph, which is not typical of amorphous (and amorphous to x-rays) materials. As the temperature increases, κph first varies proportional to T, to scale subsequently as ˜ T 1.7. The results obtained are analyzed.

  18. Reinforcement of Bolted Timber Joints Using GFRP Sheets in Poplar and Pine Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Madhoushi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure in timber structures occurs mainly in crucial points such as joints areas. Therefore, the idea of using composite sheets in timber joints has been intro-duced as a method in order to increase the strength and ductility behaviour of timber joints. This research aims to study the behaviour of bolted joints in poplar and pine woods, which are reinforced by two types of GFRP sheets. A single shear bolted joint consisted of 3 timber members whose length and width were 30 cm in length and 5 cm in width. The thickness of each member was 4 cm for internal part and 2 cm for external part. The employed steel bolt was 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. In this respect, one layer of GFRP sheet was used to be bonded to timber members by using epoxy resin and left between the clamps for 24 hours. They were then kept at room temperature for three weeks. Also the effect of adding a wood veneer on the reinforced joints was investigated. The tensile strength of the reinforced and control samples (un-reinforced joints was measured according to ASTM D5652-92 standard. The results show that the reinforced samples have higher tensile strength compared to that of reinforced joints, although it is not statistically signifcant. Also, two types of sheets infuence the joint behaviour as the reinforced joints display more ductility behaviour.

  19. Drought impact on wood formation and antioxidant protection of Scots pine cambial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Sudachkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought on the 8-9-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was simulated in the field by isolating trees from precipitation. The biochemical changes typical of water stress wеre compared with the structural changes of the annual rings of wood. The samples of the current and last year needles, cambium and adjoining layers of xylem and phloem of stems and roots were analyzed. In the needles, the content of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids were determined. The contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA, the activity of enzymes, realizing antioxidant protection: superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and content of sugars and starch were determined in tissues of xylem, phloem and cambium. It was shown that drought reduces the weight of the needles, the chlorophyll content and the width of the annual wood rings. In moderate drought in the cambial zone oxidative stress was developed and also protection system against free radicals was activated, which resulted in a high SOD activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide due to the activity of peroxidase reduction. As a result, the division processes in cambial zone and cells extension growth were inhibited and the width of annual wood rings decreased due to reduction in the number and size of tracheids. It was found that decrease in growth was not due to deficit of carbohydrates for the process xylogenesis. Water deficit increases the concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrates in the tissues, which, due to the inhibition of division and extension cambial derivatives are only partially used for thickening tracheid cell walls. As a result, abnormal tracheides with reduced size of cells and lumens and thickened cell walls were formed. Abundance of soluble carbohydrates was deposited as a reserve pool in the root phloem in the form of starch. The stock function of root phloem was increased under water deficit conditions.

  20. Proportion of knotty wood in stems of 28-year old lodgepole and Scots pine in experimental plantation in Zvirgzde, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons Aris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, alien tree species are planted to maximize yield from a stand by increasing productivity and decreasing environmental risks. In Eastern Europe, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia might be used as a source of biomass and industrial wood; however, before any recommendations are given, possible gains of the novel species should be scrupulously evaluated. In this study, we compared volume and proportion of knotty stemwood (VKN of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris from first generation seed orchards and provenances of alien lodgepole pine [Fort Nelson (58°38’ N, 122°41’ W and Summit Lake (54°24› N, 122°37› W] at the age of 27 years growing in central Latvia. We also assessed the relationships between VKN and several morphometric parameters.

  1. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of southern pine waste wood to remove metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Bin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated by extraction in a microwave reactor with binary combinations of acetic acid (AA), oxalic acid (OxA), and phosphoric acid (PhA). Use of OxA was not successful, as insoluble copper oxalate complexes impeded copper removal. The combination of OxA and AA also had...

  2. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M A; Bearce, B C; Cluskey, S; Townsend, E [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  3. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M.A.; Bearce, B.C.; Cluskey, S.; Townsend, E. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  4. WOOD CELLULAR DENDROCLIMATOLOGY: TESTING NEW PROXIES IN GREAT BASIN BRISTLECONE PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ziaco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013 time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength. Response functions were calculated against monthly climatic variables to evaluate climate sensitivity of cellular features (e.g. lumen area; lumen diameter for the period 1950-2013. Calibration-verification tests were used to determine the potential to generate long climate reconstructions from these anatomical proxies. A total of eight tree-ring parameters (two ring-width and six chronologies of xylem anatomical parameters were analyzed. Synchronous variability among samples varied among tree-ring parameters, usually decreasing from ring width to anatomical features. Cellular parameters linked to plant hydraulic performance (e.g. tracheid lumen area and radial lumen diameter showed empirical signal strength similar to ring-width series, while noise was predominant in chronologies of lumen tangential width and cell-wall thickness. Climatic signals were different between anatomical and ring-width chronologies, revealing a positive and temporally stable correlation of tracheid size (i.e. lumen and cell diameter with monthly (i.e. March and seasonal precipitation. In particular, tracheid lumen diameter emerged as a reliable moisture indicator and was then used to reconstruct total March-August precipitation from 1870 to 2013. Wood anatomy holds great potential to refine and expand dendroclimatic records by allowing estimates of plant physiological

  5. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  6. Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S A; Burke, I C; Hobbs, N T

    2006-12-01

    Disturbances such as fire play a key role in controlling ecosystem structure. In fire-prone forests, organic detritus comprises a large pool of carbon and can control the frequency and intensity of fire. The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, where fire has been suppressed for a century, provide an ideal system for studying the long-term dynamics of detrital pools. Our objectives were (1) to quantify the long-term temporal dynamics of detrital pools; and (2) to determine to what extent present stand structure, topography, and soils constrain these dynamics. We collected data on downed dead wood, litter, duff (partially decomposed litter on the forest floor), stand structure, topographic position, and soils for 31 sites along a 160-year chronosequence. We developed a compartment model and parameterized it to describe the temporal trends in the detrital pools. We then developed four sets of statistical models, quantifying the hypothesized relationship between pool size and (1) stand structure, (2) topography, (3) soils variables, and (4) time since fire. We contrasted how much support each hypothesis had in the data using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). Time since fire explained 39-80% of the variability in dead wood of different size classes. Pool size increased to a peak as material killed by the fire fell, then decomposed rapidly to a minimum (61-85 years after fire for the different pools). It then increased, presumably as new detritus was produced by the regenerating stand. Litter was most strongly related to canopy cover (r2 = 77%), suggesting that litter fall, rather than decomposition, controls its dynamics. The temporal dynamics of duff were the hardest to predict. Detrital pool sizes were more strongly related to time since fire than to environmental variables. Woody debris peak-to-minimum time was 46-67 years, overlapping the range of historical fire return intervals (1 to > 100 years). Fires may therefore have burned under a

  7. Electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of biocarbon preforms of white pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2009-11-01

    The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of high-porosity biocarbon preforms prepared from white pine wood by pyrolysis at carbonization temperatures T carb = 1000 and 2400°C have been studied. Measurements have been made of the behavior with temperature of the electrical resistivity, as well as of magnetoresistance and the Hall coefficient in the 1.8-300-K temperature interval and magnetic fields of up to 28 kOe. It has been shown that samples of both types (with T carb = 1000 and 2400°C) are characterized by high carrier (hole) concentrations of 6.3 × 1020 and 3.6 × 1020 cm-3, respectively. While these figures approach the metallic concentration, the electrical resistivity of the biocarbon materials studied, unlike that of normal metals, grows with decreasing temperature. Increasing T carb brings about a decrease in electrical resistivity by a factor 1.5-2 within the 1.8-300-K temperature range. The magnetoresistance also follows a qualitatively different pattern at low (1.8-4.2 K) temperatures: it is negative for T carb = 2400°C and positive for T carb = 1000°C. An analysis of experimental data has revealed that the specific features in the conductivity and magnetoresistance of these samples are described by quantum corrections associated inherently with structural characteristics of the biocarbon samples studied, more specifically with the difference between the fractions of the quasi-amorphous and nanocrystalline phases, as well as with the fine structure of the latter phase forming at the two different T carb.

  8. Adsorption of sulfonamides to demineralized pine wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Mengxing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the key factors and mechanisms controlling adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars. Batch adsorption experiments were performed for sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine to three pine-wood biochars prepared under different thermochemical conditions: pyrolysis at 400 °C (C400) and 500 °C (C500), and pyrolysis at 500 °C followed with hydrogenation (C500-H). For both sulfonamides, the adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption was stronger to C500 than to C400. This is attributable to the enhanced π–π electron-donor–acceptor interaction with the carbon surface of C500 due to the higher degree of graphitization. Despite the relatively large difference in surface O-functionality content between C500 (12.2%) and C500-H (6.6%), the two biochars exhibited nearly identical adsorbent surface area-normalized adsorption, indicating negligible role of surface O-functionalities in the adsorption to these adsorbents. Effects of solution chemistry conditions (pH, Cu 2+ , and dissolved soil humic acid) on adsorption were examined. -- Highlights: • Adsorption to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction. • Graphitic surfaces of biochars are predominant adsorption sites. • Surface O-functionalities of biochars play minor roles in adsorption. • Adsorption affinities are markedly affected by Cu ions and humic acids. -- Adsorption of sulfonamides to biochars is dominated by π–π electron-donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction with the graphitic surface

  9. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  10. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf δ13C and δ18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary

  11. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Kespohl, Sabine; Jacobsen, Gitte; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2011-03-01

    Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms. In a Danish study among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories, we evaluated the workers' asthma and rhinitis status using questionnaires and blood samples collected from 1506 woodworkers and 195 references. Workers with asthma symptoms (N=298), a random study sample (N=399) and a random rhinitis sample (N=100) were evaluated for IgE-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust. The prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was 1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found between woodworkers and references, but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated with the current level of wood dust exposure. No relation was observed between wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Only symptomatic subjects had proteinogenic IgE epitopes to pine. Increased odds ratios for sIgE based on proteinogenic epitopes to beech and respiratory symptoms were found, although they were not statistically significant. Sensitization rates to pine and beech were the same for woodworkers and references but dependent on the current wood dust exposure level. The importance of beech and pine wood sensitization is limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers if the IgE epitopes are proteinogenic.

  12. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  13. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE FROM CAMPFIRE BURNING OF PINE WOOD (PINUS ELLIOTTII). (R823990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractAlthough campfires are typically enjoyable events, people are exposed to high concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The combustion conditions of wood burned in campfires are different from those of indoor wood burning in stoves or fireplaces. T...

  14. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M.E.; Gyenge, J.E.; de Urquiza, M.M.; Varela, S.

    2012-01-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to un...

  15. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  16. The simplest "field" methods for extractin of nematodes from plants, wood, insects and soil, with additional description how to keep extracted nematodes alive for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    The simplest modification of the dynamic extraction method using cottonwool filter based on the Baermann funnel principle, is described. This modification excludes the funnel because a great share of Sticky worms attach to sloping walls of a funnel and thus do not reach the collector Eppendorf tube. But the main principle of the Baermann funnel is used, I. e. sinking down of actively moving heavy narrow bodies via wide holes of filter and thus separating the active worms from passive non-Brownian moving substrate particles, which do not pass the filter and remain above it. This principle is illustrated because it has never been described before. In the proposed modification any sloping walls in the extraction paths are excluded and thus the probability to attach sticky nemotodes to walls is also excluded; only cylindrical equipment with abrupt vertical walls is used; procedures are extremely simplified to be user-friendly for beginners: only filter (cotton pads), Eppendorf tubes, plastic glasses and narrow PVC tubing are applied. The new simplified modification allows one to collect nematodes by non-professional workers, e. g. in Polar expeditions without microscopic study of results. As an addition, an efficient method to maintain extracted nematodes alive is proposed, using the "effect of water film" in foam rubber inside the Eppendorf tube. To maintain nematodes alive during several months it is recommended to suppress bacteria via addition of 0.2-0.4% formaldehyde solution and then keep the tube with nematodes in a refrigerator.

  17. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  18. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  19. Fungal communities in barren forest soil after amendment with different wood substrates and their possible effects on trees’, pathogens, insects and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers had been spread over the surface of barren forest soil before planting with Scots pine. The effects of the Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers on the abundance and diversity of culturable fungi were investigated. The amendments were aimed at increasing the soil suppressiveness to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. The classical soil-dilution method was chosen for qualitative and quantitative analyses of fungal communities in soils because of its proven reliability and consistency. The soil was inhabited by saprotrophic fungi from Ascomycota and Zygomycota, including species known to be potential antagonists of Armillaria or H. annosum (i.e. Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., Penicillium commune, P. daleae, P. janczewskii or stimulants of Armillaria (i.e. Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Trichocladium opacum. Eleven years after treatment, the abundance and diversity of fungi, the abundance of P. commune, and locally the abundance of P. janczewskii increased, while Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., and locally, P. daleae and T. opacum decreased. Amending the barren soil with organic matter does not guarantee effective, long-term suppressiveness of the sandy loam soil to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. Increased abundance of entomopathogenic and nematophagous species, 11 years after treatment, does suggest the long-term possibility of insect or nematode control in soil.

  20. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.

  1. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  2. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. Using stable isotopes and functional wood anatomy to identify underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance in different provenances of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Montwé, David; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich; Cherubini, Paolo; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant seed sources for reforestation may help adapt forests to climate change. By combining dendroecological growth analysis with a long-term provenance trial, we assessed growth and drought tolerance of different populations of a wide-ranging conifer, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This experimental design simulated a climate warming scenario through southward seed transfer, and an exceptional drought also occurred in 2002. We felled over 500 trees, representing 23 seed sources, which were grown for 32 years at three warm, dry sites in southern British Columbia, Canada. Northern populations showed poor growth and drought tolerance. These seed sources therefore appear to be especially at risk under climate change. Before recommending assisted migration of southern seeds towards the north, however, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses. We combine functional wood anatomy with a dual-isotope approach to evaluate these mechanisms to drought response.

  4. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  5. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  6. Modeling corewood-outerwood transition in loblolly pine using wood specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian R. Mora; H. Lee Allen; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2007-01-01

    A modified logistic function was used for modeling specific-gravity profiles obtained from X-ray densitometry analysis in 675 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in four regeneration trials. Trees were 21 or 22 years old at the time of the study. The function was used for demarcating corewood, transitional, and outerwood zones. Site and silvicultural effects were...

  7. Tensile and dimensional properties of wood strands made from plantation southern pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinglin Wu; Zhiyong Cai; Jong N. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Working stresses and performance of strand composite lumber largely depend upon the properties of each individual strand. Southern pine strands from plantation lumber grown in southern Louisiana were investigated in this study in order to understand strand behaviors. The effects of hot-pressing and resin application on tensile modulus, strength, and dimensional...

  8. Combining wood anatomy and stable isotope variations in a 600-year multi-parameter climate reconstruction from Corsican black pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Sonja; Hetzer, Timo; Bräuning, Achim; Joachimski, Michael M.; Leuschner, Hanns-Hubert; Kuhlemann, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    We present a new multi-parameter dataset from Corsican black pine growing on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean basin covering the period AD 1410-2008. Wood parameters measured include tree-ring width, latewood width, earlywood width, cell lumen area, cell width, cell wall thickness, modelled wood density, as well as stable carbon and oxygen isotopes. We evaluated the relationships between different parameters and determined the value of the dataset for climate reconstructions. Correlation analyses revealed that carbon isotope ratios are influenced by cell parameters determining cell size, whereas oxygen isotope ratios are influenced by cell parameters determining the amount of transportable water in the xylem. A summer (June to August) precipitation reconstruction dating back to AD 1185 was established based on tree-ring width. No long-term trends or pronounced periods with extreme high/low precipitation are recorded in our reconstruction, indicating relatively stable moisture conditions over the entire time period. By comparing the precipitation reconstruction with a summer temperature reconstruction derived from the carbon isotope chronologies, we identified summers with extreme climate conditions, i.e. warm-dry, warm-wet, cold-dry and cold-wet. Extreme climate conditions during summer months were found to influence cell parameter characteristics. Cold-wet summers promote the production of broad latewood composed of wide and thin-walled tracheids, while warm-wet summers promote the production of latewood with small thick-walled cells. The presented dataset emphasizes the potential of multi-parameter wood analysis from one tree species over long time scales.

  9. Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: Coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos David P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified. Results By combining the construction of different cDNA libraries with microarray analyses we have identified a total of 496 genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait. that change in expression during differentiation of compression wood (331 up-regulated and 165 down-regulated compared to opposite wood. Samples from different provenances collected in different years and geographic locations were integrated into the analyses to mitigate the effects of multiple sources of variability. This strategy allowed us to define a group of genes that are consistently associated with compression wood formation. Correlating with the deposition of a thicker secondary cell wall that characterizes compression wood development, the expression of a number of genes involved in synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and lignans was up-regulated. Further analysis of a set of these genes involved in S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, ammonium recycling, and lignin and lignans biosynthesis showed changes in expression levels in parallel to the levels of lignin accumulation in cells undergoing xylogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The comparative transcriptomic analysis reported here have revealed a broad spectrum of coordinated transcriptional modulation of genes

  10. Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: Coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified. Results By combining the construction of different cDNA libraries with microarray analyses we have identified a total of 496 genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait.) that change in expression during differentiation of compression wood (331 up-regulated and 165 down-regulated compared to opposite wood). Samples from different provenances collected in different years and geographic locations were integrated into the analyses to mitigate the effects of multiple sources of variability. This strategy allowed us to define a group of genes that are consistently associated with compression wood formation. Correlating with the deposition of a thicker secondary cell wall that characterizes compression wood development, the expression of a number of genes involved in synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and lignans was up-regulated. Further analysis of a set of these genes involved in S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, ammonium recycling, and lignin and lignans biosynthesis showed changes in expression levels in parallel to the levels of lignin accumulation in cells undergoing xylogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The comparative transcriptomic analysis reported here have revealed a broad spectrum of coordinated transcriptional modulation of genes involved in biosynthesis of

  11. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  12. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the phytosanitary risk associated with some coniferous species and genera for the spread of pine wood nematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    plants or untreated plant products or by supporting natural spread of PWN in conjunction with European species of the vector. The Panel analysed the data submitted by Portugal regarding surveys on the Tróia Peninsula where P. pinaster and P. pinea co-occur, and the related laboratory results of Naves et...... al. (2006) on feeding and oviposition preferences of Monochamus galloprovincialis. The Panel also undertook a comprehensive review of the literature. The zero infestation of PWN recorded on P. pinea on the Tróia Peninsula was not significantly different from the result for P. pinaster, because...... of the small P. pinea sample. Hence, the conclusion that P. pinea is not a host plant for PWN is not supported by the data submitted, principally because of low statistical confidence arising from the few P. pinea trees present. Moreover, the limited presence of P. pinea in the study areas means...

  14. Effects of lime and wood ash on soil-solution chemistry, soil chemistry and nutritional status of a pine stand in northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Bernard; Rumpf, Sabine; Mindrup, Michael; Meiwes, Karl-Josef; Khanna, Partap K.

    2002-01-01

    Lime and wood ash may be useful to improve acidic forest soils. A field experiment was conducted in a pine stand on a sandy podzol at Fuhrberg, Germany, which involved an application of dolomitic lime (3 t/ha) with three replications or wood ash (4.8 t/ha) without replications on the forest floor. During the 2 yr study period, lime affected the soil solution composition only slightly. Ash had a marked effect on solution chemistry of the mineral soil at 10 cm and the pH values dropped temporarily from 3.7 to 3.1. Nineteen months after the treatments, exchangeable calcium in the organic layer and mineral soil increased by 222 (lime addition) or 411 kg/ha (ash addition) and exchangeable magnesium increased by 101 (lime addition) or 39 kg/ha (ash addition). After ash addition, no marked change in heavy metal content was found below 4 cm of the organic layer. In the ash treatment, the potassium concentration of the 1-yr-old pine needles increased from 5.6 to 5.9 g/kg. This study suggests that ash from untreated wood may be recommended for amelioration of forest soils

  15. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  16. Preparation of Biomorphic SiC/C Ceramics from Pine Wood via Supercritical Ethanol Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Biomorphic (wood derived) carbide ceramics with an overall composition in the SiC/C was produced by supercritical ethanol infiltration of low viscosity tetraethylorthosilicate/supercritical ethanol into biologically derived carbon templates (CB-templates) and in situ hydrolysis into Si(OH)4-gel, the Si(OH)4-gel was calcined at 1400℃ to promote the polycondensation of Si(OH)4-gel into SiO2-phase and then carbonthermal reduction of the SiO2 with the biocarbon template into highly porous, biomorphic SiC/C ceramics. The phases and morphology conversion mechanism of resulting porous SiC/C ceramics have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Experimental results showed that the biomorphic cellular morphology of pinewood charcoal was remained in the porous SiC/C ceramic with high precision that consisted of β-SiC with minority of α-SiC and the remain free carbon existed in amorphous phase.

  17. Biological conversion of the aqueous wastes from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and pine wood by Rhodococci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yucai; Li, Xiaolu; Xue, Xiaoyun; Swita, Marie S.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, R. opacus PD630, R. jostii RHA1, R. jostii RHA1 VanA-, and their co-culture were employed to convert hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous waste (HTLAW) into lipids. After 11 days, the COD reduction of algal-HTLAW reached 93.4% and 92.7% by R. jostii RHA1 and its mutant VanA-, respectively. Woody-HTLAW promoted lipid accumulation of 0.43 g lipid/g cell dry weight in R. opacus PD630 cells. Additionally, the total number of chemicals in HTLAW decreased by over 1/3 after 7 days of coculture, and 0.10 g/L and 0.46 g/L lipids were incrementally accumulated in the cellular mass during the fermentation of wood- and algal-HTLAW, respectively. The GC-MS data supported that different metabolism pathways were followed when these Rhodococci strains degraded algae- and woody-HTLAW. These results indicated promising potential of bioconversion of under-utilized carbon and toxic compounds in HTLAW into useful products by selected Rhodococci.

  18. Weathering properties of treated southern yellow pine wood examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaita, Ghaleb N.; Ma, Frank M.S.; Parker, Trudy C. [Dow Chemical Company, Technical Center, 3200 Kanawha Turnpike, South Charleston, WV 25303 (United States); Hoflund, Gar B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: garho@hotmail.com

    2008-04-30

    In this study the weathering behavior of southern yellow pine (SYP) wood samples pretreated in different solutions has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical characterization regarding material loss and discoloration. The treatment solutions include water as a control, a commercially available water repellent (WR) wood treating additive and polyethylene glycol (PEG) products including PEG PLUS{sup TM}, PEG 8000 solutions and Compound 20M in varying concentrations. All contained the wood preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA). One sample was treated with a CCA solution only. The treatments were carried out at 20 deg. C and 150 psig for 1/2 h after exposure to vacuum (28 mmHg) for 15 min. Simulated weathering was achieved in an Atlas 65-W Weather-Ometer for 2000 h with both light and dark periods and rain. The temperature ranged from 23 deg. C during the dark cycle to 35 deg. C during the light cycle. With weathering the XPS O/C ratios increase due to oxidation of the surface. Exposure to UV light results in bond breakage and reaction with oxygen in the presence of air to form organic functional groups such as , , C=O and/or O-C-O. These oxidized products can protect the underlying wood from deterioration if they are insoluble in water and remain on the surface as a protective coating. If soluble, rain washes the compounds away and assists in the degradation. Correlated changes are observed in the XPS O/C ratios, the high-resolution XPS C 1s spectra, the SEM micrographs and physical measurements including thickness alteration, weight loss, and discoloration by yellowing or whitening of the weathered wood. The PEG treatments are effective in protecting wood with the 2% PEG PLUS treatment providing the best weathering behavior similar to that of the CCA treatment. The WR and water treatments yield the poorest weathering properties.

  19. Weathering properties of treated southern yellow pine wood examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaita, Ghaleb N.; Ma, Frank M.S.; Parker, Trudy C.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the weathering behavior of southern yellow pine (SYP) wood samples pretreated in different solutions has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical characterization regarding material loss and discoloration. The treatment solutions include water as a control, a commercially available water repellent (WR) wood treating additive and polyethylene glycol (PEG) products including PEG PLUS TM , PEG 8000 solutions and Compound 20M in varying concentrations. All contained the wood preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA). One sample was treated with a CCA solution only. The treatments were carried out at 20 deg. C and 150 psig for 1/2 h after exposure to vacuum (28 mmHg) for 15 min. Simulated weathering was achieved in an Atlas 65-W Weather-Ometer for 2000 h with both light and dark periods and rain. The temperature ranged from 23 deg. C during the dark cycle to 35 deg. C during the light cycle. With weathering the XPS O/C ratios increase due to oxidation of the surface. Exposure to UV light results in bond breakage and reaction with oxygen in the presence of air to form organic functional groups such as , , C=O and/or O-C-O. These oxidized products can protect the underlying wood from deterioration if they are insoluble in water and remain on the surface as a protective coating. If soluble, rain washes the compounds away and assists in the degradation. Correlated changes are observed in the XPS O/C ratios, the high-resolution XPS C 1s spectra, the SEM micrographs and physical measurements including thickness alteration, weight loss, and discoloration by yellowing or whitening of the weathered wood. The PEG treatments are effective in protecting wood with the 2% PEG PLUS treatment providing the best weathering behavior similar to that of the CCA treatment. The WR and water treatments yield the poorest weathering properties

  20. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  1. A solution-state NMR approach to elucidating pMDI-wood bonding mechanisms in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Joseph Yelle

    2009-01-01

    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for unambiguously determining the existence or absence of covalent chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground wood cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing DMSO-d6 and NMI-d6, keeping wood component polymers intact and in a near-...

  2. Role of bark and wood destroying insect pests in drying off of spruce and pines in planting weakened by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudela, M; Wolf, R

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed study made in 1958-62, indicating the part played by smoke and the various groups and individual species of insects, in the mortality in middle-aged and mature Pine and Spruce stands.

  3. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Distribution of "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaka, D.M.; Levchuk, S.Je.; Protsak, V.P.; Kashparov, V.O.

    2017-01-01

    Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs) selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs: d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,55 (Am(omega) = 0,63 +- 0,08), 0,55 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,95 Am(omega) = 1,01 +- 0,04), 0,95 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 1,0 (Am(omega) = 2,1 +- 0,5).

  5. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model ...

  6. Determination of the distribution of copper and chromium in partly remediated CCA-treated pine wood using SEM and EDX analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Melcher, Eckhard

    2005-01-01

    . After soaking, a small amount of Cu and Cr was still present in the cell walls but larger particles were now found on wall surfaces. Most effective removal of Cu was obtained after soaking in phosphoric and oxalic acid followed by EDR; here numerous rice grain-shaped particles were observed containing...... large amounts of Cu and no Cr. Cr was most effectively removed after soaking in oxalic acid and subsequent EDR treatment or dual soaking in phosphoric acid and oxalic acid with and without subsequent EDR.......Soaking in different acids and electrodialytic remediation (EDR) were applied for removing copper and chromium from freshly Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) impregnated EN 113 pine wood samples. After remedial treatments, AAS analyses revealed that the concentration of copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr...

  7. Bridging gaps: On the performance of airborne LiDAR to model wood mouse-habitat structure relationships in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-González, Carlos; Acebes, Pablo; Mateos, Ana; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR technology has firmly contributed to strengthen the knowledge of habitat structure-wildlife relationships, though there is an evident bias towards flying vertebrates. To bridge this gap, we investigated and compared the performance of LiDAR and field data to model habitat preferences of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a Mediterranean high mountain pine forest (Pinus sylvestris). We recorded nine field and 13 LiDAR variables that were summarized by means of Principal Component Analyses (PCA). We then analyzed wood mouse's habitat preferences using three different models based on: (i) field PCs predictors, (ii) LiDAR PCs predictors; and (iii) both set of predictors in a combined model, including a variance partitioning analysis. Elevation was also included as a predictor in the three models. Our results indicate that LiDAR derived variables were better predictors than field-based variables. The model combining both data sets slightly improved the predictive power of the model. Field derived variables indicated that wood mouse was positively influenced by the gradient of increasing shrub cover and negatively affected by elevation. Regarding LiDAR data, two LiDAR PCs, i.e. gradients in canopy openness and complexity in forest vertical structure positively influenced wood mouse, although elevation interacted negatively with the complexity in vertical structure, indicating wood mouse's preferences for plots with lower elevations but with complex forest vertical structure. The combined model was similar to the LiDAR-based model and included the gradient of shrub cover measured in the field. Variance partitioning showed that LiDAR-based variables, together with elevation, were the most important predictors and that part of the variation explained by shrub cover was shared. LiDAR derived variables were good surrogates of environmental characteristics explaining habitat preferences by the wood mouse. Our LiDAR metrics represented structural features of the forest

  8. Climatic response of stable isotope variations in wood cellulose of pine (Pinus sylvestris l.) and their tree-ring width on the Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, T.; Hiller, A.; Gehre, M.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Kola Peninsula region of northwestern Russia, adjacent to relatively well studied Scandinavian areas, is climatically affected by not only the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic but also the Eurasian continent. Living and subfossil pine trees from the Khibiny mountains on the Kola Peninsula were analysed for carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition and for tree-ring width. Comparisons of local meteorological and tree-ring data revealed significant correlations. δ 13 C and δ 18 O values are particularly sensitive to changes in the temperature in July and August and to precipitation in the winter months of the previous year, respectively. On average, 13 C in the cellulose of pine trees between c. 1000 and 1300 AD is enriched by δ values of around 1 per mille compared to the modern trees from this region. This indicates a distinctly warmer summer climate at that time (the Medieval Warm epoch in Europe) than recently observed. The δ 18 O values of wood cellulose and the δ 2 H values of non-exchangeable hydrogen of tree cellulose from both fossil and modern samples cover a wide range between around 22 and 29 per mille and between about -80 and -120 per mille vs. SMOW, respectively. This suggests variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation at that time, assuming its source has remained the same as in the past. (author)

  9. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  10. The threatened plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media) associates with a wide range of biotrophic fungi in native Scottish pine woods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Tenna; Iason, Glenn R.; Alexander, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    The plant intermediate wintergreen (Pyrola media, Ericaceae) is in need of conservation action in Scotland. Although widespread, it is locally distributed in dwarf shrub heath and more commonly in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodlands. A recent study on the mycorrhizal status of Pyrola suggeste...

  11. Pine Wood Treated with a Citric Acid and Glycerol Mixture: Biomaterial Performance Improved by a Bio-byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatien Geraud Essoua Essoua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood material is a good reservoir for biogenic carbon storage. The use of wood material for outdoor products such as siding in the building construction sector presents limits. These limits are bound to the nature of wood material (hygroscopic property and anatomical structure. They are responsible for the dimensional variation associated with moisture content variations. Fungal attacks and coating layers adhesion on wood surface, are other problems. This research investigated the feasibility of impregnation with environmentally friendly chemicals, i.e., a citric acid-glycerol mixture (CA-G. The anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, hardness, biodegradation, and coating adhesion tests were performed on softwood specimens. ASE results were up to 53%. The equilibrium moisture content of the treated specimens was less than half of the untreated ones. FTIR spectroscopy showed bands at 1720 to 1750 cm-1, indicating the presence of ester bonds, and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the polymerization and condensation of treatment solution inside the wood structure. Hardness and decay resistance were increased; however, treatment reduces coating adhesion. In conclusion, CA-G represents a promising eco-responsible solution for improving the technical performance of outdoor wood products.

  12. Fungal community structure of fallen pine and oak wood at different stages of decomposition in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Fei; Zhu, Xian; Hou, Lin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-10-24

    Historically, intense forest hazards have resulted in an increase in the quantity of fallen wood in the Qinling Mountains. Fallen wood has a decisive influence on the nutrient cycling, carbon budget and ecosystem biodiversity of forests, and fungi are essential for the decomposition of fallen wood. Moreover, decaying dead wood alters fungal communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated the ongoing investigation of relevant molecular forest ecosystems with a focus on fungal communities. In this study, fallen wood and its associated fungal communities were compared at different stages of decomposition to evaluate relative species abundance and species diversity. The physical and chemical factors that alter fungal communities were also compared by performing correspondence analysis according to host tree species across all stages of decomposition. Tree species were the major source of differences in fungal community diversity at all decomposition stages, and fungal communities achieved the highest levels of diversity at the intermediate and late decomposition stages. Interactions between various physical and chemical factors and fungal communities shared the same regulatory mechanisms, and there was no tree species-specific influence. Improving our knowledge of wood-inhabiting fungal communities is crucial for forest ecosystem conservation.

  13. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  14. Effect of Acetic and Lactic Acid Mixtures on Control of Quarantine Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Exporting Cymbidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixture (MX of acetic acid (AA and lactic acid (LA was examined for its effectiveness in the control of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus contaminated in cymbidium culture medium. Nematode mortality in vitro was nearly 100% in AA and MX at the concentrations of 5.0-1.0% (pH 2.6 – 4.2 and in LA only at 5.0% (pH 3.5, but lowered at concentrations of 0.5-0.1% (pH 5.1-6.9 more significantly in LA than AA and MX. MX of most concentrations caused higher nematode mortality than the average response to AA and LA. All treatments of MX (0.5% and 0.25%, fosthiazate (standard and double concentrations and culture dilution of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 (107colony-forming units/ml reduced significantly the nematode populations in the cymbidium culture medium, compared to non-treatment control, with no significant difference among the treatments. No phytotoxicity occurred in all treatments. pH of the medium with the time after treatment and growths of 2-year-old cymbidium were not significantly different among treatments. Considering the safety and price of the organic acids, use of MX in the processes for culturing cymbidium may be a practically reliable and eco-friendly way in the control of the quarantine nematode in cymbidium.

  15. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  16. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  17. Effect of Steam Activation on Development of Light Weight Biomorphic Porous SiC from Pine Wood Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, Satish M.; Patel, Hemang; Manocha, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Biomorphic SiC materials with tailor-made microstructure and properties similar to ceramic materials manufactured by conventional method are a new class of materials derived from natural biopolymeric cellulose templates (wood). Porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics with wood-like microstructure have been prepared by carbothermal reduction of charcoal/silica composites at 1300-1600 °C in inert Ar atmosphere. The C/SiO2 composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into porous activated biocarbon template. Silica in the charcoal/silica composite, preferentially in the cellular pores, was found to get transformed in forms of fibers and rods due to shrinkage during drying. The changes in the morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramics after heat treatment to 1600 °C, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to activated carbon and then to porous SiC ceramic have been investigated using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation of carbon prior to silica infiltration has been found to enhance conversion of charcoal to SiC. The pore structure is found to be uniform in these materials than in those made from as-such charcoal/silica composites. This provides a low-cost and eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials, with near-net shape potential.

  18. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  19. The 14C record in bristlecone pine wood of the past 8000 years based on the dendrochronology of the late C.W. Ferguson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, H.E.; Linick, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    When, in 1950, Willard Libby and his coworkers obtained their first radiocarbon ( 14 C) dates, C W Ferguson at the University of Arizona Tree Ring Laboratory was working on establishing a continuous tree ring series for the newly discovered bristlecone pine Pinus aristata. Before his untimely death in 1986, he had extended the series nearly 8000 years into the past. From the Ferguson series I obtained for 14 C determinations wood samples grown at various times. Also, two other laboratories obtained such samples. For B.C. times in particular, our measured 14 C-values that deviated consistently from those calculated from tree rings, and the deviations increased with age. This general trend was observed by other laboratories, but the presence of deviations from these trends, of the so-called 'wiggles', was questioned by other workers. To me these wiggles indicated the existence of a most interesting geophysical parameter valid for the whole terrestrial atmosphere. Fourier spectra obtained at my request by Kruse in 1972, and by Neftel, demonstrated the consistency of the results, and supported my contention that the secular variations of 14 C in atmospheric CO 2 are related to variations of solar activity. (author)

  20. Alternatives for composting Caribbean Pine sawdust (Pinus caribaea in the wood industry Refocosta S. A., in the municipality of Villanueva, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento Oviedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the day-to-day accumulation of sawdust, a byproduct of the milling process of the Pinus caribaea species in the Wood industry of Refocosta, a composting process was tested in three treatments with different nitrogen sources (urea, industrial palm oil sludge, cattle dung and it was compared with composted pine bark and sawdust exposed to the weather. To assess possible inhibition of the substrates, the fresh biomass and germination of Zea maize and Acacia mangium was measured. Seedlings of Pinus caribaea, eucalyptus Pellita and Acacia Mangium were transplanted, and two months later the stem length, strength and survival were assessed. There were differences between maize and Acacia mangium and a lower germination and biomass in the substrates, sawdust and bark exposed to the weather and without composting were observed. The vigor and stem length were significantly better in composted bark, substrate which is currently used in the vivarium of Refocosta to produce seedlings; the sawdust-based substrates showed marked deficits (red colors, necrosis and stunting.

  1. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  2. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  3. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J M; Barnes, H M; Seale, R D; Jones, P D; Lowell, E C; Hummel, S S

    2010-08-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of producing structural composite lumber (SCL) beams from these two western species, we used a new technology called steam-pressed scrim lumber (SPSL) based on scrimming technology developed in Australia. Both standing green and fire-killed ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs were used in an initial test. Fire-killed logs of both species were found to be unsuitable for producing SPSL but green logs were suitable for producing SPSL. For SPSL from green material, ponderosa pine had significantly higher modulus of rupture and work-to-maximum load values than did SPSL from lodgepole pine. Modulus of elasticity was higher for lodgepole pine. The presence of blows was greater with lodgepole pine than with ponderosa. Blows had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of ponderosa pine but no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SPSL from lodgepole pine. An evaluation of non-destructive testing methods showed that X-ray could be used to determine low density areas in parent beams. The use of a sonic compression wave tester for NDE evaluation of modulus of rupture showed some promise with SPSL but requires further research. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae), in Pinus pinaster boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Luís F; Sousa, Edmundo; Naves, Pedro; Inácio, Maria L; Henriques, Joana; Mota, Manuel; Barbosa, Pedro; Drinkall, Mike J; Buckley, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    The pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an important conifer disease worldwide. It is the direct cause of the death of millions of pines in south-east Asia (mainly Japan, China and Korea) and has been established in Portugal since 1999. The phasing out of methyl bromide has created an urgent need for alternative treatment of wood packaging materials. The effect of sulfuryl fluoride (SF), a broad-spectrum fumigant used to control insects, was tested in Pinus pinaster boards naturally infested by PWN. Boards were fumigated for 24 h at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 30 °C) with dosage ranges of 3169-4407, 1901-4051 and 1385-2141 gh m(-3) respectively. Treated wood was sampled for nematode identification and counting, before treatment and after 24 h, 72 h and 21 days. No survival was found in the 15 °C and 30 °C treatments, while at 20 °C the mortality ranged from 94.06 to 100%. Some reasons for the survival at 20 °C are presented. Results confirm SF to be an effective quarantine treatment for PWN at 15 and 30 °C. Further studies are needed to obtain the most effective dosage at 20 °C, and to determine the toxicity of SF fumigation on B. xylophilus at other temperatures, especially at 25 °C. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [The analysis of climatic and biological parameters for the pest spread risk modelling of the wood nematode species Bursaphelenchus spp. and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis (Rhabditida: Aphelenchoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Y; Mokrousov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the forest woody species wilt areassurvey in Nizhniy Novgorod region in August 2014, the possible factors of the pest spread risk modelling were analysed on six species of the genus Bursaphelenchus and Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis using six parameters: plant host species, beetle vector species, average temperatures in July and January, annual precipitation. It was concluded that these parameters in the evaluated wilt spots correspond to climatic and biological data of the already published woody plants wilt records in Europe and Asia caused by the same nematode pest species. It was speculated that the annual precipitation of 600 mm and average July temperature of 25 degrees C or higher, are the critical combination that may be used to develop the predicative risk modelling in the forests' and parks' wilt monitoring.

  6. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 2, Non-catalyzed reactions with the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Solution-state NMR provides a powerful tool to observe the presence or absence of covalent bonds between wood and adhesives. Finely ground wood can be dissolved in an NMR compatible solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide-d6 and N-methylimidazole-d6, in which the wood polymers remain largely intact. High-resolution...

  7. The Acoustic Properties of Water Submerged Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta and Spruce (Picea spp. Wood and Their Suitability for Use as Musical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Hilde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a common material used for the manufacture of many products, and submerged wood, in particular, has been used in niche markets and musical instruments. In order to examine if submerged wood in British Columbia, Canada, would be appropriate for use as musical instruments, a study was performed in 2007 on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The results of that study showed the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. In this paper, the wood samples were allowed to age untouched in a laboratory setting and were then retested under the hypothesis that physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to dry over time. This article describes the density, speed of sound, acoustic constant and characteristic impedance properties for submerged wood and a comparison is made for different applications for musical instruments.

  8. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  9. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  10. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  12. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  13. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2016-01-01

    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  14. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation.

  15. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  16. Nematodes for the biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Bedding

    2007-01-01

    The tylenchid nematode Beddingia (Deladenus) siricidicola (Bedding) is by far the most important control agent of Sirex noctilio F., a major pest of pine plantations. It sterilizes female sirex, is density dependent, can achieve nearly 100 percent parasitism and, as a result of its complicated biology can be readily manipulated for sirex control. Bedding and Iede (2005...

  17. The influence of Amylostereum areolatum diversity and competitive interations on the fitness of the Sirex parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.P. Hurley; H.J. Hatting; M.J. Wingfield; Kier Klepzig; B. Slippers

    2012-01-01

    The Sirex noctilio (woodwasp - Amylostereum areolatum (fungus) complex has caused substantial losses to pine industries in its introduced range. The nematode Deladenus siricidicola that parasitizes S. noctilio and feeds on A. areolatum is widely used as a biological control...

  18. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  19. Hydrogen-rich gas production by continuous pyrolysis and in-line catalytic reforming of pine wood waste and HDPE mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arregi, Aitor; Amutio, Maider; Lopez, Gartzen; Artetxe, Maite; Alvarez, Jon; Bilbao, Javier; Olazar, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plastic co-feeding improves the flexibility of biomass pyrolysis-reforming strategy. • Hydrogen production is enhanced by increasing plastic content in the feed. • The joint valorization of biomass and plastics attenuates catalyst deactivation. • The amorphous coke derived from biomass is the main responsible for deactivation. - Abstract: The continuous pyrolysis-reforming of pine sawdust and high density polyethylene mixtures (25, 50 and 75 wt% HDPE) has been performed in a two-stage reaction system provided with a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR) and a fluidized bed reactor. The influence HDPE co-feeding has on the conversion, yields and composition of the reforming outlet stream and catalyst deactivation has been studied at a reforming temperature of 700 °C, with a space time of 16.7 g_c_a_t min g_f_e_e_d_i_n_g"−"1 and a steam/(biomass + HDPE) mass ratio of 4, and a comparison has been made between these results and those recorded by feeding pine sawdust and HDPE separately. Co-feeding plastics enhances the hydrogen production, which increases from 10.9 g of H_2 per 100 g of feed (only pine sawdust in the feed) to 37.3 g of H_2 per 100 g of feed (only HDPE in the feed). Catalyst deactivation by coke is attenuated when HDPE is co-fed due to the lower content of oxygenated compounds in the reaction environment. The higher yield of hydrogen achieved with this two-step (pyrolysis-reforming) strategy, its ability to jointly valorise biomass and plastic mixtures and the lower temperatures required compared to gasification make this promising process for producing H_2 from renewable raw materials and wastes.

  20. Regional variation in wood modulus of elasticity (stiffness) and modulus of rupture (strength) of planted loblolly pine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 406.4...

  1. Harvesting and wood transport planning with SNAP III program (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program in a pine plantation in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Eduardo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the potential of SNAP III (Scheduling and Network Analysis Program as a support tool for harvesting and wood transport planning in Brazil harvesting subsystem definition and establishment of a compatible route were assessed. Initially, machine operational and production costs were determined in seven subsystems for the study area, and quality indexes, construction and maintenance costs of forest roads were obtained and used as SNAP III program input data. The results showed, that three categories of forest road occurrence were observed in the study area: main, secondary and tertiary which, based on quality index, allowed a medium vehicle speed of about 41, 30 and 24 km/hours and a construction cost of about US$ 5,084.30, US$ 2,275.28 and US$ 1,650.00/km, respectively. The SNAP III program used as a support tool for the planning, was found to have a high potential tool in the harvesting and wood transport planning. The program was capable of defining efficiently, the harvesting subsystem on technical and economical basis, the best wood transport route and the forest road to be used in each period of the horizon planning.

  2. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  3. Impacts of fiber orientation and milling on observed crystallinity in jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Roderquita K. Moore; Carlos Baez

    2014-01-01

    Influences of fiber orientation and milling on wood cellulose crystallinity were studied using jack pine wood. The fiber orientation effects were measured by sampling rectangular wood blocks in radial, tangential, and cross-sectional orientations. The influence of milling was studied by analyzing the unsieved and sieved milled wood fractions (all

  4. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  5. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  6. DETECTING FORESTS DAMAGED BY PINE WILT DISEASE AT THE INDIVIDUAL TREE LEVEL USING AIRBORNE LASER DATA AND WORLDVIEW-2/3 IMAGES OVER TWO SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takenaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus. This study attempted to detect damaged pine trees at different levels using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS data and high-resolution space-borne images. A canopy height model with a resolution of 50 cm derived from the ALS data was used for the delineation of tree crowns using the Individual Tree Detection method. Two pan-sharpened images were established using the ortho-rectified images. Next, we analyzed two kinds of intensity-hue-saturation (IHS images and 18 remote sensing indices (RSI derived from the pan-sharpened images. The mean and standard deviation of the 2 IHS images, 18 RSI, and 8 bands of the WV-2 and WV-3 images were extracted for each tree crown and were used to classify tree crowns using a support vector machine classifier. Individual tree crowns were assigned to one of nine classes: bare ground, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, broadleaved trees, healthy pines, and damaged pines at slight, moderate, and heavy levels. The accuracy of the classifications using the WV-2 images ranged from 76.5 to 99.6 %, with an overall accuracy of 98.5 %. However, the accuracy of the classifications using the WV-3 images ranged from 40.4 to 95.4 %, with an overall accuracy of 72 %, which suggests poorer accuracy compared to those classes derived from the WV-2 images. This is because the WV-3 images were acquired in October 2016 from an area with low sun, at a low altitude.

  7. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-01-01

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  8. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.

    2010-02-15

    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  9. Assessing the Availability of Wood Residues and Residue Markets in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Delton R. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A statewide mail survey of primary and secondary wood product manufacturers was undertaken to quantify the production and consumption of wood residues in Virginia. Two hundred and sixty-six wood product manufacturers responded to the study and they provided information on the production, consumption, markets, income or disposal costs, and disposal methods of wood residues. Hardwood and pine sawmills produce approximately 66 percent of Virginia's wood residues. Virginia's wood product man...

  10. Potential use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correct identification of pine species is necessary for proper application of wood in forest-based industries, since the quality of each species' wood depends on factors intrinsic to the material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of near-infrared and visible spectroscopy in the discrimination of pine ...

  11. Old resinous turpentine stumps as an indicator of the range of longleaf pine in Southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Chi-Leung So

    2006-01-01

    Wood anatomy cannot be used to differentiate between the southern yellow pine species. Wood samples collected from old resinous turpentine stumps in coastal Virginia were subjected to chemical and spectroscopic analyses in an effort to determine if they could be identified as longleaf pine. The age and resinous nature of the samples were manifested in high specific...

  12. Connection between the decline of spruce and occurrence of animal pests, especially nematodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timans, U.

    1986-12-01

    In various regions of Bavaria, affected by the decline of spruce, attack by insects and especially nematodes was examined on diseased and healthy spruces. A connection between harmful forest insects and the decline of spruce did not become evident, neither over wide areas nor by examination of single trees. Attack by nematodes was examined in soil and wood samples and also in fine feeder roots of diseased and healthy trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes were not found in the wood and in feeder roots. Although root-parasitic nematodes were present in soil samples, their density was too little to account for a direct damage to spruce. They occurred likewise in samples from healthy and diseased trees. Plant-parasitic nematodes can thus be excluded as a possible causal agent for the decline of spruce.

  13. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  14. Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; J.Y. Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shao-Yuan Leu; Xiaolei Wu; Roland Gleisner; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from reaction kinetics, was used to design a scale-up...

  15. Bioconversion of beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL: Process scale-up design, lignin co-product, and high solids fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from rea...

  16. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson

    1990-01-01

    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  17. Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Dodi Nandika; Sulaeman Yusuf; Yuliati Indrayani

    2000-01-01

    Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The...

  18. Arcos con madera laminada del Pino Caribe Venezolano. Una propuesta para procesos de arquitectura ecosustentable - Arches with Venezuelan Caribbean Pine´S laminated wood. A proposal for eco-sustainable architecture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gerardo Páez

    2017-07-01

    principle of laminated wood for buildings establishes that some weak and small sawn pieces, when joined with an artificial adhesive, make up a larger element with physical-mechanical properties superior to the ones of the same timber species in original condition. The use of pinus caribaea Morelet, var. hondurensis laminated wood, cultivated in the forests of the Venezuelan Orinoquia, is analyzed in this research in order to supply raw material in the manufacture of structural components for different static systems, which part from the horizontal straight beam, simply supported on vertical columns; up to the two or three joints arches, within the building procedures of ecological and sustainable constructions. It is proposed as a general objective to define an arch model as a structural element which simplifies production, transportation, preassembly, assembly, exploitation, transformability, deconstruction and recycling tasks; that justifies the principles of eco-sustainable technology development based on the application of Caribbean pine wood. Among conclusions, it is determined that eco-sustainability in architecture is defined as the set of measures that result in an environmentally friendly constructive solution; which also uses materials of natural origin respecting ecosystems, builds without waste; deconstructs and recycles without demolishing or generating waste. This article is included in the line of research called: Technological Innovation as a Process; Sub-line: Assimilation and Technological Dominance; of the Research and Development Management Master Degree - Economic and Social Sciences Faculty of Central University of Venezuela.

  19. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  20. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  1. Low temperature fluidized wood chip drying with monoterpene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridget N. Bero; Alarick Reiboldt; Ward Davis; Natalie Bedard; Evan Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the drying of ponderosa pine wood chips at low (20°C and 50°C) temperatures using a bench-scale batch pulsed fluidizer to evaluate both volatile pine oils (monoterpenes) and moisture losses during drying.

  2. Phylogency and Evolution of Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bert, W.; Karssen, G.; Helder, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant-parasitic nematodes including members of the genera Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes) are studied as they cause major damage to crops such as potato, tomato, soybean and sugar beet. Both for fundamental reasons

  3. Identifying markets for pinyon pine in the Four Corners Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes

    2008-01-01

    A search for opportunities to use pinyon pine is currently being conducted at Colorado State University by the Colorado Wood Utilization and Marketing Program as part of an effort to improve financial feasibility of forest restoration and hazardous fuel reduction work in pinyon-juniper stands. The properties of pinyon wood reveal that it is suitable for a range of...

  4. Azole-based antimycotic agents inhibit mold on unseasoned pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol. A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2005-01-01

    Inhibiting the growth of mold fungi on cellulose-based building materials may be achievable through the use of azole-based antimycotics. Azoles were variably effective against mold fungi that are frequently found on wood and wood products. Unseasoned southern yellow pine specimens that were dip-treated with varying concentrations of eight azoles were evaluated for...

  5. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  6. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  7. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  8. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine : preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Wenyuan Zhu; Patricia OBryan; Bruce S. Dien; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-...

  9. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  10. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  11. An evaluation of wood properties of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of within tree variation on wood density, ring width and anisotropic shrinkage of Pinus caribeae (Morelet) among tree partitions in Oluwa pine plantation. Five 15-year old Pinus caribeae (Morelet) in three partitions were randomly selected from the plantation and felled for the study. Wood ...

  12. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Investigating the reactivity of pMDI with wood cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Use solution-state NMR to assign contours in HSQC spectra of the reaction products between pMDI model compounds and: (a) lignin model compounds, (b) milled-wood lignin, (c) ball-milled wood, (d) microtomed loblolly pine; (2) Determine where and to what degree urethane formation occurs with loblolly pine cell wall...

  14. Decay and termite resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner Unsal; S. Nami Kartal; Zeki Candan; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels under pressure at either 5 or 7 MPa and either 120 or 150 °C for 1 h. Wood specimens from the panels were exposed to laboratory decay resistance by using the wood degrading fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor. The thermal compression process caused increases in...

  15. Combustion properties of wood impregnated with commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine some combustion properties of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood specimens impregnated with aqueous solutions of commercial fertilizers. Ammonium sulphate (AS) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were used as commercial fertilizers. Diammonium phosphate and ...

  16. Long-term simulations of forest management impacts on carbon storage from loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J. Radtke; Stephen P. Prisley

    2012-01-01

    Accounting for forest components in carbon accounting systems may be insufficient when substantial amounts of sequestered carbon are harvested and converted to wood products in use and in landfill. The potential of forest offset – in-woods aboveground carbon storage, carbon stored in harvested wood, and energy offset by burning harvested wood – from loblolly pine...

  17. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  18. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    In this study, pinewood has been pyrolyzed using a fixed heating rate with a variable end-temperature. The pyrolysis process has been simulated using a mechanism with three parallel reactions for the formation of char, gas and tar. First order irreversible kinetics is assumed. This kind of model...... may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  19. Flash pyrolysis kinetics of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sawdust pyrolysis in the temperature range from 300 to 600 °C has been measured. A thermogravimetric analyser was applied for the temperature range from 300 to 450 °C while for measurements in the temperature range from 450 to 600 °C, an entrained flow reactor has been used. The

  20. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  1. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  2. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  3. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  4. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  5. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Longleaf Pine Treated with Waterborne Salt Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    were measured on small clear bending specimens of longleaf pine sapwood treated with three wateroorne salt preservative systems. Preservative...wood, but the results of past research in this area (appendix I: Literature) are inconsistent and inconclusive, particularly at high loadings of...pine sapwood either air or kiln dried after treatment to retentions from 0.25 to 2.5 lb/ft3. ACA has no effect on MOR. but CCA-type preservatives

  7. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

  8. Finger jointing green southern yellow pine with a soy-based adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Roland E. Kreibicha; Petrus J. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of laboratory tests for a soy-based adhesive to bond southern yellow pine using the finger-jointing method. There was some reason to suspect that finger jointing of southern yellow pine (SYP) with the honeymoon system using soy-based adhesive might prove more difficult than for western species. The Wood Handbook classes western species in...

  9. Pilot-scale demonstration of SPORL for bioconversion of lodgepole pine to bioethanol and lignosulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2016-01-01

    The process sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) has been the focus of this study. Pilot-scale (50 kg) pretreatment of wood chips of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were conducted at 165°C...

  10. Pest Fact Sheet 2007: Southern Pine Beetle prevention initiative: Working for healthier forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R-8 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    From 1999 to 2003, southern pine beetle (SPB) caused unprecedented damage to pine forests in southern Appalachian mountains. These losses severely impacted the natural resource base that supports the South's tourism and wood-based manufacturing industries and also destroyed the habitat of threatened and endangered species, such as the red-cockaded woodpecker....

  11. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  12. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  13. How to make a beetle out of wood: multi-elemental stoichiometry of wood decay, xylophagy and fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates.

  14. Draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, isolated from pinewood disease nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V

    2012-07-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, which is associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Serratia sp. strain M24T3 has been identified as a bionematocide for B. xylophilus in vitro, and multiple genes potentially involved in virulence and nematotoxity were identified.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain M24T3, Isolated from Pinewood Disease Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain M24T3, which is associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease. Serratia sp. strain M24T3 has been identified as a bionematocide for B. xylophilus in vitro, and multiple genes potentially involved in virulence and nematotoxity were identified.

  16. Nematode communities of natural and managed beech forests - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Johansson, Sanne

    2002-01-01

    forests is discussed. We suggest dead wood input to be the driving variable leading to the observed differences in the nematode community between managed and natural forests of Zealand, Denmark. The marked site differences found in this study emphasizes the need to carefully choose reference areas where...

  17. The evolutionary position of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojobori Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans, an insect (Drosophila melanogaster, and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens. Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.

  18. Use of near infared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  19. Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  20. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  1. Diversity of bacteria carried by pinewood nematode in USA and phylogenetic comparison with isolates from other countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79.9%, Betaproteobacteria (11.7%, Bacilli (5.0%, Alphaproteobacteria (1.7% and Flavobacteriia (1.7%. Strains from the genera Chryseobacterium and Pigmentiphaga were found associated with the nematode for the first time. These results were compared to results from similar studies conducted from other countries of three continents in order to assess the diversity of bacteria with associated with PWN. The isolates from the United States, Portugal and China belonged to 25 different genera and only strains from the genus Pseudomonas were found in nematodes from all countries. The strains from China were closely related to P. fluorescens and the strains isolated from Portugal and USA were phylogenetically related to P. mohnii and P. lutea. Nematodes from the different countries are associated with bacteria of different species, not supporting a relationship between PWN with a particular bacterial species. Moreover, the diversity of the bacteria carried by the pinewood nematode seems to be related to the geographic area and the Pinus species. The roles these bacteria play within the pine trees or when associated with the nematodes, might be independent of the presence of the nematode in the tree and only related on the bacteria's relationship with the tree.

  2. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Ginwal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT. The database is freely available on www.wgdb.in.

  3. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  4. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  5. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  6. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  7. EFECTO DE DOS MICROORGANISMOS Y UN CONSORCIO DE MICORRIZAS EN COMBINACIÓN CON VIRUTA DE PINO SOBRE EL CONTROL DE SARNA POLVOSA (Spongospora subterránea EN PAPA EFECT OF TWO MICROORGANISMS, MYCORHIZE AND PINE WOOD SHAVINGS ON THE CONTROL OF POWDERY SCAB (Spongospora subterranea IN POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Restrepo Duque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efectos de dos biocontroladores potenciales, un consorcio de micorrizas y viruta de pino sobre el control de Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea en papa Diacol Capiro muy susceptible a la sarna polvosa. El estudio se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú, corregimiento de Santa Elena Medellín a 2.550 msnm, temperatura media de 14 ºC y precipitación promedio anual de 2.500 mm. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y cinco tratamientos (Trichoderma harzianum; Producto comercial de micorrizas “Mikorhyze lote C7”; Pseudomonas fluorescents, viruta de pino y Testigo sin control. Se encontraron porcentajes de incidencia de la enfermedad en raíces (32% para el tratamiento testigo (sin control, aunque el porcentaje de severidad tanto del testigo como de los demás tratamientos fue bajo, el cual no superó el 0,23%. La expresión de síntomas en tubérculos mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el tratamiento testigo y la aplicación de T. harzianum, micorrizas y P. fluorescents a los tubérculos, al igual que la adición de la viruta de pino al suelo. Estos tratamientos redujeron la incidencia y severidad de la sarna polvosa en las raíces y tubérculos. Las variables fisiológicas peso seco de raíces, peso de tubérculos y peso seco de la parte aérea, no presentaron incrementos positivos ni diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos evaluados.The effect of two potential microorganism, mycorhize and pine wood shavings for management of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in potato cultivar DIACOL Capiro were evaluated. This research was established at the Agricultural Center of Paysandú (Santa Elena - Medellín to 2,550 masL, average temperature of 14 ºC and average annual rainfall of 2,500 mm. A field experiment was established using a randomized complete design with four replications and five treatments (Trichoderma harzianum; Comercial product

  8. Production of liquid transport fuel from cellulose material (wood). III Laboratory preparation of wood sugars and fermentation to ethanol and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, D A; Harwood, V D

    1977-10-25

    A laboratory procedure is described for hydrolyzing cellulose material to sugars by the use of hot sulfuric acid. The procedure has been used routinely for assessing raw materials. Raw materials used were radiata pine (fresh wood and decayed thinnings), pine needles, sawdust from old dumps, newspaper, cardboard, beech wood, and coconut wood. The neutralized sugar-liquors produced, supplemented with fertilizer grade nutrients, were fermented with bakers' yeast and gave near optimal conversion of hexoses to ethanol and of pentoses to protein biomass. From 100 g radiata pine (wood: bark mix 85:15) 25 ml (20 g) of ethanol and 2 g yeast biomass were routinely produced, although fermentation rates were lower than with pure sugars. The results, however, clearly showed that, by a hot dilute sulfure acid hydrolysis followed by a yeast fermentation process, cellulose resources avaliable in New Zealand are suitable for conversion to ethanol. 5 table, 1 figure.

  9. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S

    2017-12-01

    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  10. Wood pellets : is it a reliable, sustainable, green energy option?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaan, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Wood Pellet Association of Canada was formerly called the BC Pellet Fuel Manufacturers Association, and was renamed and re-organized in January 2006. The association serves as an advocate for the wood pellet industry in addition to conducting research projects. This power point presentation presented an overview of the wood pellet industry in North America and Europe. Canada's 23 pellet plants currently produce just over 1,000,000 tons of wood pellets annually. Pellet producers in the United States produce approximately 800,000 tons annually for the residential bagged market. There are currently 240 pellet plants in Europe, and district heating is the largest growth market for wood pellets in Europe. British Columbia (BC) pellet producers will ship 450,000 tons to European power plants in 2005. Wood pellet specifications were presented, with details of calorific values, moisture and ash contents. An outline of wood pellet production processes was provided. New pellet plants currently under construction were reviewed. Domestic, North American and overseas exports were discussed, along with production estimates for BC for the next 5 years. A chart of world production and consumption of wood pellets between 2000 to 2010 was presented. North American wood pellet technologies were described. The impact of the pine beetle infestation in BC on the wood pellet industry was evaluated, and a worldwide wood pellet production growth forecast was presented. Issues concerning off-gassing, emissions, and torrifracation were also discussed. tabs., figs

  11. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  12. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  13. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  14. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  15. Studies of non-contact methods for roughness measurements on wood surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, I.A.S.; Porankiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of wood surfaces after different kinds of machining processes is a property of great importance for the wood processing industries. Present work is a study, whose objective was to evaluate different non-contact methods, for measurement of the quality of the wood surfaces by correlating them with stylus tracing. A number of Scots Pine samples were prepared by different kinds of wood machining processing. Surface roughness measurements were performed, utilizing two optical noncontact methods. The results indicate that the laser scan method can measure surface roughness on sawn wood with a sufficient degree of accuracy. (author) [de

  16. NIR monitoring of in-service wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michela Zanetti; Timothy G. Rials; Douglas Rammer

    2005-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to study a set of Southern Yellow Pine boards exposed to natural weathering for different periods of exposure time. This non-destructive spectroscopic technique is a very powerful tool to predict the weathering of wood when used in combination with multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, and Projection to...

  17. Termites and flooding affect microbial communities in decomposing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Susan V. Diehl; Dragica Jeremic

    2016-01-01

    Wood properties and microbial community characteristics were compared between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs protected or unprotected from termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp.) and other arthropods for two years in seasonally flooded and unflooded forests in the southeastern United States. Significant compositional differences were observed...

  18. Interacting effects of insects and flooding on wood decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic arthropods are thought to play an important role in wood decomposition but very few efforts have been made to quantify their contributions to the process and the factors controlling their activities are not well understood. In the current study, mesh exclusion bags were used to quantify how arthropods affect loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decomposition rates...

  19. Effects of application methods and species of wood on color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the color effects of wood materials to coloring with different application methods (brush, roller sponge and spray gun) and waterborne varnishes were investigated according to ASTM-D 2244. For this purpose, the experimental samples of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and ...

  20. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  1. Use of gamma radiation to eliminate fungi from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, C.M.; Morrell, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for eliminating pests from imported wood products was investigated, using ponderosa pine blocks colonized by Aspergillus niger, Ophiostoma piceae, O. perfectum, Penicillium spp., Phlebia subserialis, or Postia placenta. While previous studies suggest that a dosage of 2.5 Mrads is required to eliminate fungi from wood, only one isolation was made from wafers exposed to 1.5 Mrad. This suggests that lower dosages may be adequate for mitigating pests in wood, although further studies using other fungi are recommended

  2. Characterization of Bacteria Associated with Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Claudia S. L.; Nascimento, Francisco; Espada, Margarida; Barbosa, Pedro; Mota, Manuel; Glick, Bernard R.; Oliveira, Solange

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease integrating three major agents: the pathogenic agent, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector Monochamus spp.; and the host pine tree, Pinus sp. Since the early 80's, the notion that another pathogenic agent, namely bacteria, may play a role in PWD has been gaining traction, however the role of bacteria in PWD is still unknown. The present work supports the possibility that some B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may play a significant role in the development of this disease. This is inferred as a consequence of: (i) the phenotypic characterization of a collection of 35 isolates of B. xylophilus-associated bacteria, in different tests broadly used to test plant pathogenic and plant growth promoting bacteria, and (ii) greenhouse experiments that infer the pathogenicity of these bacteria in maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. The results illustrate the presence of a heterogeneous microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and the traits exhibited by at least, some of these bacteria, appear to be related to PWD symptoms. The inoculation of four specific B. xylophilus-associated bacteria isolates in P. pinaster seedlings resulted in the development of some PWD symptoms suggesting that these bacteria likely play an active role with B. xylophilus in PWD. PMID:23091599

  3. The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Manuel; Vieira, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    According to the European Plant Protection Organization, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantine organism at the top of the list of the pathogenic species. PWN may be found in North America (Canada, USA and Mexico) and in East Asia (Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan) and has a highly destructive capability towards conifers, in a relatively short time, causing serious economic damage in Japan, China and Korea. This nematode surveying is extremely imp...

  4. Application of FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of archeological wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Mohamed; Kaal, Joeri; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Two archeological wood samples were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. They originate from a shipwreck in Ribadeo Bay in the northwest of Spain and from a beam wood of an old nave of the Cathedral of Segovia in the central Spain. Principal component analysis was applied to the transposed data matrix (samples as columns and spectral bands as rows) of 43 recorded spectra (18 in the shipwreck and 25 in the beam wood). The results showed differences between the two samples, with a larger proportion of carbohydrates and smaller proportion of lignin in the beam than in the shipwreck wood. Within the beam wood, lignin content was significantly lower in the recent than the old tree rings (P=0.005). These variations can be attributed to species differences between the two woods (oak and pine respectively), with a mixture of guaiacyl and syringyl in hardwood lignin, whereas softwood lignin consists almost exclusively of guaiacyl moieties. The influence of environmental conditions on the FTIR fingerprint was probably reflected by enhanced oxidation of lignin in aerated conditions (beam wood) and hydrolysis of carbohydrates in submerged-anoxic conditions (shipwreck wood). Molecular characterization by analytical pyrolysis of selected samples from each wood type confirmed the interpretation of the mechanisms behind the variability in wood composition obtained by the FTIR-ATR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  6. Nitrogen form affects pH and EC of whole pine tree substrate and growth of petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based substrates are potential alternatives or amendments to traditional peat-based and pine bark substrates. Undesirable changes in substrate pH may result from the application of supplemental fertilizer required by some crops grown in wood-based substrates. Experiments were conducted to evalu...

  7. Soil incorporation of logging residue affects fine-root and mycorrhizal root-tip dynamics of young loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth G. Pritchard; Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Andrea J. Grabman; Anne P. Chalmers

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations cover a large geographic area of the southeastern USA and supply a large proportion of the nation’s wood products. Research on management strategies designed to maximize wood production while also optimizing nutrient use efficiency and soil C sequestration is needed. We used minirhizotrons to quantify the effects of...

  8. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  9. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes.

  10. Basic and applied research: Entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema kill arthropods with the aid of their bacterial symbionts. These nematodes are potent microbial control agents that have been widely commercialized for control of economically important insect pests. Biocontrol efficacy relies...

  11. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  12. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  13. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  15. The genome and genetics of a high oxidative stress tolerant Serratia sp. LCN16 isolated from the plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Claudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Ikuyo, Yoriko; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-04-23

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a worldwide threat to pine forests, and is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Bacteria are known to be associated with PWN and may have an important role in PWD. Serratia sp. LCN16 is a PWN-associated bacterium, highly resistant to oxidative stress in vitro, and which beneficially contributes to the PWN survival under these conditions. Oxidative stress is generated as a part of the basal defense mechanism used by plants to combat pathogenic invasion. Here, we studied the biology of Serratia sp. LCN16 through genome analyses, and further investigated, using reverse genetics, the role of two genes directly involved in the neutralization of H2O2, namely the H2O2 transcriptional factor oxyR; and the H2O2-targeting enzyme, catalase katA. Serratia sp. LCN16 is phylogenetically most closely related to the phytosphere group of Serratia, which includes S. proteamaculans, S. grimessi and S. liquefaciens. Likewise, Serratia sp. LCN16 shares many features with endophytes (plant-associated bacteria), such as genes coding for plant polymer degrading enzymes, iron uptake/transport, siderophore and phytohormone synthesis, aromatic compound degradation and detoxification enzymes. OxyR and KatA are directly involved in the high tolerance to H2O2 of Serratia sp. LCN16. Under oxidative stress, Serratia sp. LCN16 expresses katA independently of OxyR in contrast with katG which is under positive regulation of OxyR. Serratia sp. LCN16 mutants for oxyR (oxyR::int(614)) and katA (katA::int(808)) were sensitive to H2O2 in relation with wild-type, and both failed to protect the PWN from H2O2-stress exposure. Moreover, both mutants showed different phenotypes in terms of biofilm production and swimming/swarming behaviors. This study provides new insights into the biology of PWN-associated bacteria Serratia sp. LCN16 and its extreme resistance to oxidative stress conditions, encouraging further research on the potential role of this

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  17. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Hawaiian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii’s diverse and mild climate allows for the cultivation of many crops. The introduction of each crop plant brought along its associated nematode pests. These plant-parasitic nematodes became established and are now endemic to the islands. Plantation agriculture determined the major nematode ...

  18. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biocontrol of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    2001-08-01

    Entomopathogenic steinemematid and heterorhabditid nematodes are increasingly used to control insect pests of economically important crops. Laboratory and field simulation trials show that ticks are also susceptible to these nematodes. The authors review the potential of entomogenous nematodes for the control of ticks.

  19. Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961

  20. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  1. Deadwood Decay in a Burnt Mediterranean Pine Reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Molinas-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood remaining after wildfires represents a biological legacy for forest regeneration, and its decay is both cause and consequence of a large set of ecological processes. However, the rate of wood decomposition after fires is still poorly understood, particularly for Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed deadwood decomposition following a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeast Spain. Three plots were established over an elevational/species gradient spanning from 1477 to 2053 m above sea level, in which burnt logs of three species of pines were experimentally laid out and wood densities were estimated five times over ten years. The logs lost an overall 23% of their density, although this value ranged from an average 11% at the highest-elevation plot (dominated by Pinus sylvestris to 32% at an intermediate elevation (with P. nigra. Contrary to studies in other climates, large-diameter logs decomposed faster than small-diameter logs. Our results provide one of the longest time series for wood decomposition in Mediterranean ecosystems and suggest that this process provides spatial variability in the post-fire ecosystem at the scale of stands due to variable speeds of decay. Common management practices such as salvage logging diminish burnt wood and influence the rich ecological processes related to its decay.

  2. Influence of wood extractives in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo de V, G.; Loyola V, V.M.; Albarran S, G.; Candelas, J.

    1975-01-01

    Those materials that can be extracted from pine or oak by ether, ethanol, methyl methacrylate (MMA), or benzene--alcohol all act as inhibitors in the γ polymerization of MMA--wood composites. It was found that preirradiation of either the wood or of the wood--monomer combination reduces or eliminates the inhibitory effect. The most practical industrial solution to this problem is to increase the dose, thereby achieving high molecular polymer in the composite. However, the presence of a maximum in the molecular weight--dose curves means that each wood--monomer pair may have a different optimum dose

  3. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  4. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  5. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  6. Predator-prey interactions of nematode-trapping fungi and nematodes: both sides of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Guillermo; Hsueh, Yen-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation. In this review, we use the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (which forms adhesive nets) as a model to describe the trapping process. We divide this process into several stages; namely attraction, recognition, trap formation, adhesion, penetration, and digestion. We summarize the latest findings in the field and current knowledge on the interactions between nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi, representing both sides of the predator-prey interaction.

  7. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  8. Olfactory circuits and behaviors of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sophie; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-12-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are infected with parasitic nematodes. Many parasitic nematodes actively search for hosts to infect using volatile chemical cues, so understanding the olfactory signals that drive host seeking may elucidate new pathways for preventing infections. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for parasitic nematodes: because sensory neuroanatomy is conserved across nematode species, an understanding of the microcircuits that mediate olfaction in C. elegans may inform studies of olfaction in parasitic nematodes. Here we review circuit mechanisms that allow C. elegans to respond to odorants, gases, and pheromones. We also highlight work on the olfactory behaviors of parasitic nematodes that lays the groundwork for future studies of their olfactory microcircuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mathematical analysis of dynamic spread of Pine Wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, D D; Bacic, J

    2013-01-01

    Since its detection in Portugal in 1999, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer), a causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease, represents a threat to European forestry. Significant amount of money has been spent on its monitoring and eradication. This paper presents mathematical analysis of spread of pine wilt disease using a set of partial differential equations with space (longitude and latitude) and time as parameters of estimated spread of disease. This methodology can be used to evaluate risk of various assumed entry points of disease and make defense plans in advance. In case of an already existing outbreak, it can be used to draw optimal line of defense and plan removal of trees. Optimization constraints are economic loss of removal of susceptible trees as well as budgetary constraints of workforce cost.

  10. Distribution of radiocesium and stable elements within a pine tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Distributions of 137 Cs and stable elements in different parts of a pine tree collected in Chernobyl-contaminated area in Belarus were determined. Samples include annual tree rings of wood, branches and needles with different ages. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in annual tree rings were the highest in cambium and decreased sharply towards inside. The youngest needles and branches contained higher 137 Cs and stable Cs than older ones. The concentration of 137 Cs being highest in growing parts suggests the highest radiation dose to the radiation-sensitive parts of tree. Distribution patterns of stable elements in pine tree differ among the elements. Distributions similar to those of Cs were observed for K and Rb, suggesting that alkaline metals tend to be translocated to young growing parts of pine tree. A similar distribution was also observed for phosphorus. Distributions of alkaline earth metals and several heavy metals were different from those of alkaline metals. (authors)

  11. The Effects of Natural Weathering on Color Stability of Impregnated and Varnished Wood Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Turkoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of natural weathering on color stability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L. impregnated with some chemicals [tanalith-E (TN-E, adolit-KD5 (AD-KD5, and chromated copper arsenate (CCA] and then varnished [synthetic varnish (SV and polyurethane varnish (PV]. While applying varnish increased lightness, impregnation decreased lightness of the wood specimens before natural weathering. Natural weathering caused greenish, bluish, and dark color tones of the wood surface. Total color change was increased with increasing exposure times in natural weathering. Untreated (control wood specimens exhibited higher color changes than the other wood specimens in all the stages of natural weathering. The total color changes of untreated Oriental beech specimens were less than untreated Scots pine specimens. The color stability of impregnated and varnished wood specimens gave better results than untreated and solely varnished wood specimens after natural weathering. The best color stability was obtained from both Oriental beech and Scots pine wood impregnated with TN-E before PV coating.

  12. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  13. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  14. In situ polymerization of polyaniline in wood veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Stacy; Jafarzadeh, Shadi; Johansson, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The present study describes the possibility to polymerize aniline within wood veneers to obtain a semi-conducting material with solid wood acting as the base template. It was determined that it is possible to synthesize the intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) polyaniline in situ within the wood structure of Southern yellow pine veneers, combining the strength of the natural wood structure with the conductivity of the impregnated polymer. It was found that polyaniline is uniformly dispersed within the wood structure by light microscopy and FT-IR imaging. A weight percent gain in the range of 3-12 wt % was obtained with a preferential formation in the wood structure and cell wall, rather than in the lumen. The modified wood was found to be less hydrophilic with the addition of phosphate doped polyaniline as observed by equilibrium water swelling studies. While wood itself is insulating, the modified veneers had conductivities of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-9) S cm(-1), demonstrating the ability to tune the conductivity and allowing for materials with a wide range of applications, from anti-static to charge-dispersing materials. Furthermore, the modified veneers had lower total and peak heat releases, as determined by cone calorimetry, because of the char properties of the ICP. This is of interest if these materials are to be used in building and furniture applications where flame retardance is of importance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  16. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  18. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  19. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  20. Effects of tanalith-e impregnation substance on bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Keskin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with Tanalith-E on the bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types. The test samples prepared from beech, oak, walnut, poplar, ash and pine wood materials - that are of common use in the forest products industry of TURKEY - according to TS 345, were treated with according to ASTM D 1413-76 substantially. Un-impregnated samples according to impregnated wood materials, the bending strengths in beech to 6.83%, 5.12% in ash, 5.93% in pine, the elasticity module values to 7.15% in oak and ash, at a rate of 6.58% in the higher were found. The highest values of bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending were obtained in beech and ash woods impregnated with Tanalith-E, whereas the lowest values were obtained in the poplar wood.

  1. Possibilities for the Use of Wood Ashes in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Symanowicz; Marcin Becher; Dawid Jaremko; Korneliusz Skwarek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the agricultural usefulness of the ashes obtained following the combustion of wood of fourteen tree species (pear tree, apple tree, aspen, ash, alder, birch, poplar, hornbeam, pine, common walnut, oak, hazel, bird cherry and spruce) in home fireplaces. The following physical properties of the ashes were determined: colour, solubility, porosity, absorbability, compression strength, degree of fineness, moisture content and spreadability. In the ashes...

  2. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    Full Text Available In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP. EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  3. Biocontrol: Fungal Parasites of Female Cyst Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Three species of fungi, Catenaria auxiliarls (Kühn) Tribe, Nematophthora gynophila Kerry and Crump, and a Lagenidiaceous fungus have been found attacking female cyst nematodes. All are zoosporic fungi which parasitize females on the root surface, cause the breakdown of the nematode cuticle, and prevent cyst formation. Their identification and some aspects of their biology are reviewed. N. gynophila is widespread in Britain and reduces populations of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae...

  4. The effects of irrigation and fertilization on specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark; L. R. Schimleck; P. M. Dougherty; R. F. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The effects of two treatments, irrigation and fertilization, were examined on specific gravity (SG)-related wood properties of loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) grown in Scotland County, North Carolina. The effects on the core as a whole, on the juvenile core, on the mature core, and from year to year were all analyzed. The results indicate that fertilization...

  5. Effect of midrotation fertilization on growth and specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Lewis Jordan; Richard F. Daniels; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark III; Daniel B. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Wood properties and growth were measured on breast-height cores and on disks collected at different heights from a thinned and fertilized midrotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The study was laid out in a randomized complete-block design receiving four levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer: unfertilized...

  6. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough

    2004-01-01

    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  7. Shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands in the Ouachita and Ozark mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer

    1996-01-01

    Seed production of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was monitored from 1965 to 1974 to determine the periodicity qf seed crops in both woods-run stands and seed-production areas. One bumper and two good seed crops occurred during the 9-yr period. The two largest crops occurred in successive years, then seed production was low for 4 yr before...

  8. Spatial analysis of longleaf pine stand dynamics after 60 years of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2012-01-01

    There are still many questions and misconceptions about the stand dynamics of naturally-regenerated longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Since 1948, the “Farm Forty,” a forty-acre tract located on the USDA Forest Service Escambia Experimental Forest near Brewton, Alabama, has been managed to create high quality wood products, to successfully...

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of loblolly pine: effects of cellulose crystallinity and delignification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; J.Y. Zhu; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis experiments with commercial cellulases have been performed to understand the effects of cell wall crystallinity and lignin on the process. In the focus of the paper are loblolly pine wood samples, which were systematically delignified and partly ball-milled, and, for comparison, Whatman CC31 cellulose samples with different crystallinities. In pure cellulose...

  10. Population growth and the decline of natural Southern yellow pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; Edward R. Buckner

    2004-01-01

    Population growth has created social and economic pressures that affect the sustainability of naturally regenerated southern yellow pine forests. Major causes of this decline include (1) a shift in public attitudes regarding woods burning (from one favoring it to one that favors fire suppression) and (2) an increase in land values (especially near urban centers). The...

  11. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  12. Ammonia, total reduced sulfides, and greenhouse gases of pine chip and corn stover bedding packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) when pine wood chips and corn stover were mixed in various...

  13. Unifying the functional diversity in natural and cultivated soils using the overall body-mass distribution of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian; Maas, Rob

    2017-11-28

    Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated. Using three commonly used functional diversity indices applicable to single traits (Divergence, Evenness and Richness), a unified index of overall body-mass distribution is proposed to better illustrate the application of functional metrics as a descriptor of land use. Effects of land use and soil chemistry on the functional diversity of nematodes were demonstrated and a combination of environmental factors accounts for the low functional value of Scots Pine forest soils in comparison to the high functional value of heathland soils, whereas human factors account for the low functional and chemical values of arable fields. These findings show an unexpected high functional vulnerability of nematodes inhabiting clay-rich soils in comparison to sandy soils and support the notion that soil C:N ratio is a major driver of biodiversity. The higher the C:N ratio, the higher the overall diversity, as soil nematodes cope better with nutrient-poor agroecosystems under less intense fertilization. A trait-based way focusing on size distribution of nematodes is proposed to maintain environmental health by monitoring the overall diversity in soil biota, keeping agriculture and forestry sustainable.

  14. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  15. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  16. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  17. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  18. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  19. Effect of thermo-mechanical refining pressure on the properties of wood fibers as measured by nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Xing; Siqun Wang; George M. Pharr; Leslie H. Groom

    2008-01-01

    Refined wood fibers of a 54-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) mature wood were investigated by nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of steam pressure, in the range of 2?18 bar, during thermomechanical refining was investigated and the nanomechanical properties and nano- or micro-level damages of the cell wall were...

  20. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Wilkinson; Jerome Ogee; Jean-Christophe Domec; Mark Rayment; Lisa Wingate

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus...

  1. Epidemiological studies of nematodes in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.F.; Butt, K.; Qureshi, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three hundred fresh water fishes of six species were collected from six different fish farms of Lahore for the prevalence of nematodes. Out of 300 fishes examined, 12 were found to be infected with the helminthes, majority of them were isolated from the stomach and intestines. The following two species of nematodes were recorded; Capillaria spp. and Eustrongylides spp. The overall prevalence of intestinal nematodes was recorded as 4%(12/300). The prevalence of nematodes was recorded on monthly basis which ranged from 0-8%. The highest prevalence of nematodes was 8% (4/50) during March, while the lowest prevalence was noted in June 0%.Singharee (Sperata sawari) showed the maximum infestation of nematodes of 8% (4/50), whereas in Silver Carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix) minimum prevalence of nematode (0%) was noted. The prevalence of different nematode in a particular fish specie was also recorded, and it was stated that overall prevalence of capillaria spp. was 6% in Rahu (Labeo rohita) and Saul (Channa marullius). Similarly overall infestation of Eustrongylides sp. was recorded as 4% in Singharee (Sperata sawari) and Silver carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix). The nematode intensity might be linked with the genetic makeup, intestinal vigor, and other managemental and environmental factors. (author)

  2. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

  3. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  4. Concentrations of radiocesium and stable elements in different parts of pine tree collected in Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masumi; Suzuki, Akira; Linkov, Igor; Dvornik, Alexander; Zhuchenko, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Radial distributions of 137 Cs and related stable elements in a pine tree collected in Chernobyl contaminated area in Belarus were determined, in order to get basic information for dose estimation of pine tree. The concentration of 137 Cs in annual tree rings was the highest in cambium, and decreased sharply toward inside. The highest concentration of 137 Cs in cambium suggests the highest radiation dose to growing part of wood. Distribution of stable Cs was similar as that of 137 Cs, and the 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio was almost constant, indicating the equilibrium of Chernobyl 137 Cs with stable Cs in the pine wood. The similar distributions as Cs were observed for K and Rb. (author)

  5. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  6. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  7. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  8. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  9. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  10. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  11. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  12. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  13. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  14. Instream wood loads in montane forest streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies examine instream wood loads and associated geomorphic effects in streams of subalpine forests in the U.S. Southern Rocky Mountains, little is known of instream wood loads in lower elevation, montane forests of the region. We compare instream wood loads and geomorphic effects between streams draining montane forest stands of differing age (old growth versus younger) and disturbance history (healthy versus infested by mountain pine beetles). We examined forest stand characteristics, instream wood load, channel geometry, pool volume, and sediment storage in 33 pool-riffle or plane-bed stream reaches with objectives of determining whether (i) instream wood and geomorphic effects differed significantly among old-growth, younger, healthy, and beetle-infested forest stands and (ii) wood loads correlated with valley and channel characteristics. Wood loads were standardized to drainage area, stream gradient, reach length, bankfull width, and floodplain area. Streams flowing through old-growth forests had significantly larger wood loads and logjam volumes (pairwise t-tests), as well as logjam frequencies (Kruskal-Wallis test), residual pool volume, and fine sediment storage around wood than streams flowing through younger forests. Wood loads in streams draining beetle-infested forest did not differ significantly from those in healthy forest stands, but best subset regression models indicated that elevation, stand age, and beetle infestation were the best predictors of wood loads in channels and on floodplains, suggesting that beetle infestation is affecting instream wood characteristics. Wood loads are larger than values from subalpine streams in the same region and jams are larger and more closely spaced. We interpret these differences to reflect greater wood piece mobility in subalpine zone streams. Stand age appears to exert the dominant influence on instream wood characteristics within pool-riffle streams in the study area rather than beetle

  15. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. root nematode control and crop yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... The relationship between cost and benefit of the nematicide applications was also estimated. ... based on nematode threshold (100 nematodes per g of fresh root) which resulted in two applications; ..... France. Araya M, 2004. Situación actual del manejo de nematodos en banano (Musa AAA) y plátano.

  17. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  18. Effect of coating systems on the vaporization of pentachlorophenol from treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Ingram; G. D. McGinnis; P. M. Pope; W. C. Feist

    1983-01-01

    Specimens of southern pine treated with pentachlorophenol (penta) in mineral spirits (dip treatment), penta in P9 type A oil and penta in methylene chloride (pressure treatments) were used to evaluate the efficacy of different types of coatings in suppressing the vaporization of penta from treated wood. The clear film-forming coatings, such as polyurethane and alkyds,...

  19. Nondestructive methods of evaluating quality of wood in preservative-treated piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2000-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood in used preservative-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles. Stress wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress wave propagation speeds in the piles were then obtained to estimate their MOE. This was followed by...

  20. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  1. New Approach to Remove Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Hui Pan

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated using binary acid solutions consisting of acetic, oxalic, and phosphoric acids in a microwave reactor. Formation of an insoluble copper oxalate complex in the binary solution containing oxalic acid was the major factor for low copper removal. Furthermore, the...

  2. A non-destructive approach for assessing decay in preservative treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machek, L.; Edlund, M.L.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the suitability of the non-destructive vibration-impulse excitation technique to assess the attack of preservative-treated wood in contact with the ground. Small stakes (10×5×100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in laboratory-scale

  3. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott

    2005-01-01

    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  4. Effect of Decay on Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan McGovern; Adam Senalik; George Chen; Frank C. Beall; Henrique Reis

    2013-01-01

    The percentage mass loss of loblolly pine (pinus taeda) wood cube specimens exposed to Gloeophyllum fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) for increasing periods of time ranging from 1 to 12 weeks was recorded after being subjected to controlled decay following ASTM International standard ASTM D 1423-99. The specimens’ corresponding volume...

  5. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  6. Determination of Cr(VI) in wood specimen: A XANES study at the Cr K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, E.; Plarre, R.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Schoknecht, U.; Urban, K.; Juengel, P.

    2008-01-01

    The content of chromium in different oxidation states in chromium-treated wood was studied with XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) measurements at the Cr K absorption edge. It could be shown that wood samples treated with Cr(VI) (pine and beech) did still contain a measurable content of Cr(VI) after four weeks conditioning. If such wood samples were heat exposed for 2 h with 135 deg. C prior conditioning, Cr(VI) was no longer detected by XANES, indicating a complete reduction to chromium (III)

  7. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  8. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  9. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  10. Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T

    2016-02-01

    The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Assessments of iodoindoles and abamectin as inducers of methuosis in pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ravichandran, Vinothkannan; Lee, Jintae

    2017-07-28

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10 µg/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locomotor behaviors. Molecular interactions of ligands with invertebrate-specific glutamate gated chloride channel receptor reinforced the notion that 5-iodoindole, like abamectin, rigidly binds to the active sites of the receptor. 5-Iodoindole also induced diverse phenotypic deformities in nematodes including abnormal organ disruption/shrinkage and increased vacuolization. These findings suggest the prospective role of vacuoles in nematode death by methuosis. Importantly, 5-iodoindole was nontoxic to two plants, Brassica oleracea and Raphanus raphanistrum. Henceforth, the study warrants the application of iodoindoles in ecological environments to control the devastating pine destruction by B. xylophilus.

  12. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Qin, Jiayi; Cruz-Paredes, Carla

    the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to forest floor can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible effects for the soil food by applying ash of different...... concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest the soil will be collected with varying intervals and subsequently analyzed. The food web included several trophic levels; bacteria/fungi, protozoa, nematodes, enchytraeids and microarthropods and arthropods. Results from 2014 indicated that bacteria...... and protozoa were stimulated in the uppermost soil layer (0-3 cm) two months ash application, whereas the enchytraeids seemed to be slightly negatively affected. Generally, nematodes also appeared to be negatively affected, although it differed between feeding groups. On the higher trophic levels, no effect...

  13. Dose in a house built with contaminated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the annual effective dose which could be received by a person living in a house built in France with wood from Belarus and contaminated by cesium 137 from Chernobylsk accident fallout. After the context be specified and the potential levels of radioactivity presented, an assessment of the annual effective dose is performed, based on an as realistic as possible scenario. After calculations it appears that the annual effective dose by external exposure potentially received by an inhabitant living in a house build with contaminated wood (pine or birch) at 1,000 Bq/kg is of the order of 1 mSv, due to external exposure to walls. This dose is not negligible, and could even be much more higher if wood from highly contaminated Belarusian areas is used for building houses. Projects of such wooden buildings should be studied with a particular attention to the characterization of the contamination. (N.C.)

  14. Dose in a house built with contaminated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to assess the annual effective dose which could be received by a person living in a house built in France with wood from Belarus and contaminated by cesium 137 from Chernobylsk accident fallout. After the context be specified and the potential levels of radioactivity presented, an assessment of the annual effective dose is performed, based on an as realistic as possible scenario. After calculations it appears that the annual effective dose by external exposure potentially received by an inhabitant living in a house build with contaminated wood (pine or birch) at 1,000 Bq/kg is of the order of 1 mSv, due to external exposure to walls. This dose is not negligible, and could even be much more higher if wood from highly contaminated Belarusian areas is used for building houses. Projects of such wooden buildings should be studied with a particular attention to the characterization of the contamination. (N.C.)

  15. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  16. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  17. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  18. Does replacing coal with wood lower CO2 emissions? Dynamic lifecycle analysis of wood bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, John D.; Siegel, Lori; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.

    2018-01-01

    Bioenergy is booming as nations seek to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. The European Union declared biofuels to be carbon-neutral, triggering a surge in wood use. But do biofuels actually reduce emissions? A molecule of CO2 emitted today has the same impact on radiative forcing whether it comes from coal or biomass. Biofuels can only reduce atmospheric CO2 over time through post-harvest increases in net primary production (NPP). The climate impact of biofuels therefore depends on CO2 emissions from combustion of biofuels versus fossil fuels, the fate of the harvested land and dynamics of NPP. Here we develop a model for dynamic bioenergy lifecycle analysis. The model tracks carbon stocks and fluxes among the atmosphere, biomass, and soils, is extensible to multiple land types and regions, and runs in ≈1s, enabling rapid, interactive policy design and sensitivity testing. We simulate substitution of wood for coal in power generation, estimating the parameters governing NPP and other fluxes using data for forests in the eastern US and using published estimates for supply chain emissions. Because combustion and processing efficiencies for wood are less than coal, the immediate impact of substituting wood for coal is an increase in atmospheric CO2 relative to coal. The payback time for this carbon debt ranges from 44-104 years after clearcut, depending on forest type—assuming the land remains forest. Surprisingly, replanting hardwood forests with fast-growing pine plantations raises the CO2 impact of wood because the equilibrium carbon density of plantations is lower than natural forests. Further, projected growth in wood harvest for bioenergy would increase atmospheric CO2 for at least a century because new carbon debt continuously exceeds NPP. Assuming biofuels are carbon neutral may worsen irreversible impacts of climate change before benefits accrue. Instead, explicit dynamic models should be used to assess the climate impacts of biofuels.

  19. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbosuria, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm -1 , 0.165cm -1 , 0.163cm -1 , 0.156cm -1 , 0.149cm -1 , 0.143cm -1 , 0.133cm -1 , 0.132cm -1 , 0.127cm -1 , 0.124cm -1 , 0.085cm -1 , 0.123cm -1 , 0.122cm -1 , 0.113cm -1 , 0.101cm -1 , 0.088cm -1 , 0.087cm -1 , 0.086cm -1 , 0.082cm -1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  20. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigbosuria, E F [Department of Computer Electronics/Physics, Lead City University, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-10-24

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm{sup -1}, 0.165cm{sup -1}, 0.163cm{sup -1}, 0.156cm{sup -1}, 0.149cm{sup -1}, 0.143cm{sup -1}, 0.133cm{sup -1}, 0.132cm{sup -1}, 0.127cm{sup -1}, 0.124cm{sup -1}, 0.085cm{sup -1}, 0.123cm{sup -1}, 0.122cm{sup -1}, 0.113cm{sup -1}, 0.101cm{sup -1}, 0.088cm{sup -1}, 0.087cm{sup -1}, 0.086cm{sup -1}, 0.082cm{sup -1} respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value

  1. Thermal oxidative degradation of wood modified with aminophenylborates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyachenkova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative thermal analysis in the presence of oxygen was carried out for samples of native pine wood and wood samples modified with aminophenylborates. Significant decrease in the amount of heat released during thermal decomposition of the modified samples was established, which is due to the increase of carbonaceous residues on the surface. Reduction of heat release during decomposition of the modified samples may be explained by the lower yield of combustible volatile products as well as by thin film of boron oxide, formed on the surface of the modified wood, that partially reflects heat flow. Produced upon the modifier decomposition water vapor and inert nitrogen oxides dilute gaseous mixture near the wood surface and isolate it from oxygen. This enhances fire-resistance of wood modified with mono- and diethanolamine(N→Bphenylborates. Hydroxyl group at the sixth carbon atom of the glucopyranose ring of cellulose participates in reactions of cellulose modification, which prevents formation of flammable levoglucosan and, consequently, improves the fire-resistance of the modified wood.

  2. Investigation Of The Color Changing Properties Of Wood Stain Derived From Pinar Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an environmentally friendly wood stain derived pinar (Quercus aucheri leaves and determine the color stability of this stain when exposed to UV light irradiation. Wood stains derived from pinar leaves were prepared from aqueous solution with %3 iron (FeSO4.7H2O , % 5 alum ((KAl(SO42.12H2O, and % 10 vinegar mordant mixtures. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky and oak (Quercus petraea L. wood specimens were used as staining substrates. After treatment with the stain, the wood panels were exposed to UV light irradiation for periods of 100, 200, and 300 hours and determinated the total color changes was according to ISO 2470 standards. Results showed that wood stain derived from pinar extract provided some color stability after UV irradiation. According to results, Scots pine specimens treated with the pinar extract + iron mixture provided the smallest total color changes. Meanwhile the highest total color change provided on the Scots pine treated with pinar extract+alum mixture.

  3. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  4. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  5. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  6. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile in the boiler and thereby the overall operation and efficiency of the plant. Chapter 1 consists of an introduction to thermal conversion of biomass fuels as well as a description of a Danish power plant where a measuring campaign was carried out as part of this project. Chapter 2 is a brief literature review of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation on the relation between pyrolysis of wood in boiler-like conditions and wood char properties is presented. Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyser. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature varied in the range 673-1673 K for slow pyrolysis and 1073-1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidised in a thermogravimetric analyser and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104-105 K/s) was as low as 1-6% on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17% for slow pyrolysis (10-20 K/min); char yield decreased as

  7. Integrated Procurement of Pulpwood and Energy Wood by Whole-Tree Bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jylhae, Paula (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus (Finland)); Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland)); Laitila, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Total supply chain costs of pulpwood and energy wood harvested from early thinnings can be reduced by applying an integrated procurement system based on whole-tree bundling using a newly-developed whole-tree bundler. Pulpwood-dimensioned whole trees are incorporated into pulpwood bundles. The pulp and energy fraction are not separated before the wood reaches the debarking drum of the pulp mill. Based on industrial trials with Scots pine harvested from first thinnings, pulp made from blend of bundles and conventional pulpwood meets the quality requirements of chemical pine pulp. Small-diameter trees and undesirable tree species can be accumulated into separate energy wood bundles, which are transported to energy generation. Due to load compaction, cost savings are expected especially in forest haulage and road transportation. The system shows greatest potential when harvesting first-thinning stands with a breast-height diameter of 7-10 cm

  8. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ANGLE AND SPECIES ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasit Esen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the thermal conductivity of different wood materials was determined. For this purpose, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Uludag fir (Abies Bornmülleriana Matff, Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L, Oak (Quercus robur L., and Chestnut of Anatolia (Castanea sativa Mill. woods were used. In the test, the thermal conductivity of the woods was measured according to procedure of ASTM C 1113-99 standards. The lowest thermal conductivity was obtained in the perpendicular direction of Scots pine samples as 0.156 Kcal/mh°C. The highest thermal conductivity was obtained from perpendicular direction of samples in Oriental beech as 0.331 Kcal/mh°C.

  9. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers.Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  10. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininger, Peter; Hoess, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Juergen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure

  11. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heininger, Peter [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hoess, Sebastian [Ecossa - Ecological Sediment and Soil Assessment, Thierschstr. 43, 80538 Munich (Germany); Claus, Evelyn [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Pelzer, Juergen [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Traunspurger, Walter [University of Bielefeld, Department of Animal Ecology, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)]. E-mail: traunspurger@uni-bielefeld.de

    2007-03-15

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. - Nematode community structure of river sediments is related to pollution and site structure.

  12. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  13. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  14. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  15. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  16. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  17. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  18. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  19. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  20. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sudo Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana, mangium (Acacia mangium, and pine (Pinus merkusii were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance. Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  1. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  2. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  3. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  4. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  5. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  6. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  7. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  8. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  9. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  10. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  11. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  12. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  13. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of the Anti-stain Efficacy of Crude Wood Vinegar for Pinus densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Salim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, Pinus densiflora is one of the most important indigenous tree species in terms of making high-value wood products. Therefore, Korean sawmills exercise extreme caution to prevent fungal discoloration such as that caused by sapstains and molds on the timber. In this study, the effectiveness of using natural crude wood vinegar to inhibit sapstains and molds, especially on Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine was examined. Pinus densiflora wood samples were dipped in absolute and diluted wood vinegar at different concentrations (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1; deionized water to wood vinegar dilution ratio for 3 minutes and immediately air-dried. In addition, volatile wood vinegar was also used in this study to imitate the condition of wood vinegar when exposed to open air. The degree of discoloration was examined and evaluated every 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks according to the ASTM D4445-91 Standard Method for laboratory test. Crude wood vinegar inhibited sapstains more efficiently than it inhibited molds. Wood vinegar at a 1:1 concentration was found to be the most optimum treatment for inhibiting sapstains for at least 8 weeks.

  15. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  16. On energy consumption for size-reduction and yields from subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Zhu; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of chemical pretreatment and disk-milling conditions on energy consumption for size-reduction and the efficiency of enzymatic cellulose saccharification of a softwood. Lodgepole pine wood chips produced from thinnings of a 100-year-old unmanaged forest were pretreated by hot-water, dilute-acid, and two SPORL processes (Sulfite...

  17. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  18. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  19. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  20. Impacts of fertilizer additions on water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina. A worst case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray J. Beltran; Devendra M. Amatya; Martin Jones; R. Wayne Skaggs; William Neal Reynolds; Timothy J. Callahan; Jami E. Nettles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 years to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the US. However, forestry management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. In this study, the effect of fertilization on drainage water quality of a coastal pine plantation located in Carteret...

  1. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  2. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  3. Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbst--a weevil attacking marine timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevering, Pascal; Pitman, Andrew J; Pandey, Krishna K

    2003-04-01

    Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment. Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas. P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated. Using dry weight analyses of tunnel walls and frass produced, P. spadix adults consumed Scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 +/- 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 +/- 5.89 (i.e. for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested). Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural wood components in tunnel walls and frass, P. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyse adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine, cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found. This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms.

  4. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hou-Min; Kadia, John F.; Li, Bailian; Sederoff, Ron

    2005-06-30

    In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem

  5. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  6. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  7. Dispersal of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in mainland China as inferred from molecular data and associations to indices of human activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-ji Hu

    Full Text Available The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is an important forest pest as well as the principal vector of the pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer, in mainland China. Despite the economic importance of this insect-disease complex, only a few studies are available on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus and the relationship between its historic dispersal pattern and various human activities. The aim of the present study was to further explore aspects of human activity on the population genetic structure of M. alternatus in mainland China. The molecular data based on the combined mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 gene fragments from 140 individuals representing 14 Chinese populations yielded 54 haplotypes. Overall, a historical (natural expansion that originated from China's eastern coast to the western interior was revealed by the haplotype network, as well as several recent, long-distant population exchanges. Correlation analysis suggested that regional economic status and proximity to marine ports significantly influenced the population genetic structure of M. alternatus as indicated by both the ratio of shared haplotypes and the haplotype diversity, however, the PWN distribution in China was significantly correlated with only the ratio of shared haplotypes. Our results suggested that the modern logistical network (i.e., the transportation system in China is a key medium by which humans have brought about population exchange of M. alternatus in mainland China, likely through inadvertent movement of infested wood packaging material associated with trade, and that this genetic exchange was primarily from the economically well-developed east coast of China, westward, to the less-developed interior. In addition, this study demonstrated the existence of non-local M. alternatus in new PWN-infested localities in China, but not all sites with non-local M. alternatus were

  8. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  9. Determination of Pb and Cd pollution in Pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudovica, V.; Katkevic, J; Viksna, A.; Nulle, S.; Balcerbule, Z. . E-mai: wita@navigator.lv

    2004-01-01

    Forest is subordinate anthropogenic (carbon, petroleum, wood, waste incineration) and natural (climatic, biological, chemical) factors influencing. In current investigation pine tree as environmental indicator (Pinus Sylvestris L.) is selected. The aim of current investigations are to improve methods, that easy and unerring can establish threshold and critical toxic elements accumulation in the samples, such as pine needles, peels, trunk; the second - to find fact of pine reactions on pollution toxic elements concentrations in the soil, nutrition solutions. The reception efficiency of lead and cadmium from the solution with different concentrations of these toxic elements is estimated. The distribution of lead and cadmium in the different parts of pine trunk is edematous with some selective organic reagents. We find out that these toxic elements accumulate in pine trunk and peels and we cannot wash out from samples with water, so these elements are fixed in live tissue. The pollution of pine seedlings with Cd and Pb through the needles, peels, pulp, roots is connected with nutrition solutions, so with soil pollution

  10. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  11. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  12. Mechanics of the Compression Wood Response: II. On the Location, Action, and Distribution of Compression Wood Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R R; Wilson, B F

    1973-04-01

    A new method for simulation of cross-sectional growth provided detailed information on the location of normal wood and compression wood increments in two tilted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) leaders. These data were combined with data on stiffness, slope, and curvature changes over a 16-week period to make the mechanical analysis. The location of compression wood changed from the under side to a flank side and then to the upper side of the leader as the geotropic stimulus decreased, owing to compression wood action. Its location shifted back to a flank side when the direction of movement of the leader reversed. A model for this action, based on elongation strains, was developed and predicted the observed curvature changes with elongation strains of 0.3 to 0.5%, or a maximal compressive stress of 60 to 300 kilograms per square centimeter. After tilting, new wood formation was distributed so as to maintain consistent strain levels along the leaders in bending under gravitational loads. The computed effective elastic moduli were about the same for the two leaders throughout the season.

  13. Investigating co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wang, Ruijuan; Jiang, Changle; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wanhe; Mi, Bingbing; Liu, Zhijia

    2017-11-01

    To investigate co-combustion characteristics of bamboo and wood, moso bamboo and masson pine were torrefied and mixed with different blend ratios. The combustion process was examined by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The results showed the combustion process of samples included volatile emission and oxidation combustion as well as char combustion. The main mass loss of biomass blends occurred at volatile emission and oxidation combustion stage, while that of torrefied biomass occurred at char combustion stage. With the increase of bamboo content, characteristic temperatures decreased. Compared with untreated biomass, torrefied biomass had a higher initial and burnout temperature. With the increase of heating rates, combustion process of samples shifted to higher temperatures. Compared with non-isothermal models, activation energy obtained from isothermal model was lower. The result is helpful to promote development of co-combustion of bamboo and masson pine wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  15. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  16. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  17. Efficacy of chicken litter and wood biochars and their activated counterparts in heavy metal clean up from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that properties of activated biochars are tightly associated with those of the original feedstock as well as pyrolysis and activation conditions. This study examined two feedstock types, pine wood shavings and chicken litter, to produce biochars at two different pyrolysis temperatures a...

  18. Altitudinal Barrier to the Spread of an Invasive Species: Could the Pyrenean Chain Slow the Natural Spread of the Pinewood Nematode?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haran

    Full Text Available Mountain ranges may delimit the distribution of native species as well as constitute potential barriers to the spread of invasive species. The invasive pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a severe forest pest inducing pine wilt disease. It is vectored in Europe by a native long-horned beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis. This study explored the potential of the Pyrenean chain to slow or prevent the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles from the Iberian Peninsula, where the nematode is established and is expanding its range, towards France and the rest of Europe. An analysis of the genetic structure and migration patterns of the beetle populations throughout the Pyrenean mountain range was combined with a spread model simulating the potential movements of nematode-infested beetles across it. The central part of the Pyrenees, which corresponds to the highest elevation zone, was shown to prevent gene flow between the French and Spanish populations of M. galloprovincialis on each side of the mountains. Conversely, strong admixture was detected between populations located on both sides of low elevation hills, and especially at the east and west extremities of the mountain range. Simulations of the spread of nematode-infested beetles under various thresholds of beetle survival and pine wilt disease expression gave results consistent with the variation in genetic make-up, suggesting that western and eastern hillsides may represent corridors favoring natural spread of the nematode from the Iberian Peninsula to France. Simulations also showed that temperature rise due to climate change may significantly reduce the extent of the barrier formed by highest elevations. Our results support the hypothesis that the Pyrenean chain represents a partial barrier to the natural spread of nematode-infested beetles. These results, which have to be considered together with potential human-assisted long-distance spread of the nematode, highlight

  19. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  20. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  1. Development of an integrated approach for α-pinene recovery and sugar production from loblolly pine using ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, Gabriella; Kirby, James; Murthy Konda, N. V. S. N.

    2017-01-01

    perspective for the production of advanced cellulosic biofuels. To date, there have been very few examples where a single conversion process has enabled recovery of both terpenes and fermentable sugars in an integrated fashion. We have used the ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im......][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C in conjunction with analytical protocols using GC-MS, to extract α-pinene and simultaneously pretreat the pine to generate high yields of fermentable sugars after saccharification. Compared to solvent extraction, the IL process enabled higher recovery rates for α-pinene, from three...... tissues type of loblolly pine, i.e. pine chips from forest residues (FC), stems from young pine (YW) and lighter wood (LW), while also generating high yields of fermentable sugars following saccharification. We propose that this combined terpene extraction/lignocellulose pretreatment approach may provide...

  2. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  3. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  4. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  5. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  6. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  7. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  8. Studies on Lasioseius scapulatus, a Mesostigmatid mite predaceous on nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Imbriani, I.; Mankau, R.

    1983-01-01

    The life history and feeding habits of Lasioseius scapulatus, an ascid predator and potential biocontrol agent of nematodes, was examined. Reproduction was asexual, and the life cycle was 8-10 days at room temperature. Life history consisted of the egg, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult. Both nymphal stages and the adult captured and consumed nematodes. Two fungal genera and eight genera of nematodes were suitable food sources. Second-stage root-knot nematode juveniles were eaten, but eggs an...

  9. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management.

  10. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  11. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  12. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  13. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  14. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  15. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  16. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  17. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIN infection was associated with 1.4 litres per cow per day less milk and this ... Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle are of considerable economic importance .... Table 2. Mean faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal nematodes and the 95% confidence ... 3.2 Gastrointestinal nematode species. The pooled ...

  18. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient

  19. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  20. Opportunity to use native nematodes for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have surveyed wild cranberry bogs in WI and found three isolates of native nematodes. We have been testing these nematodes as potential biological control agents in for cranberry insect pests including sparganothis fruitworm and flea beetle. The nematodes seem to be effective at finding and killi...

  1. Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...

  2. 77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service..., without change, an interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships of... that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  3. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode... infested areas. Surveys have shown that the fields in these two townships are free of golden nematode, and...

  4. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  5. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  6. Migration of vascular plant species to a recent wood adjoining ancient woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland communities can be restored by natural succession in sites adjoining ancient woodlands which can act as seed sources for trees, shrubs and woodland herbs. The influence of dominant tree species and the distance from an adjacent ancient oak-hornbeam woodland upon the floristic composition of species in a recent pine wood planted on dry rendzina soil were studied. It was found that, in spite of a 52-year long succession, the border between woods was sharp and the composition of species in the recent wood were significantly different than in the adjacent ancient woodland. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the distance to the ancient woodland had a significant influence on species distributions in the recent wood. The numbers of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, vegetatively reproducing species and myrmecochores decreased with this distance, whereas the numbers of anemochores increased. The migration rate of many woodland species, calculated on occurrence of the farthest individuals was very slow, varying from 0.0 m year-1 to 0.38 m year-1. The restoration of the field layer vegetation in the studied pine wood was much slower than in recent deciduous woods on rich and moist soils where the migration rate of some species exceeded 1.50 m year-1. Recent woods adjacent to ancient woodlands can be more effectively colonised by woodland species only when they are dominated by broad-leaved trees with quickly decomposing litter, and the spatial continuity of these woods persists for a long period.

  7. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John

    2004-12-01

    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  8. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  9. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates.

  10. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  11. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  12. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  13. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  14. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  15. Interacting effects of insects and flooding on wood decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Ulyshen

    Full Text Available Saproxylic arthropods are thought to play an important role in wood decomposition but very few efforts have been made to quantify their contributions to the process and the factors controlling their activities are not well understood. In the current study, mesh exclusion bags were used to quantify how arthropods affect loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. decomposition rates in both seasonally flooded and unflooded forests over a 31-month period in the southeastern United States. Wood specific gravity (based on initial wood volume was significantly lower in bolts placed in unflooded forests and for those unprotected from insects. Approximately 20.5% and 13.7% of specific gravity loss after 31 months was attributable to insect activity in flooded and unflooded forests, respectively. Importantly, minimal between-treatment differences in water content and the results from a novel test carried out separately suggest the mesh bags had no significant impact on wood mass loss beyond the exclusion of insects. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp. were 5-6 times more active below-ground in unflooded forests compared to flooded forests based on wooden monitoring stakes. They were also slightly more active above-ground in unflooded forests but these differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, seasonal flooding had no detectable effect on above-ground beetle (Coleoptera richness or abundance. Although seasonal flooding strongly reduced Reticulitermes activity below-ground, it can be concluded from an insignificant interaction between forest type and exclusion treatment that reduced above-ground decomposition rates in seasonally flooded forests were due largely to suppressed microbial activity at those locations. The findings from this study indicate that southeastern U.S. arthropod communities accelerate above-ground wood decomposition significantly and to a similar extent in both flooded and unflooded forests

  16. An improved method for generating axenic entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Shokal, Upasana; Forst, Steven; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2015-09-19

    Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria. To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria, we have modified a previous method, which involves the use of a X. nematophila rpoS mutant strain that fails to colonize the intestine of the worms. We confirmed the absence of bacteria in the nematodes using a molecular diagnostic and two rounds of an axenicity assay involving appropriate antibiotics and nematode surface sterilization. We used axenic and symbiotic S. carpocapsae to infect Drosophila melanogaster larvae and found that both types of nematodes were able to cause insect death at similar rates. Generation of entomopathogenic nematodes lacking their mutualistic bacteria provides an excellent tool to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of nematode parasitism and to identify the insect host immune factors that participate in the immune response against nematode infections.

  17. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  18. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  19. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  20. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  1. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  2. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Emission behaviour of wood and materials produced from wood; Emissionsverhalten von Holz und Holzwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Olaf; Wiegner, Katharina; Jann, Oliver; Broedner, Doris; Scheffer, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this project, eight Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) and seven plywood boards from DIY stores were tested in emission test chambers according to the AgBB scheme's specifications. In addition, 17 OSBs manufactured in a pilot plant were tested to investigate the effect of production parameters on VOC emission. The use of antioxidants in OSB production was also tested. The main objective of the investigation was to find potential solutions for reducing VOC emissions from timber materials. The emissions from pine wood were investigated on six sapwood or heartwood samples from different trunk sections of freshly felled pine. The project's results show that, due to their high aldehyde and terpene emissions, some types of commercially available OSB and plywood did not meet the AgBB scheme's requirements. By using antioxidants in OSB production it was possible to reduce aldehyde emissions (especially hexanal and unsaturated higher aldehydes) to one third. However, this caused an increase in terpene emissions. (orig.)

  4. Field performance of timber bridges. 8, Lynches Woods Park stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; D. Conger

    The Lynches Woods Park bridge was constructed during the summer of 1990 in Newberry, South Carolina. It is a single-span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that measures approximately 30 ft long, 16 ft wide, and 14 in. deep. The bridge is unique in that is one of the first known stress-laminated deck bridges to be constructed of Southern Pine lumber...

  5. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  6. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  7. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  8. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  9. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  10. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  11. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  12. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  13. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  14. [Biomorphology of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, S

    2006-09-01

    Under the term gastrointestinal nematodes are included numerous parasites species of livestock belonging to the families Strongyloididae (Strongyloides), Strongylidae (Chabertia, Oesophagostomum) Trichostrongylidae (Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Marshallagia), Molineidae (Nematodirus), Ancylostomatidae (Bunostomum) and Trichuridae (Trichuris). This paper reviews the biomorphology aspects of these parasites as well as the controversy by the taxonomists in the classifications.

  15. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Parasites from the family Anisakidae are widely distributed in marine fish populations worldwide and mainly nematodes of the three genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum have attracted attention due to their pathogenicity in humans. Their life cycles include invertebrates and fish as i...

  16. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  17. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  18. Natural product synthesis: Making nematodes nervous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott A.

    2011-06-01

    A highly inventive route for the synthesis of a key substance that stimulates potato cyst nematodes to hatch has been developed. This discovery has potential to impact food supplies, as treatment of crops with this compound could alleviate the devastating effect of these parasites.

  19. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... grower preference or by government restrictions to limit the environmental ... risks associated with chemical control and (c) the pro- vision of ... certain model organisms. The first ... reproductive system (Lilley et al., 2005b), sperm (Urwin .... interference of dual oxidase in the plant nematode Meloidogyne.

  20. Nematodes: Model Organisms in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, TJ; Anderson, Margery; Dillman, Adler; Yourick, Debra; Jett, Marti; Adams, Byron J.; Russell, RevaBeth

    2007-01-01

    In a collaborative effort between university researchers and high school science teachers, an inquiry-based laboratory module was designed using two species of insecticidal nematodes to help students apply scientific inquiry and elements of thoughtful experimental design. The learning experience and model are described in this article. (Contains 4…

  1. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  2. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  3. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  4. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  5. Aureobasidium melanogenum: a native of dark biofinishes on oil treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J; Houbraken, Jos A M P; Meijer, Martin; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The genus Aureobasidium, which is known as a wood staining mould, has been detected on oil treated woods in the specific stain formation called biofinish. This biofinish is used to develop a new protective, self-healing and decorative biotreatment for wood. In order to understand and control biofinish formation on oil treated wood, the occurrence of different Aureobasidium species on various wood surfaces was studied. Phenotypic variability within Aureobasidium strains presented limitations of morphological identification of Aureobasidium species. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of ITS and RPB2 were used to identify the culturable Aureobasidium species composition in mould stained wood surfaces with and without a biofinish. The analysed isolates showed that several Aureobasidium species were present and that Aureobasidium melanogenum was predominantly detected, regardless of the presence of a biofinish and the type of substrate. A. melanogenum was detected on wood samples exposed in the Netherlands, Cameroon, South Africa, Australia and Norway. ITS-specific PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of DNA extracted from biofinish samples confirmed results of the culturing based method: A. melanogenum is predominant within the Aureobasidium population of biofinishes on pine sapwood treated with raw linseed oil and the outdoor placement in the Netherlands.

  6. Biology of Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Lodgepole Pine in Northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Malcolm M; Kegley, Sandra J

    2018-04-19

    The twig beetle, Pityophthorus pulchellus tuberculatus Eichhoff, infests dead branches of pines in western United States and Canada, including lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas, in northern Idaho. Adult broods overwintered in their host and emerged and colonized new hosts in late April. Males initiated galleries and were joined by up to seven females, each of which constructed an egg gallery radiating from a central chamber. Galleries had an average of 4.7 egg niches each with an egg that was large relative to the mother beetle. Two larval instars were recognized. Dentition of larval mandibles differed in shape from that in literature. Mature larvae pupated either in a cell excavated on the wood surface or in a cell below the wood surface. First-generation adults mined extensively in the inner bark and wood before emerging to infest new trees in late June. Their progeny became adults beginning in early August and likewise mined and fed on the inner bark and wood before overwintering. Predacious beetles present as larvae in the galleries included Enoclerus lecontei (Wolcott) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Lasconotus sp. (Coleoptera: Zopheridae). Parasitoid Hymenoptera reared from infested trees were Cosmophorus pityophthori Rohwer (Braconidae), Phasmidiasta n. sp. (Braconidae), Spathius sp. (Braconidae), Acerocephala n. sp. (Pteromalidae), Metacolus fasciatus Girault (Pteromalidae), Rhaphitelus maculatus Walker (Pteromalidae), Rhopalicus sp. (Pteromalidae), and an unidentified pteromalid.

  7. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  8. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  9. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  10. Identification and characterization of a dual-acting antinematodal agent against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Suk Oh

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride, a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+ channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.

  11. Identification and characterization of a dual-acting antinematodal agent against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Wan-Suk; Jeong, Pan-Young; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Eui; Moon, Yil-Seong; Cheon, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Uk; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Paik, Young-Ki

    2009-11-11

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a mycophagous and phytophagous pathogen responsible for the current widespread epidemic of the pine wilt disease, which has become a major threat to pine forests throughout the world. Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. In the characterization of basic physiological properties of B. xylophilus YB-1 isolates, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS) method that identifies potential hits within approximately 7 h. Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride), a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. When tested on 4 year-old pinewood seedlings that were infected with YB-1 isolates, HWY-4213 exhibited a potent therapeutic nematicidal activity. Further tests of screening 39 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in channel proteins and B. xylophilus sensitivity to Ca(2+) channel blockers suggested that HWY-4213 targets the calcium channel proteins. Our study marks a technical breakthrough by developing a novel HTS method that leads to the discovery HWY-4213 as a dual-acting antinematodal and antifungal compound.

  12. A Mid-IR Multivariate Analysis Study on the Gross Calorific Value in Longleaf Pine: Impact on Correlations with Lignin and Extractive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 70-year-old longleaf pine trees from a spacing, thinning, and pruning study were harvested, from which samples were analyzed for gross calorific value (GCV). A strong correlation was found between GCV and extractive contents for the unextracted wood samples. Although lignin content should impact GCV, no correlation was found between the variation in GCV with...

  13. Evaluating physical property changes for small-diameter, plantation-grown southern pine after in situ polymerization of an acrylic monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Rebecca E. Ibach; Constantine LaPasha; Joseph Denig

    2009-01-01

    Because of the large percentage of juvenile wood in small-diameter southern pine, this material has lower strength properties compared with the historic published values in the ASTM Standard D2555. Finding new, simple, and inexpensive ways of increasing these strength properties would increase the use of this material for residential construction. For this study, we...

  14. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  15. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  17. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  18. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  19. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  20. Energy and industrial wood harvesting from young forests; Energia- ja ainespuun korjuu nuorista metsistae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.; Jouhiaho, A. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    In the METKA Forest Energy Profitably project TTS (Work Efficiency Institute) compared methods suitable for the harvesting of energy wood and industrial wood. During the thinning of a young forest by a forest worker, the whole-tree logging method was one-third less expensive than the pulpwood method, including terrain transport. In harvesting whole trees as part of the thinning of young forests, methods based on combinations of manual and mechanized workproved to be several dozen per cent less expensive than the entirely mechanized method. When cutting energy wood with a Harveri small harwarder productivity was slightly higher when using 40-metre distances two cutting trails than when using 20-metre distances. When using a Tehojaetkae small harvester, creating two cutting trails in addition to the standard four-metre-wide cutting trail resulted in slightly higher productivity than creating three narrow cutting trails. A Risutec L3A energy head was used in tests involving both clearing and energy wood cutting. This method proved to be very promising, and it seems highly proable that advance clearing will no longer be needed in energy wood harvesting under all circumstances. When using traditional harvester-forwarder chains and a harvarder for first thinning in pine stands, the harvesting of entirely or partly non-delimbed trees was 20 to 40 per cent less expensive per harvested cubic meter than the harvesting of delimbed trees. In tests carried out using the Naarva RS25 harvester head for first thinning in pine stands, the integrated method resulted in approximately one-third productivity than the traditional cutting of industrial wood. In a spruce-dominant site with delayed first thinning, the unit costs of harvesting delimbed energy wood were 16 per cent lower than those of the harvesting of pulpwood. In the future development of machinery, it will be important to aim at continuous motion, at least in terms of cutting small trees. (orig.)

  1. Immunotoxicology in wood mice along a heavy metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tersago, Katrien; De Coen, Wim; Scheirs, Jan; Vermeulen, Katrien; Blust, Ronny; Bockstaele, Dirk van; Verhagen, Ron

    2004-01-01

    We carried out an immunotoxicological field study of wood mice in three populations along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Heavy metal concentrations in liver tissue indicated that exposure to silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and lead decreased with increasing distance from a non-ferrous smelter. Host resistance to the endoparasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus decreased with increasing exposure, while the abundance of tick larvae and the nematode Syphacia stroma was unrelated to heavy metal exposure. Spleen mass was increased at the intermediate and the most polluted sites and was positively correlated with the number of H. polygyrus and tick larvae. Proportion of early apoptotic leukocytes increased towards the smelter and was positively related to cadmium exposure. Red and white blood cell counts and lysozyme activity showed no relationship with metal exposure. All together, our observations suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune function of wood mice under field conditions. - Capsule: Complex interactions among metal burden, immune response and parasite burden suggest negative effects of heavy metal exposure on the immune system of wood mice

  2. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  3. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  4. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  5. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  7. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  9. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  10. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  11. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  12. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  13. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dermal exposure to monoterpenes during wood work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kare; Wiklund, Leif

    2004-06-01

    The dermal exposure to the suspected allergenic monoterpenes [small alpha]-pinene, [small beta]-pinene and [capital Delta](3)-carene was assessed with a patch sampling technique. The patch used was made of activated charcoal sandwiched between two layers of cotton cloth. Patches were fastened at 12 different spots on a sampling overall and at the front of a cap to estimate the potential exposure of the body. Fastening two patches on a cotton glove, one patch representing the dorsal side and one patch representing the palm of the hand respectively, assessed the exposure on the hands. Sampling was carried out during collecting of pine and spruce boards in sawmills and during sawing of pine wood pieces in joinery shops respectively. The potential dermal exposure of the total body was 29.0-1 890 mg h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 238 mg h(-1) during sawing. During collecting the GM was estimated to 100 mg h(-1) with a range of 12.2-959 mg h(-1). The hands had a mean exposure of 9.24 mg h(-1) during sawing and 3.25 mg h(-1) during collecting respectively. The good correlation between the mass of contamination on the individual body parts and the potential body exposure indicates that sampling can be performed on one body part to give a good estimation of the potential body exposure. Monoterpenes were detected at patches fastened underneath the protective clothing indicating a contamination of the skin of the worker. The patch used may overestimate the dermal exposure.

  15. Adjustment capacity of maritime pine cambial activity in drought-prone environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    Full Text Available Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs are anatomical features formed in response to changes in the environmental conditions within the growing season. These anatomical features are commonly observed in Mediterranean pines, being more frequent in younger and wider tree rings. However, the process behind IADF formation is still unknown. Weekly monitoring of cambial activity and wood formation would fill this void. Although studies describing cambial activity and wood formation have become frequent, this knowledge is still fragmentary in the Mediterranean region. Here we present data from the monitoring of cambial activity and wood formation in two diameter classes of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., over two years, in order to test: (i whether the differences in stem diameter in an even-aged stand were due to timings and/or rates of xylogenesis; (ii if IADFs were more common in large trees; and (iii if their formation is triggered by cambial resumption after the summer drought. Larger trees showed higher rates of cell production and longer growing seasons, due to an earlier start and later end of xylogenesis. When a drier winter occurs, larger trees were more affected, probably limiting xylogenesis in the summer months. In both diameter classes a latewood IADF was formed in 2012 in response to late-September precipitation, confirming that the timing of the precipitation event after the summer drought is crucial in determining the resumption of cambial activity and whether or not an IADF is formed. It was the first time that the formation of a latewood IADF was monitored at a weekly time scale in maritime pine. The capacity of maritime pine to adjust cambial activity to the current environmental conditions represents a valuable strategy under the future climate change conditions.

  16. Adjustment capacity of maritime pine cambial activity in drought-prone environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Campelo, Filipe; Rossi, Sergio; Carvalho, Ana; Freitas, Helena; Nabais, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) are anatomical features formed in response to changes in the environmental conditions within the growing season. These anatomical features are commonly observed in Mediterranean pines, being more frequent in younger and wider tree rings. However, the process behind IADF formation is still unknown. Weekly monitoring of cambial activity and wood formation would fill this void. Although studies describing cambial activity and wood formation have become frequent, this knowledge is still fragmentary in the Mediterranean region. Here we present data from the monitoring of cambial activity and wood formation in two diameter classes of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), over two years, in order to test: (i) whether the differences in stem diameter in an even-aged stand were due to timings and/or rates of xylogenesis; (ii) if IADFs were more common in large trees; and (iii) if their formation is triggered by cambial resumption after the summer drought. Larger trees showed higher rates of cell production and longer growing seasons, due to an earlier start and later end of xylogenesis. When a drier winter occurs, larger trees were more affected, probably limiting xylogenesis in the summer months. In both diameter classes a latewood IADF was formed in 2012 in response to late-September precipitation, confirming that the timing of the precipitation event after the summer drought is crucial in determining the resumption of cambial activity and whether or not an IADF is formed. It was the first time that the formation of a latewood IADF was monitored at a weekly time scale in maritime pine. The capacity of maritime pine to adjust cambial activity to the current environmental conditions represents a valuable strategy under the future climate change conditions.

  17. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  18. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  19. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-12-16

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in plant-nematode interactions remain unexplored. Here, we characterized the role of a group of cell wall receptor proteins in Arabidopsis, designated as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), during infection with the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. PGIPs are encoded by a family of two genes in Arabidopsis, and are involved in the formation of active OG elicitors. Our results show that PGIP gene expression is strongly induced in response to cyst nematode invasion of roots. Analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines revealed that PGIP1 expression attenuates infection of host roots by cyst nematodes, but not root-knot nematodes. The PGIP1-mediated attenuation of cyst nematode infection involves the activation of plant camalexin and indole-glucosinolate pathways. These combined results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant damage perception and response pathways during infection by cyst and root-knot nematodes, and establishes the function of PGIP in plant resistance to cyst nematodes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....