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Sample records for pine pinus taeda

  1. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel

    2017-01-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  2. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

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    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  3. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

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    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  4. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

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    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  5. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

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    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  6. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

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    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  7. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Miller, Darren A; Martin, James A

    2016-11-04

    Intensively-managed pine ( Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine ( P. taeda ) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3-4 year old pine plantations and 9-10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  8. The effects of decreased water availability on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity and the interaction between fertilizer and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam O. Maggard; Rodney E. Will; Duncan S. Wilson; Cassandra R. Meek

    2016-01-01

    As part of the regional PINEMAP (Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project) funded by the NIFA - USDA, we established a factorial study in McCurtain County, OK near Broken Bow. This study examined the effects of fertilization and ~30 percent reduction in throughfall on an seven-yearold loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. The...

  9. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'malley, D M; Porter, S; Sederoff, R R

    1992-04-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (K(m) = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (K(m) in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the lambdaCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme.

  10. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M.; Porter, Stephanie; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (Km = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (Km in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the λCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668801

  11. Soil CO2 efflux in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the virginia Piedmond and South Carolina coastal plain over a rotation-length chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; P. Eric Wiseman; Christopher A. Maier

    2005-01-01

    We measured soil surface CO2 efflux (Fx) in loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L.) located on the Virginia Piedmont (VA) and South Carolina Coastal Plain (SC) in efforts to assess the impact climate, productivity, and cultural practices have on Fs in the managed loblolly pine...

  12. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  13. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

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    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  14. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation

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    Michael J. Aspinwall; John S. King; Steven E. McKeand; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis...

  15. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

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    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; John Butnor; Lance W. Kress; Peter H. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Summary We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 ) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth...

  16. Simulated Summer Rainfall Variability Effects on Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Seedling Physiology and Susceptibility to Root-Infecting Ophiostomatoid Fungi

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    Jeff Chieppa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings from four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. were grown in capped open-top chambers and exposed to three different weekly moisture regimes for 13 weeks. Moisture regimes varied in intensity and frequency of simulated rainfall (irrigation events; however, the total amounts were comparable. These simulated treatments were chosen to simulate expected changes in rainfall variability associated with climate change. Seedlings were inoculated with two root-infecting ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Southern Pine Decline. We found susceptibility of loblolly pine was not affected by water stress; however, one family that was most sensitive to inoculation was also most sensitive to changes in moisture availability. Many studies have examined the effects of drought (well-watered vs. dry conditions on pine physiology and host-pathogen interactions but little is known about variability in moisture supply. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of variability in water availability, pathogen inoculation and their interaction on physiology of loblolly pine seedlings.

  17. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

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    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  18. The effects of drought and disturbance on the growth and developmental instability of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

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    Graham, John H.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Michelle L.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Emlen, John M.; Malol, Jagadish; Bankstahl, Elizabeth; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Freeman, D. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Ecological indicators provide early warning of adverse environmental change, helping land managers adaptively manage their resources while minimizing costly remediation. In 1999 and 2000, we studied two such indicators, growth and developmental instability, of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) influenced by mechanized infantry training at Fort Benning, Georgia. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had fewer trees, diminished ground cover, warmer soils in the summer, and more compacted soils with a shallower A-horizon. We hypothesized that disturbance would decrease the growth of needles, branches, and tree rings, increase the complexity of tree rings, and increase the developmental instability of needles. Contrary to our expectations, however, disturbance enhanced growth in the first year of the study, possibly by reducing competition. In the second year, a drought reduced growth of branches and needles, eliminating the stimulatory effect of disturbance. Growth-ring widths increased with growing-season precipitation, and decreased with growing-season temperature over the last 40 years. Disturbance had no effect on tree-ring complexity, as measured by the Hurst exponent. Within-fascicle variation of current-year needle length, a measure of developmental instability, differed among the study populations, but appeared unrelated to mechanical disturbance or drought.

  19. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

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    Denise Jeton Cardoso

    2010-10-01

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    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. Screening Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) families for physical and mechanical properties using vibrational spectroscopy

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    Gifty E. Acquah; Brian K. Via; Lori G. Eckhardt

    2016-01-01

    In a bid to control the loblolly pine decline complex, stakeholders are using the selection and deployment of genetically superior families that are disease tolerant. It is vital that we do not compromise other important properties while breeding for disease tolerance. In this preliminary study, near infrared spectroscopy was utilized in conjunction with data collected...

  2. Point of no return: experimental determination of the lethal hydraulic threshold during drought for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W.; Yu, K.; Wilson, L. A.; Will, R.; Anderegg, W.; Adams, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the terrestrial carbon sink—dominated by forests—remains one of the greatest uncertainties in climate change modelling. How forests will respond to increased variability in temperature and precipitation is poorly understood, and experimental study to better inform global vegetation models in this area is needed. Necessary for achieving­­­­ this goal is an understanding of how increased temperatures and drought will affect landscape level distributions of plant species. Quantifying physiological thresholds representing a point of no return from drought stress, including thresholds in hydraulic function, is critical to this end. Recent theoretical, observational, and modelling research has converged upon a threshold of 60 percent loss of hydraulic conductivity at mortality (PLClethal). However, direct experimental determination of lethal points in conductivity and cavitation during drought is lacking. We quantified thresholds in hydraulic function in Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, a commercially important timber species. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed saplings (n = 96 total) to drought and rewatered treatment groups at variable levels of increasing water stress determined by pre-selected targets in pre-dawn water potential. Treatments also included a watered control with no drought, and drought with no rewatering. We measured physiological responses to water stress, including hydraulic conductivity, native PLC, water potential, foliar color, canopy die-back, and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence. Following the rewatering treatment, we observed saplings for at least two months to determine which survived and which died. Using these data we calculated lethal physiological thresholds in water potential, directly measured PLC, and PLC inferred from water potential using a hydraulic vulnerability curve. We found that PLClethal inferred from water potential agreed with the 60% threshold suggested by previous research. However, directly

  3. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud.

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    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan

    2003-02-01

    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  4. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

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    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  5. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

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    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  6. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  7. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

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    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

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    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  8. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  9. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle

    2006-01-01

    Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

  10. The Pinus taeda genome is characterized by diverse and highly diverged repetitive sequences

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    Yandell Mark

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's age of genomic discovery, no attempt has been made to comprehensively sequence a gymnosperm genome. The largest genus in the coniferous family Pinaceae is Pinus, whose 110-120 species have extremely large genomes (c. 20-40 Gb, 2N = 24. The size and complexity of these genomes have prompted much speculation as to the feasibility of completing a conifer genome sequence. Conifer genomes are reputed to be highly repetitive, but there is little information available on the nature and identity of repetitive units in gymnosperms. The pines have extensive genetic resources, with approximately 329000 ESTs from eleven species and genetic maps in eight species, including a dense genetic map of the twelve linkage groups in Pinus taeda. Results We present here the Sanger sequence and annotation of ten P. taeda BAC clones and Genome Analyzer II whole genome shotgun (WGS sequences representing 7.5% of the genome. Computational annotation of ten BACs predicts three putative protein-coding genes and at least fifteen likely pseudogenes in nearly one megabase of sequence. We found three conifer-specific LTR retroelements in the BACs, and tentatively identified at least 15 others based on evidence from the distantly related angiosperms. Alignment of WGS sequences to the BACs indicates that 80% of BAC sequences have similar copies (≥ 75% nucleotide identity elsewhere in the genome, but only 23% have identical copies (99% identity. The three most common repetitive elements in the genome were identified and, when combined, represent less than 5% of the genome. Conclusions This study indicates that the majority of repeats in the P. taeda genome are 'novel' and will therefore require additional BAC or genomic sequencing for accurate characterization. The pine genome contains a very large number of diverged and probably defunct repetitive elements. This study also provides new evidence that sequencing a pine genome using a WGS approach is

  11. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

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    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  12. Seasonal sucrose metabolism in individual first-order lateral roots of nine-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings have distinctive temporal and spatial patterns of sucrose metabolism and growth with stems and roots as the major sucrose sinks, respectively, from spring to mid-fall and from mid-fall to early winter. Both nursery-grown and outplanted seedlings up to the age of 3 years followed this pattern. However, there have been no reports on the seasonal...

  13. Determination of fertility rating (FR) in the 3-PG model for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystem, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. Phytocentric and geocenctric approaches were used to assess soil fertility in loblolly pine plantations throughout their geographic range in the United States. The model to assess soil fertility using a phytocentric approach was constructed using the relationship between site index and aboveground productivity. Geocentric models used physic...

  14. Long term effects of wet site timber harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Neaves III, Charles Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Short term studies have suggested that ground based timber harvesting on wet sites can alter soil properties and inhibit early survival and growth of seedlings. Persistence of such negative effects may translate to losses in forest productivity over a rotation. During the fall and winter of 1989, numerous salvage logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on wet pine flats in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo. A long-term experim...

  15. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year old loblobby pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Butnor, J.; Kress, L. W.; Anderson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The combined effects of nutrient availability and carbon dioxide on growth and physiology in mature loblobby pine trees was investigated. Whole-tree open top chambers were used to expose 13-year old loblobby pine trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability to elevated carbon dioxide to examine how carbon dioxide, foliar nutrition and crown position affect branch growth, phenology and physiology. Results showed that fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide increased branch leaf area, and the combined effects were additive. However, fertilization and elevated carbon dioxide differentially altered needle lengths, number of fascicles and flush length in such a way that flush density increased with improved nutrition but decreased with exposure to elevated carbon dioxide. Based on these results, it was concluded that changes in nitrogen availability and atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter canopy structure, facilitating greater foliage retention and deeper crowns in loblobby pine forests. Net photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency was increased in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and lowered the light compensation point, whereas fertilization had no appreciable effect on foliage gas exchange. 71 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  16. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

  17. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  18. Response of Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L. Physiology and Productivity to Sustained, Moderate Drought on the Western Edge of the Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Maggard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the approximately 11 million ha of loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern USA could be threatened by decreased water availability in a future climate. To determine the effects of sustained drought on leaf gas exchange, whole-tree water use, and individual tree growth, we examined the response of loblolly pine trees to 100% throughfall exclusion cumulatively spanning the sixth and seventh growing seasons of a plantation in southeastern Oklahoma. Throughfall exclusion reduced volumetric soil water content for 0–12 cm soil depth from 10.8% to 4.8% and for 12–45 cm soil depth from 24.2% to 15.6%. Compared to ambient throughfall trees, leaf water potential of the throughfall exclusion trees became more negative, −0.9 MPa vs. −1.3 MPa for predawn measurements and −1.5 MPa vs. −1.9 MPa for midday measurements. Throughfall exclusion did not significantly reduce leaf gas exchange or tree water use. However, throughfall exclusion significantly reduced leaf biomass by 21% and stem volume growth by 23%. These results indicate that sustained drought may cause downward shifts in leaf quantity to conserve water rather than reducing leaf-level water use.

  19. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L.; Myers, K.; Tissue, D.T.; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressures (pCO 2 ). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (pCO 2 ) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO 2 at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO 2 on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O 2 ) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO 2 in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO 2 . Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO 2 . In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO 2 . Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO 2 had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO 2 on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs

  20. Regulation of two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) isocitrate lyase genes in megagametophytes of mature and stratified seeds and during postgerminative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, R T; Gifford, D J

    1997-03-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding the glyoxysomal enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) were isolated from a lambda ZAP cDNA library prepared from megagametophyte mRNAs extracted from seeds imbibed at 30 degrees C for 8 days. The cDNAs, designated Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12, have open reading frames of 1740 and 1719 bp, with deduced amino acid sequences of 580 and 573 residues, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 exhibit a 79% identity with each other, and have a greater than 75% identity with ICLs from various angiosperm species. The C-termini of Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 terminate with the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Met and Ala-Arg-Met, respectively, both being conserved variants of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. RNA blot and slot analysis revealed that Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 mRNAs were present at low levels in the megagametophyte of the mature and stratified seeds, and that the level of both transcripts increased markedly upon seed germination. Protein blot analysis indicated that the steady-state level of ICL was low in the mature and stratified seed, then increased rapidly upon seed germination, peaking at around 8-10 days after imbibition (DAI). Changes in the level of ICL activity in cell-free extracts was similar to the steady-state protein content with the exception that ICL activity was not detected in megagametophyte extracts of mature or stratified seeds. From 10-12 DAI when the megagametophyte tissue senesced, ICL activity decreased rapidly to near undetectable levels. In contrast, steady-state levels of ICL protein and mRNA remained relatively constant during megagametophyte senescence. In vivo synthesis of ICL protein was measured to shed light on these differences. ICL immunoselected from [(35)S]-methionine labelled proteins indicated that ICL was synthesized at very low levels during megagametophyte senescence. Together, the results show that loblolly pine ICL gene expression is complex. While temporal

  1. NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION AND RETRANSLOCATION IN THE Pinus taeda L. NEEDLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at evaluating nutrients concentration and retranslocation in the Pinus taeda L. needles, this study was developed in two stands, in native grass area and in second rotation area, with same species and same age (7.5 years old in Cambará do Sul, RS. The needles were collected in plants in four orthogonal points (South, North, East and West, sampled new needles, mature needles and old needles. The material was dried in a stove, milled and chemically analyzed (macro and micronutrients. The concentrations of N, P, K, B, Cu and Zn had decreased, of Ca, Fe and Mn increased, and the Mg and S have remained constant with the age of the needles. The retranslocation rate (old-new needles was more than 50% for most nutrients, except for Mn and Fe, showed that cumulative effect and the Ca reference element.

  2. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Sirlei Dias; Fiorio, Jhonatan Luiz; Galvan, Diego; Sefstrom, Carolina; Cogo, Priscila Morgana; Sales Junior, Valber; Rodrigues, Márcio Barreto; Hendges, Ana Paula Palaro Klein; Maia, Beatriz Helena L. de Noronha Sales; Benghi, Thalita Gilda Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM), with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL), being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1), ext...

  3. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  4. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  5. Avaliação e seleção precoce para crescimento de Pinus taeda Early evaluation and selection for growth in Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes métodos de seleção quanto aos caracteres ligados ao crescimento do fuste e o potencial da seleção precoce de genitores. Em 48 progênies de meios-irmãos de Pinus taeda L., foi medido o diâmetro do fuste a 30 cm e a 1,30 m do solo, aos 16 e 84 meses de idade, além da altura total. As progênies foram cultivadas em espaçamento tradicional e reduzido. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros e valores genéticos aditivos foram obtidos a partir de um modelo de análise individual. A seleção indireta foi de eficiência similar à direta quanto ao diâmetro (93% e menor quanto à altura (78%. A seleção seqüencial foi 16% (altura e 28% (diâmetro mais eficiente que a seleção única. A eficiência da seleção combinada foi maior em relação a direta para diâmetro. Vinte genitores selecionados por valores genéticos aditivos quanto ao diâmetro, aos 16 e 84 meses, aumentaram a média em 7,6% e 8,1%, respectivamente. A alta magnitude da correlação genética no que diz respeito ao diâmetro entre idades revelou que esse caráter, avaliado aos 16 meses de idade, prediz o crescimento aos 84 meses. Isso reduz custos de avaliação de progênies, antecipa o desbaste de genitores e a oferta de sementes melhoradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of selection in growth traits and early selection. Individual total height and stem diameter at 30 cm above the ground in close-spaced early genetic evaluation at 16 months were assessed. In a 84 month sib cohort, as a comparison, height and diameter at breast height were evaluated. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for height and diameter were estimated for 48 open-pollinated families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. planted in Southern Brazil using an individual tree model. In this retrospective study, the indirect selection was of similar effectiveness as direct selection in stem

  6. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  7. Abnormal compression wood in Pinus taeda : a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal compression wood in P. taeda stands was first discovered in the early 1980s. Since then several research projects and surveys have been carried out in order to develop a better understanding of the problem and to try to find a solution. Currently a large proportion of the sawmill intake of logs in the Mpumalanga ...

  8. GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN Pinus taeda L. IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

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    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype x environment interactions of stem volume were investigated by assessing the variation in 46 open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. families from first-generation cloned seed orchard in four genetic trials in the south and south-east Brazil. They were used to obtain least squares and restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimates of variance components. Familie-by- trial interaction effects were evaluated by adjusting the mixed univariate model that contained data of two and four places tested by the likelihood ratio test. Breeding values from local data (univarate procedure and predicted to the others sites (multivariate procedure were obtained from best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The adjusted and average (obtained from local and predicted to other sites breeding values were used to select parents and trees. The interaction effects and the adjusting of the mixed models were statistically significant, respectively, by F test and by likelihood ratio test. The loss of potential gain, sustained by not selecting the best families by site was 3.2%. For parents, the loss in mean productivity by indirect selection was respectively 2.3%. In the individual tree selection for seedling seed orchard, no loss of potential gain was observed when selection was carried by average genetic breeding values. For clonal seed orchard with the selection of ten more greater genetic breeding values trees, the interaction cause a inflation of 2% in the average productivity. In this case, the selection by average breeding values was the best procedure and may prove to be a useful tool, in selection stem volume, when genotype x environment interaction is significant.

  9. Soil water balance in different densities of Pinus taeda in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.

  10. Strenght of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merielen de Carvalho Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the strength of the glue line of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda made with different industrial adhesives. Three types of adhesives (poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI and polyurethane (PU glued in two side gluing orientation (radial and tangential and analyzed after the conditioning tests (dry and wet were analyzed. The 360 specimens were prepared for determining the shear strength of edge glued panels of Pinus taeda, and these were tested in a universal testing machine called EMIC. The shear strength of the glue line at dry condition was lower in the tangential side for the three types of adhesives analyzed. The PU adhesive showed the highest values of shear strength in the applied conditions, differing from PVAc and EPI adhesive when tested on dry condition and did not differ from the others adhesives when tested on wet condition. The highest percentage of wood failure was observed after the shear strength test at dry condition to EPI adhesive glued in the radial side. And in the wet condition, the EPI adhesive and PU adhesive glued in tangential side showed higher mean values of wood failure. Thus, it was possible to conclude that the strength of the glue line of Pinus taeda wood was influenced by the type of adhesive and side gluing orientation, and showed differently behavior according to the condition of use (wet or dry.

  11. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Dias Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM, with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL, being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1, extraction time - ET (x2, Bm:ET (x1x2 and sample size - SS: drying times - DT (x3x4. Only linear terms (biomass and extraction time and your interaction demonstrated significant positive values (0.0344, 0.0206 and 0.0131. The major components of the essential oil identified by GC-MS were: β-phellandrene: (30.39 and 22.44%, tricyclene (26.14 and 20.46%, β-myrcene (14.32 and 11.50%, β-pinene (22.49 and 1.43% and α-pinene (0.25 and 11.26% in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our results show that the essential oil obtained from P. taeda represents a way of using some of the waste generated by the timber industry. The process of obtaining doesn't require treatments such as controlled drying or size reduction of the sample, indicating that it can be used in an industrial scale.

  12. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  13. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  14. Volume de madeira de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento. Wood volume of Pinus taeda L. at different growing spacings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pinus taeda L. é uma das espécies do gênero Pinus mais plantadas na região Sul do Brasil por apresentar excelente crescimento e ótima adaptação às condições climáticas e de solo. Essa espécie é utilizada em larga escala, principalmente para a produção de celulose, construção civil, laminação, produção de móveis, particulados e serraria. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção volumétrica de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1 m2 e 16 m2 por planta propiciados por nove diferentes espaçamentos entre árvores de um ensaio em cinco blocos ao acaso. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Valores estimados de volume por hectare foram inversamente proporcionais ao aumento do espaço vital, alcançando entre 74,2 e 274,8 m3 /ha. Os incrementos médios em volume atingiram entre 10,60 e 39,25 m3 /ha/ano. Concluiu-se que, se o objetivo é a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaços vitais menores. Quando se deseja maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. No presente caso, o melhor compromisso entre produção volumétrica e diâmetros grandes pode estar nos espaços vitais intermediários, entre 5 e 8 m2 para cada árvore. Pinus taeda L. is one of the most Pinus species planted in southern Brazil, because it presents excellent growth and optimum adaptation to climatic and soil condition. The species is used in large scale, mainly for cellulose production, construction, laminating, production of furniture, particulates and sawmill. It was aimed to evaluate the Pinus taeda L. volumetric production at different growth vital spaces (ranging 1 m² and 16 m² per plant provided by nine different spacings between plants, the trial was installed in a randomized blocks with five replications. The study was based on height and DBH measurements

  15. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  16. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  17. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO2 (free-air CO2 enrichment) and N-fertilizationpce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Sari Palmroth; Eric Ward; Chris Maier; M. Therezien; Ram Oren

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations CO2 a and CO2 e, respectively). We also examined how Kleaf varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (...

  18. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  19. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  20. Selection of seed lots of Pinus taeda L. for tissue culture

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    Diego Pascoal Golle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the fungi genera associated with three Pinus taeda L. seed lots and to assess the sanitary and physiological quality of these lots for use as selection criteria for tissue culture and evaluate the in vitro establishment of explants from seminal origin in different nutritive media. It was possible to discriminate the lots on the sanitary and physiological quality, as well as to establish in vitro plants of Pinus taeda from cotyledonary nodes obtained from aseptic seed germination of a selected lot by the sanitary and physiological quality higher. The nutritive media MS, ½ MS and WPM were equally suitable for this purpose. For the sanitary analysis the fungal genera Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma were those of the highest sensitivity. For the physiological evaluation were important the variables: abnormal seedlings, strong normal seedlings; length, fresh and dry weight of strong normal seedlings. The analyzes were favorable to choose lots of seeds for in vitro culture and all culture media were adequate for the establishment of this species in tissue culture.

  1. MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO, TRANSMISSÃO E PATOGENICIDADE DE Fusarium spp. EM SEMENTES DE Pinus taeda

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    Thaisa Wendhausen Ramos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The root rots (RR, caused by the Fusarium spp., causes loss of seedling in the nursery that show, initially, discoloration of the needles to a yellowish-green tone followed by apical curvature, wilt and the consequent death of the seedling. The objectives of this work were to: a define the most appropriate and efficient method to detect Fusarium spp. in Pinus taeda seeds; b verify if there is transmission of Fusarium spp. from seeds to Pinus taeda seedlings; c develop a descriptive scale to evaluate the severity of the RR in Pinus taeda seedlings; d evaluate the pathogenicity, aggressiveness and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC of isolated Fusarium subglutinans . For detection three treatments were applied to six lots of Pinus taeda seeds, bein four repetitions of 25 seeds: blotter test, paper card and selective medium. The transmission was evaluated in seeds from six lots of Pinus taeda during 60 days counting the percentage of emerged plantlet (EP, non-germinated seeds (NGS and from NGS seeds with Fusarium spp. A descriptive scale of grades was developed to evaluate the severity of RR in Pinus taeda seedlings. The severity and the incidence of the illness were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the inoculation from Pinus taeda seedlings of six months of age. The pathogenicity, severity and incidence of twelve isolated Fusarium subglutinans obtained in the detection test. To test for pathogenicity and aggressiveness 13 treatments with 15 replications were applied. The most sensitive detection method to detect Fusarium spp. on Pinus taeda seeds was the selective medium; transmission was not observed of Fusarium spp. from seeds to the seedlings; the descriptive scale allowed evaluating the progression of RR symptoms; nine isolated of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic to Pinus taeda seedlings, reproducing typical symptoms of RR, being isolated L3R2, the most aggressive and that exhibited higher AUDPC.

  2. Aboveground stock of biomass and organic carbon in stands of Pinus taeda L.

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    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate biomass and organic carbon in stands of Pinus taeda L. at different ages (14, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23 and 32 years and located in the municipality of General Carneiro (PR. In order to estimate biomass and organic carbon in different tree components (needles, live branches, dead branches, bark and stem wood, the destructive quantification method was used in which seven trees from each age category were randomly sampled across the stand. Stocks of biomass and organic carbon were found to vary between the different age categories, mainly as a result of existing dissimilarities between ages in association with forest management practices such as thinning, pruning and tree density per hectare.

  3. SOIL QUALITY AND YIELD OF PINUS TAEDA IN THE PLANALTO CATARINENSE REGION

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    Cedinara Arruda Santana Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In forest areas, the continual use of the soil alters its physical attributes and deteriorates its quality, in consequence of the traffic of machines used in forest operations, resulting in lower yields of crops. The relationship between soil quality at different sites and the production of Pinus taeda was evaluated in soils of the Planalto Catarinense region. Four farms were used, with two sites on each farm, chosen for the soil type and yield of the forest. The soil morphology was described and samples were collected in each pedogenetic horizon for physical and chemical analyses. Great variation exists in the physical attributes of the profiles, especially in the sequence and thickness of the horizons. Compaction was verified in the surface layer of the shallow profiles, evidenced by the higher bulk density and, or, soil resistance to penetration. In these profiles, the yield was reduced by between 14 and 36%, compared to the deeper profiles with a smaller degree of compaction.

  4. USE OF RESIDUES OF FORESTRY EXPLORATION OF Pinus taeda FOR PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURE

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured with forest exploitation waste from Pinus taeda. The material in the form of branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, was obtained from a forest plantation located in the Municipality of Mafra -SC. All the material was processed into wood chips for biomass and transported to the place of studies. The Pinus industrial particles were used as control and mixed with the waste in different proportions. The experimental plan consisted of the panels manufacture with 100% of each type of material and mixture of these com proportions of 75/25%, 50/50% and 25/75% with Pinus industrial particles, in addition to the mixture in equal parts, of the three types of materials. Experimental panels were manufactured with nominal density of 0.75 g/cm3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin, in the proportion of 8% of solids -dry weight basis of the particles. The panels were pressed with specific pressure of 4.0 MPa, temperature of 160ºC and pressing time of 8 minutes. The results of the internal bond tests met the requirements of the standard EN 312, is indicative that there has been a proper bonding of these particles originating forest exploitation wastes. General evaluations of the physical and mechanical properties results of the experimental panels indicate the possibility of use of particles obtained from branches, tree tops, stumps and roots, mixed com the industrial Pinus particles, in proportion of, up to, 50%, for particleboard manufacture.

  5. Fungos endofíticos associados a acículas de Pinus taeda Endophytic fungi associated to Pinus taeda needles

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    Ida Chapaval Pimentel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os fungos endofíticos em acículas de árvores jovens de Pinus taeda L. e avaliar o efeito da posição de coleta na árvore. As amostras foram coletadas em duas alturas (30-50 cm e 100-130 cm acima do solo e nas quatro posições cardeais (norte, sul, leste e oeste, em plantas com 18 meses de idade, localizadas em Colombo, PR, Brasil. As acículas foram submetidas a assepsia e fragmentos com 10 mm de comprimento foram plaqueados em meio BDA e incubados a 28 °C, sob fotofase de 12 h, por 15 dias. Para a identificação, as estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram produzidas pelo método do microcultivo. Foram isolados e identificados dezessete gêneros: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Coniothyrium, Diplodia, Drechslera, Hansfordia, Monocillium, Nodulisporium, Panidio, Papulaspora, Pestalotiopsis, Phialophora, Pithomyces, Rhizoctonia e Xylaria Alguns morfotipos sem identificação foram Mycelia sterilia e fungos demaciáceos. O número de isolados da altura 30-50 cm foi significativamente maior que na outra altura. Não foi observada diferença significativa no número de isolados entre as posições cardeais de uma mesma altura. Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os gêneros isolados e Xylaria foi o gênero mais frequente.The present work aimed to study the endophytic fungi in Pinus taeda needles and to evaluate the effect of sample points in the tree. Samples were collectd in two different heights (30-50 cm and 100-130 cm over ground and cardinal positions (North, South, East and West in plants with 18 months old, located at Colombo, PR, Brazil. The needles were sucessively washed in sterile destilled water, 70 % ethanol, NaHClO 3 %, 70 % ethanol and sterile destilled water. Needle fragments of 10 mm of lenth were plated in PDA medium, incubated at 28 °C, fotophase 12h to 15 days. The reproductive structures of fungi were produced by microculture technique. Seventeen

  6. Modelos de afilamento para o sortimento do fuste de Pinus taeda L Taper function for assortment of Pinus taeda L. stem

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    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes modelos de afilamento do fuste de Pinus taeda para estimar variáveis de interesse ao longo do fuste. Foram avaliadas as funções propostas por Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan e o Polinômio de 5° grau. O estudo teve como base dados de cubagem rigorosa de 68 árvores, provenientes de plantios com idade de 25 anos, pertencentes à empresa Florestal Gateados Ltda, localizada no município de Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC, Brasil. A partir das estatísticas coeficiente de determinação ajustado (R²aj, erro padrão das estimativas (Syx, desvio médio, média das diferenças (md e desvio padrão das diferenças (dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio do 5° grau para estimar as variáveis ao longo do fuste, como a altura comercial, o volume comercial, os diâmetros e os volumes das 1ª e 2ª toras. Em relação à altura comercial, a equação proveniente do modelo escolhido apresentou resultados sem tendências e com erros oscilando em intervalo pequeno. Em se tratando do volume comercial, pode ser observada certa tendência em subestimativas para as árvores com menores DAP e uma leve tendência para aquelas árvores com maior DAP. Em relação ao diâmetro e ao volume da 1a tora, houve superestimativa dos valores, mas com erros baixos, principalmente para o diâmetro. Para as estimativas do diâmetro e do volume da 2ª tora, os resultados foram melhores do que os encontrados na 1a tora, com leve tendência em subestimar o diâmetro e, praticamente, sem tendência para o volume.This research had as objective to evaluate different taper models for Pinus taeda and select the best one to estimate variables of interest throughout the stem. The functions proposed by Anony, Kozak, Munro, Silva & Sterba, Prodan and the 5° degree Polynomial were evaluated. With data from rigorous cubage of 68 trees, with 25 years old, coming from plantation of Florestal Gateados Ltda, located, in the

  7. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1953 the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey, sp. nov.) in the White Mountains of California. This research resulted in the establishment of a continuous tree-ring sequence of 8253 yr. The millennia-old pines have emerged as a unique source of chronological data and the precisely dated wood is essential to certain paleoenvironmental and geophysical investigations. Over 1000 dendrochronologically dated decade samples of bristlecone pine supplied to three C-14 laboratories have been used to calibrate the radiocarbon time scale for the past seven millennia, a development of far reaching consequences in the fields of archaeology and geology. In addition, recent advances in other methods of analyzing past climatic variability - techniques involving stable isotope ratios, amino acid racemization, remanent magnetism and trace element abundances - have greatly increased the demand for wood of known age and, hence, for chronology development. Spanning the past 7500 yr, 1138 prepared decade samples, with a total weight of nearly 16 kg are available for study. (author)

  8. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  9. Ozone exposure alters temporal fluctuations of 14C-labeled assimilate pools in leaves of Pinus taeda L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, A.L.; Tomlinson, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of O 3 on uptake and distribution of 14 C within current-year foliage of 3-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were studied using open-top exposure chambers that delivered ozone at three concentrations: sub-ambient O 3 [charcoal-filtered air (CF)]; ambient O 3 (AMB); and twice-ambient O 3 (2X). Seedlings were exposed to O 3 from May to Oct. of 1987, 1988, and 1989. In July, Aug., and Sept. 1989, individual foliage fascicles were labeled with 14 CO 2 ; harvested at 0, 0.5, 4, 24, and 48h after labeling; and analyzed for 14 C in lipids and pigments, protein, starch, residue, sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. O 3 affected initial (0 h) incorporation of 14 C into different chemical fractions, and the relative distribution of 14 C among fractions at specific points in time. Starch dynamics were particularly responsive to and negatively affected by O 3 . In 2X treatments, only 39-46% of the initial (0 h) 14 C incorporated into starch remained after 48h, compared with a range of 56-90% remaining in CF treatments. The percentage of 14 C in the starch fraction after 48 h decreased by nearly three-fold in August from CF to 2X treatments [%total 14 C in starch: 31% (CF), 17% (AMB), and 11% (2X)]. The authors data indicated that foliar starch synthesis and/or retention was depressed by ozone exposure during late-season months, and supported the concept that O 3 decreases growth by depleting carbohydrate reserves. Other findings will be discussed

  10. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  11. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  12. Propriedades de resistência e rigidez da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L.

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    Ballarin Adriano Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o estudo da variabilidade das propriedades de resistência e rigidez à flexão estática e à densidade aparente (12% entre a madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L., de 37 anos de idade, procedente do Horto Florestal de Manduri, Estado de São Paulo. Na primeira parte do trabalho foram determinadas a região de madeira juvenil, a região de transição e a região de madeira adulta, por meio de estudos anatômicos (comprimento dos traqueídes axiais, segundo as recomendações das normas ABNT e IAWA. Os resultados mostraram que a região de madeira juvenil dessa espécie ocorre aproximadamente até o 18º anel de crescimento. Na segunda parte do trabalho foram analisados a resistência (módulo de ruptura - MOR à flexão, o módulo de elasticidade (MOE nessa mesma solicitação e a densidade aparente (12% para as madeiras juvenil e adulta. Os resultados mostraram que o MOE e o MOR da madeira juvenil foram menores e mais variáveis que aqueles obtidos para madeira adulta. A densidade apresentou a mesma tendência observada nas propriedades avaliadas no ensaio de flexão estática.

  13. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb

    2001-01-01

    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  14. Comparisons between two economically valuable forest species (Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda in relation to seed behaviour under controlled deterioration

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    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to analyze seed behaviour under controlled deterioration and estimate viability equations for forest species Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda. Desired moisture content levels were achieved from initial values after either rehydration over water or drying over silica gel, both at 25 ºC. Seed sub samples with 8 moisture contents each for E. grandis (1.2 to 18.1%, initial value of 11.3% and P. taeda (1.5 to 19.5%, initial value of 12.9% were sealed in laminate aluminium-foil packets and stored in incubators maintained at 40, 50 and 65 ºC. The seeds from these species exhibited true orthodox and sub-orthodox storage behaviour, respectively, however E. grandis showed higher seed storability, probably due to a different seed chemical composition. Lowest moisture content limits estimated for application of the viability equations at 65 ºC were 4.9 and 4.1 mc for E. grandis and P. taeda, on equilibrium with ±20% RH. The viability equation estimated quantified the response of seed longevity to storage environment well with K E = 9.661 and 8.838; C W = 6.467 and 5.981; C H = 0.03498 and 0.10340; C Q = 0.0002330 and 0.0005476, for E. grandis and P. taeda, respectively.

  15. Consumo de Pinus taeda (Pinaceae) pelo rato-de-espinho Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer) (Echimyidae) em plantações no Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Faria-Correa, Mariana A.; Cunha, Adriano S.; Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2007-01-01

    Feeding damage caused by Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814) (Echimyidae) is documented for a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae) plantation located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Under laboratory conditions, feeding acceptance of P. taeda trunk sections was tested with positive results for E. spinosus, but not for other three co-occurring sigmodontine rodents: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818) and Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872).Esse...

  16. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  17. MODELOS DE AFILAMENTO PARA Pinus taeda L. BASEADOS EM PONTOS DE MUDANÇA DE FORMA

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    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned to describe the change point of stem taper (pmf, the number of geometric change points, adjust and compare mathematical models to predict diameters along of stem of Pinus taeda L. The data sampled were measured on trees growing in stands implanted with spacement of 2,50 x 2,50m, thinned at 9 and 14 years and final cut at 30 years old, from Klabin S.A., Telêmaco Borba, Paraná state, Brazil. Fourty trees between the average and dominant trees were cut and measured with Smalian method at the positions 0,10m; 0,30m; 0,80m; 1,30m; and from them at each 1m to the top. At crown part the measured point were moved among knot. After that, at each measured point, slices to stem analysis were cut. If considered the age, a group of 649 trees between 8 to 30 years old resulted of the analysis. From this group, 50 trees were selected at random of each pmf class to modeling. The trees were grouped in pmf by the number of change point of stem shape defined by the second derivative of the polynomial 5th. Degree 5th grad Polinon adjusted for each tree. The statistics of adjustment and precision, residuals graphics, bias (v, average difference (md, and difference of standard deviation (dpd showed as better model the polynomial 5th. degree to predict the diameter at relative height of stem, and alternatively the Garay model and theMax-Burkhart with two segments or modify to one segment according to the number of pmf calculated by the derivative.

  18. Efeito do espaçamento no desenvolvimento volumétrico de Pinus taeda L.

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    Rodrigo Lima

    Full Text Available O espaçamento ideal das árvores de Pinus taeda L., com o qual se obtém maior produção de madeira; é uma das questões a serem consideradas nas pesquisas de manejo florestal. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento das árvores em diferentes espaços vitais de crescimento (entre 1,0 m² e 16,0 m² por árvore de um experimento com nove tratamentos de espaçamento inicial implantado na região de Irati-PR. O trabalho baseou-se nas medidas de altura e DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito em 25 árvores internas da parcela, aos sete anos após plantio das mudas oriundas de pomar de sementes clonal. Análises da variância e regressões foram usadas para interpretação dos resultados. Volumes médios entre 74,75 e 274,89 m³/ha foram comprovados. Se o objetivo for a produção volumétrica mesmo com diâmetros pequenos, deve-se optar por espaçamentos menores. Quando se desejam maiores diâmetros, a opção é por espaços maiores. Um melhor desempenho na relação entre volume e diâmetro pode ser obtido com o uso de espaços vitais entre 5,0 m² e 8,0 m² para cada árvore.

  19. DIAGRAMA DE MANEJO DA DENSIDADE PARA POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. CONDUZIDO SEM DESBASTE

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    Paulo Sérgio Pigatto Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the models which express the density-diameter relationship in stands of Pinus taeda L., implanted in several spacing and handled in unthinning density, and were measured every year until the of 18 age. Results indicated that all of the sizedensity relationship of Tang model presented good statistical precision, was more efficient than the others, presenting excellent coefficient of determination (0.99, low standard error of estimate (0.0948, low coefficient of variation (1.17%, low bias (0.0086 and high efficiency (0.8976. The slope of the sizedensity didn¿t allow proving the universality of the self-tinning law, with value of this slope is equal -3/2. With help of the size-density model, 6 Indexes of Density of the Stands (IDPs were generated, with variation from the maximum 1400 to the minimum 600, with interval of class of IDP equal to 200, having as reference the standard diameter of 25 cm. The population¿s Density Management Diagram (DMD, elaborated for the dendrometric variables - average diameter, basal area and volume for hectare (by IDP - presented good efficiency with low mistake in the estimate of the values of these variables. Real volume and estimate volume per hectare in DMD presented an absolute difference of just -7.39 m3ha-1 and a relative difference of -1.79 %, showing a great precision of the DMD model. The estimates volume of DMD per hectare, in relation to the real values, presented a value of efficiency equal to 0.99, what indicates a high precision, and an X 2 value equal to 0.00034, not significant to 0.01% of probability, demonstrating that the real and the estimate values don't differ statistical amongst themselves.

  20. THECNICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THINNED AND UNTHINNED MANAGEMENT REGIMES OF Pinus taeda L.

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    Fernando dos Santos Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented an economic analysis of management systems in unthinned and thinned Pinus taeda L. stands, where the objective was pulpwood and veneer yield. Simulation resultswere obtained by a growth and yield simulator called “PISAPRO”, developed from data collectedfrom continuous inventories at the PISA Florestal company. Simulations in unthinned standsconsidered: (a initial densities: 2000, 1667, 1333 and 1111 stems per hectare; and, (b rotation ages:from 9 until 20 years. The regimes simulated with one thinning considered: (a initial densities: 2,000,1,667, 1,333 and 1,111 stems per hectare; (b thinning ages: 6, 9 and 12 years; (c densities afterthinning: 400, 700 and 1,000 stems per hectare; and, (d rotation ages: 15, 18 and 21 years. Themanagement systems were simulated for five conditions of site. The sensitivity analysis of profitability,carried out with a program called “INVEST”, considered: (a discount rates: 6% and 8% p.a.; (bharvesting costs: in stands with good harvest conditions (flat and stands with steep terrain; (cpulpwood and veneer transportation distances: 15 km, 50 km and 85 km; and, (d veneer log prices:medium prices and increase of 20%. Site index and prices and costs parameters produced remarkableeffect on the best management system. Pulpwood transportation cost had highly expressive effect onthe profitability than veneer transportation cost. The best thinned regime allowed higher profitabilitythan the best unthinned regime, in all the simulated conditions of sensitive analysis. This superiority ofoncethinned regimes was greater under best sites and best costs and prices conditions considered inthe sensitivity analysis. .

  1. BIOMASS AND NUTRIENTS IN A 27 YEARS Pinus taeda L. STAND CLEAR CUTTING IN CAMBARÁ DO SUL, RS STATE

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989278This study was conducted in a 27 year Pinus taeda stand in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state and aimed to estimate the biomass production, nutrient stock and to evaluate the nutritional impact in different forest harvesting intensities. Biomass was estimated through regression equation adjustments, with the cut of 15 trees distributed in 5 diametric classes. Nutrients stock was obtained through the product between the average content of nutrients in each biomass component and the number of trees per diametric class per hectare. Pinus taeda above ground biomass was estimated in 266.08 Mg ha-1, being 69.1% of wood, 17.1 of live branches, 6.7% of bark, 3.8% of dead branches and 3.4% of needles. Nutrients stock in biomass (kg ha-1 was estimated in: 511.96 of N, 44.39 of P, 174.27 of K, 310.77 of Ca, 103.80 of Mg, 115.36 of S, 2.94 of B, 0.62 of Cu, 17.34 of Fe, 36.70 of Mn and 4.46 of Zn. Nutrients stock relative distribution in Pinus taeda biomass components showed the following sequence: wood (43.6%, live branches (24.8%, needles (19.0%, bark (8.7% and dead branches (3.9%. Total above ground biomass harvest, when compared to only wood removal, leads to nutrients export increase that can vary from 58.0% to 127.4%, depending on the chemical element, while biomass removal increases 40.8%.

  2. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger

    2014-01-01

    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  3. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  4. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2013-01-01

    A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em á...

  5. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Paulo Renato; Elesbão, Luiz Ernesto Grilo; Schneider, Paulo Sérgio Pigato; Longhi, Régis Villanova

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies...

  6. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  7. ALTURA DE VOO DE ESCOLITÍNEOS (COLEOPTERA, SCOLYTINAE EM POVOAMENTO DE Pinus taeda L. NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mortari Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scolytids (Curculionidae, Scolytinae are small borer beetles belonging to the order Coleoptera that develop within or under the bark of trees. In northern countries, these insects cause significant damage especially when outbreaks occur. In Brazil, in general, the damage is minor when compared to the northern hemisphere. Given the importance of subfamily Scolytinae, this paper aims at providing a better understanding of the behavior of Scolytids, mainly regarding the flight height in a stand of Pinus taeda L. For the execution of this work 72, intercept flight traps were installed in area belonging to the State Foundation for Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO, located in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state. The treatments correspond to heights of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0 meters. It was possible to capture: Hypothenemus eruditus in greater abundance at the range of 1 to 1.5 meters; Xyleborus ferrugineus , Xyleborinus gracilis and Xyleborus affinis to 0.5 meters; Xyleborinus saxeseni and Xylosandrus retusus with no preference. It is concluded that the range between 0.5 and 1.5 meters is ideal to analyze quantitatively the scolytids present in the Pinus taeda.

  8. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  9. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  10. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  11. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  12. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  13. Reserva mineral de potássio em Latossolo cultivado com Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jonathan Fernandes Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, aproximadamente 1,87 milhões de hectares são plantados com as espécies de Pinus, normalmente em solos pobres quimicamente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a mineralogia das frações areia, silte e argila e estimar a reserva mineral de K por diferentes métodos de extrações químicas em solo naturalmente pobre nesse nutriente e cultivado com Pinus taeda L., no Segundo Planalto Paranaense. Foram selecionadas cinco árvores com maior diâmetro (árvores dominantes, em uma área de 500 m², para abertura de uma trincheira (1,6 m na projeção da copa de cada árvore. Todos os perfis foram classificados como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico e apresentaram similaridade na morfologia e na sequência dos horizontes, cujas profundidades médias foram: O = 0,04 m, A1 = 0-0,09 m, A2 = 0,09-0,24 m, BA = 0,24-0,43 m, B1 = 0,43-0,66 m e B2 = 0,66-1,60+ m. As amostras coletadas em cada horizonte foram submetidas a análises físicas (granulometria e químicas (pH, carbono orgânico, acidez potencial, Al3+ e bases trocáveis, P disponível, K total e não trocável, e as frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX. As frações areia e silte dos solos apresentaram mineralogia bastante uniforme, com predomínio absoluto de quartzo e apenas ocorrência de discretas reflexões de mica por DRX. A fração argila também apresentou limitada ocorrência de minerais micáceos. Os tratamentos sequenciais para remoção de óxidos de Fe, gibbsita e caulinita foram eficientes para concentração de mica na fração argila, o que facilitou a identificação de biotita e muscovita por DRX. Os baixos teores de K não trocável obtidos com diferentes concentrações de HNO3 fervente (máximo de 91 mg kg-1 e de K total extraído com HF concentrado (máximo de 202,7 mg kg-1 foram consistentes com a pobreza das frações do solo em minerais primários, fontes desse nutriente. As correla

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES COMBINAÇÕES DE LÂMINAS DE Eucalyptus saligna E Pinus taeda EM PAINÉIS LVL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Theodoro Müller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the influence of the positioning of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda wood veneers on layers of laminated veneer lumber (LVL panels. The compositions were manufactured in six different combinations of five veneers of 3.2 mm thickness, glued with phenol-formaldehyde, resulting in treatments composed of wood of the same species or with a combination of two wood types. The evaluation of the proposed arrangements was performed under the characterization of physical properties (moisture content and density and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity – MOE and modulus of rupture – MOR verified in flatwise and edgewise static bending tests. The results obtained indicated that, in most situations, the different positions of the veneers with higher density (in the outer, intermediate and inner layers influenced the mechanical properties of the panels. The influence detected was varied for MOE and MOR, especially when comparing the flatwise and edgewise test values. In certain positions, on the layers of the LVL compositions, the presence of eucalypt veneers resulted in stiffness and strength increases. However, the treatments formed by interposed veneers of eucalypt and pine demonstrated interesting performances for structural use, in either flatwise or edgewise position, once they present values of MOE and MOR that allow to distinguish them as 1st class, according to the North American standard APA/EWS PRL–501 (2001.

  15. Predicting Stem Total and Assortment Volumes in an Industrial Pinus taeda L. Forest Plantation Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, to estimate stem total and assortment (commercial and pulpwood volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation in southern Brazil. Random Forest was populated using field and lidar-derived forest metrics from 50 sample plots with trees ranging from three to nine years old. We found that a model defined as a function of only two metrics (height of the top of the canopy and the skewness of the vertical distribution of lidar points has a very strong and unbiased predictive power. We found that predictions of total, commercial, and pulp volume, respectively, showed an adjusted R2 equal to 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, with unbiased predictions of −0.17%, −0.12% and −0.23%, and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values of 7.83%, 7.71% and 8.63%. Our methodology makes use of commercially available airborne lidar and widely used mathematical tools to provide solutions for increasing the industry efficiency in monitoring and managing wood volume.

  16. Dendronutrition as a tool to evaluate Pinus taeda wood productivity and quality Dendronutrição como ferramenta para avaliação da produtividade e da qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of mineral nutrients on tree growth and wood quality of Pinus taeda, on commercial plantation at 20 years after planting, on different soil types. Experimental plots were set, and from trees representing each population, stem disks were collected at different heights. Tree
    growth, wood quality and growth ring parameters – tracheids diameter and radial density by X-ray densitometry – were analyzed and related to mineral nutrient contents. Results showed negative correlation among Mn and Mg stem disk contents and Pinus taeda tree growth; negative correlation was also obtained among Ca, Mg and Mn contents and tracheids dimensions and wood density. There was no correlation among N, P, K and B contents in stem disks and tree growth or wood quality studied variables.  Dendronutrition concept – study of relationship among tree growth parameters and growth rings to mineral nutrient contents in stem – is discussed in this work.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos nutrientes minerais na produtividade e qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda, em plantações florestais com 20 anos, em diferentes tipos de solo. Foram demarcadas parcelas experimentais e selecionadas árvores representativas da população para coleta de discos do lenho, a diferentes alturas do tronco. Parâmetros de crescimento das árvores e de qualidade da madeira e dos anéis de crescimento - dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade radial por densitometria de raios X - foram analisados e relacionados com o teor de nutrientes minerais. Os resultados mostraram correlações negativas entre o teor de Mn e Mg no lenho com o crescimento das árvores e entre os teores de Ca, Mg e o Mn e as dimensões dos traqueídeos e densidade do lenho; não foi verificada correlação entre os teores de N, P, K e B no lenho com as variáveis analisadas. O conceito de dendronutrição - estudo da relação entre os parâmetros de crescimento

  17. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  18. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  19. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  20. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  1. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Avaliação de protetores físicos em semeadura direta de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Mattei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho avalia a eficiência de protetores físicos de pontos, na implantação de Pinus taeda L. por semeadura direta. Como proteção foram utilizados o copo plástico, sem fundo, o  laminado de madeira e maravalha. Ambos colocados sobre pontos semeados com três  sementes cada. A análise de emergência, sobrevivência e número  de pontos com pelo menos uma planta, um ano após a semeadura,  demonstrou que a utilização de um protetor físico, é indispensável para evitar elevadas perdas de sementes, causadas por pássaros e pela movimentação do solo.

  3. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2016-01-01

    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  4. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  5. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  6. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeaux John M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes. Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01. Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30 to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in

  7. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes). Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01). Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs) including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30) to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in roots. Many of the

  8. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine ( Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon ( Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine ( Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine ( Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine ( Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  9. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  10. Crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em solos arenizados degradados no oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de espécies florestais de rápido crescimento em áreas com solos arenizados e degradados pode ser uma alternativa tanto para a prevenção como para a minimização desse problema. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento em altura dominante do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em relação aos solos arenizados e degradados por ação antrópica, no oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Para isso, foram selecionadas árvores dominantes em povoamentos com 29 anos de idade, em áreas com dois níveis de degradação, as quais foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian para a obtenção de discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica e determinação da altura dominante por idade, no período de 1982 a 2010. Os crescimentos em altura dominante dessas espécies, quando comparados entre si e por nível de degradação do solo, apresentaram tendências diferentes de desenvolvimento no tempo, indicando a presença de polimorfismo das curvas.

  11. Crescimento em diâmetro do Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda em áreas arenizadas e degradadas no Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho do Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Pinus taeda L. em áreas arenizadas e degradadas por ação antrópica, na região da fronteira oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Em povoamentos, foram selecionadas árvores médias, que foram abatidas e seccionadas pelo método de Smalian, a fim de obter discos de madeira para a análise dendrocronológica, para a obtenção do diâmetro por idade. O crescimento em diâmetro, quando comparado entre espécies, apresentou tendências diferentes de níveis de desenvolvimento no tempo. O uso de variáveis dummy no modelo de crescimento permitiu definir uma equação única para estimar o diâmetro em função da idade para ambas as espécies, considerando os níveis de degradação do solo médio e baixo, como variáveis necessárias para estimar o crescimento destas espécies nestes tipos de solos arenizados e degradados.

  12. COMPARAÇÃO GRÁFICA ENTRE CURVAS DE ÍNDICE DE SÍTIO PARA Pinus elliottii E Pinus taeda DESENVOLVIDAS NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Helio Tonini

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  13. Influence of soil physical characteristics on growth of Pinus taeda growth Influência de propriedades físico-hídricas do solo no crescimento de Pinus taeda

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    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to assess variability of Pinus taeda L. growth in function of the soil physical characteristics. The soils data were obtained from a detailed mapping, in the scale 1:10,000, in two areas of the Forest Company – Battistella Florestal, located in the states of Santa Catarina and Parana. Data on forestry growth was collected from continuous forest inventory, obtained from a population growing on an area of 2,252 ha. On a commercial Pinus taeda plantation 28 plots (CFIP were selected with trees of different growing rate and they were divided in two similar groups of different ages: 12 and 13/14 years. Sites with older trees and soil with greater clay content showed trees with greater annual mean increment. There was a positive correlation among tree wood volume, soil macroporosity and aeration porosity on both soil depths, mainly for sites with trees of 12 years of age. Correlation among tree wood volume and soil microporosity, actual soil moisture and available soil moisture was negative, probably due to slower soil drainage on an area with no drought periods. Soils with similar contentes of clay and sand were more productive.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.37

    Foi estudado o rendimento de Pinus taeda L. em função de propriedades físico-hídricas do solo. O trabalho foi baseado em um mapeamento detalhado de solos, na escala 1:10.000, em duas áreas da empresa Battistella Florestal, localizadas nos estados de Santa Catarina e Paraná. Os dados dendrométricos utilizados foram coletados em parcelas de inventário florestal contínuo (PIFCs, em um povoamento com área de 2.252 ha. Foram selecionados 28 PIFC’s com árvores de crescimentos diferentes, separadas em dois grupos com idades de 12 e 13/14 anos. Os sítios com árvores de maior idade e de solos com maior teor de argila, em média, apresentaram maior incremento médio anual das árvores. Houve correlações positivas entre o volume de

  14. History, distribution, damage, and life cycle of a pine shoot gali sawfly, Xyela gallicaulis (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 44(3):276-283

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry O. Yates; David R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of Xyela gallicaulis Smith cause shoot stem galls in young pines. Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., is the most seriously damaged, but galls have been observed on slash pine, P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm., and shortleaf pine, P. echinata Mill. Studies in Virginia and Georgia confirm a 2-year life cycle. Larval development takes...

  15. Simulatd Nitrogen Cycling Response to Elevated CO2 in Pinus taeda and Mixed Dediduous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Interactions between elevated CO2 and N cycling were explored with a nutrient cycling model (NuCM, Johnson et al. 1993, 1995) for a Pinus tuedu L. site at Duke University North Carolina, and a mixed deciduous site at Walker Branch, Tennessee. The simulations tested whether N limitation would prevent growth increases in response to elevated CO...

  16. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan

    2009-01-01

    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  17. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; Surya Saha; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; John E. Erpelding; Chun Liang; C Dana Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety...

  18. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective o...

  19. Impacts of pine species, stump removal, cultivation, and fertilization on soil properties half a century after planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G Sanchez; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the long-term effects of species selection and forest management practices on soil quality and soil C retention, we analyzed soil samples from an experimental planting of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf ((Pinus palustris Mill.), and slash ((Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pines under...

  20. Relação Hipsométrica para Pinus taeda L. em Diferentes Fases do Ciclo de Corte

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    Marcos Felipe Nicoletti

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferentes etapas do ciclo de corte, buscando uma relação hipsométrica adequada para estimar alturas dessas diferentes fases em um reflorestamento de Pinus taeda. Foram realizados cinco tratamentos, sendo o quinto a junção dos dados pertencentes aos demais tratamentos (modelo reduzido. A amostragem seguiu o método de área fixa, no qual o tamanho das parcelas e o número de árvores dominantes diferenciaram-se nos ciclos de corte. Definiu-se a localização das parcelas através de amostragem aleatória simples (oito parcelas por ciclo de corte. Foram determinadas as estatísticas de ajustes, coeficiente de determinação ajustado, erro-padrão e análise de resíduos. Efetuou-se o teste de identidade de Graybill para verificação da necessidade da utilização de diferentes modelos para distintas classes de idade. Os resultados comprovaram que existem diferenças significativas entre adotar-se um modelo específico para cada fase e utilizar um único melhor modelo para o povoamento total.

  1. YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. IN THINNED STAND IN THE CAMPOS DE CIMA DA SERRA REGION, RIO GRANDE DO SUL.

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    Luiz Ernesto Grillo Elesbão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of studying the yield of Pinus taeda L., planted in an initial spacing of 3 x 2 m, located in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul state. The amostral population was submitted to one and two selective thinning, beyond a control sample, without thinning. The selective low thinning was conducted with reduction of the basal area to levels of 28 m2/ha. At age 17, the total yield of the control sample, without thinning, was 886.3 m3ha-1; with one thinning at age 11 the yield was 756.6 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield of 14.6% compared to the control; with two selective at ages 11 and 15, the yield was 732.9 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield in relation with the control sample, without thinning, of 17.3%. The selective thinning allowed a significant gain in diameter, up to age 17, with the execution of a selective thinning at age 11 an average diameter of 33.4 cm; with two selective thinning at ages 11 and 15 an average diameter of 33.5 cm; and an average diameter of 24.3 cm in the control sample, without thinning.

  2. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  3. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  4. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig

    2017-01-01

    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  5. Microsatellite DNA in genomic survey sequences and UniGenes of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S Echt; Surya Saha; Dennis L Deemer; C Dana Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA sequence databases are a potential and growing resource for simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker development in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine also has many expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available for microsatellite (SSR) marker development. We compared loblolly pine SSR densities in genome survey sequences (GSSs) to those in non-redundant...

  6. Carbon Sequestration in loblolly pine plantations: Methods, limitations, and research needs for estimating storage pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Bob Teskey; Lisa Samuelson; John Butnor; David Sampson; Felipe Sanchez; Chris Maier; Steve McKeand

    2004-01-01

    Globally, the species most widely used for plantation forestry is loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Because loblolly pine plantations are so extensive and grow so rapidly, they provide a great potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Because loblolly pine plantations are relatively simple ecosystems and because such a great volume of...

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  8. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Finger Guimarães; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2002-01-01

    This research had as main objective to study the dominant height growth of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda through site index curves comparisons in some regions of Rio Grande do Sul State and other states of the country. These comparisons showed that the site index curves made by Tonini (2000), for the southeastern mountain and coast land in Rio Grande do Sul State did not show the same pattern of those by Scolforo e Machado (1988), for Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil (1989a) fo...

  9. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Tonini; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Paulo Renato Schneider; Peter Spathelf

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000) para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Macha...

  10. Propiedades del suelo y productividad de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

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    Rodolfo Andrés Martiarena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue establecer la vinculación entre  algunas características edáficas y el crecimiento de P. taeda, en su zona de plantación comercial en la Mesopotamia Argentina. La hipótesis es que la causa principal de la reducción de la productividad de las plantaciones es la profundidad de suelo y el volumen efectivo aprovechable por las plantas, y no el contenido de nutrientes. El trabajo se realizó entre los 28º 30’ S, en la provincia de Corrientes, hasta los 25º 30’ S, en la provincia de Misiones. Se seleccionaron 31 sitios donde, 1- se tomaron muestras de suelo para determinar nutrientes y densidad aparente, 2- se midieron las variables dasométricas de las plantaciones y se calculó el Índice de Sitio (IS, 3- se tomaron muestras foliares y se analizaron las concentraciones de C, N y P. El análisis estadístico se realizó con INFOSTAT 2.0. Los sitios se asignaron a tres grupos edafoclimáticos: 1 sitios con suelos rojos del Norte, 2 sitios con suelos pedregosos del Norte y, 3 sitios con suelos rojos del Sur. El crecimiento de las plantaciones de P. taeda fue menor (menor IS en los suelos pedregosos, con más nutrientes, una menor profundidad efectiva y un  menor volumen ocupado por la fracción fina. En la zona norte, la mayor oferta de nutrientes en los suelos pedregosos (respecto de los rojos, no resultó en un aumento en la concentración de nutrientes foliares. La menor capacidad de retención de agua y un menor volumen a ser explorado por las raíces de las plantas, constituyeron la principal limitante al crecimiento en los suelos pedregosos. A pesar de las diferencias en precipitación, todos los sitios correspondieron a la misma Zona de Vida Bosque Subtropical húmedo. Entre los suelos rojos profundos, de similar concentración y contenido de nutrientes, la zona Sur resultó la más favorable para el crecimiento (mayor IS. Esta respuesta en el menos lluvioso sur  puede relacionarse con una mayor demanda atmosf

  11. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  12. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

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    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  13. PLYWOOD MANUFACTURE FROM FIVE SPECIES OF TROPICAL PINE

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with urea-formaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards  of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  14. Biomassa e nutrientes no corte raso de um povoamento de Pinus taeda L. de 27 anos de idade em Cambará do Sul - RS

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in a 27 year Pinus taeda stand in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state and aimed to estimate the biomass production, nutrient stock and to evaluate the nutritional impact in different forest harvesting intensities. Biomass was estimated through regression equation adjustments, with the cut of 15 trees distributed in 5 diametric classes. Nutrients stock was obtained through the product between the average content of nutrients in each biomass component and the number of trees per diametric class per hectare. Pinus taeda above ground biomass was estimated in 266.08 Mg ha-1, being 69.1 % of wood, 17.1 of live branches, 6.7 % of bark, 3.8 % of dead branches and 3.4 % of needles. Nutrients stock in biomass (kg ha-1 was estimated in: 511.96 of N, 44.39 of P, 174.27 of K, 310.77 of Ca, 103.80 of Mg, 115.36 of S, 2.94 of B, 0.62 of Cu, 17.34 of Fe, 36.70 of Mn and 4.46 of Zn. Nutrients stock relative distribution in Pinus taeda biomass components showed the following sequence: wood (43.6 %, live branches (24.8 %, needles (19.0 %, bark (8.7 % and dead branches (3.9 %. Total above ground biomass harvest, when compared to only wood removal, leads to nutrients export increase that can vary from 58.0% to 127.4%, depending on the chemical element, while biomass removal increases 40.8%.

  15. INFLUÊNCIA DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NA RESISTÊNCIA A DEGRADAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

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    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of two thermal treatment technique on the biological properties of the wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis and W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for the untreated wood. Of each species were sampled three trees at age 25, from where it drew a central plank height DBH for making test specimens were subjected to thermal treatments for later be transformed into pieces of 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.9 cm. In the first treatment the wood were subjected to thermal treatment by autoclaving at 130 ºC/ ± 3 ° C and pressure of 2 kgf /cm² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 °C/ ± 1 °C for the same period. The second treatment consisted of only heat treatment by kiln. Resistance to biological attack was evaluated by accelerated decay test in the laboratory, using a white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and other brown rot Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon. ex Fries Murr. The combined treatment of the autoclave with electric oven favored the decay of both species of wood fungi employees, except for Pinus taeda submitted to the fungus Trametes versicolor , while treatment in an oven provided increase biological resistance of Pinus taeda wood fungus Trametes versicolor and of Eucalyptus grandis fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum . In general it is concluded that treatment in an oven resulted in more resistant to biological degradation and lower weight loss compared with the combined treatment of the autoclave with electric oven while the latter when applied to both species resulted in an increase in the propensity of biological degradation.

  16. Bark consumption by the spiny rat Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae on a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation in South Brazil Consumo de Pinus taeda (Pinaceae pelo rato-de-espinho Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae em plantações no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding damage caused by Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 (Echimyidae is documented for a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Under laboratory conditions, feeding acceptance of P. taeda trunk sections was tested with positive results for E. spinosus, but not for other three co-occurring sigmodontine rodents: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 and Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.Esse estudo documenta os danos causados por Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 em plantações de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae localizadas em Cambará do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em laboratório foi testada positivamente a utilização de troncos de Pinus como recurso por E. spinosus, mas não para os outros roedores sigmodontíneos ocorrentes na área: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 e Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.

  17. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  18. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  19. Variação do incremento anual ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda l. em diferentes idades e densidades populacionais

    OpenAIRE

    César Martins Andrade; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Cláudio Thomas; Paulo Renato Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the annual growth in different heights of the stem of Pinus taeda L. was studied through the stem analysis, accomplished in dominant and medium stratum trees. Cross sections were collected along the stem from 9 sample trees on the base, breast height diameter (BHD) and after these positions, at every meter. The sampling was constituted of 4 trees coming from Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, in a 17-years-old stand, submitted to one thinning, and 6 trees from Ponte Alta ...

  20. Pine growth and plant community response to chemical vs. mechanical site preparation for establishing loblolly and slash pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Zhijuan Qiu

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and mechanical site preparation methods were studied for establishing loblolly (Pinus taeda L) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) pine following both integrated fuelwood-pulpwood harvesting and conventional whole-tree harvesting of pines and hardwoods in southem Alabama's Middle Coastal...

  1. Prescribed burning and mastication effects on surface fuels in southern pine beetle-killed loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; Thomas A. Waldrop; G. Geoff Wang

    2015-01-01

    Surface fuels were characterized in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations severely impacted by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) (SPB) outbreaks in the upper South Carolina Piedmont. Prescribed burning and mastication were then tested as fuel reduction treatments in these areas. Prescribed burning reduced...

  2. Produção de compensados de Pinus taeda L. E Pinus oocarpa Schiede com diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia formaldeído Plywood manufacturing from Pinus elliottii L. and Pinus oocarpa Schiede with different formulations of the urea-formaldheyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis compensados de Pinus taeda e de Pinus oocarpa, com 20 e 24 anos de idade, respectivamente, utilizando três diferentes formulações de adesivo uréia-formaldeído. Foram produzidos 18 painéis, com três repetições por tratamento. As formulações com maior proporção relativa de resina não influenciaram de forma conclusiva as propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis.Os painéis de P. oocarpa apresentaram valores médios de resistência da linha de cola, módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura superiores àqueles dos painéis de P. taeda. Os resultados das propriedades físico-mecânicas dos painéis indicaram grande potencial de utilização de lâminas de P. oocarpa para produção de compensados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of both Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa plywood, 20 and 24-years-old, respectively, using three different formulations of urea formaldheyde resin. A total of 18 boards were produced, using three repetitions per treatment. The formulations containing a high relative proportion of the resin did not show a conclusive influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the boards. The boards made from P. oocarpa showed higher average values of the glue line strength, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in comparison to boards of P. taeda. The results showed that the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of the board, indicate that the veneers of P. oocarpa have a high potentiality for plywood production.

  3. Influência da adição de serragem nas propriedades tecnológicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada de Pinus taeda / Influence of sawdust addition in the technological properties of Pinus taeda particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Torrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foram analisadas as propriedades físico-mecânicas de painéis de madeira aglomerada, de três camadas, produzidos em laboratório, com a adição de dois tipos de serragem obtidas em serrarias, as quais foram classificadas como tipo “fino” e “grosso” por meio de análise granulométrica. Três proporções de serragem (10, 20 e 30% foram adicionadas às partículas de madeira de Pinus taeda para a confecção dos painéis. Foram, também, confeccionados painéis sem resíduo, constituindo um experimento fatorial com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Utilizou-se adesivo de uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 10% e parafina na proporção de 1%. Os painéis foram produzidos com densidade nominal de 0,65 g/cm³ temperatura dos pratos da prensa de 160°C, pressão de prensagem de 40 Kgf/cm², tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos e tempo de fechamento da prensa de 40 segundos. Após a confecção, os painéis foram esquadrejados ficando com dimensões de 40 x 40 x 1,5 cm. Os ensaios de densidade aparente, estabilidade dimensional, flexão estática, tração perpendicular à superfície dos painéis e arrancamento de parafusos foram realizados de acordo com a norma norte-americana ASTM D 1037 – 93. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística entre tratamentos e entre fatores. Verificou-se que os painéis produzidos com adição de até 10% de serragem apresentaram qualidade semelhante aos produzidos apenas com partículas obtidas de madeira roliça, sendo assim uma alternativa para um melhor aproveitamento da serragem como matéria prima. Para maiores proporções, foi observado que um aumento da proporção de serragem causou diminuição das propriedades mecânicas e efeito negativo na estabilidade dimensional dos painéis

  4. Growth and photosynthetic responses of two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in a polluted industrial region in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.S.; Kayama, M.; Jin, H.O.; Lee, C.H.; Izuta, T.; Koike, T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pollutants on two pine species (Pinus koraiensis and Pinus rigida) in an industrial region in Korea, using a physiological approach. The concentrations of fluorine (F) and chlorine (Cl) in the atmosphere, in precipitation and soil water at the damaged site were all significantly higher than at a control site. Moreover, the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in pine needles were significantly higher, and essential elements and chlorophyll in needles were significantly lower at the damaged site than at the control site. The photosynthetic capacities, shoot length and survival statistics of needles of the two pines were all significantly reduced at the damaged site compared to the control site, especially P. rigida. Based on our comparison of photosynthetic responses and the concentrations of F, Cl and Mn in needles of the two pine species, P. koraiensis is more resistant to excess Mn in its needles than P. rigida. - Pinus koraiensis seems to be more pollution tolerant than Pinus rigida

  5. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  6. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  7. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  8. Produção de chapas de madeira compensada de cinco espécies de pinus tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with ureaformaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenolformaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  9. Estimating Stand Height and Tree Density in Pinus taeda plantations using in-situ data, airborne LiDAR and k-Nearest Neighbor Imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM and tree density (TD of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2 and a root mean squared difference (RMSD for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.

  10. Estimating Stand Height and Tree Density in Pinus taeda plantations using in-situ data, airborne LiDAR and k-Nearest Neighbor Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Bernett, Luiz G; Scheraiber, Clewerson F; Schoeninger, Emerson R

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM) and tree density (TD) of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2) and a root mean squared difference (RMSD) for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.

  11. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  12. EFECTO DEL RALEO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA DENSIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus taeda IMPLANTADO EN MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martiarena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815746El mayor incremento en crecimiento de la plantación puede causar variación en las propiedades físicas de la madera, pudiendo disminuir la calidad de la misma para la industria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto de los tratamientos de raleo sobre el crecimiento y densidad de la madera de Pinus taeda implantado en Misiones, Argentina (25º 59’S - 54º24’O. La plantación se estableció en 1985 con densidad inicial de 1644 pl.ha-1y se manejó con tres intensidades de raleo (0, 33 y 66 % del área basal del testigo sin ralear, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar (3 bloques. A los 20 años se efectuó tala rasa, cuyas densidades eran 711 (0 %, 364 (33 % y 122 (66 % plantas por hectárea, momento en el cual se seleccionaron 45 árboles para determinar la densidad básica de la madera. La misma se determinó a través de la realización de 2.700 probetas. El crecimiento de la plantación fue afectado por la intensidad de raleo, registrando diámetros promedio de 28,7, 34,8 y 45,9 cm, respectivamente, en los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo. El volumen de la plantación, al momento del apeo, fue superior en el tratamiento sin raleo, no obstante el tratamiento 66 % de raleo generó mayor cantidad de madera de grandes dimensiones. La densidad básica como promedio simple y ponderado por volumen no presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Los valores de densidad ponderada fueron de 0,406, 0,418 y 0,420 g.cm-3 para los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo, respectivamente, mientras que el análisis de correlación entre diámetro y densidad no fue significativo. El estudio mostró que la intensidad de raleo puede ser manejada para maximizar la producción, manteniendo idéntica la calidad de la madera para la industria.

  13. EFECTO DEL RALEO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA DENSIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus taeda IMPLANTADO EN MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martiarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El mayor incremento en crecimiento de la plantación puede causar variación en las propiedades físicas de la madera, pudiendo disminuir la calidad de la misma para la industria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto de los tratamientos de raleo sobre el crecimiento y densidad de la madera de Pinus taeda implantado en Misiones, Argentina (25º 59’S - 54º24’O. La plantación se estableció en 1985 con densidad inicial de 1644 pl.ha -1 y se manejó con tres intensidades de raleo (0, 33 y 66 % del área basal del testigo sin ralear, bajo un diseño de bloques completos al azar (3 bloques. A los 20 años se efectuó tala rasa, cuyas densidades eran 711 (0 %, 364 (33 % y 122 (66 % plantas por hectárea, momento en el cual se seleccionaron 45 árboles para determinar la densidad básica de la madera. La misma se determinó a través de la realización de 2.700 probetas. El crecimiento de la plantación fue afectado por la intensidad de raleo, registrando diámetros promedio de 28,7, 34,8 y 45,9 cm, respectivamente, en los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo. El volumen de la plantación, al momento del apeo, fue superior en el tratamiento sin raleo, no obstante el tratamiento 66 % de raleo generó mayor cantidad de madera de grandes dimensiones. La densidad básica como promedio simple y ponderado por volumen no presentó diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Los valores de densidad ponderada fueron de 0,406, 0,418 y 0,420 g.cm -3 para los tratamientos 0, 33 y 66 % de raleo, respectivamente, mientras que el análisis de correlación entre diámetro y densidad no fue significativo. El estudio mostró que la intensidad de raleo puede ser manejada para maximizar la producción, manteniendo idéntica la calidad de la madera para la industria.

  14. Bulked fusiform rust inocula and Fr gene interactions in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikret Isik; Henry Amerson; Saul Garcia; Ross Whetten; Steve. McKeand

    2012-01-01

    Fusiform rust disease in loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) pine plantations in the southern United States causes multi-million dollar annual losses. The disease is endemic to the region. The fusiform rust fungus (Cronartium quercuum sp.

  15. Site Index Curves for Direct-Seeded Loblolly and Longleaf Pines in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin; Richard E. Lohrey

    1995-01-01

    Site index equations were developed for direct-seeded loblollypine (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) based on data from 148 and 75 permanent plots, respectively. These plots varied from 0.053 to 0.119 ac in size, and were established in broadcast, row, and spot seeded stands throughout Louisiana. The Bailey and Clutter (1974) model was...

  16. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; Henry L. Short; E.A. Epps

    1977-01-01

    Six classes of current herbaceous and woody forage were collected seasonally from a 5-year-old mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) plantation (in Texas) and subjected to nutrient analyses and nylon bag dry-matter digestion trials. Forages were most nutritious and digestible in the spring when tissues were succulent and growing rapidly. Browse...

  17. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin

    2008-01-01

    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  18. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  19. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S

    2017-12-01

    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  20. Characterization of yields for Pinus taeda genotypes at the half-sib, full-sib, and varietal levels of genetic improvement at two planting densities at age 5 in the upper coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Dougherty; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Jeff Wright

    2012-01-01

    Seedling deployment options for the establishment of operational Pinus taeda plantations in the Southeastern U.S. now include half-sib families, full-sib crosses, and varietals. In 2005, a study to evaluate the effects of genotype and density on yield and quality was established on a moderately well-drained upland site in the Upper Coastal Plain in...

  1. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This research had as main objective to study the dominant height growth of Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda through site index curves comparisons in some regions of Rio Grande do Sul State and other states of the country. These comparisons showed that the site index curves made by Tonini (2000, for the southeastern mountain and coast land in Rio Grande do Sul State did not show the same pattern of those by Scolforo e Machado (1988, for Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil (1989a for Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, for the Parana’s Second Upland and Selle (1993 for Cambará do Sul RS. However, the same growth pattern was observed for curves by Brasil (1989b for S ão Francisco de Paula which only level differences were observed.

  2. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

  3. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  4. Inheritance of RFLP loci in a loblolly pine three-generation pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Devey; K.D. Jermstad; C.G. Tauer; D.B. Neale

    1991-01-01

    A high-density restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) linkage map is being constructed for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine cDNA and genomic DNA clones were used as probes in hybridizations to genomic DNAs prepared from grandparents, parents, and progeny of a three-generation outbred pedigree. Approximately 200 probes were...

  5. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  6. Growth and wood properties of genetically improved loblolly pine: propagation type comparison and genetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence Schimleck; Lewis Jordan; Benjamin Hornsby; Joseph Dahlen; Richard Daniels; Alexander Clark; Luis Apiolaza; Dudley Huber

    2013-01-01

    The use of clonal varieties in forestry offers great potential to improve growth traits (quantity) and wood properties (quality) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine trees established via somatic embryogenesis (clones), full-sib zygotic crosses, and half-sib zygotic open-pollinated families were sampled to identify variation in growth and wood properties...

  7. Reassessment of Loblolly Pine Decline on the Oakmulgee Ranger District, Talladega National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otroana; John P. Jones; Arthur J. Goddard; Charles H. Walkinshaw

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been a management concern on the Oakmulgee Ranger District since the 1960's. The symptoms include sparse crowns, reduced radial growth, deterioration of fine roots, decline, and mortality of loblolly pine by age 50.

  8. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery after Fertilization of Young Loblolly Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Baker; G. L. Switzer; L. E. Nelson

    1974-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate applied at rates of 112 and 224 kg of N/ha in successive years to different areas of a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation increased aboveground biomass by 25% and N accumulation by 30%. Fertilization at plantation age 3 resulted in significantly greater biomass and N accumulations in the pine; fertilization at age 4...

  9. Avaliação da Dispersão de Sementes de Pinus taeda L. pela Análise dos Anéis de Crescimento de Árvores de Regeneração Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tomazello Filho

    Full Text Available RESUMO As árvores de Pinus taeda – introduzidas no Brasil em 1880 e em ensaios experimentais em 1936 – têm sido relacionadas na literatura especializada ao processo de invasão biológica de algumas áreas de campos gerais e de altitude dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, de cerrado no estado de São Paulo, de restinga no estado de Santa Catarina e de pampas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os anéis de crescimento anuais formados no lenho das árvores de Pinus taeda constituem importante ferramenta na avaliação do processo de invasão biológica. Com esse objetivo, no presente trabalho avaliou-se a dispersão espacial-temporal de sementes analisando-se os anéis de crescimento do lenho de árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações e de regeneração natural na região de Faxinal do Céu, estado do Paraná. Os resultados possibilitaram determinar a idade e a taxa de crescimento do tronco das árvores de Pinus taeda de plantações, a data da germinação, a área de dispersão das sementes e a taxa de crescimento das árvores de regeneração natural. Os resultados permitem, da mesma forma, discutir o processo de invasão de árvores de Pinus taeda pela dispersão das sementes em áreas limítrofes às plantações florestais.

  10. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  11. Propiedades del suelo y sus relaciones con el IS en plantaciones de Pinus taeda L. en la Mesopotamia Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo A. Martiarena; Jorge L. Frangi; Alejandra Von Wallis; Marcelo F. Arturi; Hugo E. Fassola; Roberto A. Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at establishing the relations between some soil properties and the growth of P. taeda on its main area of commercial plantation in Argentine Mesopotamia. It was hypothesized that main cause of productivity reduction is soil depth and effective plant- available soil volume rather than nutrient content. The study area was located in Corrientes and...

  12. Effects of the silvicultural intensity on the 4-years growth and leaf-level physiology of loblolly pine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Yanez; John Seiler; Thomas Fox

    2015-01-01

    The role that genetic improvement plays in the increase of productivity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the South has been recognized (McKeand and others 2003). Varietal forestry has the potential to improve the productivity and quality of loblolly pine stands, and higher genetic gains can be achieved in volume and stand uniformity (Zobel and Talbert 1984).

  13. From loblolly to longleaf: fifth-year results of a longleaf pine restoration study at two ecologically distinct sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Historical land-use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the widespread conversion of many upland sites from dominance of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the time following European settlement. Given the ecological, economic, and cultural...

  14. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - II. Development of Intermediate and Suppressed Trees Following Release in Natural Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    Development of 86 intermediate and suppressed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, that had been recently released from overtopping pines and hardwoods, was monitored over a 15 year period. The trees were growing in natural stands on good sites (site index = 90 ft at 50 years) that had been recently cut to stocking levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent. At time of...

  15. Mapped DNA probes from Ioblolly pine can be used for restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping in other conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. Ahuja; M.E. Devey; A.T. Groover; K.D. Jermstad; D.B Neale

    1994-01-01

    A high-density genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) is being constructed for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Consequently, a large number of DNA probes from loblolly pine are potentially available for use in other species. We have used some of these DNA probes to detect RFLPs in 12 conifers and an angiosperm....

  16. Efeito da idade e da posição radial na densidade básica e dimensões dos traqueídeos da madeira de Pinus taeda L. Effect of age and of the radial position in the basic density and dimensions of the tracheids of the wood of Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia SOUSA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pinus taeda L. é uma conífera exóticacultivada no Brasil. A madeira dessa espécie éutilizada na construção civil, dormentes, laminação,postes, resina, celulose e serraria. A questão básicaabordada no presente trabalho foi verificar se aidade da árvore influencia na densidade básica enas dimensões dos traqueídeos da madeira eanalisar as possíveis variações dessas propriedades,no sentido medula-casca, ao longo do raio dastoras de P. taeda. As propriedades estudadas foram:densidade básica (DB, comprimento, diâmetro eespessura da parede dos traqueídeos em função daidade em relação à posição radial. As propriedadesem estudo foram determinadas no Laboratório deAnatomia e Qualidade da Madeira do InstitutoFlorestal do Estado de São Paulo. Foram amostradascinco árvores no DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito,1,30 m médio em cada uma das idades de 9, 13e 20 anos de populações comerciais da região deSengés/PR. Os resultados indicaram que a idade daárvore influencia diretamente nessas propriedadesque são diferenciadas na posição radial da madeirade P. taeda. Também foi observado que ocorreuuma correlação positiva alta entre a densidadebásica e o comprimento dos traqueídeos.The Pinus taeda L. is an exotic conifercultivated in Brazil. The wood of that species isused in civil constructions, sleepers, veneer, posts,resin, cellulose and sawmill. The subject approachedin the present work was to verify if the age of thetree influences in the basic density and in thedimensions of the tracheids of the wood and toanalyze the possible variations of those properties,in the sense from pith to bark, along the ray of thelogs of P. taeda. The studied properties were: basicdensity (DB, length, diameter and thickness ofthe wall of the tracheids in function of the agerelated with the radial position. The properties instudy were established in the Laboratory of Anatomyand Quality of the Wood of the Forestry Institute ofSão Paulo

  17. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  18. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  19. Inheritance of allozyme variants in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D.Don)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1985-01-01

    Isozyme phenotypes are described for 45 structural loci and I modifier locus in bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don,) and segregation data are presented for a subset of 31 polymorphic loci from 19 enzyme systems. All polymorphic loci had alleles that segregated within single-focus Mendelian expectations, although one pair of alleles at each of three...

  20. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  1. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns

    2012-01-01

    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  2. Nuclear genetic variation across the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa): Phylogeographic, taxonomic and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2015-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is among the most broadly distributed conifer species of western North America, where it possesses considerable ecological, esthetic, and commercial value. It exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation, suggesting that it may be in the process of differentiating into distinct regional...

  3. A Comparison of Fire Intensity levels for stand replacement of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Patrick H. Brose

    1999-01-01

    Stand-replacement prescribed fire has been recommended to regenerate stands of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lamb.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and is shade intolerant. A 350 ha prescribed fire in northeast Georgia provided an opportunity to observe overstory mortality and regeneration of table...

  4. Assessing the gene content of the megagenome: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; Randi A. Famula; Annette Deflino-Mix; Kristian A. Stevens; Carol A. Loopstra; Charles H. Landley; David B. Neale; Jill L. Wegryzn

    2016-01-01

    Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) is within the subgenus Strobus with an estimated genome size of 31 Gbp. Transcriptomic resources are of particular interest in conifers due to the challenges presented in their megagenomes for gene identification. In this study, we present the first comprehensive survey of the P. lambertiana...

  5. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  6. Overstory tree status following thinning and burning treatments in mixed pine-hardwood stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Yong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prescribed burning and thinning are intermediate stand treatments whose consequences when applied in mixed pine-hardwood stands are unknown. The William B. Bankhead National Forest in northcentral Alabama has undertaken these two options to move unmanaged, 20- to 50-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations towards upland hardwood-dominated...

  7. Effects of canopy treatments on early growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings and ground vegetation in North Carolina: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    We installed a field experiment to support the development of protocols to restore longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to existing mature loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands at Camp Lejeune, NC. Seven canopy treatments included four uniform and three gap treatments. The four uniform treatments were defined by target residual basal...

  8. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  9. Visual Basic Growth-and-Yield Models With A Merchandising Optimizer For Planted Slash and Loblolly Pine in the West Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Busby; S.J. Chang; P.R. Pasala; J.C.G. Goelz

    2004-01-01

    We developed two growth-and-yield models for thinned and unthinned plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.). The models, VB Merch-Slash and VB Merch-Lob, can be used to forecast product volumes and stand values for stands partitioned into 1-inch diameter-at...

  10. Effects of logging residue management on the growth and nutriend distribution of a pinus taeda plantation in central Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Tiarks; M. Elliot-Smith; R. Stagg

    2004-01-01

    A 37-year-old pine plantation was harvested. An experiment was established at the site with three levels of logging residue retention and two levels of weed control. By age 10 years retaining harvest residue increased pine volumes by 10 m3 ha-land weed control increased production by another 20 m3 ha

  11. Risk Analysis of Loblolly Pine Controlled Mass Pollination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Byram; F.E. Bridgwater

    1999-01-01

    The economic success of controlled mass pollination (CMP) depends both upon the value of the genetic gain obtained and the cost per seed. Crossing the best six loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parents currently available in each deployment region of the Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Program will produce seed with an average additional gain in mean...

  12. Allozyme diversity of selected and natural loblolly pine populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling; E. Carroll; T. LaFarge

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagametophytes and embryos were examined electrophoretically to compare the extent and distribution of genetic variability in allozymes of selected and wild populations. Range-wide collections of three different types were investigated in this study. These consisted of seed sampled from (1) a provenance test...

  13. Assessment of Loblolly Pine Decline in Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otrosina; Emily A. Carter; Jim R. Steinman; John P. Jones; Lori G. Eckhardt; Ann M. Weber; Charles H. Walkinshaw

    2002-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been prevalent on upland sites of central Alabama since the 1960's. The purpose of this study was to compare Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) standards and protocols with root health evaluations relative to crown, stem, and site measurements. Thirty-nine 1/6 acre plots were established on loblolly decline...

  14. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  15. Comparação gráfica entre curvas de índice de sítio para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda desenvolvidas no sul do Brasil.

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    Helio Tonini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o crescimento em altura dominante para Pinus elliottii e Pinus taeda, mediante comparações entre as curvas de índice de sítio construídas para algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e outros Estados da Federação. Essas comparações indicaram que as curvas feitas por Tonini (2000 para as regiões da Serra do Sudeste e Litoral no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, não apresentaram o mesmo desenvolvimento em relação às curvas feitas por Scolforo e Machado (1988, para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina; Brasil (1989a, para a região de Passo Fundo RS, Marcolin (1990, para o Segundo Planalto Paranaense e Selle (1993, para a região de Cambará do Sul. No entanto, o comportamento em relação às curvas de índice de sítio feitas por Brasil (1989b, para a região de São Francisco de Paula mostraram-se semelhantes, havendo somente uma diferença de nível entre estas.

  16. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  17. Efeito de variáveis climáticas no crescimento mensal de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia em fase juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir curvas de produção e de incremento corrente mensal (ICM, e analisar o efeito de variáveis climáticas no crescimento mensal em diâmetro e altura de Pinus taeda L. e Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze, no período de três anos, em fase juvenil. Para tanto, foram selecionadas 30 árvores de cada espécie, sendo, mensalmente, entre junho de 2006 e julho de 2009, medidas as variáveis diâmetro e altura. As variáveis climáticas são provenientes de duas estações meteorológicas do SIMEPAR, próximas aos plantios monitorados. Para a análise do crescimento, foram desenvolvidas curvas de incremento e produção mensais, bem como análise da matriz de correlação dos dados e regressão pelo processo stepwise. Na análise do crescimento, observaram-se maiores ICMs entre outubro e fevereiro. As matrizes de correlação indicaram forte relação do ICM com temperatura, pressão atmosférica e fotoperíodo. Os modelos ajustados por stepwise, incluindo variáveis climáticas, apresentaram boas estatísticas de ajuste.

  18. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda l. a los 7 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Costas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment with 3 stand densities and 12 prune treatments there were analyzed the effects of stand density, prune and interaction between them on the yield of a Pinus taeda L. plantation. The stand variables analyzed were diameter at breast height (DBH, stem volume, volume per hectare, height, basal area, diameter over stubs (DMSM, Girard form coefficient (CFG, diameter of branch (DRBC and branche’s angle (ARBC at crown base. In the treatments with high density there were observed higher volume per hectare, basal area, CFG and lower DBH, stem volume, DMSM, DRBC and ARBC. In the treatments with lower prune height there were observed higher DBH, stem volume, volume per hectare, basal area than the treatments with larger prune height. Lower DMSM was observed with final prune height of 3,30 m and 4,40 m made at the age of 4 year. Higher DMSM were observed with final prune height of 5,5 and 6,6 m made at the age of 5 year. No statiscaly significant effects were found of the prune treatments over DRBC, ARBC and CFG or interaction between stand density and prune height. The density and prune yield effects were independent from each other.

  19. Produção do Pinus taeda L. em povoamento desbastado na região dos Campos de Cima da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto Grillo Elesbão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of studying the yield of Pinus taeda L., planted in an initial spacing of 3 x 2 m, located in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul state. The amostral population was submitted to one and two selective thinning, beyond a control sample, without thinning. The selective low thinning was conducted with reduction of the basal area to levels of 28 m2/ha. At age 17, the total yield of the control sample, without thinning, was 886.3 m3ha-1; with one thinning at age 11 the yield was 756.6 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield of 14.6% compared to the control; with two selective at ages 11 and 15, the yield was 732.9 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield in relation with the control sample, without thinning, of 17.3%. The selective thinning allowed a significant gain in diameter, up to age 17; with the execution of a selective thinning at age 11 an average diameter of 33.4 cm; was obtained with two selective thinning at ages 11 and 15 an average diameter of 33.5 cm; and an average diameter of 24.3 cm in the control sample, without thinning.

  20. Modifications in pine (Pinus silvestris) under the impact of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolak, J

    1970-01-01

    Growth habit forms in pine which developed in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region in places where industrial air pollution is a dominant ecological factor are described. Juvenile pine individuals, when not growing in density, soon cease to grow in height and their lateral branches grow freely while creeping on ground. In contrast to lifted up branches which are invaded by pests, those creeping one are healthy, with great increment, healthy needles, and normally developed cones. Pine shrubs acquire the habit of mountain pine. In pine shrubs there is formed the plant association Pinus silvestris-Solanum dulcamara which is not to be found elsewhere. When air pollution reaches its threshold value, when pine trees have no lower verticils, then upper branches grow downward until they reach soil surface and creep on it similarly as in the former case. The phenomenon of the formation of genuine habit forms in pine is one of the symptoms of impairment of productive capacity of habitat under the impact of the industrial air pollution.

  1. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  2. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  3. Earthworms, arthropods and plant litter decomposition in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine(Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Timothy R. Seastedt; Zugeily Donato

    2003-01-01

    We compared the abundance and community composition of earthworms, soil macroarthropods, and litter microarthropods to test faunal effects on plant litter decomposition rates in two forests in the subalpine in Colorado, USA. Litterbags containing recently senesced litter of Populus tremuloides (aspen) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) were placed in aspen and pine...

  4. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  5. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  6. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  7. Site index models for calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A site index model for Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. in Thasos island (North Aegean sea, Greece is presented. The model was fitted and validated from 150 stem analyses, obtained from 75 fixed-area plots from five experimental sites. Four height growth equations of difference form were tested and the BAILEY and CLUTTER (1974 function was considered appropriate due to its good performance with both fitting and validation data. The results show errors lower than 5% and little bias.

  8. Modelo para prognose do crescimento e da produção e análise econômica de regimes de manejo para Pinus taeda L. Growth and yield prognosis model and economic evaluation of several management regimes for Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Weimar Acerbi Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram desenvolver um sistema para prognose do crescimento e da produção de Pinus taeda L. para simular e avaliar economicamente diversos regimes de manejo, visando produzir madeira livre de nós (clearwood e madeira para múltiplos usos; e analisar a lucratividade dos regimes de manejo em diversas condições de sítio, espaçamento, taxas de desconto e preço da madeira, considerando plantios realizados em terras da própria empresa e em terras arrendadas. O modelo desenvolvido baseia-se no conceito de compatibilidade em área basal entre o modelo para o povoamento e o modelo por classe diamétrica. Utiliza-se a distribuição Weibull, que em conjunto com os atributos do povoamento permite fazer a prognose para diferentes estratos e idades desejadas. Aplica-se ent��o o simulador de desbaste para obter a floresta remanescente desejada. A partir desta faz-se nova prognose até a idade desejada, e novamente aplica-se o simulador de desbaste. Este procedimento é repetido até o corte final, utilizando-se para tal do software SPPpinus - Sistema de Prognose da Produção para Pinus sp. Na análise econômica foram testados dois cenários, com diversos números, épocas e intensidade de desbaste, a partir de diferentes densidades iniciais de plantio, considerando vários níveis de produtividade. Foi realizada uma análise de sensibilidade da lucratividade dos regimes de manejo gerados, considerando três taxas de desconto, dois níveis de preço da madeira e as opções de plantar Pinus sp. em terras arrendadas e em terra da própria empresa, viabilizada através da integração do SSPpinus com o software de análise de investimento Invest. Concluiu-se que o modelo de crescimento e produção desenvolvido não apresentou tendenciosidade nas estimativas, sendo, portanto, um sistema preciso; os regimes de manejo com a realização de um desbaste pré-comercial seguido de dois desbastes comerciais e desrama devem ser

  9. Heterogeneity of interflavanoid bond Location in loblolly pine bark procyanidins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Joseph J. Karchesy; Gerald W. McGraw; Richard A. Wielesek

    1983-01-01

    Procyanidins B-1, B-3 and B-7 were obtained from Pinus taeda phloem in yields of 0.076, 0.021 and 0.034% of unextracted dry wt. Procyanidins B-1 and B-7 were produced in relative yields of 2.4:1 by biosynthetically patterned synthesis from catechin and loblolly pine tannins. Partial acid-catalysed thiolytic cleavage of loblolly pine phloem tannins...

  10. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  11. Population structure of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (P. banksiana) complex as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Terrance Z; Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, Francis C

    2002-06-01

    We studied the population structure of a lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) complex in west central Alberta and neighboring areas by assessing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability in 23 lodgepole pine, 9 jack pine, and 8 putative hybrid populations. Of 200 random primers screened, 10 that amplified 39 sharp and reproducible RAPDs were chosen for the study. None of the 39 RAPDs were unique to the parental species. RAPD diversity ranged from 0.085 to 0.190 among populations and averaged 0.143 for lodgepole pine, 0.156 for jack pine, 0.152 for hybrids, and 0.148 for all 40 populations. The estimated population differentiation based on G(ST) was 0.168 for hybrids, 0.162 for lodgepole pine, 0.155 for jack pine, and 0.247 across all 40 populations. Cluster analysis of genetic distances generally separated jack pine from lodgepole pine and hybrids, but no division could be identified that further separated lodgepole pine from hybrids. The observed weak to mild trend of "introgression by distance" in the complex and neighbouring areas was consistent with the view that introgressive hybridization between lodgepole and jack pines within and outside the hybrid zone may have been through secondary contact and primary intergradation, respectively.

  12. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Dementyev, D.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg −1131 I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg −1134 Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg −1137 Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134 Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137 Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137 Cs. - Highlights: • 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were detected in samples of pine trees near Krasnoyarsk (Russia). • 134 Cs was transferred from old tree parts to the new (2012) shoots of pine trees. • The 137 Cs total / 134 Cs activity ratio for pine samples was greater than 1 due to the presence of pre-accident 137 Cs. • The accident 137 Cs activity in pine samples was higher than the pre-accident 137 Cs activity

  13. Determinação do módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda por ultra-som Determination of the modulus of elasticity of juvenile and mature wood of Pinus taeda L.with ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano W. Ballarin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de Pinus sp. tem utilização crescente na indústria madeireira brasileira. O decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas com grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas naturais, tornou comum a produção de madeira em ciclos curtos, com grande proporção de madeira juvenil. Resultados de diversas pesquisas têm reportado que o módulo de elasticidade e a resistência a diferentes solicitações mecânicas são seriamente afetados pela presença de madeira juvenil. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o módulo de elasticidade da madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda L. a partir da constante dinâmica C LL, obtida em ensaios não-destrutivos de ultra-som. A madeira de P. taeda era originária de plantios da Estação Experimental de Itapeva - SP, sendo amostrados seis indivíduos arbóreos com 34 anos de idade. Os corpos-de-prova (4 cm x 4 cm x 45 cm foram obtidos separadamente das regiões de madeira juvenil e adulta da prancha central, previamente submetida à secagem industrial (umidade final de 12%, para a determinação da constante dinâmica por meio de ensaios de ultra-som. Para avaliar a sensibilidade do método do ultra-som, os corpos-de-prova foram ensaiados destrutivamente à compressão paralela. Os resultados mostraram boa sensibilidade do método do ultra-som (R² » 0,90 na avaliação desse parâmetro mecânico da madeira juvenil e adulta.Pinus sp. wood has an increasing importance on supplying brazilian wood industry. The diminution of adult and large diameter trees supply deriving from natural tropical forests, became usual the production of wood on short rotation plantation, with considerable proportion of juvenil wood. Results from several researches have been demonstrated that MOE and mechanical strength are strongly affected by juvenile wood occurrence. This research was developed with the main objective of correlating dynamic modulus of elasticity (non-destructive ultrasound tests and MOE

  14. Determination of Pb and Cd pollution in Pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudovica, V.; Katkevic, J; Viksna, A.; Nulle, S.; Balcerbule, Z. . E-mai: wita@navigator.lv

    2004-01-01

    Forest is subordinate anthropogenic (carbon, petroleum, wood, waste incineration) and natural (climatic, biological, chemical) factors influencing. In current investigation pine tree as environmental indicator (Pinus Sylvestris L.) is selected. The aim of current investigations are to improve methods, that easy and unerring can establish threshold and critical toxic elements accumulation in the samples, such as pine needles, peels, trunk; the second - to find fact of pine reactions on pollution toxic elements concentrations in the soil, nutrition solutions. The reception efficiency of lead and cadmium from the solution with different concentrations of these toxic elements is estimated. The distribution of lead and cadmium in the different parts of pine trunk is edematous with some selective organic reagents. We find out that these toxic elements accumulate in pine trunk and peels and we cannot wash out from samples with water, so these elements are fixed in live tissue. The pollution of pine seedlings with Cd and Pb through the needles, peels, pulp, roots is connected with nutrition solutions, so with soil pollution

  15. The effects of irrigation and fertilization on specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark; L. R. Schimleck; P. M. Dougherty; R. F. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The effects of two treatments, irrigation and fertilization, were examined on specific gravity (SG)-related wood properties of loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) grown in Scotland County, North Carolina. The effects on the core as a whole, on the juvenile core, on the mature core, and from year to year were all analyzed. The results indicate that fertilization...

  16. Effect of midrotation fertilization on growth and specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Lewis Jordan; Richard F. Daniels; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark III; Daniel B. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Wood properties and growth were measured on breast-height cores and on disks collected at different heights from a thinned and fertilized midrotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The study was laid out in a randomized complete-block design receiving four levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer: unfertilized...

  17. Effects of a Commercial Chitosan Formulation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Resistance Parameters in Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. D. Klepzig; B. L. Strom

    2011-01-01

    A commercially available chitosan product, Beyond™, was evaluated for its effects on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., responses believed related to bark beetle resistance. Treatments were applied 4 times at approx. 6-wk intervals between May and November 2008. Five treatments were evaluated: ground application (soil drench), foliar application, ground...

  18. Ice damage in loblolly pine: understanding the factors that influence susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; Mark D. Coleman; David R. Coyle

    2007-01-01

    Winter ice storms frequently occur in the southeastern United States and can severely damage softwood plantations. In January 2004, a severe storm deposited approximately 2 cm of ice on an intensively managed 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in South Carolina. Existing irrigation and fertilization treatments presented an...

  19. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...

  20. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  1. Modeling corewood-outerwood transition in loblolly pine using wood specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian R. Mora; H. Lee Allen; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2007-01-01

    A modified logistic function was used for modeling specific-gravity profiles obtained from X-ray densitometry analysis in 675 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in four regeneration trials. Trees were 21 or 22 years old at the time of the study. The function was used for demarcating corewood, transitional, and outerwood zones. Site and silvicultural effects were...

  2. Effects of fertilization and three years of throughfall reduction on leaf physiology of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Pell; Lisa J. Samuelson

    2016-01-01

    Climate models project decreased soil water availability in the southeastern United States, which may impact loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity. In conjunction with an interdisciplinary project known as PINEMAP, the objective of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of fertilization and a 30 percent reduction in throughfall on physiological...

  3. Guying to prevent wind sway influences loblolly pine growth and wood properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Burton; Diana M. Smith

    1972-01-01

    Restraining young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from normal swaying in the wind markedly reduced radial growth in the immobilized portion of the bole and accelerated it in the upper, free-swaying portion. Guying also reduced specific gravity, number of earlywood and latewood tracheids, latewood tracheid diameter, and amount of compression wood...

  4. Compacting coastal plain soils changes midrotation loblolly pine allometry by reducing root biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim H. Ludovici

    2008-01-01

    Factorial combinations of soil compaction and organic matter removal were replicated at the Long Term Site Productivity study in the Croatan National Forest, near New Bern, North Carolina, USA. Ten years after planting, 18 preselected loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees were destructively harvested to quantify treatment effects on total above- and...

  5. Relationship of Aboveground Biomass Production Site Index and Soil Characteristics in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyi Zhou; Thomas J. Dean

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the continuing studies of the Cooperative Research in Sustainable Silviculture and Soil Productivity (CRiSSSP), 24 experimental plots in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand have recently been installed near Natchitoches, LA. The plots were uniformly assigned to 3 blocks based on topography (i.e., up slope, midslope, and down slope)....

  6. Performance of mixed pine-hardwood stands 16 years after fell-and-burn treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David H. van Lear; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2006-01-01

    Four variations of the fell-and-burn technique were compared for height and volume production on dry Piedmont sites. A two-factorial randomized complete block design of winter versus spring felling, with and without a summer burn, was implemented, followed by planting of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) at 15 x 15 foot spacing. After 16 growing seasons...

  7. Thermal Conversion of Pine Wood Char to Carbon Nanomaterials in the Presence of Iron Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Fumiya Watanabe; Umesh P. Agarwal; Jilei. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda) wood char powder was thermally treated at 1,000:C in the presence of a 25-nm-size Fe nanoparticle catalyst. The thermally treated carbon materials were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Well-aligned graphitic carbon structures with 15 to 17 layers on...

  8. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  10. Seasonal photosynthesis and water relations of juvenile loblolly pine relative to stand density and canopy position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword Sayer; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effects of stand density and canopy environment on tree physiology, we measured gas exchange responses of the same needle age class of 16-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in thinned (512 trees ha-1) and non-thinned treatment plots (2,863 trees ha-1) in central Louisiana....

  11. Reapplication of Silvicultural Treatments Impacts Phenology and Photosynthetic Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, established in 1981, was thinned and fertilized in 1988. Thinning and fertilization treatments were applied again in early 1995. The morphology of current flushes and needles were measured between March and October in 1995 through 1997. Physiological responses were monitored in the upper and lower crowns....

  12. A Strategy for the Third Breeding Cycle of Loblolly Pine in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. McKeand; F.E. Bridgwater

    1998-01-01

    A strategy for the North Carolina State University - Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program's third-cycle breeding for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was developed to provide genetic gain in the short-term as well as to maintain genetic diversity so that long-term genetic gains will also be possible. Our strategy will be to manage a...

  13. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  14. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  15. Nitrogen availability alters macrofungal basidiomycete Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. community structure in optimally fertilized loblolly pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan P. Edwards; Jennifer L. Cripliver; Andrew R. Gillespie; Kurt H. Johnsen; M. Scholler; Ronald F. Turco

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an optimal nutrition strategy designed to maximize loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) growth on the rank abundance structure and diversity of associated basidiomycete communities.We conducted both small- and large-scale below-ground surveys 10 years after the initiation of optimal...

  16. Planting nonlocal seed sources of loblolly pine - managing benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem Lambeth; Steve Mckeand; Randy Rousseau; Ron Schmidtling

    2005-01-01

    Seed source testing of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which began in the 1920s, has allowed large realized genetic gains from using nonlocal seed sources in operational plantations. Seed source testing continues, and deployment guidlines are being refined. some general effects of seed source movement can be described, but there are still gaps in (1)...

  17. Assessment of loblolly pine decline and site conditions on Fort Benning Military Reservation, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Menard; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nolan J. Hess

    2010-01-01

    A decline of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), characterized by expanding areas of declining and dead trees, has become prevalent at Fort Benning, GA. A 3-year study was conducted to determine the kinds of fungi, insects, and site disturbances associated with this problem. The insects Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes salebrosus, H. tenuis, Pachylobius picivorus...

  18. Loblolly pine needle decomposition and nutrient dynamics as affected by irrigation, fertilization, and substrate quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of initial litter quality and irrigation and fertilization treatments on litter decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics (N, Ca, K, Mg, and P) of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine needles in the North Carolina Sand Hills over 3 years. Litter quality was based on the initial C/N ratios, with the high-quality litter having...

  19. Irrigation, fertilization and initial substrate quality effects on decomposing Loblolly pine litter chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    Changes in carbon chemistry (i.e., carbon compound classes such as aromatics, phenolics, etc.) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) litter were examined during three years of decomposition under factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization treatments. Cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance...

  20. Regional calibration models for predicting loblolly pine tracheid properties using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Nabavi; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes

    2018-01-01

    This study developed regional calibration models for the prediction of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) tracheid properties using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A total of 1842 pith-to-bark radial strips, aged 19–31 years, were acquired from 268 trees from 109 stands across the southeastern USA. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra were collected at 10-mm...

  1. Post-fertilization physiology and growth performance of loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.T. King; J.R. Seiler; T.R. Fox; KurtH. Johnsen

    2008-01-01

    The physiological processes leading to enhanced growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) following fertilization are not clearly understood. Part of the debate revolves around the temporal response of net photosynthetic rate (An) to fertilization and whether the An response is always positive. We measured light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), dark respiration...

  2. Disking and Prescribed Burning: Sixth-Year Residual Effects on Loblolly Pine and Competing Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Trousdell

    1970-01-01

    In the Virginia Coastal Plain, the effects of disking and of three series of prescribed burns on crown coverage and height of regenerating loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and competing hardwoods and shrubs were compared after 6 years. One winter burn followed by three annual summer burns just before harvesting was the site preparation most effective...

  3. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  4. The effects of planting density and cultural intensity on loblolly pine crown characteristics at age twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison Akers; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Dehai Zhao; Santosh Subedi

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were analyzed for the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree and crown attributes. Four study installations were located in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the U.S. South. The treatments included six planting densities (740, 1480, 2220, 2960, 3700, 4440 trees...

  5. Soil organic matter fractions in loblolly pine forests of Coastal North Carolina managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan J. Minick; Brian D. Strahm; Thomas R. Fox; Eric B. Surce; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on foreign oil continues to increase, and concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases has intensified research into sustainable biofuel production. Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between planted rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) offers an opportunity to utilize inter-row space that typically contains herbaceous and...

  6. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparação entre valores de ensaios experimentais e calculados da resistência ao embutimento da madeira de Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henrique de Almeida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Para dimensionar ligações entre membros estruturais de madeira com pinos metálicos (pregos ou parafusos, dois fenômenos devem ser levados em consideração: a flexão do pino metálico e a resistência da madeira ao embutimento. A norma brasileira ABNT NBR 7190:1997 preconiza a metodologia empregada em ensaios laboratoriais para determinação da resistência da madeira ao embutimento com pino metálico e, na ausência dos ensaios, especifica relações para estimar a resistência da madeira ao embutimento a partir da resistência na compressão. O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu na comparação entre valores de resistência ao embutimento da madeira determinados experimentalmente e calculados utilizando parâmetros recomendados pela ABNT NBR 7190:1997. Pelos resultados dos testes de hipótese, pode-se concluir que a estimativa da resistência ao embutimento paralelo às fibras proposta pela ABNT NBR 7190:1997, que estabelece equivalência com os resultados de compressão na mesma direção, mostrou-se precisa para as madeiras de Pinus taeda L.. Entretanto, o mesmo não foi observado na direção normal em relação às fibras, possivelmente explicada pelo valor do coeficiente áe presente na equação para o cálculo de fe90.

  8. Variação do incremento anual ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes idades e densidades populacionais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martins Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variação do crescimento anual em diferentes alturas do fuste de Pinus taeda L. foi estudada por meio da análise de tronco em árvores do estrato dominante e médio. Foram coletadas secções transversais ao longo do fuste de 9 árvores-amostra, tomadas na base, à altura do peito (DAP, e após, a cada metro. A amostragem foi constituída de 4 árvores provenientes de Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, em floresta com 17 anos de idade, submetida a um desbaste, e 5 árvores de Ponte Alta do Norte, Santa Catarina, em floresta com 34 anos, submetida a cinco desbastes. Os resultados, expressos na forma percentual do incremento em área basal na posição "i", sobre o incremento em área basal ao nível do DAP, mostraram a forte variação na deposição anual de lenho ao longo do fuste em função da densidade populacional, caracterizando os efeitos da competição e da liberação pela execução do desbaste. Árvores sujeitas à competição mostraram maior crescimento nas partes superiores do fuste, enquanto que árvores sob menor concorrência apresentaram maior crescimento em posições inferiores, facilmente identificadas pela forma e inclinação das curvas de incremento.

  9. Produção de Pinus taeda L. na região de Cambará do Sul, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Lui Mainardi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O trabalho teve como objetivo estruturar a produção de uma floresta de Pinus taeda L., localizada na região de Cambará do Sul, RS, de acordo com a idade, potencial de produção dos sítios e manejo aplicado. Para tanto foram coletados dados em parcelas temporárias, permanentes e de análise de tronco. Funções matemáticas foram ajustadas para estimar o desenvolvimento do povoamento remanescente após o desbaste e o fator K-Magin foi usado para corrigir o volume dos desbastes, e variou de 0,76 a 0,78. Os resultados, agrupados em tabelas de produção para os sítios 16 a 28, apresentaram, respectivamente, volumes de 243,7 m3/ha e 911,0 m3/ha aos 16 anos de idade. O incremento médio anual nesta idade, considerando a idade de corte na empresa, atingiu 15,23 m3/ha/ano no índice de sítio 16 e 56,94 m3/ha/ano para o 28. Os  resultados demonstraram, ainda, perda de produção pela execução de desbastes precoces nos sítios menos produtivos e tardios nos sítios mais produtivos.

  10. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; Jimenez C, M.; Garcia T, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  11. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  12. Managing succession in conifer plantations: converting young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations to native forest types by thinning and underplantiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen; Steven G. Newmaster

    2001-01-01

    The effects of thinning on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and understory plant diversity were examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Five years after thinning, seedling diameter,...

  13. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  14. SOME IMPORTANT SHOOT AND STEM FUNGI IN PINE (Pinus spp.) AND FIRS (Abies sp.) IN WESTERN BLACKSEA REGION, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  15. Variação mensal da deposição de serapilheira em povoamento de Pinus taeda L. em área de campo nativo em Cambará do Sul-RS Monthly variation of litter deposition in Pinus taeda L. stand in native grass area in Cambará do Sul-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a deposição de serapilheira em Pinus taeda L., implantado em área de campo nativo, durante um período de três anos (5º ao 7º ano de idade da floresta, no Município de Cambará do Sul, na região dos Campos de Cima da Serra, no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram alocadas quatro parcelas de 18 m x 50 m, de forma aleatória, e nelas foram distribuídos 20 coletores de serapilheira de 1 m² (cinco em cada. A serapilheira interceptada nos coletores foi coletada mensalmente entre abril/2004 e março/2007. Após cada coleta, a serapilheira foi posta em estufa para secagem e determinação do peso de matéria seca. A deposição média anual de serapilheira foi de 2.545,1 kg ha-1, tendo a seguinte ordem estacional média: outono > verão > inverno > primavera. A umidade relativa foi a única variável climática que apresentou correlação significativa (r = 0,365; pThis study had as its objective to evaluate the litter deposition in Pinus taeda L. planted in native grass areas, during three years (5º to 7º year after forest planting, in Cambará do Sul, RS. Four plots with 18 m x 50 m were randomly allocated and 20 litter collectors with 1 m² were distributed in the plots (5 in each one. The litter was collected monthly between April /2004 and march/2007. After each collection, the litter was dried in an oven to determine the dried weight. The average annual litter deposition was 2,545.1 kg ha-1, with the following seasonal order: autumn > summer > winter > spring. The relative humidity was the only meteorological variable with significant correlation (r=0.365; p<0.05.

  16. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  17. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  18. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  19. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  20. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  1. Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr; Julie C. Weatherby; Larry R. Barber; C. Wayne Berisford

    2002-01-01

    Because Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) is a key pest in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceac), seed orchards in the southeastern United States, improved timing of insecticide applications would be valuable for its control. To time two fenvalerate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC) applications we tested four variations of a degree day model that...

  2. Loblolly pine growth following operational vegetation management treatments compares favorably to that achieved in complete vegetation control research trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight K. Lauer; Harold E. Quicke

    2010-01-01

    Different combinations of chemical site prep and post-plant herbaceous weed control installed at three Upper Coastal Plain locations were compared in terms of year 3 loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine response to determine the better vegetation management regimes. Site prep treatments were different herbicide rates applied in either July or October. Site...

  3. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  4. Yield and financial performance estimates of four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the Western Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley

    2015-01-01

    Eastern seed sources of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) have been planted in the Western Gulf region for nearly three decades because they often have higher growth rates than local seed sources. However, productivity gains for eastern families are sometimes offset by poorer survival rates relative to local families.

  5. Mid-rotation silviculture timing influences nitrogen mineralization of loblolly pine plantations in the mid-south USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; D. Andrew Scott; Ryan Coleman

    2015-01-01

    Intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations often develop nutrient deficiencies near mid-rotation. Common silvicultural treatments for improving stand nutrition at this stage include thinning, fertilization, and vegetation control. It is important to better understand the influence of timing fertilization and vegetation control...

  6. Whole-canopy gas exchange among four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the western gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley S. Osbon; Michael A. Blazier; Michael C. Tyree; Mary Anne Sword-Sayer

    2012-01-01

    Planting of artificially selected, improved seedlings has led to large increases in productivity of intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests in the southeastern United States. However, more data are needed to give a deeper understanding of how physiology and crown architecture affect productivity of diverse genotypes. The objective...

  7. Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1968-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood tracheid length and transverse cellular dimensions of wood removed from stems of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and factorially aegregated by specific gravity, rings from the pith, and growth rate were determined from sample chips. The independent relationships of each factor with fiber morphology are described.

  8. The Effect of Large Applications of Nutrients From Organic Waste on Biomass Allocation and Allometric Relations in Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Patrick D. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We applied broiler litter to an 8-year-old precommercially thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand at 0, 5.6, and 23 Mg ha-1 , supplying 0, 200, and 800 kg N ha-1. A destructive harvest was implemented two growing seasons following litter application to evaluate treatment impacts on patterns of...

  9. Tandem selection for fusiform rust sisease resistance to develop a clonal elite breeding population of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McKeand; Saul Garcia; Josh Steiger; Jim Grissom; Ross Whetten; Fikret. Isik

    2012-01-01

    The elite breeding populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program are intensively managed for short-term genetic gain. Fusiform rust disease, caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, is the most economically...

  10. Greenhouse gas fluxes and root productivity in a switchgrass and loblolly pine intercropping system for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliza Shrestha; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger collaborative effort to determine the overall environmental sustainability of intercropping pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), both of which are promising feedstock for bioenergy production in the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina.

  11. Soil incorporation of logging residue affects fine-root and mycorrhizal root-tip dynamics of young loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth G. Pritchard; Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Andrea J. Grabman; Anne P. Chalmers

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations cover a large geographic area of the southeastern USA and supply a large proportion of the nation’s wood products. Research on management strategies designed to maximize wood production while also optimizing nutrient use efficiency and soil C sequestration is needed. We used minirhizotrons to quantify the effects of...

  12. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo-Jung Choi; Scott X. Chang; H. Lee Allen; Daniel L. Kelting; Hee-Myong Ro

    2005-01-01

    We examined 813C and 815N in needle (current and 1-year-old) and soil samples collected on two occasions (July and September 1999) from a 15-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand in an irrigation and fertilization experiment to investigate whether these treatments leave specific isotope signals in...

  13. Determination of loblolly pine response to cultural treatments based on soil class, base productivity, and competition level

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Garrett; Michael Kane; Daniel Markewitz; Dehai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to better understand what factors drive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth response to intensive culture in the University of Georgia Plantation Management Research Cooperative’s Culture x Density study in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain. Twenty study sites were established ranging from southern Alabama to South Carolina in...

  14. Tolerance of Loblolly Pines to Fusiform Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw; James P. Barnett

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that were 8 to 17 yr old tolerated one to three fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum [Berk.] Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) galls in their stems.Families with four or more galls in their stems lost 2.5% or more of the trees by age 17.In living trees with less than four stem galls, diameter growth was comparable to...

  15. 13C/12C ratio variations in Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) cellulose during the last millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinsted, M.J.; Wilson, A.T.; Ferguson, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Delta 13 C values are presented for cellulose samples prepared from two dendrochronologically dated Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) trees which grew during the last 1000 years. Delta 13 C variations for these forest border trees are similar to upper tree line ring-width variations for the same species and English high summer temperature variations for the same time period. However, the delta 13 C variations appear to be unrelated to lower forest border ring-width variations and cellulose deltaD variations for the same specimens. (Auth.)

  16. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  17. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  18. Compactação do solo causada por tratores florestais na colheita de Pinus taeda L. na região sudoeste do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Andréia Szymczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A compactação vem-se tornando um dos principais impactos causados ao solo pelas atividades de colheita florestal mecanizada. O peso e movimentação das máquinas no momento do corte e extração da madeira, aliados à condição de umidade do solo imprópria para tal, são as principais causas da degradação estrutural do solo, verificada, principalmente, por alterações em suas propriedades físicas. Nesse sentido, este trabalho visou identificar a compactação causada ao solo devido às operações de colheita florestal de Pinus taeda L. realizada em três diferentes níveis de umidade do terreno. O estudo foi realizado em área de uma empresa florestal localizada no Paraná sobre Latossolo Vermelho. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela interação de três fatores, sendo eles: umidade (colheita em dia chuva, três e sete dias após a chuva, operações de colheita (com passagem de máquinas, sem passagem/eventual queda de árvores e estaleiro, e a ocasião de coleta (antes e depois da colheita. A biomassa residual da colheita florestal foi essencial para minimizar a compactação do solo causada pelo tráfego das máquinas que foi próxima da máxima. A gradação de umidade representada pela colheita em diferentes números de dias após uma chuva não influenciou, de maneira diferenciada, a compactação do solo. Entretanto, as operações de colheita impactaram o solo até a profundidade de 10 cm, causando a compactação nas linhas de tráfego das máquinas, enquanto as demais operações não provocaram alterações na densidade, macroporosidade e resistência à penetração.

  19. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Costas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo con 3 niveles de densidad y 12 tratamientos de poda, se evaluaron los efectos de la densidad, la altura de poda, el número de levantes de poda y la interacción entre la densidad y las podas sobre la producción de la masa de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad. Las variables evaluadas fueron el diámetro a la altura de pecho medio (DAP, la altura media, el volumen individual, el volumen por unidad de superficie, el área basal, el diámetro máximo sobre muñón (DMSM, el coeficiente de forma de Girard (CFG, el diámetro de ramas (DRBC y el ángulo de inserción de las ramas (ARBC en la base de la copa. En los tratamientos con mayor densidad de plantación se observaron mayores volúmenes por unidad de superficie, área basal y CFG que en los tratamientos con menor densidad. Estos produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, DMSM, DRBC y ARBC que los tratamientos con mayores densidades. Los tratamientos con menores alturas finales de poda produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, área basal y volúmenes por unidad de superficie que los tratamientos con mayores alturas de poda. Los menores DMSM se obtuvieron con alturas finales de poda de 3,30 m y 4,40 m realizadas a los 4 años de edad y los mayores DMSM ocurrieron al no efectuarse podas a los 5 años hasta 5,50 m y 6,60 m. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores medios de DRBC, ARBC y CFG producidos por los 12 tratamientos de poda. La interacción entre densidad y los tratamientos de poda no fue significativa para ninguna de las variables respuestas.

  20. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  1. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  2. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  3. Soil CO2 Efflux Trends Following the Thinning of a 22-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Plantation on the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.F. Selig; J.R. Seiler

    2004-01-01

    Due to the growing concern over increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it has become increasingly important to understand the influence forest practices have on the global carbon cycle. The thinning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in the Southeastern United States is a common silvicultural practice and has great...

  4. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  5. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  6. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  7. Modeling the effects of fire and climate change on carbon and nitrogen storage in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. H. Smithwick; M. G. Ryan; D. M. Kashian; W. H. Romme; D. B. Tinker; M. G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between disturbance and climate change and resultant effects on ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes are poorly understood. Here, we model (using CENTURY version 4.5) how climate change may affect C and N fluxes among mature and regenerating lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex S.Wats.)...

  8. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  9. Stratification and seasonal stability of diverse bacterial communities in a Pinus merkusii (pine) forest soil in central Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krave, A.S.; Lin, B.; Braster, M.; Laverman, A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Java, Indonesia, many nutrient-poor soils are intensively reforested with Pinus merkusii (pine). Information on nutrient cycles and microorganisms involved in these cycles will benefit the management of these important forests. Here, seasonal effects on the stratification of bacterial community

  10. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  11. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  12. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  13. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  14. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  15. Chlorophyll content in pine (Pinus silvestris L. needles exposed to flue dust from lead and zinc works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a and b, sulphur, zinc and lead contents were determined in annual and biennial needles of Scotch pine (Pinus silevstris L. exposed to flue dust-polluted air. Intoxication indexes were calculated on the basis of the obtained results.

  16. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  17. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  18. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  19. Possibilities of the chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a good bio indicator. This species is widely distributed in Europe, including Latvia, is easily identified, and is used in bio indication studies. It is known that the concentrations of most elements in needles change with time. These changes are connected to the processes involved in the uptake, transportation, storage and retranslocation of the elements. Scots pine keeps their needles for several years (3 to 4 years) and are suitable for the study of time related processes. The chemical composition of pine needles is used for the study the deposition and impact of air pollutants. Coniferous needles are covered with epicuticular wax, which act as a trap for airborne deposits. A comparison of chemical composition of pine needles that were unwashed and washed with chloroform made it possible to distinguish which elements were on the needles and to evaluate the character of pollution. The most important stage of the analysis of pine needles is sampling. Nutrient concentrations in the needles of coniferous trees have been shown to vary with the needle age and tree age, the phase of the annual physiological cycle, availability of nutrients in the soil and needle position within the crown. It is very important to take representative sample for the analysis. In the current work the trace element concentrations of the single needle were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF). The results of analysis showed that concentration of some elements depends from the position of needle within branch for the same needle age class. The concentrations of trace elements in the single needles within main shoot were more or less constant compare with other order shoots at given needle age class. Some higher variations in the elemental concentrations between single needles were observed in the tip part of main shoot. The actual distribution of the elements within a needle has

  20. A Southwide Rate Test of Azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for Cone and Seed Insect Control In Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Mangini; L.R. Barber; R.S. Cameron; G.L. DeBarr; G.R. Hodge; J.B. Jett; W.L. Lowe; J.L. McConnell; J. Nord; J.W. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    A southwide efficiency test of reduced rates of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for control of seed and cone insects in loblolly pine seed orchards was conducted in 1992. In each of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed orchards, an untreated (no protection) check and two of five possible rates of Guthion® (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 lb ai/ac/...

  1. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.

    2012-07-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  2. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  3. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. Comparison of four harvesting systems in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Klepac; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Felling and skidding operations were monitored while clearcut harvesting a 12-acre area of a 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. The study area contained 465 trees per acre for trees 2.0 inches Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and larger with a Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) of 7.26 inches. Two feller-bunchers (tracked and rubber-tired) and two skidders (...

  5. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  6. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  7. ENERGY BALANCE AND CO2 EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR IN SUB-TROPICAL YOUNG PINE (Pinus roxburghii PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Bhattacharya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to understand the seasonal and annual energy balance behaviour of young and growing sub-tropical chir pine (Pinus roxburghii plantation of eight years age in the Doon valley, India and its coupling with CO2 exchange. The seasonal cycle of dekadal daytime latent heat fluxes mostly followed net radiation cycle with two minima and range between 50–200 Wm-2 but differed from the latter during the period when soil wetness and cloudiness were not coupled. Dekadal evaporative fraction closely followed the seasonal dryness-wetness cycle thus minimizing the effect of wind on energy partitioning as compared to diurnal variation. Daytime latent heat fluxes were found to have linear relationship with canopy net assimilation rate (Y = 0.023X + 0.171, R2 = 0.80 though nonlinearity exists between canopy latent heat flux and hourly net CO2 assimilation rate . Night-time plant respiration was found to have linear relationship (Y = 0.088 + 1.736, R2 = 0.72 with night-time average vapour pressure deficit (VPD. Daily average soil respiration was found to be non-linearly correlated to average soil temperatures (Y = -0.034X2 + 1.676X – 5.382, R2 = 0.63 The coupled use of empirical models, seasonal energy fluxes and associated parameters would be useful to annual water and carbon accounting in subtropical pine ecosystem of India in the absence high-response eddy covariance tower.

  8. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Florian, C; Oberhuber, W

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site, NSC concentrations in the aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in aboveground growth, possibly due to elevated belowground carbon demand. In conclusion, our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though carbon reserves were not exhausted, sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexou, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity.

  10. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclan, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Dizengremel, P.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O 3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs Pd ), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress. - Ozone and drought stress induce the activation of similar processes related to C and N metabolism

  11. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerckhoven, Sonia H; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cantón, Francisco R; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1) catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  12. Characterization of Three L-Asparaginases from Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia H. Van Kerckhoven

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginases (ASPG, EC 3.5.1.1 catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide group of L-asparagine producing L-aspartate and ammonium. Three ASPG, PpASPG1, PpASPG2, and PpASPG3, have been identified in the transcriptome of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. that were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfection. The three recombinant proteins were processed in planta to active enzymes and it was found that all mature forms exhibited double activity asparaginase/isoaspartyl dipeptidase but only PpASPG1 was able to catalyze efficiently L-asparagine hydrolysis. PpASPG1 contains a variable region of 77 amino acids that is critical for proteolytic processing of the precursor and is retained in the mature enzyme. Furthermore, the functional analysis of deletion mutants demonstrated that this protein fragment is required for specific recognition of the substrate and favors enzyme stability. Potassium has a limited effect on the activation of maritime pine ASPG what is consistent with the lack of a critical residue essential for interaction of cation. Taken together, the results presented here highlight the specific features of ASPG from conifers when compared to the enzymes from angiosperms.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H.; Kim, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.H.; Lee, J.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M.H. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. H.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Yun, M. H.; Kim, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of the dating of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. The age of the tree was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of years, however, the tree had been broken by a strong wind in March 2010 and now only the stump of the tree is left. At the time of sampling in 2014, there were several decayed parts in the stump, so using the usual dendrochronological method (i.e. ring counting) for dating was difficult. However, we found a small wood sample with tree rings near the center of the stump that could be used for radiocarbon wiggle-match dating. Radiocarbon dates were determined using Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The IntCal13 curve was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates, and the wiggle matching technique was used to reduce the error of the calibrated ages. Based on the dating results, we suggest that the pine tree is approximately 300 years or older.

  16. Removal of Heavy Metals by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Cones of Pinus roxburghii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid

    2015-04-01

    Activated carbon derived from cones of Pinus roxburghii (Himalayan Pine) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper, nickel and chromium ions from waste water. Surface analysis was carried out to determine the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the pine cone derived activated carbon. Optimal parameters, effect of adsorbent quantity, pH, equilibrium time, agitation speed and temperature were studied. Equilibrium data were evaluated by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm afforded the best fit to the equilibrium data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14.2, 31.4 and 29.6 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cr(VI) respectively. Maximum adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) was observed in the pH range 4.0 to 4.5, whereas the best adsorption of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2.5. It was found that 180 minutes was sufficient to gain adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  17. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  18. Biosorption of Phenolic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions using Pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb Bark Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar Nadavala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a new bioadsorbent from lignocellulosic wastes of agricultural origin. The biosorption capacity of an agricultural solid waste, pine bark (Pinus densiflora Sieb., to remove phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CPh, and 4- chlorophenol (4-CPh from aqueous solutions under batch equilibrium conditions was investigated. The morphological characteristics of the biosorbent were evaluated by BET surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, elemental analysis, an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of initial pH (2 to 10, contact time, initial concentration of adsorbate (50 to 200 mg/L, and biosorbent dosage. The biosorption of phenolic compounds decreased with increasing pH, and the highest biosorption capacity was achieved at a pH of 6.0. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The biosorption equilibrium data were fitted and analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm equations, as well as four adsorption kinetic models. The kinetics data fitted well into the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.993. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of pine bark for phenol, 2-CPh, and 4-CPh was found to be 142.85, 204.08, and 263.15 mg/g, respectively, as calculated by the Langmuir model at 30 ± 1 °C. Pine bark could be used as a new effective, low-cost biosorbent material with good uptake capacity and rapid kinetics for the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous media.

  19. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  20. Influence of instantaneous controlled pressure drop extraction conditions on composition and oil yield from Maritime Pine (Pinus Pinaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug , Sid-Ahmed; Janocka , Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Experiments to extract the essential oil from maritime pine (pinus pinaster) were carried out using the instantaneous controlled pressure drop process: "Détente Instantanée Contrôlée" (D.I.C). This process involves subjecting the maritime pine needles for a short period of time to a steam pressure varying from 2 to 5 bar (120 to 150 °C) during a fixed processing time, followed by an instantaneous decompression towards a vacuum (about 50 mbar). In this contribution, we ...

  1. Profitability potential for Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) short-rotation bioenergy plantings in the southern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Perdue; John A. Stanturf; Timothy M. Young; Xia Huang; Derek Dougherty; Michael Pigott; Zhimei Guo

    2017-01-01

    The use of renewable resources is important to the developing bioenergy economy and short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are key renewable feedstocks. A necessary step in advancing SRWC is defining regions suitable for SRWC commercial activities and assessing the relative economic viability among suitable regions. The goal of this study was to assess the potential...

  2. Short-term changes in soil C, N, and biota following harvesting and regeneration of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason C. Carter; Thomas J. Dean; Minyi Zhou; Michael G. Messina; Ziyin Wang

    2002-01-01

    In affiliation with the USDA-FS long-term soil productivity program, a series of studies have been established in the US gulf coast region to monitor the effects of intensive silviculture on site productivity. This report presents early results of a study of the interactive effects of harvest intensity and cultural treatments on soil C, N, and biological processes...

  3. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    hydrometer method (Milford 1997). Climate data from the study period was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center web service, with data for...texture of each plot using the hydrometer method (Milford 1997) and classified soil texture following the USDA soil classification system. Foliar

  4. Population biology of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) with reference to historical disturbances in the Lake Tahoe Basin: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Andrew J. Eckert; Camille E. Jensen; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Historical logging, fire suppression, and an invasive pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, the cause of white pine blister rust (WPBR), are assumed to have dramatically affected sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) populations in the Lake Tahoe Basin. We examined population- and genetic-level consequences of these disturbances within 10...

  5. Genetic diversity and structure of western white pine (Pinus monticola) in North America: A baseline study for conservation, restoration, and addressing impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2010-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species in western North America that has declined in prominence over the past several decades, mainly due to the introduction of Cronartium ribicola (cause of white pine blister rust) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were...

  6. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  7. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Robert E. Means; Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Tzen-Yuh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique...

  8. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  9. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  10. Cultural intensity and planting density effects on individual tree stem growth, stand and crown attributes, and stand dynamics in thinned loblolly pine plantations during the age 12- to age 15- year period in the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Johnson; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Robert Teskey

    2015-01-01

    Three existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) installations in the Plantation Management Research Cooperative's Upper Coastal Plain/Piedmont Culture Density Study were used to examine the effects of two cultural intensities, four initial planting densities, and their interactions on stem growth at the individual tree level from age 12 to 15 years and at the stand...

  11. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Elvira-Recuenco

    Full Text Available There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival. These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  12. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  13. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  14. Environment-dependent microevolution in a Mediterranean pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Ricardo; Chambel, Regina; Notivol, Eduardo; Climent, José; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-09-23

    A central question for understanding the evolutionary responses of plant species to rapidly changing environments is the assessment of their potential for short-term (in one or a few generations) genetic change. In our study, we consider the case of Pinus pinaster Aiton (maritime pine), a widespread Mediterranean tree, and (i) test, under different experimental conditions (growth chamber and semi-natural), whether higher recruitment in the wild from the most successful mothers is due to better performance of their offspring; and (ii) evaluate genetic change in quantitative traits across generations at two different life stages (mature trees and seedlings) that are known to be under strong selection pressure in forest trees. Genetic control was high for most traits (h2 = 0.137-0.876) under the milder conditions of the growth chamber, but only for ontogenetic change (0.276), total height (0.415) and survival (0.719) under the more stressful semi-natural conditions. Significant phenotypic selection gradients were found in mature trees for traits related to seed quality (germination rate and number of empty seeds). Moreover, female relative reproductive success was significantly correlated with offspring performance for specific leaf area (SLA) in the growth chamber experiment, and stem mass fraction (SMF) in the experiment under semi-natural conditions, two adaptive traits related to abiotic stress-response in pines. Selection gradients based on genetic covariance of seedling traits and responses to selection at this stage involved traits related to biomass allocation (SMF) and growth (as decomposed by a Gompertz model) or delayed ontogenetic change, depending also on the testing environment. Despite the evidence of microevolutionary change in adaptive traits in maritime pine, directional or disruptive changes are difficult to predict due to variable selection at different life stages and environments. At mature-tree stages, higher female effective reproductive

  15. Spatially variable natural selection and the divergence between parapatric subspecies of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta, Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Shahi, Hurshbir; Datwyler, Shannon L; Neale, David B

    2012-08-01

    Plant populations arrayed across sharp environmental gradients are ideal systems for identifying the genetic basis of ecologically relevant phenotypes. A series of five uplifted marine terraces along the northern coast of California represents one such system where morphologically distinct populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) are distributed across sharp soil gradients ranging from fertile soils near the coast to podzolic soils ca. 5 km inland. A total of 92 trees was sampled across four coastal marine terraces (N = 10-46 trees/terrace) located in Mendocino County, California and sequenced for a set of 24 candidate genes for growth and responses to various soil chemistry variables. Statistical analyses relying on patterns of nucleotide diversity were employed to identify genes whose diversity patterns were inconsistent with three null models. Most genes displayed patterns of nucleotide diversity that were consistent with null models (N = 19) or with the presence of paralogs (N = 3). Two genes, however, were exceptional: an aluminum responsive ABC-transporter with F(ST) = 0.664 and an inorganic phosphate transporter characterized by divergent haplotypes segregating at intermediate frequencies in most populations. Spatially variable natural selection along gradients of aluminum and phosphate ion concentrations likely accounted for both outliers. These results shed light on some of the genetic components comprising the extended phenotype of this ecosystem, as well as highlight ecotones as fruitful study systems for the detection of adaptive genetic variants.

  16. Analysis of genetic stability at SSR loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Rocheta, Margarida; Maroco, João; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a propagation tool of particular interest for accelerating the deployment of new high-performance planting stock in multivarietal forestry. However, genetic conformity in in vitro propagated plants should be assessed as early as possible, especially in long-living trees such as conifers. The main objective of this work was to study such conformity based on genetic stability at simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci during somatic embryogenesis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Embryogenic cell lines (ECLs) subjected to tissue proliferation during 6, 14 or 22 months, as well as emblings regenerated from several ECLs, were analyzed. Genetic variation at seven SSR loci was detected in ECLs under proliferation conditions for all time points, and in 5 out of 52 emblings recovered from somatic embryos. Three of these five emblings showed an abnormal phenotype consisting mainly of plagiotropism and loss of apical dominance. Despite the variation found in somatic embryogenesis-derived plant material, no correlation was established between genetic stability at the analyzed loci and abnormal embling phenotype, present in 64% of the emblings. The use of microsatellites in this work was efficient for monitoring mutation events during the somatic embryogenesis in P. pinaster. These molecular markers should be useful in the implementation of new breeding and deployment strategies for improved trees using SE.

  17. The role of arginine metabolic pathway during embryogenesis and germination in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llebrés, María-Teresa; Pascual, María-Belén; Debille, Sandrine; Trontin, Jean-François; Harvengt, Luc; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings. Somatic embryos accumulate lower levels of N reserves than zygotic embryos (ZE) at a similar stage of development. To understand the molecular basis for this difference, the arginine metabolic pathway has been characterized in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). The genes involved in arginine metabolism have been identified and GFP-fusion constructs were used to locate the enzymes in different cellular compartments and clarify their metabolic roles during embryogenesis and germination. Analysis of gene expression during somatic embryo maturation revealed high levels of transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of arginine. By contrast, enhanced expression levels were only observed during the last stages of maturation and germination of ZE, consistent with the adequate accumulation and mobilization of protein reserves. These results suggest that arginine metabolism is unbalanced in SE (simultaneous biosynthesis and degradation of arginine) and could explain the lower accumulation of storage proteins observed during the late stages of somatic embryogenesis.

  18. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  19. Characterization and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides Obtained from Pine Cones of Pinus koraiensis by Graded Ethanol Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus koraiensis polysaccharides (PKP were extracted by hot water from P. koraiensis pine cones. Five polysaccharide fractions named PKP-A, PKP-B, PKP-C, PKP-D and PKP-E were successfully separated at final ethanol concentrations of 30%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and automatic amino-acid analysis were applied to investigate their chemical characteristics. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that the five fractions were all composed of d-ribose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose, but their molar ratios were quite different. HPLC results revealed that the polysaccharides precipitated by higher concentrations of ethanol solution had lower molecular masses. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the five fractions were studied on the basis of hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging tests. The five graded polysaccharide fractions exhibited good inhibitory power, and MTT tests in vitro showed the IC50 of PKP-A and PKP-E were 1,072.5 and 2,070.0 μg·mL−1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the PKP could be a potential source of natural antioxidants or dietary supplements.

  20. Impact of Geography and Climate on the Genetic Differentiation of the Subtropical Pine Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Southwest China is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by complex topography, heterogeneous regional climates and rich flora. The processes and driving factors underlying this hotspot remain to be explicitly tested across taxa to gain a general understanding of the evolution of biodiversity and speciation in the region. In this study, we examined the role played by historically neutral processes, geography and environment in producing the current genetic diversity of the subtropical pine Pinus yunnanensis. We used genetic and ecological methods to investigate the patterns of genetic differentiation and ecological niche divergence across the distribution range of this species. We found both continuous genetic differentiation over the majority of its range, and discrete isolated local clusters. The discrete differentiation between two genetic groups in the west and east peripheries is consistent with niche divergence and geographical isolation of these groups. In the central area of the species' range, population structure was shaped mainly by neutral processes and geography rather than by ecological selection. These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape. Our findings differ from other phylogenetic studies that identified the historical drainage system in the region as the primary factor shaping population structure, and highlight the heterogeneous contributions that geography and environment have made to genetic diversity among taxa in southwest China.

  1. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  2. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

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    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  3. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  4. The effect of pile size on moisture content of loblolly pine while field drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason. and Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation approximately 5 acres in size was cut during August 2013 with a tracked feller-buncher. A grapple skidder transported trees from one-half of the tract to a landing where they were piled whole-tree. Remaining trees were left whole-tree in skidder bundles (small piles) in the stand. All trees were left on-site and...

  5. Plume dispersion in four pine thinning scenarios: development of a simple pheromone dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly Peterson; Harold Thistle; Brian Lamb; Gene Allwine; Steve Edburg; Brian Strom

    2010-01-01

    A unique field campaign was conducted in 2004 to examine how changes in stand density may affect dispersion of insect pheromones in forest canopies. Over a l4-day period, 126 tracer tests were performed, and conditions ranged from an unthinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) canopy through a series of thinning scenarios with basal areas of32.l, 23.0, and 16.1 m2ha-l.ln...

  6. Responses of two genetically superior loblolly pine clonal ideotypes to a severe ice storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; Christopher A. Maier; G. Geoff Wang; Dapao Yu; Tim M. Shearman

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as major ice storms, can have severe impacts on southern forests. We investigated the damage inflicted by a severe ice storm that occurred in February 2014 on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ideotypes in Cross, South Carolina located in the southeastern coastal plain. The ‘‘narrow crown”...

  7. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  8. Homogeneity of δ15N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) was altered by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Yuanwen; Wen Dazhi; Li Jiong; Sun Fangfang; Hou Enqing; Zhou Guoyi; Zhang Deqiang; Huang Longbin

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes of δ 15 N values in the tip, middle and base section (divided by the proportion to needle length) of current- and previous-year needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two declining forest stands suffering from air pollution, in comparison with one healthy stand. At the healthy stand, δ 15 N in the three sections of both current- and previous-year needles were found evenly distributed, while at the polluted stands, δ 15 N values in the needles were revealed significantly different from the tip to the base sections. The results implied that the distribution of δ 15 N among different parts or sections in foliages was not always homogeneous and could be affected by air pollution. We suggested that the difference of δ 15 N values among pine needle sections should be reconsidered and should not be primarily ignored when the needle δ 15 N values were used to assess plant responses to air pollution. - Values of δ 15 N in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) were uneven and affected by air pollution.

  9. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Mariana; Santos, Carla; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2011-08-01

    For a long time it was thought that Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was the only agent of the pine wilt disease. Recently, it was discovered that there are bacteria associated with the nematodes that contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease, mainly through the release of toxins that promote the death of the pines. Among the species most commonly found, are bacteria belonging to the Bacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas genera. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of inoculation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) with four different nematode isolates, in the bacterial population of nematodes and trees, at different stages of disease progression. The monitoring of progression of disease symptoms was also recorded. Also, the identification of bacteria isolated from the xylem of trees and the surface of nematodes was performed by classical identification methods, by the API20E identification system and by sequencing of bacterial DNA. The results showed that for the symptoms progression, the most striking difference was observed for the pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate, C14-5, which led to a slower and less severe aggravation of symptoms than in pines inoculated with the virulent isolates. In general, it was found that bacterial population, inside the tree, increased with disease progression. A superior bacterial quantity was isolated from pines inoculated with the nematode isolates HF and 20, and, comparatively, few bacteria were isolated from pines inoculated with the avirulent isolate. The identification system API20E was insufficient in the identification of bacterial species; Enterobacter cloacae species was identified in 79% of the isolated bacterial colonies and seven of these colonies could not be identified by this method. Molecular identification methods, through bacterial DNA sequencing, allowed a more reliable identification: eleven different bacterial species within the Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia

  10. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

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    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  11. Lichen biogeochemical and spatial dynamics in canopies of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. M.; Martin, J.; Olson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopies have been shown to contain complex ecosystem level processes but much of this work is from the tropics or the charismatic tall trees of Oceana and the Pacific Northwestern US. However, many of the processes can occur in other species of trees that are not as tall, as old, nor as surrounded by biological diversity. Such an occurrence is within the lichen diversity and coverage of Eastern white pines (Pinus strobus) in the Lake States region of the US. We used arborist techniques to scale, survey, and document the lichen abundance in three large and regionally old trees (diameter at breast height 70-80+cm, 30m in height, and 100 to 115 years old). These trees represent the first generation of second growth forests to reclaim the landscape following the massive cutover period in the region from 1880s to the 1910s. We surveyed the stem in framed quadrats in the four cardinal directions at every 2 meters, as well as various branch locations, and used digital photographs and image analysis software to quantify coverage. Lichen coverage ranged from 0% to over 50% and increased with height indicating: (1) possible light limitations or bark suitability limitations near the ground, and (2) that conditions, not time, may be more important for lichen abundance. Lastly, because lichens can fix atmospheric nitrogen and absorb substantial amounts of water, we scaled the coverage of lichen to determine the total nitrogen pool and water holding capacity in the footprint of these large trees. The vertical structure of these large trees helps add to these biogeochemical pools and may be an important consideration for management and restoration efforts aimed at slowing nutrient and water loss from upland forests.

  12. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  13. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline

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    Sara A. Goeking

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We used data collected from >1400 plots by a national forest inventory to quantify population-level indicators for a tree species of concern. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has recently experienced high mortality throughout its US range, where we assessed the area of land with whitebark pine present, size-class distribution of individual whitebark pine, growth rates, and mortality rates, all with respect to dominant forest type. As of 2016, 51% of all standing whitebark pine trees in the US were dead. Dead whitebark pines outnumbered live ones—and whitebark pine mortality outpaced growth—in all size classes ≥22.8 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, across all forest types. Although whitebark pine occurred across 4.1 million ha in the US, the vast majority of this area (85% and of the total number of whitebark pine seedlings (72% fell within forest types other than the whitebark pine type. Standardized growth of whitebark pines was most strongly correlated with the relative basal area of whitebark pine trees (rho = 0.67; p < 0.01, while both standardized growth and mortality were moderately correlated with relative whitebark pine stem density (rho = 0.39 and 0.40; p = 0.031 and p < 0.01, respectively. Neither growth nor mortality were well correlated with total stand basal area, total stem density, or stand mean diameter. The abundance, extent, and relative growth vs. mortality rates of whitebark pine in multiple forest types presents opportunities for management to encourage whitebark pine recruitment in mixed-species stands. The lodgepole pine forest type contained more whitebark pine seedlings (35% than any other forest type, suggesting that this forest type represents a potential management target for silvicultural treatments that seek to facilitate the recruitment of whitebark pine seedlings into larger size classes. National forest inventories in other countries may use a similar approach to assess species of concern.

  14. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  15. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Sorin A; Hartley, Ian D; Reid, Matthew E; Thring, Ronald W

    2010-12-17

    The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5-24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  18. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  19. Predicting stem total and assortment volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation using airborne laser scanning data and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Lee Alexander Vierling; Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar; Midhun Mohan; Mariano Garcia; Antonio Ferraz; Adrian Cardil; Sassan Saatchi

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised...

  20. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Tyree; John Seiler; Chris Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology...

  1. Contrasting genotypes, soil amendments, and their interactive effects on short-term total soil CO2 efflux in a 3-year-old Pinus taeda L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2014-01-01

    Intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States are considered an important C sink and may play a critical role in offsetting increased global CO2 emissions. The combination of improved silvicultural methods and the use of superior genotypes are estimated to result in future volume gains of up to 60 percent. However to date, no work has looked at...

  2. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  3. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky ...

  4. Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sun; A. Noormets; M.J. Gavazzi; S.G. McNulty; J. Chen; J.-C. King Domec; D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs

    2010-01-01

    During 2005–2007, we used the eddy covariance and associated hydrometric methods to construct energy and water budgets along a chronosequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations that included a mid-rotation stand (LP) (i.e., 13–15 years old) and a recently established stand on a clearcut site (CC) (i.e., 4–6 years old) in Eastern...

  5. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  7. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhao

    Full Text Available Patterns of biomass and carbon (C storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb, and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  8. Examining Spatial Variation in the Effects of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora on Burn Severity Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Burn severity has profound impacts on the response of post-fire forest ecosystems to fire events. Numerous previous studies have reported that burn severity is determined by variables such as meteorological conditions, pre-fire forest structure, and fuel characteristics. An underlying assumption of these studies was the constant effects of environmental variables on burn severity over space, and these analyses therefore did not consider the spatial dimension. This study examined spatial variation in the effects of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora on burn severity. Specifically, this study investigated the presence of spatially varying relationships between Japanese red pine and burn severity due to changes in slope and elevation. We estimated conventional ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR models and compared them using three criteria; the coefficients of determination (R2, Akaike information criterion for small samples (AICc, and Moran’s I-value. The GWR model performed considerably better than the OLS model in explaining variation in burn severity. The results provided strong evidence that the effect of Japanese red pine on burn severity was not constant but varied spatially. Elevation was a significant factor in the variation in the effects of Japanese red pine on burn severity. The influence of red pine on burn severity was considerably higher in low-elevation areas but became less important than the other variables in high-elevation areas. The results of this study can be applied to location-specific strategies for forest managers and can be adopted to improve fire simulation models to more realistically mimic the nature of fire behavior.

  9. The NAC transcription factor family in maritime pine (Pinus Pinaster): molecular regulation of two genes involved in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Belén; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-10-24

    NAC transcription factors comprise a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Despite the growing number of studies on NAC transcription factors in various species, little information is available about this family in conifers. The goal of this study was to identify the NAC transcription family in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), to characterize ATAF-like genes in response to various stresses and to study their molecular regulation. We have isolated two maritime pine NAC genes and using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves estudied the promoter jasmonate response. In this study, we identified 37 NAC genes from maritime pine and classified them into six main subfamilies. The largest group includes 12 sequences corresponding to stress-related genes. Two of these NAC genes, PpNAC2 and PpNAC3, were isolated and their expression profiles were examined at various developmental stages and in response to various types of stress. The expression of both genes was strongly induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), mechanical wounding, and high salinity. The promoter regions of these genes were shown to contain cis-elements involved in the stress response and plant hormonal regulation, including E-boxes, which are commonly found in the promoters of genes that respond to jasmonate, and binding sites for bHLH proteins. Using a transient expression assay in N. benthamiana leaves, we found that the promoter of PpNAC3 was rapidly induced upon MeJA treatment, while this response disappeared in plants in which the transcription factor NbbHLH2 was silenced. Our results suggest that PpNAC2 and PpNAC3 encode stress-responsive NAC transcription factors involved in the jasmonate response in pine. Furthermore, these data also suggest that the jasmonate signaling pathway is conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. These findings may be useful for engineering stress tolerance in pine via biotechnological approaches.

  10. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  11. Genetic variation of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) provenances and families from Oregon and Washington in juvenile height growth and needle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    A three year common garden study was conducted on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which included 215 families from the eight provenances or seed zones in Oregon and Washington. Total height and needle color were assessed. Height differed significantly among provenances and families, and was primarily associated with source elevation, longitude, and precipitation. A...

  12. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  13. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  14. Mountain pine beetle infestation: GCxGCTOFMS and GC-MS of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) acetone extractives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Michael Leitch; Erick Arellano-ruiz; Jonathon Smaglick; Doreen Mann

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountains and western U.S. forests are impacted by the infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB). MPB outbreak is killing pine and spruce trees at an alarming rate. These trees present a fuel build-up in the forest, which can result in catastrophic wildland fires. MPB carry blue-stain fungi from the genus Ophiostoma and transmit infection by burrowing into...

  15. In vitro co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: a biotechnological approach to study pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Sena, Inês; Vieira da Silva, Inês; Ribeiro, Bruno; Barbosa, Pedro; Ascensão, Lia; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Co-cultures of Pinus pinaster with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were established as a biotechnological tool to evaluate the effect of nematotoxics addition in a host/parasite culture system. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), was detected for the first time in Europe in 1999 spreading throughout the pine forests in Portugal and recently in Spain. Plant in vitro cultures may be a useful experimental system to investigate the plant/nematode relationships in loco, thus avoiding the difficulties of field assays. In this study, Pinus pinaster in vitro cultures were established and compared to in vivo 1 year-old plantlets by analyzing shoot structure and volatiles production. In vitro co-cultures were established with the PWN and the effect of the phytoparasite on in vitro shoot structure, water content and volatiles production was evaluated. In vitro shoots showed similar structure and volatiles production to in vivo maritime pine plantlets. The first macroscopic symptoms of PWD were observed about 4 weeks after in vitro co-culture establishment. Nematode population in the culture medium increased and PWNs were detected in gaps of the callus tissue and in cavities developed from the degradation of cambial cells. In terms of volatiles main components, plantlets, P. pinaster cultures, and P. pinaster with B. xylophilus co-cultures were all β- and α-pinene rich. Co-cultures may be an easy-to-handle biotechnological approach to study this pathology, envisioning the understanding of and finding ways to restrain this highly devastating nematode.

  16. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains.

  17. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  18. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roitto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, Karilantie 2A, FIN-50600 Mikkeli (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: marja.roitto@mtt.fi; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kukkola, E. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Huttunen, S. [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles.

  19. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roitto, M.; Rautio, P.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Kukkola, E.; Huttunen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg -1 soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg -1 soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles

  20. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  1. Canopy position affects photosynthetic adjustments to long-term elevated CO{sub 2} concentration (FACE) in aging needles in a mature Pinus taeda forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crous, K. Y.; Ellsworth, D. S. [University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Results of an assessment of the long-term effects of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide in free-air enrichment (FACE) on two age classes of pine needles in the upper and lower canopy of a pine forest in North Carolina are discussed. The observations were made during the second through sixth year of exposure. A significant response was observed in 60 per cent of all age classes and canopy locations. Evidence of concurrent down-regulation of Rubisco and electron transport capacity in upper canopy sunlit leaves was noted beyond the sixth year. No such effect was seen in the lower canopy. Carboxylation capacity and electron transport capacity in the upper canopy was down-regulated by 17-20 per cent in one year-old needles, but this was significant across sampling years only for electron transport capacity. It is suggested that a reduction in photosynthetic capacity in aging conifer needles at the canopy top may have significant consequences for canopy carbon balance and global carbon sinks because a major proportion of the annual carbon balance of these conifers is contributed by one-year old sunlit needles. 45 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Avaliação das propriedades mecânicas e morfológicas de compósitos de PEAD com pó de Pinus taeda e alumina calcinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Grison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoNeste estudo foram desenvolvidos compósitos utilizando PEAD, pó de madeira (Pinus taeda, alumina calcinada e dois diferentes tipos de agentes compatibilizantes para avaliação das propriedades morfológicas e mecânicas dos mesmos. Para aumentar a interação entre a matriz polimérica e o pó de madeira foram utilizados 2% de polietileno graftizado com anidrido maleico em todas as formulações. Para efeito comparativo foi desenvolvida uma formulação com viniltrietoxisilano como compatibilizante para a alumina calcinada. O teor de cargas variou de 4% a 33% para os compósitos de carga única e mantiveram o percentual de 28% para os compósitos com as duas cargas. A interação entre a matriz polimérica e as cargas, proporcionada pelo agente compatibilizante anidrido maleico, foi observada nas micrografias da interface da matriz/carga. A utilização do silano não proporcionou efeito adicional nas propriedades mecânicas dos compósitos. Os compósitos isentos de alumina apresentaram maior resistência à tração, porém na resistência à flexão a presença da alumina contribuiu para o aumento desta propriedade provavelmente devido à pequena interação existente entre a interface do seu grão e a matriz polimérica.

  3. Evolución de las principales variables de árboles de Pinus taeda L. sometidos a diferentes tratamientos silviculturales en el nordeste de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Fassola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue desarrollado con el propó sito de cuantificar las relaciones existentes entre raleos, podas y crecimiento tanto en plantaciones, como en árboles de Pinus taeda L., y con la finalidad de construir modelos que puedan predecir la producció n y calidad de productos futuros. Se propuso como objetivo analizar la informació n de las variables diámetro a la altura del pecho (dap, altura total y volumen cilindrométrico (dap2 * h en un ensayo, instalado en el año 1996 en las cercanías de la localidad de Santo Tomé, Provincia de Corrientes (Argentina. Para cumplir con el objetivo propuesto se generaron mediante raleo selectivo a los 3 años cuatro densidades diferentes (1666; 833; 416 y 208 pla/ha. En cada densidad se aplicaron cuatro intensidades de podas (0; 30; 50 y 70%, respecto de la profundidad de copa verde, las cuales se efectuaron en 2, 3 y 4 realces con intervalos de un año entre podas. Una vez analizados los datos obtenidos, después de 5 años de observació n, se puede concluir que las variables analizadas se vieron afectadas, en distintos grados, por la intensidad de los raleos y por los grados y número de podas aplicados. La altura total fue la variable menos afectada, aunque las podas fuertes (mayores a 50% de remoci ó n de copa verde alteraron negativamente su evolució n. La práctica de raleos fue efectiva cuando se realizaron podas del 30% trabajando en densidades bajas (416 plantas por hectárea debido a que los ejemplares lograron igual crecimiento que los tratamientos sin poda.

  4. EVOLUCIÓN DE LAS PRINCIPALES VARIABLES DE ÁRBOLES DE Pinus taeda L. SOMETIDOS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS SILVICULTURALES EN EL NORDESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CORRIENTES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Fassola

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue desarrollado con el propósito de cuantificar las relaciones existentes entre raleos, podas y crecimiento tanto en plantaciones, como en árboles de Pinus taeda L., y con la finalidad de construir modelos que puedan predecir la producción y calidad de productos futuros. Se propuso como objetivo analizar la información de las variables diámetro a la altura del pecho (dap, altura total y volumen cilindrométrico (dap2* h en un ensayo, instalado en el año 1996 en las cercanías de la localidad de Santo Tomé, Provincia de Corrientes (Argentina. Para cumplir con el objetivo propuesto se generaron mediante raleo selectivo a los 3 años cuatro densidades diferentes (1666; 833; 416 y 208 pla/ha. En cada densidad se aplicaron cuatro intensidades de podas (0; 30; 50 y 70%, respecto de la profundidad de copa verde, las cuales se efectuaron en 2, 3 y 4 realces con intervalos de un año entre podas. Una vez analizados los datos obtenidos, después de 5 años de observación, se puede concluir que las variables analizadas se vieron afectadas, en distintos grados, por la intensidad de los raleos y por los grados y número de podas aplicados. La altura total fue la variable menos afectada, aunque las podas fuertes (mayores a 50% de remoción de copa verde alteraron negativamente su evolución. La práctica de raleos fue efectiva cuando se realizaron podas del 30% trabajando en densidades bajas (416 plantas por hectárea debido a que los ejemplares lograron igual crecimiento que los tratamientos sin poda.

  5. Rotation-length effects of diverse levels of competition control and pre-commercial thinning on stand development and financial performance of loblolly pine in central Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley; Shaun M. Tanger; Terry R. Clason; Eric L. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Long-term productivity of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations can be increased by early suppression of herbaceous and woody competing vegetation (Zutter and others 1986, Haywood 1994, Miller and others 2003a). The USDA Forest Service’s Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) was designed to isolate influences of two major competition...

  6. Pinus tropical com potencial para uso em plantios comerciais no Brasil. Tropical pine for commercial planting in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira WREGE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the

  7. The ecological classification of coastal wet longleaf pine (pinus palustris) of Florida from reference conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Jose. Shibu

    2012-01-01

    Tropical storms, fire, and urbanization have produced a heavily fragmented forested landscape along Florida’s Gulf coast. The longleaf pine forest, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the US, makes up a major part of this fragmented landscape. These three disturbance regimes have produced a mosaic of differently-aged pine patches of single or two cohort structures...

  8. Spatial patterns of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedling eastablishment on the croatan national forest, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick R. Avery; Susan Cohen; Kathleen C. Parker; John S. Kush

    2004-01-01

    Ecological research aimed at determining optimal conditions for longleaf pine regeneration has become increasingly important in efforts @ restore the longleaf pine ecosystem. Numerous authors have concluded that a negative relationship exists between the occurrence of seedlings and the occurrence of mature trees; however, observed field conditions in several North...

  9. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  10. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  11. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  12. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Thomas, R.; Brooks, Evan B.; Jersild, Annika L.; Ward, Eric J.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Burkhart, Harold E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fox, Thomas R.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Noormets, Asko; Sampson, David A.; Teskey, Robert O.

    2017-07-01

    Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model-data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA) focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER) that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6 × 105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present

  13. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6  ×  105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field

  14. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardho Tillah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and methanol (MeOH. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils from needles and twigs of balkan pine (Pinus peuce grisebach) grown in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukos, P K; Papadopoulou, K I; Patiaka, D T; Papagiannopoulos, A D

    2000-04-01

    The composition of essential oils from twigs and needles of Balkan pine (Pinus peuce Gris.) grown in northern Greece was investigated. The compounds were identified by using GC-MS analysis. The twig oil was rich in alpha-pinene (7.38%), beta-pinene (12.46%), beta-phellandrene (26.93%), beta-caryophyllene (4.48%), and citronellol (12.48%), and the needle oil was rich in alpha-pinene (23.07%), camphene (5.52%), beta-pinene (22.00%), beta-phellandrene (6.78%), bornyl acetate (9.76%), beta-caryophyllene (3.05%), and citronellol (13.42%). The mean oil yield was 2.85% for twigs and 0. 57% for needles.

  16. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N.; Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K.; Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO 2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO x or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  17. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841.

  18. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  19. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  20. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R

    1981-12-01

    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  1. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods.

  2. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  3. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  4. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  5. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Neves Proença

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD, however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  6. Diversity of bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from Pinus pinaster trees with pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Clara Vieira; Lopes, André; Fonseca, Luís; Abrantes, Isabel M O; Morais, Paula V

    2010-12-09

    The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been thought to be the only causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), however, since bacteria have been suggested to play a role in PWD, it is important to know the diversity of the microbial community associated to it. This study aimed to assess the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and with other nematodes isolated from pine trees, Pinus pinaster, with PWD from three different affected forest areas in Portugal. One hundred and twenty three bacteria strains were isolated from PWN and other nematodes collected from 14 P. pinaster. The bacteria strains were identified by comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene partial sequence. All except one gram-positive strain (Actinobacteria) belonged to the gram-negative Beta and Gammaproteobacteria. Most isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Species isolated in higher percentage were Pseudomonas lutea, Yersinia intermedia and Burkholderia tuberum. The major bacterial population associated to the nematodes differed according to the forest area and none of the isolated bacterial species was found in all different forest areas. For each of the sampled areas, 60 to 100% of the isolates produced siderophores and at least 40% produced lipases. The ability to produce siderophores and lipases by most isolates enables these bacteria to have a role in plant physiological response. This research showed a high diversity of the microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and other nematodes isolated from P. pinaster with PWD.

  7. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  8. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C; Friedline, Christopher J; Whipple, Amy V; Schoettle, Anna W; Leal-Sàenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A; Cushman, Samuel A; Waring, Kristen M; Eckert, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between extrinsic factors, such as disruptive selection and intrinsic factors, such as genetic incompatibilities among loci, often contribute to the maintenance of species boundaries. The relative roles of these factors in the establishment of reproductive isolation can be examined using species pairs characterized by gene flow throughout their divergence history. We investigated the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries between Pinus strobiformis and Pinus flexilis. Utilizing ecological niche modelling, demographic modelling and genomic cline analyses, we illustrated a divergence history with continuous gene flow. Our results supported an abundance of advanced generation hybrids and a lack of loci exhibiting steep transition in allele frequency across the hybrid zone. Additionally, we found evidence for climate-associated variation in the hybrid index and niche divergence between parental species and the hybrid zone. These results are consistent with extrinsic factors, such as climate, being an important isolating mechanism. A build-up of intrinsic incompatibilities and of coadapted gene complexes is also apparent, although these appear to be in the earliest stages of development. This supports previous work in coniferous species demonstrating the importance of extrinsic factors in facilitating speciation. Overall, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that varying strength and direction of selection pressures across the long lifespans of conifers, in combination with their other life history traits, delays the evolution of strong intrinsic incompatibilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  10. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  11. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  12. RESISTÊNCIA DE ISCAS GRANULADAS, DISTRIBUÍDAS A GRANEL E EM MICROPORTA-ISCAS, À AÇÃO DA UMIDADE EM PLANTIO DE Pinus taeda NO PLANALTO SUL-CATARINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alexandre Buratto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Control programs for leaf-cutting ants of the genus Acromyrmex in southern Brazil are poorly studied and the information comes from the control of the genus Atta and the damage caused by leaf-cutting ants in Eucalyptus spp. This lack of information about this ant makes some forest companies of Santa Catarina repeat patterns that are not suitable for infestations and for the species of leaf-cutting ants that occur in this state. Along with this, an inadequate distribution of bulk granular baits, in the four seasons, which end up degraded by excessive moisture caused by fog and by constant rainfall occurring in the region. Given this context, the experiments of this work had the following objectives: identify the species of leaf-cutting ants; determine the nest density per unit area; analyze and evaluate the influence of the year and the rainfall stations in each season, about the conservation and degradation of granulated baits based on sulfluramide (0.3% in bulk and distributed in the form of bait holder. To do so, experiments in Dois Irmãos Farm, owned by Florestal Rio Marombas company in areas of Pinus taeda L., located in the municipality of São Cristóvão do Sul, in the southern highlands of Santa Catarina state were installed. It was concluded that: the only species found in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex crassispinus area is assessed (FOREL, 1909. At the experimental site there are 17 nests, the average is 0.94 nests per hectare, less than 1 m² each apparent area; moisture from southern Santa Catarina plateau region degrades the granulated baits distributed in bulk; the granulated baits distributed in bulk remain conserved seven days in the spring and three days in other seasons; the granulated baits distributed in bait holder remain preserved 15 days in the summer and 30 days in other seasons; the bait holder presents greater resistance to moisture in the field in relation to granulated baits distributed in bulk; the opening of the

  13. Multivariate Correlation between Analysis Data on Dissolved Organic Material from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris Chips and their Autohydrolysis Pre-Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Lehto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemometric techniques were used to establish the relationship between the autohydrolysis conditions prior to pulping and the chemical compositions of the soluble organic materials removed from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris wood chips. The aqueous chip pre-treatments (autohydrolysis were administered at 130 °C and 150 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and the hydrolysates obtained were characterized in terms of total carbohydrates (various mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides together with uronic acid side groups, volatile acids (acetic and formic acids, lignin, and furans (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural. Based on the analytical data gathered, a relatively accurate model for pine chip autohydrolysis was developed.

  14. Research on the antioxidant, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activities and the phytochemical composition of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümen, İbrahim; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Taştan, Hakkı; Süntar, Ipek; Kurtca, Mehmet

    2018-01-30

    Ethnobotanical investigations have shown that the Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In this study, phytochemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) that is collected in Turkey are investigated. Essential oil composition and the amount of extracts (lipophilic and hydrophilic) of maritime pine wood and fresh cone samples had been tested. The essential oil from cones of P. pinaster revealed the highest activities, whereas other parts of the plant did not display any appreciable wound healing, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant effects. α-Pinene was the main constituent of the essential oil obtained from the cones of P. pinaster. Experimental studies shown that P. pinaster's remarkable anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities support the traditional use of the plant, and suggest it could have a place in modern medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

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    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  16. Population variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological seedling traits in Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEMİR, GAYE; ÖNDE, SERTAÇ; TEMEL, FATİH; KAYA, ZEKİ

    2017-01-01

    Variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological traits in forest trees are important in choosing suitable seed sources for reforestation and afforestation programs. A common garden experiment using 240 half-sib families originating from coastal and inland populations of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia) in Turkey was set up with three replicates. The aims were to determine variation of drought damage, height growth, and phenology among populations and to ...

  17. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  18. Pinus patula and pine hybrid hedge productivity in South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the Fusarium circinatum pine pathogen threat in southern Africa, research has been conducted on the development of F. circinatum-tolerant P. patula and P. patula hybrids. The objective of this study was to investigate the propagation potential of these taxa in two vegetative propagation systems, hydroponic ...

  19. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D.; Askbrant, S.; Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas

  20. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  1. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  2. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamopoulos, Stergios; Milios, Elias; Doganos, Dimitris; Bistinas, Ioannis; Aytug, B; Guven, K C; Boydak, Melih; Büntgen, Ulf; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Aldea, Jorge; Rigling, Andreas; Fischer, Erich M; Camarero, J Julio; Hayes, Michael J; Fatton, Vincent; Egli, Simon; Cams, Serdar; Çatal, Yilmaz Yılmaz; Cermak, J; De Luis, Martín Martin; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T; Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina; Raventós, José; Fady, Bruno; Semerci, Hacer; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Fisher, James T; Neumann, Robert W; Mexal, John G; Fournier, T P; Battipaglia, G; Brossier, B; Carcaillet, C; Galván, J Diego; Camarero, J Julio; Ginzler, C; Büntgen, Ulf; Griggs, Carol; Pearson, Charlotte; Manning, Sturt W; Lorentzen, Brita; Guller, Bilgin; Isik, Kani; Cetinay, Senay; Körner, Christian; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Linares, Juan Carlos; Senhadji, Karim; Herrero, Asier; Hódar, José A; Liphschitz, Nili; Mendel, Zvi; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Hevia, Andrea; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Linares, Juan Carlos; Ballesteros-Canovas, Juan A; Sánchez-Miranda, Angela; Alfaro-Sánchez, Raquel; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Génova, Mar; Rigling, Andreas; Sarris, Dimitrios; Christodoulakis, Dimitrios; Körner, Christian; Siegwolf, Rolf; Körner, Christian; Touchan, Ramzi; Anchukaitis, K J; Shishov, V V; Sivrikaya, F; Attieh, J; Ketmen, M; Stephan, J; Mitsopoulos, I; Christou, Andreas K; Meko, David M; Garfin, Gregg M; Meko, David M; Funkhouser, Gary; Erkan, Nesat; Hughes, Malcolm K; Wallin, Brian S; Вендин, А В; Демкин, В И; Добронравова, М В

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of

  3. Synthesis of lower treeline limber pine (Pinus flexilis) woodland knowledge, research needs, and management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Means

    2011-01-01

    Lower treeline limber pine woodlands have received little attention in peer-reviewed literature and in management strategies. These ecologically distinct systems are thought to be seed repositories between discontinuous populations in the northern and central Rocky Mountains, serving as seed sources for bird dispersal between distinct mountain ranges. Their position on...

  4. Silvicultural evaluations on maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton plantations in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Balekoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial plantations have substantially reduced the pressure on natural forests. There are approximately 80.000 hectares of industrial plantations, established with fast growing coniferous species, 77.000 hectares of which are maritime pine plantations in Turkey. Furthermore, approximately 16.000 hectares of maritime pine plantations, which amount to about 20 percent of all maritime pine plantations in Turkey, occur in Istanbul. The aim of this study is to determine the growth pattern of maritime pine plantations located in Anatolian and European Istanbul: Kanlıca, Beykoz, Sultanbeyli and Şile-Sahilköy; and Bahçeköy-Bentler, Arnavutköy and Terkos-Durusu respectively. Specifically, the study examined individual trees within the above-mentioned sites to determine the first thinning age of the plantations. In addition, some specific silvicultural suggestions were offered for the plantations. The minimum and maximum recorded values for the trees’ age, DBH, height and stem volume were found in the range of 22-50 years, 26.6-46.8 cm, 14.0-23.0 m and 0.5150-1.8560 m3 respectively. In order to take advantage of the fast growing attributes of maritime pine which was found to grow fast within first 10 years, the first thinning should commence at the age of 11-12 years; thereafter, the second thinning should commence at the age of 18-20 years; finally, the final cut should be performed when the plantation is approximately 30 years of age. If rotation age is considered 40 years, the third thinning should commence at the age of 30 years.

  5. Drought stress leads to systemic induced susceptibility to a nectrotrophic fungus associated with mountain pine beetle in Pinus banksiana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Shamoun, Simon Francis; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    Conifers have complex defense responses to initial attacks by insects and pathogens that can have cascading effects on success of subsequent colonizers. However, drought can affect a plant's ability to respond to biotic agents by potentially altering the resources needed for the energetically costly production of induced defense chemicals. We investigated the impact of reduced water on induced chemical defenses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings from initial attack by biotic agents and resistance to subsequent challenge inoculation with a pathogenic fungal associate of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Grosmannia clavigera. Applications of phytohormones (methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate) and G. clavigera were used for initial induction of defenses. Monoterpene concentrations varied with initial induction from fungal and phytohormone application while watering treatment had no effect. Seedlings treated with G. clavigera and methyl jasmonate had the greatest monoterpene concentrations compared to the control and methyl salicylate-treated seedlings. However, the monoterpene response to the challenge inoculation varied with watering treatments, not with prior induction treatments, with lower monoterpene concentrations in fungal lesions on seedlings in the low to moderate watering treatments compared to normal watering treatment. Furthermore, prior induction from phytohormones resulted in systemic cross-induction of resistance to G. clavigera under normal watering treatment but susceptibility under low watering treatment. Seedlings stressed by low water conditions, which also had lower stomatal conductance than seedlings in the normal watering treatment, likely allocated resources to initial defense response but were left unable to acquire further resources for subsequent responses. Our results demonstrate that drought can affect interactions among tree-infesting organisms through systemic cross-induction of susceptibility.

  6. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  7. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Provenance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Leland

    Full Text Available Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill. trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years-1992, 1999, and 2006-had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980-2009 (mean: 5.0%, relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle.

  8. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  9. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  10. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    Full Text Available Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM and Yungui Plateau (YGP were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of

  11. Climate as possible reproductive barrier in Pinus radiata (D. Don interspecific hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannél Ham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, interspecific hybridisation with Pinus radiata D. Don had limited success. The effect of environmental conditions and position of pollination bags in the tree were investigated as possible hybridisation barriers. The study was conducted in a P. radiata seed orchard in the Southern Cape (South Africa. Field data were compared to the climatic conditions at natural and commercial provenances of seven Mesoamerican Pinus species identified as possible hybrid partners. In vitro pollen studies were used to confirm whether interspecific crosses with P. radiata might be feasible within predefined climatic parameters. The temperature ranges for both top and northern side of P. radiata pine trees in the seed orchard was similar to the natural distribution of P. radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. and P. taeda L. in the USA. Results suggested that pollen of P. elliottii and P. taeda might be more suited to result in the successful pollination of P. radiata than the other Mesoamerican pine species tested in this study.  Furthermore, the combination of minimum temperature and precipitation also showed a closer correlation to successful hybridisation with P. radiata for both P. elliotii and P. taeda. However, pollen tube elongation studies did not support these results, suggesting that mean temperature might not be the only determining factor of hybridisation success. Three circadian temperature models that mimic natural conditions were developed for Karatara and Sabie (Tweefontein, Witklip and Spitskop.  These models will be tested in future in vitro studies to further evaluate temperature fluctuations between day and night regimes as a possible reproductive barrier limiting hybridisation success between P. radiata and other Mesoamerican pine species.

  12. Effects of seeding ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on vegetation recovery following fire in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Angela D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-nine vegetation transects were measured in 1997 and 1998 to determine the impact of grass seeding after the 1996 Dome Fire, which burned almost 6900 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forest in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. High- and moderate-burned areas in Santa Fe National Forest were seeded with a mixture that included the exotic ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Adjacent burned areas of Bandelier National Monument were not seeded, and were used as a control in the post-seeding study. On the seeded plots, foliar cover of ryegrass declined from 1997 to 1998 due to self-inhibition and/or reduced precipitation from 1997 to 1998. Foliar cover and diversity of native forbs were greater in 1997 than 1998, probably due to a wet growing season in 1997. Cover, species richness, and diversity of native forbs were highest in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensities. Regeneration and survivorship of conifer seedlings decreased as ryegrass cover increased, particularly in areas of high-burn intensity. Exotic plant cover, mostly horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.], increased from 1997 to 1998 in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensity. Both the initial success of seeding and the eventual impacts on native vegetation were strongly modulated by climate variability.

  13. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  14. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  15. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I; Mejoramiento del pino real. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J; Jimenez C, M; Garcia T, M A [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Genetica Vegetal, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  16. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  17. [Genetic structure, subdivision, and population differentiation in Stankewiczii pine Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin from Mountain Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Gorlova, E M

    2006-06-01

    In order to analyze the genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation within and between two small isolated populations of the Crimea relict endemic, Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin, electrophoretic analysis of the isozyme variation at nine enzymatic systems was carried out using 183 oldest trees. It was demonstrated that in populations of P. stankewiczii, 80% of the genes were in polymorphic state. Each tree was heterozygous at 19.1% loci, and at 21.6% loci in artificial 50-year-old plantation. The genetic structure of two populations was less differentiated (DN = 0.006), compared to their individual localities (DN = 0.008-0.009). Within-population subdivision of the diffusely dispersed populations was higher (FST-GST = 1.8-2.0%) than that of the populations themselves (0.8%).

  18. Evidence for an operative glutamine translocator in chloroplasts from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M G; Aguilar, M L; Cánovas, F M

    2010-09-01

    In higher plants, ammonium is assimilated into amino acids through the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle. This metabolic cycle is distributed in different cellular compartments in conifer seedlings: glutamine synthesis occurs in the cytosol and glutamate synthesis within the chloroplast. A method for preparing intact chloroplasts of pine cotyledons is presented with the aim of identifying a glutamine-glutamate translocator. Glutamine-glutamate exchange has been studied using the double silicone layer system, suggesting the existence of a translocator that imports glutamine into the chloroplast and exports glutamate to the cytoplasm. The translocator identified is specific for glutamine and glutamate, and the kinetic constants for both substrates indicate that it is unsaturated at intracellular concentrations. Thus, the experimental evidence obtained supports the model of the GS/GOGAT cycle in developing pine seedlings that accounts for the stoichiometric balance of metabolites. As a result, the efficient assimilation of free ammonia produced by photorespiration, nitrate reduction, storage protein mobilisation, phenylpropanoid pathway or S-adenosylmethionine synthesis is guaranteed.

  19. Pezizalean mycorrhizas and sporocarps in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) after prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, K E; Smith, J E; Horton, T R; Weber, N S; Spatafora, J W

    2005-03-01

    Post-fire Pezizales fruit commonly in many forest types after fire. The objectives of this study were to determine which Pezizales appeared as sporocarps after a prescribed fire in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, and whether species of Pezizales formed mycorrhizas on ponderosa pine, whether or not they were detected from sporocarps. Forty-two sporocarp collections in five genera (Anthracobia, Morchella, Peziza, Scutellinia, Tricharina) of post-fire Pezizales produced ten restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types. We found no root tips colonized by species of post-fire Pezizales fruiting at our site. However, 15% (6/39) of the RFLP types obtained from mycorrhizal roots within 32 soil cores were ascomycetes. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA gene indicated that four of the six RFLP types clustered with two genera of the Pezizales, Wilcoxina and Geopora. Subsequent analyses indicated that two of these mycobionts were probably Wilcoxina rehmii, one Geopora cooperi, and one Geopora sp. The identities of two types were not successfully determined with PCR-based methods. Results contribute knowledge about the above- and below-ground ascomycete community in a ponderosa pine forest after a low intensity fire.

  20. Identification of water-deficit responsive genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Christian; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Root adaptation to soil environmental factors is very important to maritime pine, the main conifer species used for reforestation in France. The range of climates in the sites where this species is established varies from flooded in winter to drought-prone in summer. No studies have yet focused on the morphological, physiological or molecular variability of the root system to adapt its growth to such an environment. We developed a strategy to isolate drought-responsive genes in the root tissue in order to identify the molecular mechanisms that trees have evolved to cope with drought (the main problem affecting wood productivity), and to exploit this information to improve drought stress tolerance. In order to provide easy access to the root system, seedlings were raised in hydroponic solution. Polyethylene glycol was used as an osmoticum to induce water deficit. Using the cDNA-AFLP technique, we screened more than 2500 transcript derived fragments, of which 33 (1.2%) showed clear variation in presence/absence between non stressed and stressed medium. The relative abundance of these transcripts was then analysed by reverse northern. Only two out of these 33 genes showed significant opposite behaviour between both techniques. The identification and characterization of water-deficit responsive genes in roots provide the emergence of physiological understanding of the patterns of gene expression and regulation involved in the drought stress response of maritime pine.

  1. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  2. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  3. Individual variability of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. by the drought resistance features in forest-steppe pine forests of south Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tikhonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought resistance of trees in the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. populations was studied under forest steppe conditions of southern Siberia. We found large differences amongthe treesin the time and rate of needles dehydration. In the populations of the more arid growing conditions (Shira, Balgazyn the rate of loss 50 % of the water was three to four times lower than in the population of the more favorable conditions for growth (Minusinsk. It has been established that the variability of water-holding capacity of needles from individual trees in populations varies from high to very high levels. On the contrary, for the water absorption capacity of needles characteristically has variability, as within population and between them. Is marked a great assessment reliability of water holding capacity of the needles under the pooled analysis of absolute and relative indicators of dynamics of the needles degradration. We investigated the correlation of needles’ water retention signs with a height and heterozygosity of trees. It was found that under more favorable conditions of the growth the large part of sample are the trees with a direct connection between heterozygosity and drought resistance of tree and in the worst conditions – with a reverse. The correlations of water-holding capacity of needles with the height of the tree are ambiguous: in the Minusinsk sample, the most of drought-resistant trees are characterized by better growth, in Balgazyn population – conversely. Some dwarf individuals from the Balgazyn and Shira populations in terms of drought tolerance are at same level as the typical trees, among the less drought-resistant trees found as dwarfs, and typical trees. It was concluded that there are trees in populations with different strategies to adaptation to the moisture deficit.

  4. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  5. Distribution of ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi in soil along a vegetational change from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) to black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takeshi; Kataoka, Ryota; Tamai, Shigenobu; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seems to affect ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and disease severity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) seedlings. We examined the effect of black locust on the distribution of ECM and pathogenic fungi in soil. DNA was extracted from soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, collected from the border between a Japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated forest, and the distribution of these fungi was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The effect of soil nutrition and pH on fungal distribution was also examined. Tomentella sp. 1 and Tomentella sp. 2 were not detected from some subplots in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Ectomycorrhizas formed by Tomentella spp. were dominant in black locust-dominated subplots and very little in the Japanese black pine-dominated forest. Therefore, the distribution may be influenced by the distribution of inoculum potential, although we could not detect significant relationships between the distribution of Tomentella spp. on pine seedlings and in soils. The other ECM fungi were detected in soils in subplots where the ECM fungi was not detected on pine seedlings, and there was no significant correlation between the distribution of the ECM fungi on pine seedlings and in soils. Therefore, inoculum potential seemed to not always influence the ECM community on roots. The distribution of Lactarius quieticolor and Tomentella sp. 2 in soil at a depth of 0-5 cm positively correlated with soil phosphate (soil P) and that of Tomentella sp. 2 also positively correlated with soil nitrogen (soil N). These results suggest the possibility that the distribution of inoculum potential of the ECM fungi was affected by soil N and soil P. Although the mortality of the pine seedlings was higher in the black locust-dominated area than in the Japanese black pine-dominated area, a pathogenic fungus of pine seedlings, Cylindrocladium pacificum, was

  6. Penerapan Analisis Diskriminan dalam Pembedaan Kelas Umur Tegakan Pinus (Discriminant Analysist for Stand Class Age Distinction of Pine Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto .

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This  study  describes the use of discriminant anylisis for pine (Pinus spp. stand class age distinction.    Aim of this  study were (1 to arrange stand age class based on variable of aerial photograph by non hierarchy cluster analysis,  and (2 to find out aerial  photograph variable contribute to stand age class distinction by discriminant analysis.    Data used in study was taken from  a  research  conducted by Adi (1998.   Pinus stand was located  in KPH Bandung Utara, West Java. The variable of aerial photograph that used in this analysis were tone, shape, texture, topography, pattern, crown, diameter and height. The result showed that validation analysis of discriminant function was significant.  Therefore, this function was applicable for grouping new object to stand age class based on discriminant score. Keywords: cluster analysis, discriminat analysis, stand age class, discriminant score

  7. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo) cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghathoor, S.; Kayghobadi, S.; Tajva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (Ia) and naphthaleneacetic acid (Naca) hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA) were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1). Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55%) was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA). Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively). (Author)

  8. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Luis

    Full Text Available We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics

  10. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  11. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  12. A Regional Study of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation Development During the First 15 Years After Early Complete Woody and/or Herbaceous Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Conifer plantations in North America and elsewhere in the world are increasingly cultured using early control of herbaceous and woody plants. Development of sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop- competition dynamics, and ecological changes. There are lmany reports of...

  13. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Enhanced tools for predicting annual stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone production at tree and forest scale in Inner Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Gordo, J.; Madrigal, G.; Mutke, S.; Conde, M.; Montero, G.; Pardos, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To present a new spatiotemporal model for Pinus pinea L. annual cone production with validity for Spanish Northen Plateau and Central Range regions. The new model aims to deal with detected deficiencies in previous models: temporal shortage, overestimation of cone production on recent years, incompatibility with data from National Forest Inventory, difficulty for upscaling and ignorance of the inhibitory process due to resource depletion. Area of study: Spanish Northern Plateau and Central Range regions, covering an area where stone pine occupies more than 90,000 ha. Material and methods: Fitting data set include 190 plots and more than 1000 trees were cone production has been annually collected from 1996 to 2014. Models were fitted independently for each region, by means of zero-inflated log normal techniques. Validation of the models was carried out over the annual series of cone production at forest scale. Results: The spatial and temporal factors influencing cone production are similar in both regions, thus the main regional differences in cone yield are related with differences in the phenological timing, the intensity of the influent factors and forest intrinsic conditions. A significant inhibition of floral induction by resource depletion was detected and included into the model. Upscaling the model results in accurate prediction at forest scale. Research highlights: [1] The new model for annual cone production surpass the detected deficiencies of previous models, accurately predicting recent decay in cone production; [2] Regional differences in cone production are due to phenological and seasonal climatic differences rather than to between provenances genetic differences. (Author)

  15. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  16. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = -0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated with high phenotypic plasticity and some degree of local

  17. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  18. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m -2 . Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm -2 , the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author) [fr

  19. Seasonal influences on the rooting response of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March, summer (June, autumn (September and winter (December and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA, mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June, which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs. Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material. 

  20. Microculture of western white pine (Pinus monticola) by induction of shoots on bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, M S; Malinek, J; Coffey, M

    1996-04-01

    We developed a protocol for the production of shoots from bud explants from 1- to 7-year-old trees of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.). The best explant was a 2-mm-thick cross-sectional slice of the early winter bud. Genotype of the donor tree was a significant factor affecting shoot production, but more than 80% of the genotypes tested produced shoots. Of the media tested, bud slices from 1- to 3-year-old trees grew best in Litvay's medium containing N(6)-benzyladenine in the range of 1 to 30 micro M, whereas bud slices from older trees grew best in Gupta and Durzan's DCR medium with zeatin riboside. Up to 400 shoots more than 3 mm in height were obtained from 100 bud-slice explants taken from 7-year-old western white pine trees.

  1. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.; Goor, F.; Riesen, T.

    2002-01-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocaesium, potassium and calcium were determined in two Scots pine stands (17 and 58 yr old) similarly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. For both age classes, concentrations are always the lowest in the stemwood, highest in the inner bark and intermediary levels were observed for the outer bark. Due to the cumulative character of its biomass, however, stemwood is a long-term major reservoir of 137 Cs. With tree development, changes in the 137 Cs radial distribution are well described by variations in the sap ascent pattern and reveal an important transfer between tree rings. It is shown that, both the biomass evolution and knowledge of the evolution of the 137 Cs radial gradient are important to predicting 137 Cs accumulation in wood with time. According to the common transfer factor (TF) approach, one would expect a decrease in radiocaesium accumulation with time (from 0.0047±0.0013 to 0.0035±0.0008 m 2 kg -1 for the 17 and 58 yr old trees, respectively). With the wood immobilisation potential (WIP) approach, it was, however, clearly shown that additional annual uptake was highest for the older stand (3.12±0.23 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the 58-year-old stand compared to 1.99±0.30 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the younger stand). Following the WIP approach, it was moreover possible to distinguish between the 137 Cs incorporated via the root uptake process and a possible lasting effect of interception. It is shown that, whereas for the younger stand (5 yr old at the time of the accident) root uptake contributed exclusively to the wood contamination, the former process explained only 48% of the measured total 137 Cs content in the wood of the older tree

  2. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  3. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  5. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalanathan Kokulapalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats, also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs. Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap. Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped

  6. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal. Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. Keywords: forest management; maritime pine; forest modelling; knowledge transfer tool.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  8. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  9. Phytotoxicities of fluoranthene and phenanthrene deposited on needle surfaces of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Nakatani, Nobutake; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been widely studied with respect to their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and human cells. Phenanthrene (PHE) and fluoranthene (FLU) effects on the needle photosynthetic traits of 2-year-old Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.) seedlings were investigated. Three months after fumigation of foliage with solutions containing these PAHs (10 μM each), FLU had negative effects on net photosynthesis at near-saturating irradiance, stomatal conductance, initial chlorophyll fluorescence, and the contents of total chlorophyll, magnesium, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) of current-year needles. PHE had similar negative effects to FLU but in lesser magnitude. The effects of the PAHs were mitigated by the addition of an OH-radical scavenger (mannitol) into the PAH solutions. PAHs deposited on the surface of pine needles may induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the photosynthetic apparatus, a manner closely resembling the action of the herbicide paraquat. - Fluoranthene and phenanthrene caused negative effects on the needles of Japanese red pine

  10. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  11. Produção de moranga e pepino em solo com incorporação de cama aviária e casca de pinus Production of squash and cucumber in soil amended with poultry manure and pine bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo B. Blum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A cama aviária e a casca de pinus (Pinus taeda são subprodutos de empresas avícolas e florestais que podem ser utilizados na melhoria da fertilidade e das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo. As morangas 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata e 'Exposição' (Cucurbita maxima e o pepino 'Caipira' (Cucumis sativus estão entre as cucurbitáceas mais cultivadas em Santa Catarina. Avaliou-se os efeitos de doses (0 a 50 g.kg-1 de solo de cama aviária (2,82% N; 2,53% P; 1,2% K; 2,5% Ca; 0,5% Mg e da casca de pinus (0,30% N; 0,10% P; 0,12% K; 0,21% Ca; 0,03% Mg, incorporadas ao solo, no desenvolvimento de plantas e na produção de moranga e pepino. Os experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, desenvolvidos em casa de vegetação e no campo, e, dependendo do experimento, possuíam tratamentos variando de quatro a cinco, e, repetições de quatro a oito. Em casa de vegetação, doses de cama aviária de até 30 g kg-1 de solo (correspondendo a ~3 kg m-2 aumentaram as plantas emergentes (~15% a 50% e a massa da matéria fresca (~90% a 200% de plantas de moranga 'Exposição' e de pepino 'Caipira'. O pH e os conteúdos de Ca, K, Mg, Mn, N, P e Zn do solo aumentaram com o incremento das doses de cama aviária. O incremento nas doses de casca de pinus diminuiu (~27% os níveis de nitrogênio mineral do solo. Nos experimentos de campo, a incorporação de cama aviária e casca de pinus aumentou a emergência (~15% de plântulas de pepino. A produção de frutos de moranga 'Tetsukabuto' e de pepino 'Caipira' aumentou (~120% nos tratamentos com cama aviária, na dose de 30 g kg-1 (correspondendo a ~ 3 kg m-2.Poultry manure and pine bark (Pinus taeda are by-products readily available in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. These by-products can be used as soil amendments to improve soil fertility and soil physical and chemical properties. Inter-specific hybrid squash cv. 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata, squash cv. 'Exposi

  12. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  13. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  14. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  15. Impact of warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory on BVOC emissions and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Häikiö, Elina; Kasurinen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured. Nitrogen addition increased both shoot and root dry weights, whereas warming, in combination with herbivory, reduced stem height growth. Warming together with N addition increased current-year shoot Pn, whereas N effects on previous-year shoot Pn were variable over time. Warming decreased non-oxygenated monoterpene (MT) emissions in June and increased them in July. Of individual MT compounds, α-pinene, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene were among the most frequently responsive compounds in warming treatments in the May-July period. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed only from warming treatments in July. Moderate N addition increased oxygenated monoterpenes in May, and MTs in June and September. However, N addition effect on MTs in June was clearer without warming than with warming. Bark herbivory tended to increase MT emissions in combination with warming and N addition 3 weeks after the damage caused by weevils. Of individual compounds in other BVOC blends, herbivory increased the emissions of methyl-benzene, benzene and hexanal in July. Hence, though both warming and N addition have a potential to change BVOC emissions from Scots pines, the N effect may also be partly cancelled by warming. Furthermore, herbivory pressure in combination with climate warming and N addition may, at least periodically, increase BVOC release to the atmosphere from young Scots pine seedlings.

  16. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  17. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  18. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  19. The Growth of Bosnian Pine (Pinus hedreichii Christ. at Tree-Line Locations from Kosovo and its Response to Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Bojaxhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Pinus heldreichii Christ. is a sub-endemic species occurring at tree-line locations in Kosovo and covering an area of 2500 ha. In high elevation sites radial growth is mainly controlled by low temperatures. The main purpose of this study was the analysis of radial growth of P. heldreichii and its response to local climate conditions. Materials and Methods: Research sites comprise of three high elevation stands of P. heldreichii with specific site conditions. Core samples were collected from 98 healthy dominant and co-dominant trees at breast height using increment borer. They were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods, while tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the TSAP software. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring widths and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The growth-climate relationship was investigated using bootstrapped correlation function analysing the residual chronologies of each sampled site as a dependent variable and the climatic data from May of the (n-1 year up to the October of the n year for the common period 1951-2013 as an independent variable. Results: The length of Bosnian pine chronologies ranged from 175 to 541 years. All chronologies had high values of first-order autocorrelation indicating that radial growth of P. heldreichii is affected by the climate conditions of the previous growing year. Koritnik chronology had the highest values of the mean sensitivity due to the influence of drought stress. This conclusion is also supported by the result of growth-climate relationship where radial growth is negatively correlated with June temperatures and positively associated with July and August precipitation. We found that radial growth of young trees from Koritnik site is limited by the combined effect of temperatures and summer drought stress. In high elevation sites, temperature is expected to control the

  20. Ascensão capilar de água em substratos de coco e de pinus Capillary water rise in coconut and pine bark substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso da irrigação por capilaridade na produção de mudas em viveiros pode trazer vantagens ao uso de água e sua utilização adequada requer o conhecimento da capacidade de ascensão de água no meio de crescimento das raízes, atributo pouco estudado. Para avaliar esta condição fundamental, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ascensão de água em substratos comerciais de coco e pinus, em dois padrões de tamanho de partículas e em duas condições de umidade, para indicar aquele que possua as melhores características físicas para aplicação na irrigação por capilaridade. Utilizou-se o método de ascensão capilar, com colunas desmontáveis de anéis preenchidas com substratos, avaliando-se os seguintes tempos de contato do fundo da coluna com a lâmina de água: 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 e 24 horas, com 10 repetições por tempo testado. Pelos resultados, observou-se que a maior ascensão capilar acumulada em 24 horas de ensaio foi obtida para os substratos de textura fina de coco e de pinus. Além disso, a hidrofobia do substrato de coco seco recomenda que as irrigações nesse material devem ter frequências maiores que substratos de pinus, evitando seu secamento. O substrato de pinus, por não apresentar esse comportamento, deve ter turnos de rega mais espaçados, principalmente sob textura fina. Devido à sua maior retenção de água e capacidade de elevação de água quando umedecido, o substrato fino de coco é mais adequado à irrigação por capilaridade em recipientes como tubetes.The capillary irrigation in nursery production could give advantages in water use and its correct application demands knowledge about capillary water rise through root growth media, an attribute poorly studied. This research had as objective to evaluate water capillary rise in commercial pine and coconut substrates for two particle size distributions and two moisture conditions, to indicate the substrate with the best physical

  1. The relative contributions of disease and insects in the decline of a long-lived tree: a stochastic demographic model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S; Jackson, Jenell I.; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Beck, Jennifer S.; Murray, Michael P.; Sahara, E. April

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and insect pests have become increasingly important drivers of tree mortality in forested ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding the relative contributions of multiple mortality agents to the population decline of trees is difficult, because it requires frequent measures of tree survival, growth, and recruitment, as well as the incidence of mortality agents. We present a population model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a high-elevation tree undergoing rapid decline in western North America. The loss of whitebark pine is thought to be primarily due to an invasive pathogen (white pine blister rust; Cronartium ribicola) and a native insect (mountain pine beetle; Dendroctonus ponderosae). We utilized seven plots in Crater Lake National Park (Oregon, USA) where 1220 trees were surveyed for health and the presence of blister rust and beetle activity annually from 2003–2014, except 2008. We constructed size-based projection matrices for nine years and calculated the deterministic growth rate (λ) using an average matrix and the stochastic growth rate (λs) by simulation for whitebark pine in our study population. We then assessed the roles of blister rust and beetles by calculating λ and λsusing matrices in which we removed trees with blister rust and, separately, trees with beetles. We also conducted life-table response experiments (LTRE) to determine which demographic changes contributed most to differences in λ between ambient conditions and the two other scenarios. The model suggests that whitebark pine in our plots are currently declining 1.1% per year (λ = 0.9888, λs = 0.9899). Removing blister rust from the models resulted in almost no increase in growth (λ = 0.9916, λs = 0.9930), while removing beetles resulted in a larger increase in growth (λ = 1.0028, λs = 1.0045). The LTRE demonstrated that reductions in stasis of the three largest size classes due to beetles contributed most to the smaller λ in the ambient condition

  2. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway

    1980-01-01

    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  3. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  4. Alternatives for composting Caribbean Pine sawdust (Pinus caribaea in the wood industry Refocosta S. A., in the municipality of Villanueva, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bibiana Sarmiento Oviedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the day-to-day accumulation of sawdust, a byproduct of the milling process of the Pinus caribaea species in the Wood industry of Refocosta, a composting process was tested in three treatments with different nitrogen sources (urea, industrial palm oil sludge, cattle dung and it was compared with composted pine bark and sawdust exposed to the weather. To assess possible inhibition of the substrates, the fresh biomass and germination of Zea maize and Acacia mangium was measured. Seedlings of Pinus caribaea, eucalyptus Pellita and Acacia Mangium were transplanted, and two months later the stem length, strength and survival were assessed. There were differences between maize and Acacia mangium and a lower germination and biomass in the substrates, sawdust and bark exposed to the weather and without composting were observed. The vigor and stem length were significantly better in composted bark, substrate which is currently used in the vivarium of Refocosta to produce seedlings; the sawdust-based substrates showed marked deficits (red colors, necrosis and stunting.

  5. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  6. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  7. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  8. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. FlorNExT®, a cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Northeastern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To introduce and describe FlorNExT®, a free cloud computing application to estimate growth and yield of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) even-aged stands in the Northeast of Portugal (NE Portugal). Area of study: NE Portugal. Material and methods: FlorNExT® implements a dynamic growth and yield modelling framework which integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves) and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass, and carbon content. Main results: FlorNExT® is freely available from any device with an Internet connection at: http://flornext.esa.ipb.pt/. Research highlights: This application has been designed to make it possible for any stakeholder to easily estimate standing volume, biomass, and carbon content in maritime pine stands from stand data, as well as to estimate growth and yield based on four stand variables: age, density, dominant height, and basal area. FlorNExT® allows planning thinning treatments. FlorNExT® is a fundamental tool to support forest mobilization at local and regional scales in NE Portugal. (Author)

  10. Profiling secondary metabolites of needles of ozone-fumigated white pine (Pinus strobus) clones by thermally assisted hydrolysis/methylation GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkami, F; Helleur, R J; Cox, R M

    2007-07-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have an important role in defense responses against herbivores and pathogens, and as a chemical barrier to elevated levels of harmful air pollutants. This study involves the rapid chemical profiling of phenolic and diterpene resin acids in needles of two (ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive) white pine (Pinus strobus) clones, fumigated with different ozone levels (control, and daily events peaking at 80 and 200 ppb) for 40 days. The phenolic and resin acids were measured using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Short-term fumigation affected the levels of two phenolic acids, i.e., 3-hydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, in that both showed a substantial decrease in concentration with increased ozone dose. The decrease in concentration of these THM products may be caused by inhibition of the plant's shikimate biochemical pathway caused by ozone exposure. The combined occurrence of these two ozone-sensitive indicators has a role in biomonitoring of ozone levels and its impact on forest productivity. In addition, chromatographic profile differences in the major diterpene resin acid components were observed between ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive clones. The resin acids anticopalic, 3-oxoanticopalic, 3beta-hydroxyanticopalic, and 3,4-cycloanticopalic acids were present in the ozone-sensitive pine; however, only anticopalic acid was present in the ozone-tolerant clone. This phenotypic variation in resin acid composition may be useful in distinguishing populations that are differentially adapted to air pollutants.

  11. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Domergue, Frédéric; Lalanne, Céline; Ramos Campos, Patricio; Grosbois, Antoine; Bert, Didier; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers.

  12. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  13. PRODUÇÃO DE CHAPAS DE MADEIRA COMPENSADA DE CINCO ESPÉCIES DE PINUS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de 5 espécies de pinus tropicais para produção de painéis compensados. As espécies estudadas foram: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii e Pinus taeda, sendo esta última espécie como testemunha. Foram produzidos compensados de 5 lâminas com resinas uréia-formaldeído e fenol-formaldeído. Os resultados de inchamento e recuperação em espessura foram estatisticamente iguais entre as espécies estudadas, com exceção para inchamento em espessura das chapas coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído. As chapas de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa, apresentaram melhores resultados de módulos de elasticidade. Para o módulo de ruptura, as chapas de Pinus maxininoi, Pinus oocarpa e Pinus taeda, coladas com resina fenol-formaldeído, apresentaram valores estatisticamente superiores em relação às demais espécies. Quanto a resistência da linha de cola, as chapas de Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda e Pinus chiapensis, foram as que apresentaram melhor desempenho. Com base nos resultados gerais da pesquisa, pode-se destacar a potencialidade da madeira de Pinus maximinoi e Pinus oocarpa para produção de chapas de madeira compensada.

  14. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  15. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2016-06-22

    Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150-300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160-270 °C) and time (15-120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C) calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  16. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  17. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  18. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Grind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C and time (15–120 min were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.. Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  19. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  20. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...