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Sample records for pine bluff arsenal

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  3. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  4. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. 6. Preliminary Assessment of Environmental Effects of Seven Substances Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Dextrin Red -- 85 ...... 15 Yellowa 65 -- 35 --.... Greena 20 -- 10 70 .... Violet -- 20 -- -- 80 -- a. Mil.Spec. not given. TABLE 4. COMPOSITION OF...Potassium chlorate 2,234,000 22,300 Sulfur 893,000 8,900 Dextrin 151,000 1,500 Oil 18,000 180 Unknown 563,000 5,600 a. Calculations are based on pure...hazard; sulfur, essentially harmless in itself, slowly degrades chemically and biochemically to rontoxic products; dextrin (a starch derivative used in

  5. Arsenale Autoetnografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ArsenaleAutoethnography - quick experiment with a new genre. Produced on a Performance Design study trip at the Venice Art Biennale - at Arsenale. The images are recordings made in the art exhibition. The words are a combination of works found in the exhibition (words in English) and my own...

  6. Learning to Bluff

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The act of bluffing confounds game designers to this day. The very nature of bluffing is even open for debate, adding further complication to the process of creating intelligent virtual players that can bluff, and hence play, realistically. Through the use of intelligent, learning agents, and carefully designed agent outlooks, an agent can in fact learn to predict its opponents reactions based not only on its own cards, but on the actions of those around it. With this wider scope of understanding, an agent can in learn to bluff its opponents, with the action representing not an illogical action, as bluffing is often viewed, but rather as an act of maximising returns through an effective statistical optimisation. By using a tee dee lambda learning algorithm to continuously adapt neural network agent intelligence, agents have been shown to be able to learn to bluff without outside prompting, and even to learn to call each others bluffs in free, competitive play.

  7. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  8. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  9. Endwall convective heat transfer for bluff bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    The endwall heat transfer characteristics of forced flow past bluff bodies have been investigated using liquid crystal thermography (LCT). The bluff body is placed in a rectangular channel with both its ends attached to the endwalls. The Reynolds number varies from 50,000 to 100,000. In this study...

  10. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume I. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-03

    Source: Citizens’ Advisory Camittee, pers. comm. VIlI-19 144 3 0 3 CULTURA IX CULTURAL RESOURCES A. INTRODUCTION. Cultural resources include resources...the fluted points of the Clovis and Folsom types. These earliest Indians cvidently were nomadic and hunted large herd animals such as the mammoth and

  11. Study on Hydrodynamic Vibration in Dual Bluff Body Vortex Flowmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dual bluff body vortex shedding is investigated, and the possibility to use dual bluff body combinations to strengthen the hydrodynamic vibration around the bluff body objects is explored. The numerical and experimental approaches were utilized to examine the time dependent flow field and the pressure oscillation around the bluff bodies. The numerical data were obtained by the advanced large eddy simulation model. The experiment was conducted on a laboratory scale of Karman vortex flowmeter with 40 mm diameter. It is revealed that the optimized dual bluff body combinations strengthened the hydrodynamic vibration. It was also found that the hydrodynamic vibration with 180° phase difference occurred at the axisymmetric points of circular pipe on the lateral faces of the equilateral triangle-section bluff bodies. Using the dual bluff body configuration and the differential sensing technique, a novel prototype of vortex flowmeter with excellent noise immunity and improved sensibility was developed.

  12. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  13. Registration of Arsenal meadow bromegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (ARS) announces the release of the cultivar 'Arsenal' meadow bromegrass [Bromus biebersteinii Roem. & Schult. (excluded)] for use on semiarid rangelands and non-irrigated pastures as a rapid establishing forage grass with early spring growth, good fall nut...

  14. Liquid-liquid flow past a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong H.; Abidin, M. I. I. Zainal; Angeli, Panagiota; Kahouadji, Lyes; Xie, Zhihua; Matar, Omar K.; Pain, Christopher C.

    2016-11-01

    The generation of instabilities behind a bluff body bounded by a pipe wall and its effects on flow pattern transitions from separated to dispersed oil-water flows are studied. A cylindrical bluff body is located in the water phase and the transverse direction of the flow. Investigations are conducted for flow rates that result in stratified flow in the absence of the bluff body. A high-speed camera is used to track the interfacial waves while the velocity profile in the water phase is determined by PIV. Numerical studies on single-phase flow assist in designing new bluff bodies. The results showed that the choice of the bluff body and its location generated vortices with frequencies similar to unbounded flows that corresponded to Strouhal number of 0.2. In two-phase flows, the bluff body generates waves with frequencies similar to the von Kármán vortices in the water phase behind the cylinder. The formation of the waves depended on the distance of the bluff body from the oil-water interface. Project funded under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Programme Grant MEMPHIS.

  15. Particle Methods in Bluff Body Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj

    Fluid-structure interaction is studied numerically in academics and the industry. Shear computational power alone is insufficient to accurately resolve the complex dynamics of high Reynolds number fluid flow. Therefore the development of more efficient and applicable computational algorithms...... is important. This dissertation focuses on the use of vortex particle methods and computational efficiency. The work is divided into three parts. A novel method for the simulation of the aerodynamic admittance in bluff body aerodynamics is presented. The method involves a model for describing oncoming...... turbulence in two-dimensional discrete vortex method simulations by seeding the upstream flow with vortex particles. The turbulence is generated prior to the simulations and is based on analytic spectral densities of the atmospheric turbulence and a coherence function defining the spatial correlation...

  16. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2006 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  19. Badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nineteen badgers (Taxidea taxus) were captured on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) using Woodstream Softcatch traps and live snares. This represents a minimum...

  20. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  1. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1986 and 1987. The studies were performed by...

  2. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  3. Arsenal tour shows signs of life

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article about the first public tour of wildlife habitat on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Wildlife Refuge prior to refuge establishment.

  4. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  5. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  6. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  7. Jackson Bluff Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    A feasibility assessment study was conducted to determine if it is economical to reinstall hydroelectric generating units at the existing Jackson Bluff Dam on the Ochlockonee River in Florida. The studies and investigations have included site reconnaissance, system loads, growth rate, site hydrology, conceptual project arrangements and layouts, power output, estimates of construction costs and annual costs, economic analyses, development of a design and construction schedule and a preliminary environmental review of the proposed Project. It was concluded that the Project poses no unusual technical problems and no significant adverse environmental effects are anticipated. It shows sufficient promise of technical, economic and financial feasibility, to justify the City entering into the next phase of work, the FERC License Application, as soon as possible. The site can be restored for an investment of $9.9 to $10.4 million to establish 8.8 MW of capacity and produce 24,920 MWh of electrical energy annually, and in 10 years would save over $4 million as compared with current fuel costs for operating an oil-fueled power plant. (LCL)

  8. 2016: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  9. 2012: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  10. 2015: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  11. [Exit Strategy - Issues Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : January 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the Exit Strategy spreadsheet developed in a joint meeting between the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Council and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Committee...

  12. 2014: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  13. 2017: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  14. 2013: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  15. 2008: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  16. 2011: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  17. [Necropsy Protocol for Animals from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal includes a general protocol to be used for animals brought to the diagnostic laboratory from the arsenal. Details of the...

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  19. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao K.; Yokoi Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and squ...

  20. Monitoring stream bluff erosion using repeat terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, G.; Gran, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology provides high-resolution topographic data that can be used to detect geomorphic change in fluvial environments. In this study, we utilize successive terrestrial laser scans to investigate the relationship between peak flow rates and stream bluff erosion in the Amity Creek watershed in Duluth, Minnesota. We also combine TLS scan results with bluff inventories from airborne lidar to estimate the volume of sediment erosion from bluffs in the watershed, which is an important source of fine sediment contributing to the creek's turbidity impairment. We selected nine study bluffs to conduct terrestrial laser scans on after all significant flood events over a two-year time period. The study employs a Faro Focus 3D phase-shift laser to collect data. Post-processing of the TLS-point cloud data sets involves: (1) removal of vegetation and objects other than the erosional surface of interest; (2) decimation of the point cloud in PC Tools and extraction of zmin values to produce a data set manageable in GIS; (3) creation of a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) for each set of scans using ArcMap; and (4) utilization of Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) software to generate DEMs of Difference (DODs) from subsequent terrestrial laser scans. Preliminary results from three flooding events indicate significant erosional activity at all field sites. Slumps were observed at two bluffs following spring melt and freeze/thaw cycling. Two major precipitation events in late spring and early summer provided a unique opportunity to observe the impact of extreme high flow events on bluff erosion throughout the watershed using TLS technology. 4.75 inches of intermittent rain over a six-day period in late May 2012 (May 23-28) resulted in slumping at many bluffs and one major failure. The ≥100-year flood that occurred on June 19-20 (7.25 inches), 2012 was powerful enough to induce considerable channel change. Slumps occurred at six study sites

  1. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  2. Wind Erosion and Dune Formation on High Frozen Bluffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, W. M.; Marsh, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    Frost penetration increases upslope on barren, windswept bluffs in cold environments. Along the south shore of Lake Superior, near the brow of 100 m high bluffs it typically exceeds 5 m. Frost increases the shear strength of damp sand to a level comparable to that of concrete, making winter slopes highly stable despite undercutting by waves and ground-water sapping along the footslope. Sublimation of interparticle ice in the slope face increases with wind speed and lower vapor pressures. The cold and dry winter winds of Lake Superior ablate these slopes through loss of binding ice. Wind erosion rates, based on measurements of sand accumulation on the forest floor downwind of the brow, show most airborne sand falls out within several meters of the brow, forming a berm 1 to 3 m high after many years. The spatial pattern of sand deposition, however, varies considerably over distances of several hundred meters along the top bluffs in response to frost conditions and the build-up of gravel lag on the slope face, sand exposure from mass movements, and local aerodynamics of the crest slope. The formation of perched sand dunes in the Great Lakes region is clearly related to wind erosion of sand from high bluffs in winter. Broadly similar processes may operate on Mars.

  3. Beaches and Bluffs of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    exposed in coastal bluffs. During the maximum extent of the ice sheets, sub-glacial meltwater and scour by the ice sheets carved the deep, linear...meter per century) could occur given accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet and/or collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (Overpeck et al

  4. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume II. Appendices. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    uplands C Sassafras- LEGUMINOSAE Amorpha fruticosa Open areas C False Indigo Amphicarpa bracteata Rich woods, moist areas C Hog Peanut Apios americana...Roadsides, open sandy C Slender Bush Clover woodlands Medicago lupulina Fields, open areas C Black Medick D-29 Table D-2 (continued) LEGUMINOSAE

  5. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation 56.5 feet above sea level: Provided, That the level of the pool may be raised to not exceeding 58.5...

  6. Un proyecto de arsenal para la Barceloneta (1743 / An Arsenal Project in La Barceloneta (1743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de la Fuente de Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1743 el ingeniero militar Miguel Marín diseñó un arsenal naval en Barcelona. En este artículo se estudia el contexto inmediato de este proyecto. Primeramente, la voluntad de trasladar la principal base naval mediterránea de Cartagena a la capital catalana. En segundo lugar, la relación centro-periferia y el papel del lobby catalán dentro del proceso.In 1743 Miguel Marín, a military engineer, designed the marine arsenal in Barcelona. In this paper, we study the background of this project. Firstly, the willingness to move the Mediterranean base of the Spanish Navy from Cartagena to the capital of Catalonia. Secondly, the centre-periphery relationship and the role of Catalan lobby in this process.

  7. Proceedings of the Department of Defense Natural Resources Leadership Conference Held in Colorado Springs, CO on 12-16 August 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-22

    48753; (A/V) 623-5180 Becker, Charles SMOPB-EMB; Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71602-9500; (A/V) 966-2834 Belew, Gary HQ Ft. Carson, 4th...31314- 5300; (912) 767-2584 Buck, Slader Office of Environment & Safety; MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 92055 Bukowski , Grace RAMA/Citizen Alert; PO Box 5339...Freeland, Albert W. DEH, Environmental Management, Fort Knox, KY 40121 Freeman, Charles ESO/DEB Hanscom AFB, MA 01371 Freese, Elizabeth COMNAVSECGRO

  8. Environmentally Sustainable Yellow Smoke Formulations for Use in the M194 Hand Held Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    the firing pin in the palm of the hand, an initiating charge burns to ignite the rocket propellant and a delay element, sending the signal assembly... Nitrocellulose (NC) was purchased from Alliant Techsystems, Inc. Magnesium carbonate was obtained from Pine Bluff Arsenal (Pine Bluff, AR). All...the binder system of the BES formulation with nitrocellulose (NC, formulation A) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, formulation B). Formulation C is a

  9. 75 FR 65230 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Pine Bluff, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of... vessel until the requested span has opened and vessel passage has been completed. The bridge is equipped...

  10. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from transverse galloping of bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of harvesting energy from transverse galloping oscillations of a bluff body with different cross-section geometries is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom of the body. The power levels that can be generated from these vibrations and the variations of these levels with the load resistance, cross-section geometry, and freestream velocity are determined. A representative model that accounts for the transverse displacement of the bluff body and harvested voltage is presented. The quasi-steady approximation is used to model the aerodynamic loads. A linear analysis is performed to determine the effects of the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry on the onset of galloping, which is due to a Hopf bifurcation. The normal form of this bifurcation is derived to determine the type (supercritical or subcritical) of the instability and to characterize the effects of the linear and nonlinear parameters on the level of harvested power near the bifurcation. The results show that the electrical load resistance and the cross-section geometry affect the onset speed of galloping. The results also show that the maximum levels of harvested power are accompanied with minimum transverse displacement amplitudes for all considered (square, D, and triangular) cross-section geometries, which points to the need for performing a coupled analysis of the system.

  11. Fighting Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads

    CERN Document Server

    Haddadi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is currently the greatest source of revenue for many Internet giants. The increased number of specialized websites and modern profiling techniques, have all contributed to an explosion of the income of ad brokers from online advertising. The single biggest threat to this growth, is however, click-fraud. Trained botnets and even individuals are hired by click-fraud specialists in order to maximize the revenue of certain users from the ads they publish on their websites, or to launch an attack between competing businesses. In this note we wish to raise the awareness of the networking research community on potential research areas within this emerging field. As an example strategy, we present Bluff ads; a class of ads that join forces in order to increase the effort level for click-fraud spammers. Bluff ads are either targeted ads, with irrelevant display text, or highly relevant display text, with irrelevant targeting information. They act as a litmus test for the legitimacy of the individual...

  12. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  13. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Y.; Hirao, K.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder) were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street) regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets) were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Habitat Management Plan identifies important wildlife resources on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and the management strategies that will...

  15. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Restoration Site Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project contains a collection of restoration site histories for the cleanup restoration at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This project...

  16. [Miscellaneous Compatibility Determinations : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linked through this record are compatibility determinations from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal between the years 2005 and 2014. Included is a 2005 Compatibility...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal is showing off its wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the first tours of wildlife habitat at Rocky Mountain Arsenal prior to refuge establishment. Tours are sponsored by the Denver Audubon Society.

  18. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1993 fiscal year. The document offers summaries for each Task as outlined in...

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Visitor Access Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an interim (five year) visitor access plan designed to provide for the safety of visitors to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal during its remediation and transition...

  20. [FY 1994 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1994 fiscal year. Included are a series of memorandums between USFWS and U.S....

  1. [Summer work study report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on research and observations at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal for the summer of 1982.This report is divided into 8 major sections or individual logs. The first...

  2. Soil investigation and inventory of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is a federal reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States Army and occupies approximately 17,000 acres in western Adams...

  3. Bison Tissue Contaminant Study - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is a well-documented history of disturbance and contamination from previous activities on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. In April 2013,...

  4. [Technical Representative - Monthly PMC Issues Reports : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of documents contains the Monthly PMC Issues reports for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal compiled by the Technical Representative. Reports in this...

  5. [FY 1995 Budget Requests & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1995 fiscal year. The memorandums on pages 1-5 outline the request of approval...

  6. [FY 1991 Budget Summary & Revisions : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1991 fiscal year. The memorandum included on pages 1-2, authored by the refuge...

  7. Aquatic management plan : [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic management plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) provides management direction and guidance to ensure the conservation of...

  8. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : Bison Viewing & Pasture Access Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR) is one of many Refuges working towards conservation successes. When bison were re-introduced at RMANWR, the...

  9. [FY 1992 Budget Proposals, Requests, Projections & Summaries : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1992 fiscal year. Detailed budget proposals, projections, and summaries are...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 and 2008 Annual Biomonitoring Report [DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes results from the first two years (FY 2007 and FY 2008) of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Long-term Biomonitoring Program (BMP). The...

  11. [Site 35NE-5 Draft Maps : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains two maps from site 35NE-5 at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Soil Sample 4088A vs. Excavation Boundary and TRER Remediation Boundary, from...

  12. Immobilization Training : May 9-10, 2007 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is composed of the materials used in the Bison Immobilization Training that took place at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge May 9-10,...

  13. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 10-year irrigation work plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to present the recommended irrigation approach for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge over the next ten years (1999-2008)....

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal 5 year fish and wildlife management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This five year management plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) was developed as a dynamic planning aid to guide and prioritize annual and...

  15. Biomonitoring program for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides information on historical and present biomonitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, and discusses the creation of the...

  16. [Plan to Reduce Bird Mortality : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes a plan for vegetation management on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal to reduce bird mortalities from dieldrin poisoning by way of tree removal,...

  17. [Budget Summary Forms : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains three detailed budget summaries for terrestrial mammal studies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal; American Badger, European Starling, and Deer...

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  19. On point vortex models of exotic bluff body wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stremler, Mark A; Basu, Saikat, E-mail: stremler@vt.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Exotic vortex wakes, in which three or more vortices are generated during each shedding cycle, are frequently found in the wake of an oscillating bluff body. Two common examples are P+S wakes (with 3 vortices) and 2P wakes (with 4 vortices). We consider mathematical models of these wakes consisting of N = 3 or 4 point vortices with constant strengths in an inviscid fluid that is otherwise at rest in a singly-periodic domain. By enforcing constraints on the vortex strengths and, in the case of N = 4, on the symmetry of the vortex locations, the mathematical models reduce to integrable Hamiltonian systems. We compare the point vortex trajectories with two exotic wake patterns reported in the literature. Results support the use of point vortex modeling to investigate vortex dynamics in exotic wakes and suggest the need for additional classification of experimental wake patterns. (paper)

  20. Point vortex model for asymmetric inviscid wakes past bluff bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcrat, A [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Ferlauto, M; Zannetti, L, E-mail: luca.zannetti@polito.it [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Wakes past bluff bodies are modeled by means of point vortices standing in equilibrium. The consistency of the adopted model is discussed with respect to the asymptotic model proposed by Batchelor. It is shown that, in general, when symmetry is broken, the wake configuration may be neither closed, as for the Batchelor model, nor open, as for the Kirchhoff model. The proposed model has three degrees of freedom, which reduce to one when the locations of separation are prescribed. A further condition has been established for the closure of the wake which reduces the degrees of freedom to zero as for the asymptotic Batchelor model. The existence of multiple solutions, suggestive for real world phenomena, is discussed. (papers)

  1. A numerical analysis of the unsteady flow past bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M. S. U. K.; Modi, V. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes in detail a relatively sophisticated numerical approach, using the Boundary Element Method in conjunction with the Discrete Vortex Model, to represent the complex unsteady flow field around a bluff body with separating shear layers. Important steps in the numerical analysis of this challenging problem are discussed and a performance evaluation algorithm established. Of considerable importance is the effect of computational parameters such as number of elements representing the geometry, time-step size, location of the nascent vortices, etc., on the accuracy of results and the associated cost. As an example, the method is applied to the analysis of the flow around a stationary Savonius rotor. A detailed parametric study provides fundamental information concerning the starting torque time histories, evolution of the wake, Strouhal number, etc. A comparison with the wind tunnel test data shows remarkable correlation suggesting considerable promise for the approach.

  2. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National Fish...

  3. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  4. The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  5. Processes of coastal bluff erosion in weakly lithified sands, Pacifica, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal bluff erosion and landsliding are currently the major geomorphic processes sculpting much of the marine terrace dominated coastline of northern California. In this study, we identify the spatial and temporal processes responsible for erosion and landsliding in an area of weakly lithified sand coastal bluffs located south of San Francisco, California. Using the results of a five year observational study consisting of site visits, terrestrial lidar scanning, and development of empirical failure indices, we identify the lithologic and process controls that determine the failure mechanism and mode for coastal bluff retreat in this region and present concise descriptions of each process. Bluffs composed of weakly cemented sands (unconfined compressive strength - UCS between 5 and 30??kPa) fail principally due to oversteepening by wave action with maximum slope inclinations on the order of 65 at incipient failure. Periods of significant wave action were identified on the basis of an empirical wave run-up equation, predicting failure when wave run-up exceeds the seasonal average value and the bluff toe elevation. The empirical relationship was verified through recorded observations of failures. Bluffs composed of moderately cemented sands (UCS up to 400??kPa) fail due to precipitation-induced groundwater seepage, which leads to tensile strength reduction and fracture. An empirical rainfall threshold was also developed to predict failure on the basis of a 48-hour cumulative precipitation index but was found to be dependent on a time delay in groundwater seepage in some cases.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of bluff-body-stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Arias, Paul G.

    2014-01-10

    To enable high fidelity simulation of combustion phenomena in realistic devices, an embedded boundary method is implemented into direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting flows. One of the additional numerical issues associated with reacting flows is the stable treatment of the embedded boundaries in the presence of multicomponent species and reactions. The implemented method is validated in two test con gurations: a pre-mixed hydrogen/air flame stabilized in a backward-facing step configuration, and reactive flows around a square prism. The former is of interest in practical gas turbine combustor applications in which the thermo-acoustic instabilities are a strong concern, and the latter serves as a good model problem to capture the vortex shedding behind a bluff body. In addition, a reacting flow behind the square prism serves as a model for the study of flame stabilization in a micro-channel combustor. The present study utilizes fluid-cell reconstruction methods in order to capture important flame-to-solid wall interactions that are important in confined multicomponent reacting flows. Results show that the DNS with embedded boundaries can be extended to more complex geometries without loss of accuracy and the high fidelity simulation data can be used to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for the design of practical combustion devices.

  7. Manipulation of flow around bluff bodies by flexible slender filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Pinelli, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Manipulation of bluff bodies wakes to control the intensity of fluid forces and the induced solid vibrations is of paramount importance. A biomimetic passive control based on the use of flexible slender appendages protruding from the body into the separated region has shown promising achievements in drag reduction and moderating force fluctuations. The present research aimed at understating and optimizing the physical properties and the arrangement of elongated flexible filaments to delay the 3D transition of the wake in terms of Reynolds number, mean drag reduction, and mitigation of the force fluctuations. The numerical campaign unveiled the role of flexural stiffness of the filaments: matching the natural frequency with the vortex shedding frequency enhances the mixing at the lee side. However, softer filaments (i.e. larger time scales) lock-in on either side of mid plane breaking the symmetry of the flow field (inducing a net lift force). In addition to 2D effects, the presence of filaments can interfere with the 3D bifurcation process resulting in a delay of the spanwise destabilization of the wake. The most effective parameter for this transitional interference is the spacing between filaments that should be smaller than the wavelength of the dominant 3D unstable mode.

  8. Suspension flows past bluff bodies: Investigation in a microfluidic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaei-Zadeh, Shahab

    2010-01-01

    This sequence of fluid dynamics videos illustrates the behavior of a suspension of noncolloidal particles flowing past various bluff body obstacles within a microfluidic device. The polystyrene particles, of 7 {\\mu}m diameter and volume fraction of 8.4%, are carefully made neutrally buoyant with the suspending liquid composed of a mixture of water and a small fraction of glycerol. The channel depth is 60 {\\mu}m and the typical length of the obstacles normal to the flow direction is 200 {\\mu}m. The flow rate is varied to generate Reynolds numbers based on the scale of the obstacle in the approximate range 60 < Re < 500; the narrow dimension in the depth direction suppresses onset of unsteadiness and vortex shedding, so that the flows studied are found to be steady (aside from particle-scale fluctuations). Particles are observed to be depleted in the wake region of the obstacle. In certain cases, the entire wake is clear of particles; in other cases there is a portion of the wake in which particles recirc...

  9. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  10. Nuclear Arsenals at Low Numbers: When Less Is Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustus, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    President Obama's 2009 speech in Prague is remembered as a call for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons. It reinvigorated a long-overdue policy debate in the United States and Europe. Unfortunately, that debate is characterized by a focus on arsenal size that borders on numerology, a lack of imagination consistent with presentism, and…

  11. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Rock Island Arsenal, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    applications and process equipment. Process equipment includes two absorption chillers , two steam- operated forge presses, immersion heaters for the...evaluate the boiler strategy at this facility. The facility is currently in the process of replacing the absorption chillers with electric chillers ...Carbonate Fuel Cells for DoD Applications: Rock Island Arsenal MCFC Engi- neer Research and Development Center, Construction Engineering Research

  12. Nuclear Arsenals at Low Numbers: When Less Is Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustus, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    President Obama's 2009 speech in Prague is remembered as a call for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons. It reinvigorated a long-overdue policy debate in the United States and Europe. Unfortunately, that debate is characterized by a focus on arsenal size that borders on numerology, a lack of imagination consistent with presentism, and…

  13. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  14. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Arrives at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  15. The Arsenal Ship Measures up to Joint Vision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-07

    Multiwarfare 8 ibid., 1-4. Analytical Game ( JMAG ), and approved by a senior review board of .-retired general and flag officers from all four...operat ions . ൛ The arsenal ship could reduce the logistics requirements during a regional contingency conflict. As detailed in the JMAG report

  16. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  17. Wall effect on fluid-structure interactions of a tethered bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumant; Raghav, Vrishank; Komerath, Narayanan; Smith, Marilyn

    2013-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have shown an unexplained amplification of the free motion of a tethered bluff body in a small wind tunnel relative to that in a large wind tunnel. The influence of wall proximity on fluid-structure interaction is explored using a compound pendulum motion in the plane orthogonal to a steady freestream with a doublet model for aerodynamic forces. Wall proximity amplifies a purely symmetric single degree of freedom oscillation with the addition of an out-of-phase force. The success of this simple level of simulation enables progress to develop metrics for unsteady wall interference in dynamic testing of tethered bluff bodies.

  18. Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language (ARSENAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    create the IR table. For example, nsubjpass(V, N) in the STDP output indicates that the noun phrase N is the syntactic subject of a passive clause with...but the approach can be adapted for other models, e.g., probabilistic relational models like Markov Logic Networks (MLN). The formal models of the...Currently, ARSENAL generates formal models in linear-time temporal logic (LTL), but the approach can be adapted for other models, e.g., probabilistic

  19. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G; Ye, Lumeng; Stijlemans, Benoit; Brys, Lea; Kok, Philippe; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Cornelis, Pierre; Bossuyt, Franky

    2013-01-01

    The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs) acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization), completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  20. Origin and functional diversification of an amphibian defense peptide arsenal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Roelants

    Full Text Available The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization, completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones.

  1. Distributed forcing of the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Thierry; Bury, Yannick

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we address the influence of a blowing-/suction-type distributed forcing on the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body by means of direct numerical simulations. The forcing is applied via consecutive blowing and suction slots azimuthally distributed along the trailing edge of the bluff body. We examine the impact of the forcing wavelength, amplitude and waveform on the drag experienced by the bluff body and on the occurrence of the reflectional symmetry preserving and reflectional symmetry breaking wake modes, for Reynolds numbers 800 and 1,000. We show that forcing the flow at wavelengths inherent to the unforced flow drastically damps drag oscillations associated with the vortex shedding and vorticity bursts, up to their complete suppression. The overall parameter analysis suggests that this damping results from the surplus of streamwise vorticity provided by the forcing that tends to stabilize the ternary vorticity lobes observed at the aft part of the bluff body. In addition, conversely to a blowing-type or suction-type forcing, the blowing-/suction-type forcing involves strong nonlinear interactions between locally decelerated and accelerated regions, severely affecting both the mean drag and the frequencies representative of the vortex shedding and vorticity bursts.

  2. Site investigation of Bluff, May 24-26, 1983: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the site visit were to 1) familiarize ourselves with Bluff in relation to present and future proposals to mine by dredge, near-shore sed5ments for...

  3. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  4. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  5. Population status and reproductive success of cliff-nesting seabirds at Bluff, Alaska in 1985: Report of field results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1985 fieldwork was conducted at the Bluff colony in Norton Sound to provide a continuing assessment of numbers and reproductive performance of Common Murres (Uria...

  6. Arsenals : tummalt kõnekas / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusel Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals nähtust, eelkõige huvitavatest tummfilmiajastu filmidest, sealhulgas Läti esimesest mängufilmist "Kus on tõde? Või juudi naiskursuslase tragöödia" (produtsent S. Mintus, 1913). Lisatud info "Eesti film võitis Riias mitu auhinda", millest nähtub, et Balti võistlusprogrammis oli parim mängufilm "Sügisball", parim dokfilm "Vastutuulesaal" ja publikupreemia ning ühe oikumeenilise žürii preemia sai "Klass"

  7. Arsenals : tummalt kõnekas / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusel Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals nähtust, eelkõige huvitavatest tummfilmiajastu filmidest, sealhulgas Läti esimesest mängufilmist "Kus on tõde? Või juudi naiskursuslase tragöödia" (produtsent S. Mintus, 1913). Lisatud info "Eesti film võitis Riias mitu auhinda", millest nähtub, et Balti võistlusprogrammis oli parim mängufilm "Sügisball", parim dokfilm "Vastutuulesaal" ja publikupreemia ning ühe oikumeenilise žürii preemia sai "Klass"

  8. Numerical investigations on effects of bluff body in flat plate micro thermo photovoltaic combustor with sudden expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂加强; 黄海蛟; 赵晓欢

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal combustion characteristics of H2/air mixture in a micro-combustor with and without bluff body, the effects of inlet velocities, equivalence ratios and bluff body’s blockage ratios on the temperature field, pressure of the combustor wall, combustion efficiency and blow-off limit were investigated. The numerical results indicate that the sudden expansion plate micro combustor with bluff body could enhance the turbulent disturbance of the mixed gas in the combustion chamber and the combustion condition is improved. Moreover, a low-speed and high temperature recirculation region was formed between the sudden expansion step and the bluff body so that the high and uniform wall temperature (>1000 K) could be gotten. As a result, it could strengthen the mixing process, prolong the residence time of gas, control the flame position effectively and widen the operation range by the synergistic effect of the bluff body and steps. When the blockage ratio ranged from 0.3 to 0.6, it could be found that the bluff body could play a stabilizing effect and expand combustion blow burning limit, and combustion efficiency firstly was increased with the inlet velocity and equivalence ratio, and then was decreased.

  9. FY1995 contaminant study proposal : CO-nonpoint source pollution on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution to water bodies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Arsenal). The Service will...

  10. Enemy targeting, trade-offs, and the evolutionary assembly of a tortoise beetle defense arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to intense enemy selection, immature folivorous insects have evolved elaborate, multi-trait defense arsenals. How enemies foster trait diversification and arsenal assembly depends on which selective mode they impose: whether different enemies select for the same defense or exert conflict...

  11. Large eddy simulation of flows around ground vehicles and other bluff bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnovic, Sinisa

    2009-07-28

    A brief review of large eddy simulation (LES) applications for different bluff-body flows performed by the author and his co-workers is presented. Examples of flows range from simple cube flows characterized by sharp edge separation over a three-dimensional hill where LES relies on good near-wall resolution, to complex flows of a tall, finite cylinder that contains several flow regimes that cause different challenges to LES. The second part of the paper is devoted to flows around ground vehicles at moderate Reynolds numbers. Although the present review proves the applicability of LES for various bluff-body flows, an increase of the Reynolds number towards the operational speeds of ground vehicles requires accurate near-wall modelling for a successful LES.

  12. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H. L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Abdelkefi, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: cywyang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, L. [Department of Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  13. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Headquarters Building Construction and Main Gate Reconfiguration White Bluff, Spokane, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    falcon Falco peregrinus SOC S Mammals Long-eared myotis Myotis evotis SOC None Townsend’s big-eared bat Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens SOC C...noted during interviews with WB personnel. The underlayment and insulation in buildings that include flat gravel-style roofs was reported to include...Bluff Environmental Assessment (EA) Page 3-14 prove otherwise, it is generally considered that all building materials other than wood , steel, or glass

  14. Simulations and experiments on the ignition probability in turbulent premixed bluff-body flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Michael Philip; Bach, Ellen; Kariuki, James; Bauer, Hans-Jörg; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2016-05-01

    The ignition characteristics of a premixed bluff-body burner under lean conditions were investigated experimentally and numerically with a physical model focusing on ignition probability. Visualisation of the flame with a 5 kHz OH* chemiluminescence camera confirmed that successful ignitions were those associated with the movement of the kernel upstream, consistent with previous work on non-premixed systems. Performing many separate ignition trials at the same spark position and flow conditions resulted in a quantification of the ignition probability Pign, which was found to decrease with increasing distance downstream of the bluff body and a decrease in equivalence ratio. Flows corresponding to flames close to the blow-off limit could not be ignited, although such flames were stable if reached from a richer already ignited condition. A detailed comparison with the local Karlovitz number and the mean velocity showed that regions of high Pign are associated with low Ka and negative bulk velocity (i.e. towards the bluff body), although a direct correlation was not possible. A modelling effort that takes convection and localised flame quenching into account by tracking stochastic virtual flame particles, previously validated for non-premixed and spray ignition, was used to estimate the ignition probability. The applicability of this approach to premixed flows was first evaluated by investigating the model's flame propagation mechanism in a uniform turbulence field, which showed that the model reproduces the bending behaviour of the ST-versus-u‧ curve. Then ignition simulations of the bluff-body burner were carried out. The ignition probability map was computed and it was found that the model reproduces all main trends found in the experimental study.

  15. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-04-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  16. Drag of a D-shaped bluff body under small amplitude harmonic actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-loop flow control method was used to affect the development of a turbulent wake behind a D-shaped bluff body. Loud speakers were embedded inside the bluff body to produce two zero-net-mass-flux jets through 2 mm-wide span-wise slots located along the upper and lower edges on the rear wall. The drag forces for different actuation amplitudes (Cμ, the ratio between the momentum of the actuating jets and the moment deficit caused by the bluff body and frequencies (StA were examined. The effects of the phase difference in the two jets (0 and π were also studied. It was found that when Cμ was 0.1%, a drag reduction up to 5% was achieved when the velocities of the two jets varied in phase at a frequency of StA=0.16. When the velocities of the two jets varied π out of phase, significant drag increase was observed.

  17. Transition to bluff body dynamics in the wake of vertical axis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John

    2015-11-01

    A unifying characteristic among bluff bodies is a similar wake structure independent of the shape of the body. We present experimental data to demonstrate that the wake of a vertical axis wind/water turbine (VAWT) shares similar features to that of a bluff body, namely a circular cylinder. For a fixed Reynolds number (Re ~ 104) and variable tip-speed ratio, 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field in the wake of three different laboratory-scale turbines: a 2-bladed, 3-bladed, and 5-bladed VAWT, each with similar geometry. From the PIV measurements, the time-averaged and dynamic characteristics of the wake are evaluated. In all cases, we observe three distinct regions in the VAWT wake: (1) the near wake, where periodic blade shedding dominates; (2) a transition region, where blade vortices decay and growth of a shear layer instability occurs; (3) the far wake, where bluff body wake oscillations dominate. We further characterize this wake transition with regard to turbine solidity and examine its relation to the mean flow, an important metric for power production within a wind farm.

  18. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized lean premixed syngas flames in a meso-scale channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2016-07-15

    Direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized by a bluff-body in a meso-scale channel at near blow-off conditions, in order to provide fundamental insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the critical phenomena. Flames in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with a square flame holder are adopted as the model configuration, and a syngas mixture at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with the CO:H ratio of 1 is considered. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blow-off limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to the blow-off limit, the recovery mode fails to occur but the flame survives as a short kernel attached to the base of the bluff-body, until it is completely extinguished as the attached flames are gradually shrunk towards the bluff-body. The results are systematically compared with the hydrogen flame results reported in our earlier study. Examination of the characteristic time scales of relevant processes provided understanding of key mechanisms responsible for the observed differences, thereby allowing improved description of the local extinction and re-ignition dynamics that are critical to flame stabilization.

  19. Interaction between leading and trailing edge vortex shedding: effects of bluff body geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2011-11-01

    Elongated bluff bodies are distinguished from shorter bluff bodies (e.g., circular cylinders) by the fact that they have separating-reattaching flow at the leading edge as well as having vortex shedding at the trailing edge. Engineering examples of these bodies include heat exchanger fins and long-span suspension bridges. We have performed experiments on elongated bluff bodies of varying geometry. These experiments have been performed at Reynolds numbers O(104) based on the thickness of the model. Both surface pressure measurements (using 512 simultaneously sampled pressure taps) and PIV are used to quantify the flow fields of these bodies. The leading edge separation angle is controlled by changing the leading edge geometry. It is observed that the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases with increasing leading edge separation angle. As the size of the leading edge separation bubble increases, it is shown to continually decrease the shedding frequency for a given elongation ratio. It is suggested that the shedding frequency is diminished because the trailing edge vortex shedding is affected by the structures being shed from the leading edge separation bubble. The implications of this competition between leading and trailing edge flows will be explored.

  20. 77 FR 59646 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Garrison, Redstone Arsenal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Arsenal, Huntsville, AL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Garrison, Redstone Arsenal, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Redstone Arsenal....

  1. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  2. A quasi-steady 3 degree-of-freedom model for the determination of the onset of bluff body galloping instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, H.; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a quasi-steady three degree-of-freedom (3-dof) flow-induced galloping instability model for bluff-bodies is proposed. The proposed model can be applied generally for the prediction of onset of galloping instability due to negative aerodynamic damping of any prismatic compact bluff...... of galloping instability due changes in drag, lift and moment, assuming that the bluff body is subject to uniform flow and motion. The changes may be a function of wind angle of attack (a) perpendicular to bluff body’s length axis, Reynolds number and a skew wind angle (f) in relation to the length axis...

  3. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  4. The response of a harmonically forced premixed flame stabilized on a heat-conducting bluff-body

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the unsteady response of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame to harmonic inlet velocity excitation. A time series analysis was performed to analyze the physical sequence of events at a fixed longitudinal forcing frequency of 100 Hz for cases with (1) two different equivalence ratios and (2) two different thermal properties of the stabilizing bluff-body. It was observed that conjugate heat exchange between the heat conducting bluff-body and the surrounding reacting flow has a crucial impact on the dynamic response. The flame area and anchoring location, the net conjugate heat transfer and the total heat release underwent significant oscillations. The latter was mean shifted and had multiple frequencies. The burning velocity varied significantly along the flame length and the recirculation zone underwent complex changes in its shape and size during an unsteady cycle. The lower equivalence ratio case exhibited vortex shedding after an initial symmetric response with periodic flame extinction and re-ignition along its surface, unlike the higher equivalence ratio case. The metal/ceramic bluff-body showed a net heat transfer directed from/to the bluff-body, to/from the reacting flow during an unsteady cycle, resulting in a significantly different flame response for the two otherwise equivalent cases.

  5. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  6. Guide to Surficial Geology and River-Bluff Exposures, Noatak National Preserve, Northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    From its origin in rugged granitic highlands of the central Brooks Range, the Noatak River flows westward between the De Long Mountains and the Baird Mountains before turning south to enter Kotzebue Sound. Glaciers of middle and late Pleistocene age entered the Noatak River valley from the east, north, and south. Glaciers flowed down the upper Noatak River valley from the rugged peaks at its head, merging with tributary glaciers that issued from cirque-headed valleys along its south flank. Farther downvalley, small glaciers flowed northward from the Baird Mountains and much larger glaciers issued from the De Long Mountains. The De Long Mountains glaciers expanded southward to cover parts of the Noatak valley floor; they dammed the Noatak River during successive advances, creating a series of glacial lakes. The more extensive glacial advances dammed huge lakes that filled the Aniuk Lowland to overflowing. At various times, overflow waters spilled northward through Howard Pass, southward via Hunt River into the Kobuk River system, and westward down a series of channelways that skirted south of the glacier margins. Prominent bluffs along the Noatak River and its principal tributaries reveal glacial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and eolian sediments. More than 120 measured bluff exposures are described and illustrated in this report. These are dated by 92 radiocarbon age determinations and by the presence of the old Crow tephra, which was deposited about 130,000-140,000 years ago. Six geologic base maps, which cover sections of the Noatak River valley from east to west, show the locations of the river bluffs in relation to the glacial, glaciolacustrine, and fluvial deposits that cover the valley floor. The upper Noatak River valley is dominated by a bulky end moraine near Douglas Creek that was deposited during the last glacial maximum about 25,000-15,000 14C yr BP (termed the Itkillik II phase in the central Brooks Range glacial succession). Bluffs along this section of

  7. Map showing recent and historic landslide activity on coastal bluffs of Puget Sound between Shilshole Bay and Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Harp, E.L.; Hultman, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many landslides occurred on the coastal bluffs between Seattle and Everett, Washington during the winters of 1996 and 1997. Shallow earth slides and debris flows were the most common, but a few deep-seated rotational earth slides also occurred. The landslides caused significant property damage and interfered with rail traffic; future landslides in the area pose significant hazards to property and public safety. Field observations indicate that ground-water seepage, runoff concentration, and dumping at the tops of the bluffs all contributed to instability of the bluffs. Most landslides in the study area occurred in colluvium, residuum, and landslide deposits derived from the Vashon Drift, particularly the advance outwash. In the northern part of the area, colluvium derived from the Pleistocene Whidbey Formation was also involved in shallow landslides. Comparison of recent activity with historic records in the southern part of the map area indicates that landslides tend to occur in many of the same areas as previous landslides.

  8. Natural resource management plan : Volume I : Department of the Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Natural resource management plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was prepared by Colorado State University for the U.S. Government to guide management to...

  9. Biological Advisory Subcommittee (BAS) Minutes, Members, & Agendas : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains a variety of documents produced by the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR's Biological Advisory Subcommittee (BAS) in 1998, from June 3, 1998 to...

  10. [Documents related to the compatibility determination of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Administration Building : 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linked through this record are four separate documents related to the compatibility determination of a new Administration Building at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in...

  11. Health of mule and white-tailed deer at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : March-April 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer(~ virginianus), reside within the Arsenal. Little information about the health of these animals in relation to...

  12. [American Badger Study : Sample Tissue Tracking Logs : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains the sample tissue tracking log data sheets related to the American Badger Study conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge.

  13. Spill Prevention, Control, & Countermeasures Plan : November 25, 2008 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the procedures, methods, and equipment used at USFWS Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge to comply with EPA oil spill prevention,...

  14. 2016 Black-footed Ferret Fall Population Survey at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report summarizing the fall 2016 and spring 2017 black-footed ferret surveys at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. The primary objectives of the...

  15. [Memos related to the 2015 Bison Round Up : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains three memorandums regarding the 2015 Bison Round Up on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Pages 1-2 contain a...

  16. [Memos related to the 2013 Bison Round Up : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains three memorandums regarding the 2013 Bison Round Up on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Pages 1-3 contain a...

  17. [EPA Memorandum regarding the 2014 Bison Round Up : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains a correspondence from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR to the Environmental Protection Agency explaining the process the Service will use for the...

  18. Research proposal : ecology of coyotes and badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for a masters research project on badgers and coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The primary objective of this research is to gain more...

  19. Proposal : coyote abundance, food habits, and reproduction at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to research coyote reproduction and diet at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in 2005. This study will estimate the abundance of coyotes...

  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) contingency plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Disease contingency plan to reduce avian mortality from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HAPI) outbreaks at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  1. Restoration research at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge final report [for 1995-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat during and...

  2. Restoration research at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge fifth year report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat during and...

  3. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fiscal year 1992 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal field office : Fiscal year 1989 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1989 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  5. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  6. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Interim Plan for Weekend Visitor Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an interim plan for weekend visitors designed to provide for the safety of visitors to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal during its remediation and transition to a...

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  8. Water Management Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (revised January 2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents the legal framework and monitoring protocols associated with water quantity and quality on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife refuge : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  11. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  12. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  13. Long-term contaminant biomonitoring program for terrestrial ecological receptors at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collaborative document presents a plan developed and recommended by the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Biological Advisory Subcommittee (BAS) for long-term...

  14. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The...

  15. FY 2007 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2007 fiscal year. This report...

  16. Irondale Gulch : Draft Water Management Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Irondale Gulch draft Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose...

  17. Bat population monitoring and conservation at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the bat populations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) was conducted from 1997–1998, which provided basic population and contaminant...

  18. FY 2008 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2008 fiscal year. This report...

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 1995 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 fiscal year. The report begins with...

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 1993 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  1. FY 2010 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2010 fiscal year. This report...

  2. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  3. FY 2009 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2009 fiscal year. This report...

  4. FY 2013 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2013 fiscal year. This report...

  5. FY 2011 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2011 fiscal year. This report...

  6. FY 2012 progress report for Army funded activities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) outlines activities on the refuge funded by the Army during the 2012 fiscal year. This report...

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Medical Monitoring Program : July 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines the medical surveillance procedures for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  8. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Data Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This document...

  9. Biological Monitoring of Pesticides, Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses phase one of three ecological monitoring efforts to occur on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. These monitoring efforts are a part of a larger...

  10. Protocols for the collection of fortuitous specimens : [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol describes in detail every aspect of how fortuitous specimens from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) will be handled by the...

  11. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative report : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction...

  12. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2004 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction...

  13. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2005 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction...

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : January 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year, and from January through September...

  15. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Hazard Communication Plan [January 27, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes how the Service’s Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex facility plans to identify the chemicals, their associated hazards (physical or chemical in...

  16. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR - Safety, Occupational Health, and Environmental Self-Inspection : 2013 : Memorandum

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is prefaced by a memorandum, from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR's Project Leader to the Chief of the Division of Safety, Occupational Health, and...

  17. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2013 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  18. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2014 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  19. Integrated Pest Management Plan For Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  20. [Draft] Black-tailed prairie dog management plan : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan provides a framework or set of guidelines providing for a sustainable black-tailed prairie dog population at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National...

  1. [Miscellaneous Tabular Data : 2014 Bison Round Up : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference contains three tabular data files containing the data obtained during the 2014 Bison Round Up on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge;...

  2. [Miscellaneous Tabular Data : 2013 Bison Round Up : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference contains three tabular data files containing the data obtained during the 2013 Bison Round Up on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge;...

  3. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Calendar Year 2014 Annual Work Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Work Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex details in a bullet-format the complex's priorities, timeline, and budget for...

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Calendar Year 2017 Annual Work Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Work Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex details in a bullet-format the complex's priorities, timeline, and budget for...

  5. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Calendar Year 2015 Annual Work Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Work Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex details in a bullet-format the complex's priorities, timeline, and budget for...

  6. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex : Calendar Year 2016 Annual Work Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Work Plan for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex details in a bullet-format the complex's priorities, timeline, and budget for...

  7. The potential effects of Rocky Mountain Arsenal cleanup and Denver metropolitan transportation development on bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Colorado's Barr Lake State Park provide habitats which support wintering and nesting bald eagles near metropolitan Denver,...

  8. General Development Plan : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : March 2017 [DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This General Development Plan (GDP) is a step-down plan to the 2015 Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The GDP...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge sampling and analysis plan : bison pesticide residue study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to demonstrate that dieldrin concentrations in bison tissues from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National...

  10. [Overview of Bison on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : Commerce City, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presentation offers an overview of the history of bison on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), the species' characteristics, the role...

  11. Comprehensive Conservation Plan : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Colorado : December 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan is for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado. It is the result of extensive public input and close...

  12. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  13. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  15. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  16. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area : Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : Fiscal year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Fish and Wildlife Management Plan was prepared to guide U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) study and work...

  17. Restoration efforts and prairie dog management at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is being re-seeded to native shortgrass prairie, but the effects of prairie dog.colonization on some sites may be...

  18. Report of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and mercury analysis : Rocky Mountain Arsenal project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contaminant study at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal to determine the levels of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and mercury in various sample substrates as well as background...

  19. [Review of Environmental Contaminants Data and Monitoring Program : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes data reviewed at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge on March 25, 1997, and offers additional comments.

  20. Contaminants in fish and game animals on Rocky Mountain Arsenal 1983-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biological monitoring program was begun on Rocky Mountain Arsenal in 1977. Phase 1 of this program was a screening study to determine the general extent of...

  1. Final Report : Contaminants in Aquatic Systems at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From May to November 1984, the U. S. Army, Rocky Mountain Arsenal funded the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Colorado State University to collect and analyze...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Data Evaulation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This document...

  3. Interim report on pesticide levels in fish from two industrial lakes at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on pesticide levels from fish taken from Lower Derby Lake and Lake Ladora at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in 1975. Dieldrin and aldrin levels were measured in...

  4. Contaminants in fish and game animals on Rocky Mountain Arsenal 1977-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biological monitoring program was begun on Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1977. Phase I of this program was a screening study to determine the general extent of...

  5. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Food Safety Program, Tissue Collection Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This is the first of...

  6. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Field Office : Fiscal year 1991 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1991 fiscal year. The report begins with a...

  7. Recent development of vortex method in incompressible viscous bluff body flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lan; JI Feng; FAN Jian-ren; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Vortex methods have been alternative tools of finite element and finite difference methods for several decades. This paper presents a brief review of vortex method development in the last decades and introduces efficient vortex methods developed for high Reynolds number bluffbody flows and suitable for running on parallel computer architectures. Included in this study are particle strength exchange methods, core-spreading method, deterministic particle method and hybrid vortex methods. Combined with conservative methods, vortex methods can comprise the most available tools for simulations of three-dimensional complex bluff body flows at high Reynolds numbers.

  8. Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow with Reynolds stress turbulent models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guoxiu; Dirk ROEKAERTS

    2005-01-01

    Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow has been performed using differential Reynolds stress models (DRSMs). To clarify the applicability of the existing DRSMs in this complex flow, several typical DRSMs, including LRR-IP model, JM model, SSG model, as well as a modified LRR-IP model, have been validated and evaluated. The performance difference between various DRSMs is quite significant. Most of the above mentioned DRSMs cannot provide overall satisfactory predictions for this challenging test case. Motivated by the deficiency of the existing approaches, a new modification of LRR-IP model has been proposed. A very significant improvement of the prediction of flow field is obtained.

  9. Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian Triassic boundary in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack, Gregory J.; Greaver, Tara; Jahren, A. Hope

    2007-01-01

    Coalsack Bluff was the first discovery site in Antarctica for the latest Permian to earliest Triassic reptile Lystrosaurus. This together with discovery of Permian Glossopteris leaves during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, indicated not only that Antarctica was part of Gondwanaland, but also that Antarctic rocks recorded faunas from the greatest of all mass extinctions at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Pinpointing the exact stratigraphic level of this life crisis has recently become possible using δ 13C values in terrestrial organic matter. Multiple, short-lived events of 13C depletion may reflect carbon cycle crises, with the isotopic change a measure of terrestrial and atmospheric disequilibrium. Additional evidence for ecosystem reorganization came from changes in paleosol types and their root traces. Such studies previously completed at the Antarctic localities of Graphite Peak, Mount Crean, Portal Mountain, Shapeless Mountain and Allan Hills, are here extended to Coalsack Bluff. Carbon isotopic values in Permian rocks at Coalsack Bluff average - 23.08 ± 0.25‰, but begin to decline within the last coal with leaves ( Glossopteris), roots ( Vertebraria) and permineralized stumps ( Araucarioxylon) of glossopterids. The low point in ä 13C values is - 27.19‰ at 5.6 m above the last coal, which is capped by unusually abundant pyrite, and a claystone breccia with common clasts of redeposited clayey soils. Above this are massive quartz-rich sandstones of braided streams, considered a geomorphic response to deforestation and soil erosion following the mass extinction. Distinctive berthierine-bearing paleosols (Dolores pedotype) within these sandstones have unoxidized iron taken as evidence of severe groundwater hypoxia. Other paleosols at this stratigraphic level are like those in other Early Triassic rocks of Antarctica, which indicate unusually warm and humid conditions for such high paleolatitude lowlands. Waterlogging is also indicated by newly

  10. Dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation on a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the flow separation on a circular cylinder (or any bluff body) during wind tunnel tests is described. The technique consists of (1) application of a thin coating composed of an indicator and a paint carrier; (2) drying of the film; (3) conditioning of the coating with an acidic solution to ensure a suitable color reaction; (4) release into the body wake of a gas able to produce a base through chemical reaction with the solvent of the conditioning solution; and (5) color reaction according to pH.

  11. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Level II Analysis. Rock Island Arsenal, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    room was later renovated in the 1960s and a hot zeolite lime/soda ash system was installed. A newer hot zeolite system was in- stalled in the late...University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60607-7054 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for Rock Island Arsenal...Arsenal to prepare the DD1391 form for FY07 Army ECIP funding application. Support of project implementation and savings verification can be provided

  12. Characterization of the turbulent bistable flow regime of a 2 D bluff body wake disturbed by a small control cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parezanović, Vladimir; Monchaux, Romain; Cadot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A small control cylinder placed in a turbulent wake of a much larger 2 D bluff body can cause a significant increase in drag fluctuations. These fluctuations occur on timescales longer than the timescales of the vortex shedding. The critical positions of the control cylinder are highly localized. Ensemble averages of PIV acquisitions and pressure measurements at the base of the bluff body reveal a bistable wake regime. Long duration hot-wire measurements are used to characterize the states and the transition process. The results show that a stochastic process is responsible for the transitions between the two stable states.

  13. Real and nominal collisions in the arsenal of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Kiselev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines forms and methods of public administration in the transitional society in terms of the adequacy of its arsenal to the goals and objectives of social modernization. The authors assess strategic and tactical capabilities of the established management practices to meet the challenges of organization and self-organization of social life; analyze the resources and legal sufficiency of the administrative-territorial unit of power for operational and creative management. The authors believe that there is a serious barrier for effective relations of the federal center and the subjects - uncertainty of the integrated system of uniform and permanent principles, which does not allow both levels to function as a single social institution and prevents establishing a stable and productive power “vertical”. It is difficult to increase the manageability of regions as administrative-territorial forms without establishing the whole complex of relations between different levels of administration. The author describe the main control mechanism at the current stage of Russian reforms - regulation, its nature, functions and technological basis; define the basis for implementing two leading principles of regulation in the social and economic life of the country and its regions - territorial and sectoral; underline the need for the subjects of management (authorities to overcome the existing imbalances within their competence, or by the coordination of administrative nominality and reality.

  14. Simulation, Modeling and Feedback Control of the flow around a Square-Back Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Longa, Laurent; Morgans, Aimee; Imperial College London-Flow Control Team

    2015-11-01

    Because of capacity, aesthetic and comfort requirements, most road vehicles are not streamlined but blunt bluff bodies. The flow exhibits a large wake recirculation area leading to high pressure drag, which at highway speeds, represents the main source of energy loss. In this work, Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past a square-back bluff body with interacting shear layers are performed with the aim of reducing aerodynamic drag. A linear feedback control strategy is applied to increase the back face pressure and therefore obtain drag reduction. Synthetic jets located along the perimeter of the back face are used for actuation while body mounted sensors record the base pressure. System identification, via harmonic actuator forcing, is used to characterize the flow response to actuation, which is assumed to be dynamically linear. Based on the identified frequency response, a feedback controller is designed in the frequency domain which aims to either attenuate or amplify base pressure fluctuations by shaping of the sensitivity transfer function. This is first done for a D-shaped body. Current work extends this strategy to a simplified lorry geometry on which experiments were carried out recently.

  15. Results of hydrologic monitoring on landslide-prone coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joel B.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Michel, Abigail R.; Stark, Ben

    2017-08-31

    A hydrologic monitoring network was installed to investigate landslide hazards affecting the railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound between Seattle and Everett, near Mukilteo, Washington. During the summer of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring equipment at four sites equipped with instrumentation to measure rainfall and air temperature every 15 minutes. Two of the four sites are installed on contrasting coastal bluffs, one landslide scarred and one vegetated. At these two sites, in addition to rainfall and air temperature, volumetric water content, pore pressure, soil suction, soil temperature, and barometric pressure were measured every 15 minutes. The instrumentation was designed to supplement landslide-rainfall thresholds developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with a long-term goal of advancing the understanding of the relationship between landslide potential and hydrologic forcing along the coastal bluffs. Additionally, the system was designed to function as a prototype monitoring system to evaluate criteria for site selection, instrument selection, and placement of instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system, present the data collected since installation, and describe significant events represented within the dataset, which is published as a separate data release. The findings provide insight for building and configuring larger, modular monitoring networks.

  16. Bluff-body stabilized flame dynamics of lean premixed syngas combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hong G.; Kim, Yu Jeong; Lee, Bok Jik; Kaust Team

    2015-11-01

    Recently, syngas combustion has been actively investigated for the potential application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While lean premixed combustion is attractive for both reduced emission and enhanced efficiency, flame instability becomes often an issue. Bluff-bodies have been adopted as effective flame holders for practical application of premixed flames. In the present study, high-fidelity direct numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of lean premixed syngas flames stabilized on a bluff-body, in particular at the near blow-off regime of the flame. A two-dimensional domain of 4 mm height and 20 mm length with a flame holder of a 1 mm-by-1 mm square geometry is used. For a syngas mixture with the equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the CO:H2 ratio of 1, several distinct flame modes are identified as the inflow velocity approaches to the blowoff limit. The sequences of extinction pathway and combustion characteristics are discussed.

  17. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Modelling and Feedback Control of Bistability in a Turbulent Bluff Body Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackston, Rowan; Wynn, Andrew; Garcia de La Cruz, Juan Marcos; Rigas, Georgios; Morrison, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The turbulent wake behind many three-dimensional bluff bodies exhibits a bistable behaviour, the properties of which has been the subject of significant recent interest. This feature of the wake is known to contribute to the pressure drag on the body and is relevant for geometries representative of many road vehicles. Furthermore, due to its high visibility from surface mounted pressure measurements, it is a feature that may be observed and controlled in real-time. In Brackston et al. we have recently demonstrated such a feedback control strategy that aims to suppress the bistable feature of the wake. Starting from a stochastic modelling approach, we identify a linearised model for this mode of the flow, obtaining parameters via a system identification. The identified model is then used to design the feedback controller, with the aim of restoring the flow to the unstable, symmetric state. The controller is implemented experimentally at Re 2 . 3 ×105 and is found to both suppress the bistability of the flow and reduce the drag on the body. Furthermore, the control system is found to have a positive energy balance, providing a key demonstration of efficient feedback control applied to a 3D bluff body wake at turbulent Reynolds numbers.

  19. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  20. Pumice in the interglacial Whidbey Formation at Blowers Bluff, central Whidbey Island, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, D.P.; Dragovich, J.D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A new 40Ar/39Ar age of 128??9 ka and chemical analyses of pumice layers from interglacial alluvium at Blowers Bluff, Whidbey Island, WA, show that the deposits are part of the Whidbey Formation, a widespread, mainly subsurface unit. Glass chemistry of the dated dacitic pumice does not match any analyzed northern Cascade source, but upper Pleistocene dacites from Glacier Peak and early Pleistocene silicic rocks from the Kulshan caldera are chemically similar. The chemistry of pumiceous dacite in younger units, including the latest Pleistocene Partridge Gravel, is similar to that of the dated material. The deep troughs of the modern northern Puget lowland must have been filled during deposition of the Whidbey Formation, allowing volcanic-rich sediment to reach what is now Whidbey Island. Topographic analysis of LIDAR images demonstrates that extensive erosion occurred during latest Pleistocene ice retreat. The Partridge Gravel likely records subglacial fluvial erosion along an ice tunnel and ice-marginal deposition into adjacent marine waters. Pumice in the Partridge Gravel probably was reworked from stratigraphically and topographically lower deposits, including those at Blowers Bluff. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  1. Transitions to chaos in the wake of an axisymmetric bluff body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.bury@isae.fr [Université de Toulouse, ISAE, 10, avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Jardin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.jardin@isae.fr [Université de Toulouse, ISAE, 10, avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-01

    This Letter aims at understanding the dynamical process that leads to the onset of chaos in the flow past a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. On the basis of direct numerical simulations, conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 900, we show that the flow undergoes multiple transitions, successively giving rise to the SS, RSP{sub a}, RSP{sub b}, RSP{sub c} and RSB wake states. In particular, the RSP{sub c} state, revealed in this work via long-term computations, is characterized by intermittent vortex stretching denoting the onset of chaos before the symmetry breaking and the occurrence of the RSB state. -- Highlights: ► We performed long-term Direct Numerical Simulations of the flow past an axisymmetric bluff body. ► We reveal the existence of a new wake mode. ► We show that this mode triggers chaos before the loss of planar symmetry in the wake. ► We decipher the transitions leading to this mode through the description of the wake structures.

  2. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  3. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...

  4. Error analysis of large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed sydney bluff-body flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, A.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Oefelein, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A computational error analysis is applied to the large-eddy simulation of the turbulent non-premixed Sydney bluff-body flame, where the error is defined with respect to experimental data. The errorlandscape approach is extended to heterogeneous compressible turbulence, which is coupled to combustion

  5. Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, P.A.; Closs, L.G.; Silberman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this

  6. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  8. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step combustors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Chakravarthy; R Sivakumar; O J Shreenivasan

    2007-02-01

    Experimental data on acoustic pressure measurements obtained over a wide range of conditions is reported for two simple geometries that are commonly studied for their combustion dynamics behaviour. These geometries are the confined bluff-body and the confined backward-facing steps. The data indicate regimes of flow-acoustic lock-on that signifies the onset of combustion instability, marked by the excitation of high-amplitude discrete tones of sound in the combustor. The highspeed chemiluminescence imaging of the combustion zone indicates heat-release-rate fluctuations occurring at the same frequencies as observed in the acoustic spectra. Attention is then devoted to the data obtained under cold-flow conditions to illustrate distinctly different behaviour than when combustion instability occurs, contrary to the commonly held view that the combustion process does not alter the underlying fluid mechanical processes under low-Mach number conditions.

  9. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation. [bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the separation line on a bluff body was devised and successfully tested. This technique is based on the color reaction of a dry film containing a pH indicator with an appropriate gas released in the body wake. The dry-surface coating method is effective at any Reynolds number and for both incident laminar and turbulent flows. It further supplies a colorful permanent of consistently good photographic quality of the separation line. The effectiveness and accuracy of this technique were tested in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder in both laminar and turbulent crossflows at subcritical Reynolds numbers. Separation angles revealed by the visualization were within + or - 4 percent of their counterparts deduced from the mean wall pressure distribution.

  10. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  11. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Heng; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2006-04-15

    Modeling air pollutant transport and dispersion in urban environments is especially challenging due to complex ground topography. In this study, we describe a large eddy simulation (LES) tool including a new dynamic subgrid closure and boundary treatment to model urban dispersion problems. The numerical model is developed, validated, and extended to a realistic urban layout. In such applications fairly coarse grids must be used in which each building can be represented using relatively few grid-points only. By carrying out LES of flow around a square cylinder and of flow over surface-mounted cubes, the coarsest resolution required to resolve the bluff body's cross section while still producing meaningful results is established. Specifically, we perform grid refinement studies showing that at least 6-8 grid points across the bluff body are required for reasonable results. The performance of several subgrid models is also compared. Although effects of the subgrid models on the mean flow are found to be small, dynamic Lagrangian models give a physically more realistic subgrid-scale (SGS) viscosity field. When scale-dependence is taken into consideration, these models lead to more realistic resolved fluctuating velocities and spectra. These results set the minimum grid resolution and subgrid model requirements needed to apply LES in simulations of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow and scalar transport over a realistic urban geometry. The results also illustrate the advantages of LES over traditional modeling approaches, particularly its ability to take into account the complex boundary details and the unsteady nature of atmospheric boundary layer flow. Thus LES can be used to evaluate probabilities of extreme events (such as probabilities of exceeding threshold pollutant concentrations). Some comments about computer resources required for LES are also included.

  12. A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-19

    Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

  13. Experimental investigation of galloping piezoelectric energy harvesters with square bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewere, Felix; Wang, Gang; Cain, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, both a baseline galloping piezoelectric energy harvester (GPEH) with a square bluff body and an improved GPEH with an impact bump stop are tested in a wind tunnel in order to determine the system damping, electrical response and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude. In the baseline GPEH, harvested voltage, LCO amplitude and damping ratio vary with wind velocity and electrical load. They all increase with increasing wind velocity under the same electrical load. Under each wind velocity, the damping ratio increases from the short circuit load, reaches a peak value at the electrical load resulting in a maximum voltage, and reduces the value at the open circuit load. The LCO amplitude shows the opposite trend compared to the damping case. It decreases as the electrical resistance load increases and reaches the minimum value when the damping ratio is highest. A resistance load of 100 kΩ yields a maximum peak power output. The impact stop is introduced to reduce bending stresses and improve the fatigue life of the baseline GPEH. The performance of the improved GPEH depends on the stop design parameters such as gap size, stop location and contact area. Comprehensive tests were conducted to investigate the effect of each parameter on the performance of the improved GPEH and an optimal bump stop configuration was determined. Compared to the expected proportional reduction in both electrical and structural responses, a maximum 70% reduction in LCO amplitude and only a maximum 20% reduction in harvested voltage are achieved in our optimal improved GPEH. The time variable and motion dependent aerodynamic forces acting on the bluff body could contribute to this. In summary, comprehensive experimental evaluations were conducted to characterize the performance of both baseline GPEHs and improved GPEHs. The baseline GPEH service life can be significantly improved by incorporating an impact bump stop. The improved GPEH design provides a practical solution to

  14. Legionella pneumophila, armed to the hilt: justifying the largest arsenal of effectors in the bacterial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Alexander W

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use dedicated translocation systems to deliver arsenals of effector proteins to their hosts. Once inside the host cytosol, these effectors modulate eukaryotic cell biology to acquire nutrients, block microbial degradation, subvert host defenses, and enable pathogen transmission to other hosts. Among all bacterial pathogens studied to date, the gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, maintains the largest arsenal of effectors, with over 330 effector proteins translocated by the Dot/Icm type IVB translocation system. In this review, I will discuss some of the recent work on understanding the consequences of this large arsenal. I will also present several models that seek to explain how L. pneumophila has acquired and subsequently maintained so many more effectors than its peers.

  15. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  16. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  17. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-02 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Arsenal) is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following...

  18. Status of vegetation management activity in the Bald Eagle Management Area and other sites at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation management program for the Bald Eagle Management Area (BEMA) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (RMA, the Arsenal) was initiated in the...

  19. Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing: A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing A RepoRt by the ApS pAnel on public AffAiRS TM Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing : A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs 5a...Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Verifying Downsizing and Dismantlement 5 Sustaining Capability and Expertise 15 Ensuring Peaceful Uses of

  20. ARSENAL25%SL防除非耕地杂草研究%Study on The Application of Arsenal (Imazapyr)for Controlling Weeds In Non-cropland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国辉; 石鑫; 杨烈; 王学鹗

    2001-01-01

    2年的田间试验结果证明,ARSENAL25%SL是防除非耕地杂草的优秀除草剂,它不仅可有效地防除出苗后的一年生和多年生单、双子叶杂草,对未出土的杂草有明显的封杀作用,ARSENAL25%SL750~1000ml/hm2药后60d的总防效高达99.2%~100%,持效期为90~120d,因而一次用药可保证长时间无草.

  1. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  3. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Zhang, Jianhui; Xia, Qixiao; Wang, Shouyin; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2014-05-01

    Existing researches on no-moving part valves in valve-less piezoelectric pumps mainly concentrate on pipeline valves and chamber bottom valves, which leads to the complex structure and manufacturing process of pump channel and chamber bottom. Furthermore, position fixed valves with respect to the inlet and outlet also makes the adjustability and controllability of flow rate worse. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper puts forward a novel implantable structure of valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segments in the pump chamber. Based on the theory of flow around bluff-body, the flow resistance on the spherical and round surface of hemisphere-segment is different when fluid flows through, and the macroscopic flow resistance differences thus formed are also different. A novel valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body (HSBB) is presented and designed. HSBB is the no-moving part valve. By the method of volume and momentum comparison, the stress on the bluff-body in the pump chamber is analyzed. The essential reason of unidirectional fluid pumping is expounded, and the flow rate formula is obtained. To verify the theory, a prototype is produced. By using the prototype, experimental research on the relationship between flow rate, pressure difference, voltage, and frequency has been carried out, which proves the correctness of the above theory. This prototype has six hemisphere-segments in the chamber filled with water, and the effective diameter of the piezoelectric bimorph is 30mm. The experiment result shows that the flow rate can reach 0.50 mL/s at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 110 V. Besides, the pressure difference can reach 26.2 mm H2O at the frequency of 6 Hz and the voltage of 160 V. This research proposes a valve-less piezoelectric pump with hemisphere-segment bluff-body, and its validity and feasibility is verified through theoretical analysis and experiment.

  4. Model Validation for Propulsion - On the TFNS and LES Subgrid Models for a Bluff Body Stabilized Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the reacting results of simulating a bluff body stabilized flame experiment of Volvo Validation Rig using a releasable edition of the National Combustion Code (NCC). The turbulence models selected to investigate the configuration are the sub-grid scaled kinetic energy coupled large eddy simulation (K-LES) and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) simulation. The turbulence chemistry interaction used is linear eddy mixing (LEM).

  5. Successional changes and water quality in artificial wetlands at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service created five wetlands on Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) during the summer and fall of 1991. These wetlands were...

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

  7. Seismic activity during the 1968 test pumping at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Donald B.; Dietrich, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1968 pumping tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal welt, the U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for monitoring earthquakes occurring in the area of the arsenal and making chemical analysis of the fluids removed, three criteria were established to suspend the pumping if anomalous earthquake activity occurred during the pumping test. These criteria were based on the frequency, magnitude, and location of the local earthquakes. The pumping program consisted of four tests which occurred between September 3 and October 26, 1968. During periods of pumping, earthquake activity remained within acceptable limits and no suspensions of the pumping were required. After each of the two major pumping periods an increase in the frequency of small earthquakes occurred. During the first of these two periods of high seismic activity the Geological Survey recommended a delay in the start of the next phase of the pumping until the activity subsided. Most of the earthquakes during 1968 occurred northwest of the arsenal; however, in the 2? month period after the start of the test, a larger percent of the earthquakes occurred on the arsenal than in the previous 8-month period. The temperature in the cooled zone at the bottom of the well was 12?F warmer 2 weeks after pumping stopped than it was in January 1968. Preliminary chemical analyses indicate that very little mixing between waste fluids and connate water bas occurred.

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

  9. Dr. Wernher Von Braun greeting dignitaries at the Redstone Arsenal airfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. George E. Mueller, center, associate administrator for manned space flight, is flanked by Dr. Wernher Von Braun, left, and Dr. Eberhard Rees at the Redstone Arsenal airstrip. the associate adminstrator was making his annual staff visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Improve Environmental Management Systems by Auditing with Lean Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improve Environmental Management Systems by Auditing with Lean Six Sigma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Systems by Auditing with Lean Six Sigma U.S. Army Joint Munitions Command (JMC) AMSJM-ISM 1 Rock Island Arsenal Rock Island, IL 61299 UNCLASSIFIED...Anniston MilanPine Bluff McAlester Hawthorne Tooele Production Sites Depot Distribution Sites Depot Archive Sites GOGO GOCO 3 UNCLASSIFIED Lean Six Sigma EMS

  11. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Coastal Bluff Erosion near Barrow Alaska over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, K. B.; Lopez, A. F.; Aguirre, A.; Aiken, Q.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Lougheed, V.; Velasco, A. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic coastal systems are recognized as being one of the most climate change - vulnerable ecosystems on Earth and represent a complex nexus for examining change at the interface between marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, cryospheric and social systems. Although coastal erosion has received increased attention in the Arctic, few studies have examined the fine scale spatiotemporal dynamics and variability in erosion rates relative to the range of factors that act concomitantly to control erosion (e.g. duration of ice free seas, bathymetry, wave action, sea and air temperature, landscape morphology). This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of annual DGPS surveys of eroding coastal bluffs in northern Alaska near the city of Barrow. Surveys along ca. 11km of the Elson Lagoon coast have been conducted since 2002 and additional surveys along ca. 120km of Elson Lagoon and Chuckhi Sea coast have been conducted since 2013. There has been strong inter-annual spatiotemporal variability in erosion rates with no indication of a long term change in erosion rates over time. Factors controlling wave intensity (e.g. wind run, off shore bathymetry, aspect of the coast relative to prevailing winds) explain most variability in erosion rates over time but during relatively calm periods, landscape history and morphology become more important. These findings highlight the extreme fine scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in erosion rates along the Arctic Coast, and the importance of incorporating both storm-related climatic events and landscape characteristics when forecasting future environmental states in Arctic coastal landscapes. Case studies outlining new remote sensing technologies and future directions of study will also be outlined including terrestrial and airborne LiDAR, and Kite, UAV, and satellite imagery that is being used to derive and monitor topographic and hydrological change near eroding coastal bluffs; a wireless sensor network of micrometeorological and optical

  12. Allergic Reactions to Pine Nut: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, B; Novak, N

    2015-01-01

    Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens.

  13. Biomimetic bluff body drag reduction by self-adaptive porous flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine

    2011-01-01

    The performances of an original passive control system based on a biomimetic approach are assessed by investigating the flow over a bluff-body. This control device consists in a couple of flaps made from the combination of a rigid plastic skeleton coated with a porous fabric mimicking the shaft and the vane of the bird's feathers, respectively. The sides of a square cylinder have been fitted with this system so as to enable the flaps to freely rotate around their leading edge. This feature allows the movable flaps to self-adapt to the flow conditions. Comparing both the uncontrolled and the controlled flow, a significant drag reduction (up to 22%) has been obtained over a broad range of Reynolds number. The investigation of the mean flow reveals a noticeable modification of the flow topology at large scale in the vicinity of the controlled cylinder accounting for the increase of the pressure base in comparison with the natural flow. Meanwhile, the study of the relative motion of both flaps points out that the...

  14. GPU accelerated simulations of bluff body flows using vortex particle methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinelli, Diego; Bergdorf, Michael; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-05-01

    We present a GPU accelerated solver for simulations of bluff body flows in 2D using a remeshed vortex particle method and the vorticity formulation of the Brinkman penalization technique to enforce boundary conditions. The efficiency of the method relies on fast and accurate particle-grid interpolations on GPUs for the remeshing of the particles and the computation of the field operators. The GPU implementation uses OpenGL so as to perform efficient particle-grid operations and a CUFFT-based solver for the Poisson equation with unbounded boundary conditions. The accuracy and performance of the GPU simulations and their relative advantages/drawbacks over CPU based computations are reported in simulations of flows past an impulsively started circular cylinder from Reynolds numbers between 40 and 9500. The results indicate up to two orders of magnitude speed up of the GPU implementation over the respective CPU implementations. The accuracy of the GPU computations depends on the Re number of the flow. For Re up to 1000 there is little difference between GPU and CPU calculations but this agreement deteriorates (albeit remaining to within 5% in drag calculations) for higher Re numbers as the single precision of the GPU adversely affects the accuracy of the simulations.

  15. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiao; Yang Fujiang; Guo Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transduc-ers. A high speed camera with CH*bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state grad-ually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  16. Flow Control Behind Bluff Bodies through the Interaction of an Attached Resonant Flexible Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Samuel; Smith, John; Hibbins, Alastair; Sambles, Roy; Horsley, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Steady uniform flow, incident upon a bluff body can separate downstream causing a wake to form, this leads to the periodic shedding of vortices behind the body. By adding a thin flexible tail to the rear of the body one may reduce the drag as well as change the vortex shedding frequency (VSF). In this work we model the flow past a cylinder, in the Laminar flow regime, with an attached tail, varying the length and stiffness of the tail to couple the resonant frequencies of the tail to the natural VSF of the structure. We use this to explore how the drag and VSF of the system change as we couple to different vibrational modes of the tail. On increasing tail length, or decreasing tail stiffness progressively on passing where the natural VSF of the cylinder and tail resonances couple we see sharp increases in both the drag and VSF, which both gradually decrease again. The effect of changing the shape of the end of the tail is also investigated by exploring tails with square, rounded and triangular trailing edges. Experiments are being conducted in water at a higher Reynolds number using a tail made out of Neoprene to confirm these modelling results. DSTL.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of flow control on bluff bodies by passive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, M.; Provenzano, G.; Pietrogiacomi, D.; Romano, G. P.

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the so-called natural or passive ventilation drag reduction method is investigated experimentally and numerically. Passive ventilation is performed by directly connecting the high pressure region at the front of a body to the lower pressure in the near wake using a venting duct; in this manner, a net mass flux is established within the wake. In particular, in aerodynamic applications it appears suitable to attain a global reduction in the drag of a body moving in a fluid and a reduction in turbulence levels by means of a global modification of the body wake. Velocity field investigations using particle image velocimetry measurements and a Reynolds averaged numerical code are employed at moderately high Reynolds numbers to clarify the effectiveness of drag reduction on a vented bluff body. The numerical and experimental results agree qualitatively, but the amount of reduction for the vented body (about 10%) is underestimated numerically. The effectiveness of drag reduction has been proved both for smooth and rough (single strip) models. Direct balance measurements are used for comparisons.

  18. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.

    1965-01-01

    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  19. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transducers. A high speed camera with CH∗ bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state gradually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  20. Numerical acoustic analysis of a turbulent flow around a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferra, Marta; Ianniello, Sandro; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    A body invested by a fluid flow gives rise to vortical and turbulent three-dimensional fields, whose structure depends on the shape of the body itself and the Reynolds number. Then, pressure fluctuations occur in the field and propagate far away as noise. The acoustic analogy based on the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) equation represents a rigorous way to deal with the problem, enabling the evaluation of noise through a post-processing of fluid dynamic data. Moreover, the presence of separate source terms theoretically allows to identify the dominant generating noise mechanisms taking place in the flow, which, of course, repre- sents a key information in view of any possible reduction or alteration of the acoustic field. This paper deals with a numerical, FWH-based acoustic analysis of a turbulent flow around a bluff body and, in particular, a 3D square cylinder in a uniform velocity field. The fluid dynamic solution is obtained through Large eddy simulations carried out using a standard Smagorinsky model at different Reynolds numbers. The acoustic solution is pursued by different integral solution forms of the FWH equation, in the attempt of recognizing the main noise sources and pointing out the potentiality and possible weak-points of the alternative numerical approaches.

  1. Erosional history of Cape Halkett and contemporary monitoring of bluff retreat, Beaufort Sea coast, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Beck, Richard A.; Grosse, Guido; Webster, James M.; Urban, Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Cape Halkett is located along the Beaufort Sea at the end of a low-lying tundra landscape. The area has been subject to major modifications over the last century as a result of erosion and migration of the coastline inland. Long-term mean annual erosion rates (1955-2009) for the entire cape are 7.6 m/yr, with a gradual increase in rates over the first five time periods of remotely sensed imagery analyzed and a large increase during the most recent time period. Division of the cape into three distinct coastal zones shows very different erosional patterns: the northeast-facing segment (Zone 1) showing a consistent and large increase; the southeast-facing segment (Zone 3) showing a gradual increase with recent, heightened erosion rates; and the east-facing segment (Zone 2) showing decreased rates due to the reformation of a sand and gravel spit. Monitoring of bluff erosion with time-lapse photography, differential GPS surveys, terrestrial and bathymetric surveys, and water level, sea and permafrost temperature data provide insights into the processes driving contemporary patterns of erosion and will provide valuable information for the prediction of future shoreline positions.

  2. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  3. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii has been reported to cause dysgeusia, commonly known as pine mouth, or pine nut syndrome (PNS). However, the number of reports on pine nut consumptions of the different species and PNS is limited. This leaves open the possibility...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  6. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  7. Traits of Masson Pine Affecting Attack of Pine Wood Nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Shi; You-Qing Luo; Ji-Ying Song; Hai-Wei Wu; Lei Wang; Gary Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Masson pine characteristics were analyzed in five sample plots in Zhejiang Province, China.Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacked Masson pines in the lower diameter classes.Among the 10 tree characteristics examined, mean crown width, percentage of bole with crown, 5-year cumulative diameter growth, and resin amount showed significant variation between successfully attacked and unattacked trees.The attacked trees had a lower percentage of the bole covered with tree crown, lower crown width, lower radial growth in the last 5 years, and produced less induced resinosis than unattacked trees.Results allowed for effective ranking of the pine forest based on individual tree resistance to PWN.This Index of resistance should be considered throughout the development of an "Evaluation Criterion and Indicator System".The preceding ranking can be used to evaluate the resistance and resiliency of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN's invasion, which is similar to Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).

  8. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  9. Bison Grazing Ecology at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado : Open File Report 2013-1112

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Refuge reintroduced bison to a small pasture in 2007. Refuge managers needed information on the effects of bison...

  10. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  11. Record of Decision for the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record of decision (ROD) for the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado provides the basis...

  12. Management of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Located approximately ten miles from downtown Denver, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR) encompasses 15,998 contiguous acres. Due to...

  13. Coyote abundance and food habits at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge in 2005 : final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined relative abundance, absolute density, and seasonal (late-winter through early fall) food habits of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National...

  14. 2012 mule deer and white-tailed deer census and population density estimate : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the 2012 deer census survey at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Census methods and survey results are discussed. A combination of census...

  15. [State Comments on U.S. Fish and Wildlife's Application of Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum prefaces the State of Colorado's comments on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's Application Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  16. Amendment to the Record of Decision for the On-Post Operable Unit, Rocky Mountain Arsenal Federal Facility Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This decision document amends the remedy decision for the Hex Pit project of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Federal Facility Site. The RMA is located in southern...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Bison Tail Bulb Biopsy and Tissue Necropsy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This is one of...

  18. Interim report on pesticide levels in fish collected 20 March 1975 from Lake Ladora at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on pesticide levels from fish taken from Lake Ladora at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in March 1975. Fish were then sent to the Dugway Proving Grounds for...

  19. [Response to Reviews : Woodward-Clyde Consultants Comments on Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Dieldrin Toxicity in Badgers : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter responds to a recent review of the proposed Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal by Mr. Doug Reagan of Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Enclosed are...

  20. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  1. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  2. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Pada Klub Sepak Bola (Studi Kasus Pada Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspur dan Everton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Chandra Pranata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Football is a popular sport that affect various aspects of life, one of which is the economy. In Europe, football has become an industry and the clubs most are already preparing financial statements. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of three football clubs that followed the Premier League as one of the best leagues in the world, Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspurs and Everton, for the period of 2007-2011. This study uses the technique of quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis using 14 financial ratios relevant to the football club. Results showed in general Arsenal is a club that has the best financial performance in comparison Tottenham Hotspurs and Everton, in particular in such matters, income and liquidity. Tottenham Hotspurs have advantages in terms of net investment over player contracts and operating cash flow. While Everton in general have the worst financial performance in terms of operations and liquidity, but has a good asset turn over.

  3. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Pada Klub Sepak Bola (Studi Kasus Pada Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspur dan Everton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Chandra Pranata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is a popular sport that affect various aspects of life, one of which is the economy. In Europe, football has become an industry and the clubs most are already preparing financial statements. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of three football clubs that followed the Premier League as one of the best leagues in the world, Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspurs and Everton, for the period of 2007-2011. This study uses the technique of quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis using 14 financial ratios relevant to the football club. Results showed in general Arsenal is a club that has the best financial performance in comparison Tottenham Hotspurs and Everton, in particular in such matters, income and liquidity. Tottenham Hotspurs have advantages in terms of net investment over player contracts and operating cash flow. While Everton in general have the worst financial performance in terms of operations and liquidity, but has a good asset turn over.

  4. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  5. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  6. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  7. Develop Documentation/Prepare Remedial Action Concept Plan for Building 24 Contamination Plume at Picatinny Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-28

    northeast-southwest system of folded and faulted Proterozoic to Devonian rocks that form a sequence of valleys and ridges. The Green Pond syncline is a...project that there is no biodegradation, a first order decay rate of zero. The shallow water table at the Picatinny Arsenal probably contains oxygen in...small amounts. This small amount of oxygen probably inhibits anaerobic breakdown of TCE. The confined glacial aquifers and bedrock aquifers probably

  8. Cultural Landscape Analysis of Existing Historic Districts: Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    installation for training during the WWII period. The arsenal also sent its staff far and wide to teach sampling inspection techniques and to supply...Huggan, Cultural Resource Manager , Environmental Affairs Division. The work was performed by the Land and Heritage Conservation Branch (CN-C) of the...Development and Engineering Center ATFP Anti-terrorism force protection APM asbestos protected metal CRM cultural resources manager CWA Civilian

  9. Nonlinear hydrodynamic and thermoacoustic oscillations of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin Yik; Li, Larry Kin Bong; Juniper, Matthew P.; Cant, Robert Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent premixed flames often experience thermoacoustic instabilities when the combustion heat release rate is in phase with acoustic pressure fluctuations. Linear methods often assume a priori that oscillations are periodic and occur at a dominant frequency with a fixed amplitude. Such assumptions are not made when using nonlinear analysis. When an oscillation is fully saturated, nonlinear analysis can serve as a useful avenue to reveal flame behaviour far more elaborate than period-one limit cycles, including quasi-periodicity and chaos in hydrodynamically or thermoacoustically self-excited system. In this paper, the behaviour of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed propane/air flame in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is found to be appropriate. Combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic closure for the flame surface density. The results are validated by comparison with existing experimental data and with large eddy simulation, and the observed self-excited oscillations in pressure and heat release are studied using methods derived from dynamical systems theory. A systematic analysis is carried out by increasing the equivalence ratio of the reactant stream supplied to the premixed flame. A strong variation in the global flame structure is observed. The flame exhibits a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillation at low equivalence ratios, becomes steady as the equivalence ratio is increased to intermediate values, and again exhibits a self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation at higher equivalence ratios. Rich nonlinear behaviour is observed and the investigation demonstrates that turbulent premixed flames can exhibit complex dynamical behaviour including quasiperiodicity, limit cycles and period-two limit cycles due to the interactions of various

  10. Modeling chloride movement in the alluvial aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1977-01-01

    A solute-transport model that can be used to predict the movement of dissolved chemicals in flowing ground water was applied to a problem of ground-water contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colo. The model couples a finite-difference solution to the ground-water flow equation with the method-of-characteristics solution to the solute-transport equation. From 1943 to 1956 liquid industrial wastes containing high chloride concentrations were disposed into unlined ponds at the Arsenal. Wastes seeped out of the unlined disposal ponds and spread for many square miles in the underlying shallow alluvial aquifer. Since 1956 disposal has been into an asphalt-lined reservoir, which contributed to a decline in ground-water contamination by 1972. The simulation model quantitatively integrated the effects of the major factors that controlled changes in chloride concentrations and accurately reproduced the 30-year history of chloride ground-water contamination. Analysis of the simulation results indicates that the geologic framework of the area markedly restricted the transport and dispersion of dissolved chemicals in the alluvium. Dilution, from irrigation recharge and seepage from unlined canals, was an important factor in reducing the level of chloride concentrations downgradient from the Arsenal. Similarly, recharge of uncontaminated water from the unlined ponds since 1956 has helped to dilute and flush the contaminated ground water.

  11. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six 'effector' proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  12. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen. PMID:27347390

  13. Geologic map of the Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest quadrangles, Shannon, Texas, and Howell Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest 7.5-minute quadrangles are located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 2,400 to 3,100 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic igneous basement rocks. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Numerous karst features, such as sinkholes, caves, and springs, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevations ranging from about 690 ft where the Jacks Fork River exits the northeastern corner of the Jam Up Cave quadrangle to about 1,350 ft in upland areas along the north-central edge and southwestern corner of the Pine Crest quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic feature is the valley of the Jacks Fork River. This reach of the upper Jacks Fork, with its clean, swiftly-flowing water confined by low cliffs and bluffs, provides one of the most beautiful canoe float trips in the nation. Most of the land in the quadrangles is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A large minority of the land within the quadrangles is publicly owned by the Ozark National Scenic Riverways of the National Park Service. Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2005 and 2006.

  14. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  15. Measured In Situ Atmospheric Ambient Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal, AL, April-May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan Gurton, Stephanie Cunningham, and...Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan...Redstone Arsenal , AL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  16. Restoration planting options for limber pines in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pineʼs critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods, six limber pine seedling...

  17. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  18. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer across a bluff body in a channel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaz Imdat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to computationally investigate the laminar flow and heat transfer of an incompressible fluid with constant material properties in a two-dimensional channel with a built-in bluff body. In this study, a triangular prism is taken as the bluff body. Not only the momentum transport, but also the energy transport is modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method. A uniform lattice structure with a single time relaxation rule is used. For obtaining a higher flexibility on the computational grid, interpolation methods are applied, where the information is transferred from the lattice structure to the computational grid by Lagrange interpolation. The flow is investigated for different Reynolds numbers, while keeping the Prandtl number at the constant value of 0.7. The results show how the presence of a triangular prism effects the flow and heat transfer patterns for the steady-state and unsteady-periodic flow regimes. As an assessment of the accuracy of the developed Lattice Boltzmann code, the results are compared with those obtained by a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code. It is observed that the present Lattice Boltzmann code delivers results that are of similar accuracy to the well-established Computational Fluid Dynamics code, with much smaller computational time for the prediction of the unsteady phenomena.

  19. NEAR-BLOWOFF DYNAMICS OF BLUFF-BODY-STABILIZED PREMIXED HYDROGEN/AIR FLAMES IN A NARROW CHANNEL

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik

    2015-06-07

    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  20. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  1. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  2. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  3. Influences of guide-tube and bluff-body on advanced atmospheric pressure plasma source for single-crystalline polymer nanoparticle synthesis at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Choon-Sang; Kim, Won Hyun; Shin, Bhum Jae; Hong, Jung Goo; Park, Tae Seon; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2017-02-01

    The use of a guide-tube and bluff-body with an advanced atmospheric pressure plasma source is investigated for the low-temperature synthesis of single-crystalline high-density plasma polymerized pyrrole (pPPy) nano-materials on glass and flexible substrates. Three process parameters, including the position of the bluff-body, Ar gas flow rate, and remoteness of the substrate from the intense and broadened plasma, are varied and examined in detail. Plus, for an in-depth understanding of the flow structure development with the guide-tube and bluff-body, various numerical simulations are also conducted using the same geometric conditions as the experiments. As a result, depending on both the position of the bluff-body and the Ar gas flow rate, an intense and broadened plasma as a glow-like discharge was produced in a large area. The production of the glow-like discharge played a significant role in increasing the plasma energy required for full cracking of the monomers in the nucleation region. Furthermore, a remote growth condition was another critical process parameter for minimizing the etching and thermal damage during the plasma polymerization, resulting in single- and poly-crystalline pPPy nanoparticles at a low temperature with the proposed atmospheric pressure plasma jet device.

  4. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  5. La artillería naval : apuntes sobre el suministro al arsenal de la Carraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Quintero González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El empleo generalizado del cañón de hierro posibilitó en gran medida la renovación de la Armada, muy limitada hasta entonces por la reducida oferta de los cañones de bronce. En España desempeñó un papel destacado en todo el proceso la fábrica de cañones de Liérganes (Cantabria, que hacia la década de los años veinte del siglo XVIII logró una producción de quinientas piezas anuales, así como la munición necesaria para dotarlas. Por lo que respecta al arsenal de La Carraca, la provisión de artillería representaba un problema complejo tanto por las dificultades de mantener las existencias necesarias en cada momento, como por la diversidad de elementos que componían el equipamiento artillero de una embarcación de guerra. En cualquier caso, el Arsenal consiguió mantener unos niveles de suministro aceptables, aunque en determinadas circunstancias se observaran ciertos desequilibrios entre los calibres demandados por las embarcaciones y los existentes en la base naval carraqueña.The widespread use of the iron gun made it possible the renewai of the Army to a large extent, as that was very limited so far for the reduced offer of bronze gun. In Spain, the guns factory in Liérganes (Cantabria played an important role in the whole process as it reached a production of about five hundred pieces a year in the second decade of the eighteenth century, as well as the necessary munitions to provide them. With regard to the arsenal of La Carraca, the artillery provision meant a rather complicated probiem both for the difficulty in keeping the necessary stock at all times and for all the different elements which formed the artillery equipment of a warship. In any case, the Arsenal could maintain acceptable levels of supply, although in certain circumstances there were some differences between the calibres the ships demanded and those others in the Naval Base of La Carraca.

  6. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    John Schelhas; Indrajit Majumdar; Yaoqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and ...

  7. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  8. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  9. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  10. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  11. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  12. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  13. Large eddy simulation of bluff body stabilized premixed and partially premixed combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porumbel, Ionut

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of bluff body stabilized premixed and partially premixed combustion close to the flammability limit is carried out in this thesis. The main goal of the thesis is the study of the equivalence ratio effect on flame stability and dynamics in premixed and partially premixed flames. An LES numerical algorithm able to handle the entire range of combustion regimes and equivalence ratios is developed for this purpose. The algorithm has no ad-hoc adjustable model parameters and is able to respond automatically to variations in the inflow conditions, without user intervention. Algorithm validation is achieved by conducting LES of reactive and non-reactive flow. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement for both mean and unsteady flow properties. In the reactive flow, two scalar closure models, Eddy Break-Up (EBULES) and Linear Eddy Mixing (LEMLES), are used and compared. Over important regions, the flame lies in the Broken Reaction Zone regime. Here, the EBU model assumptions fail. In LEMLES, the reaction-diffusion equation is not filtered, but resolved on a linear domain and the model maintains validity. The flame thickness predicted by LEMLES is smaller and the flame is faster to respond to turbulent fluctuations, resulting in a more significant wrinkling of the flame surface when compared to EBULES. As a result, LEMLES captures better the subtle effects of the flame-turbulence interaction, the flame structure shows higher complexity, and the far field spreading of the wake is closer to the experimental observations. Three premixed (φ = 0.6, 0.65, and 0.75) cases are simulated. As expected, for the leaner case (φ = 0.6) the flame temperature is lower, the heat release is reduced and vorticity is stronger. As a result, the flame in this case is found to be unstable. In the rich case (φ = 0.75), the flame temperature is higher, and the spreading rate of the wake is increased due to the higher amount of heat release. The ignition

  14. Description and results of test-drilling program at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1982-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, P.T.; Sargent, B.P.; Vowinkel, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Picatinny Arsenal, located in north-central New Jersey, has a long history of explosives manufacturing. Past industrial activities and past waste-disposal practices have caused some groundwater contamination problems. In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army, began a water resources investigation of the Arsenal. The test drilling program is designed to define the hydrogeology and install observation wells. Twenty-two boreholes were drilled and 21 observation wells installed in these holes. All drilling was done in a glaciated valley. The report includes lithologic and gamma-ray logs, results of grain-size analyses, well-construction data, and some groundwater levels. The generalized stratigraphic sequence of geologic units penetrated from the test-drilling program are from lower to upper: (1) pre-dominantly dolomitic Leithsville Formation, (2) in the upper part of bedrock, a weathered dolomite zone, (3) a thin discontinuous mantle of till, and (4) stratified drift deposit up to 208 ft thick. (USGS)

  15. Complement's hidden arsenal: New insights and novel functions inside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, M Kathryn; Elvington, Michelle; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh S; Atkinson, John P

    2017-04-01

    A key component of both innate and adaptive immunity, new understandings of the complement system are expanding its roles beyond that traditionally appreciated. Evidence is accumulating that complement has an intracellular arsenal of components that provide not only immune defense, but also assist in key interactions for host cell functions. Although early work has primarily centered on T cells, the intracellular complement system likely functions in many if not most cells of the body. Some of these functions may trace their origins to the primitive complement system that began as a primeval form of C3 likely tasked for protection from intracellular pathogen invasion. This later expanded to include extracellular defense as C3 became a secreted protein to patrol the vasculature. Other components were added to the growing system including regulators to protect host cells from the indiscriminate effects of this potent system. Contemporary cells may retain some of these vestigial remnants. We now know that a) C3 serves as a damage-associated molecular pattern (in particular by coating pathogens that translocate into cells), b) most cells store C3 and recycle C3(H2O) for immediate use, and c) C3 assists in cellular survival and metabolic reprogramming. Other components also are part of this hidden arsenal including C5, properdin, factors H and B, and complement receptors. Importantly, better definition of the intracellular complement system may translate into new target discovery to assist in creating the next generation of complement therapeutics.

  16. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  17. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  18. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  19. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.

    2017-01-05

    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  20. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  1. Reconnaissance of acid drainage sources and preliminary evaluation of remedial alternatives at the Copper Bluff mine, Hoopa Valley Reservation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Acidic drainage from the inactive Copper Bluff mine cascades down a steep embankment into the Trinity River, on the Hoopa Valley Reservation in northern California. The Copper Bluff mine produced about 100,000 tons of sulfide-bearing copper-zinc-gold-silver ore during 1957–1962. This report summarizes the results of a water-resources investigation begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1994 with the overall objective of gathering sufficient geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic information so that a sound remediation strategy for the Copper Bluff mine could be selected and implemented by the Hoopa Valley Tribe. This study had the following specific objectives: (1) monitor the quality and quantity of the mine discharge, (2) determine seasonal variability of metal concentrations and loads, (3) map and sample the underground mine workings to determine sources of flow and suitability of mine plugging options, and (4) analyze the likely consequences of various remediation and treatment options.Analysis of weekly water samples of adit discharge over parts of two wet seasons (January to July 1995 and October 1995 to May 1996) shows that dissolved copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations (in samples filtered with 0.20-micrometer membranes) varied systematically in a seasonal pattern. Metal concentrations increased dramatically in response to the first increase in discharge, or first flush, early in the wet season. The value of Zn/Cu in the adit discharge exhibited systematic seasonal variations; an annual Zn/Cu cycle was observed, beginning with values between 3 and 5 during the main part of the wet season, rising to values between 6 and 10 during the period of lowest discharge late in the dry season, and then dropping dramatically to values less than 3 during the first-flush period. Values of pH were fairly constant in the range of 3.1 to 3.8 throughout the wet season and into the beginning of the dry season, but rose to values between 4.5 and 5.6 during the period of

  2. Development of secondary pine forests after pine wilt disease in western Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Michiro [Natural History Museum and Inst., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The development of secondary Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) forests after pine wilt disease was studied through phytosociological analysis, estimation of forest structure before disease and size-structure, tree ring and stem analyses. Following the end of the disease, the growth of previously suppressed small oak trees was accelerated. This is quite different from the development of forests following fire, which starts with the establishment of pine seedlings. Pine wilt disease shifted the dominance of secondary forests from Pinus densiflora to Quercus serrata oak forest. In pine forests, disturbance by fire is important for forest maintenance. In contrast, disturbance by pine wilt disease leads to an acceleration of succession from pine forest to oak forest. 50 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  4. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

    2000-01-01

    After a century since introduction to North America from Europe, white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., is recognized as one of the catastrophic plant disease epidemics in history. It has not yet stabilized and continues to spread and intensify. Its nine native white pine hosts comprise major timber producers, important...

  5. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M

    2001-05-01

    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  6. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  7. Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

  8. Kunagine käsitsi padrunite valmistaja E-Arsenal sõjatöösturite areenil / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Sõjatehasest E-Arsenal saab viie aasta jooksul tuhande töötajaga kõrgtehnoloogiakontsern, rahvusvahelisele turule hakatakse tootma militaartarkvara, isikukaitsevahendeid, roboteid. Kommenteerivad Ingvar Pärnamäe, Priit Alamäe, Andres Taklaja, Tõnu Vaher. Lisa: Arsenali sõjatehas. Diagramm: Tulevikuväljavaatega kahjumifirma

  9. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  10. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  11. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  12. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  13. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  14. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  15. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  16. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  17. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  18. Movement and fate of chlorinated solvents in ground water; research activities at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, T.V.; Ehlke, T.A.; Martin, Mary

    1987-01-01

    The USGS, through its Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination Program, is undertaking an interdisciplinary research study of contaminants. The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that affect the movement and fate of these contaminants in groundwater. The study is being conducted at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where metal plating and metal etching wastes have contaminated part of the glacial stratified drift aquifers. Major areas of research at the site are described, including: (1) distribution and movement of chlorinated solvents in groundwater, (2) behavior of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone, (3) geochemistry of the contaminated groundwater, and (4) microbial transformations of chlorinated solvents. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Fluorescence fluctuation microscopy: a diversified arsenal of methods to investigate molecular dynamics inside cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Thomas; Mücksch, Jonas; Schwille, Petra

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy provides insight into the subcellular organization of biological functions. However, images are snap shots averaging over a highly dynamic molecular system. Fluorescence fluctuation microscopy, employing similar detection technology, encompasses a powerful arsenal of analysis tools that investigate the molecular heterogeneity in space and time. Analyzing signal fluctuations from small ensembles (several hundred particles) reveals their concentration, the stoichiometry, the stochastic motion, as well as superimposed signatures of the environment such as spatial confinement and binding events. Thus, fluctuation analysis provides access to dynamic molecular properties that can be used to build physical models of cellular processes. In the last decade these methods experienced a remarkable diversification, which we revisit here with a particular focus on live cell applications.

  20. The arsenal of pathogens and antivirulence therapeutic strategies for disarming them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, John R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens deploy an arsenal of virulence factors (VFs) to establish themselves within their infectious niche. The discovery of antimicrobial compounds and their development into therapeutics has made a monumental impact on human and microbial populations. Although humans have used antimicrobials for medicinal and agricultural purposes, microorganism populations have developed and shared resistance mechanisms to persevere in the face of classical antimicrobials. However, a positive substitute is antivirulence therapy; antivirulence therapeutics prevent or interrupt an infection by counteracting a pathogen's VFs. Their application can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials and dampen the frequency with which resistant strains emerge. Here, we summarize the contribution of VFs to various acute and chronic infections. In correspondence with this, we provide an overview of the research and development of antivirulence strategies.

  1. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  2. Systemic allergic reaction to pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-02-01

    This case report describes a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts, confirmed by an open, oral provocation test. Skin prick testing with the aqueous allergen revealed an immediate positive prick test, and histamine release from basophil leukocytes to the aqueous allergen was demonstrated. Radioallergosorbent test demonstrated specific IgE antibodies to pine nuts. In a review of medical literature, we found no reports of either oral provocation tests confirming a systemic reaction due to ingestion of pine nuts or demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.

  3. [Pine mouth syndrome: a global problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redal-Baigorri, Ana Belén

    2011-12-01

    Pinemouth syndrome is characterised by the development of metallogeusia two days after the ingestion of Chinese pine nuts. The symptoms disappear 7-14 days later. The distribution of Chinese pine nuts not suitable for human consumption, is caused by an increasing demand due to price differences. The reason for the taste disturbances is unknown, some suggest turpentine-based products in its composition, and others have studied the fatty acid content of pine nuts and the properties of pinolenic acid. So far the presence of pesticides or mycotoxins is been ruled out, but the puzzle remains unsolved.

  4. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  6. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  7. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  8. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  9. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  10. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2016-07-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  11. A topological study of gravity free-surface waves generated by bluff bodies using the method of steepest descents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe H.

    2016-07-01

    The standard analytical approach for studying steady gravity free-surface waves generated by a moving body often relies upon a linearization of the physical geometry, where the body is considered asymptotically small in one or several of its dimensions. In this paper, a methodology that avoids any such geometrical simplification is presented for the case of steady-state flows at low speeds. The approach is made possible through a reduction of the water-wave equations to a complex-valued integral equation that can be studied using the method of steepest descents. The main result is a theory that establishes a correspondence between different bluff-bodied free-surface flow configurations, with the topology of the Riemann surface formed by the steepest descent paths. Then, when a geometrical feature of the body is modified, a corresponding change to the Riemann surface is observed, and the resultant effects to the water waves can be derived. This visual procedure is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional free-surface flow past a surface-piercing ship and over an angled step in a channel.

  12. Shape optimization of active and passive drag-reducing devices on a D-shaped bluff body

    CERN Document Server

    Semaan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Shape optimization of an active and a passive drag-reducing device on a two-dimensional D-shaped bluff body is performed. The two devices are: Coanda actuator, and randomly-shaped trailing-edge flap. The optimization sequence is performed by coupling the genetic algorithm software DAKOTA to the mesh generator Pointwise and to the CFD solver OpenFOAM. For the the active device the cost functional is the power ratio, whereas for the passive device it is the drag coefficient. The optimization leads to total power savings of $\\approx 70\\%$ for the optimal Coanda actuator, and a 40\\% drag reduction for the optimal flap. This reduction is mainly achieved through streamlining the base flow and suppressing the vortex shedding. The addition of either an active or a passive device creates two additional smaller recirculation regions in the base cavity that shifts the larger recirculation region away from the body and increases the base pressure. The results are validated against more refined URANS simulations for selec...

  13. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  14. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-04 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  15. Management Plan for the Reintroduction of Plains Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus jamesi) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge [DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The (Comprehensive Management Plan) CMP for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) calls for reintroducing plains sharp-tailed grouse (PSTG). This...

  16. American Badger Study : Badger Tissue Collection Check Sheets, Batched Samples Tracking Logs & Wildlife Sample Collection Forms : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains various data sheets related to the American Badger Study conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge; badger tissue...

  17. [Review of the necropsy studies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on animals from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — USFWS personnel recorded 244 instances of wildlife mortality at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). Since 1990, records of these animal mortalities were kept in the...

  18. Population status and management of mule and white-tailed deer [at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, FY95-FY97

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary report of the population status and management of white-tailed deer and mule deer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge for fiscal years...

  19. Small mammal associations with habitat structure, and their influence on selected species interactions at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : comprehensive examination proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document proposes an applied project at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal intended to address habitat relationships and selection, and interspecific competition, in...

  20. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-01 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  1. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-05 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  2. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-03 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  3. Distance sampling to estimate abundance of biological populations : protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA). Line transects are used to estimate the density of...

  4. 1993 Work Plan : Assessment of the Effects of Organochlorine Pesticides, Mercury, and Arsenic Exposure Upon Kestrel Productivity, Nestling Growth, and Nestling Survival on Rocky Mountain Arsenal : April, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This work plan aims to specifically answer questions pertaining to impacts upon fish and wildlife resources on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, and to address contaminant...

  5. [Draft] Technical Work Plan for revegetation of crested wheatgrass in northeast Section 29 : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 29-04 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and...

  6. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-03 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  7. [Trip summary of visit to The Institute of Wildlife and Environmental Toxicology (TIWET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC., May 2-4, 1993 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This summary was provided by the Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Ecological Services and Biomonitoring Coordinator to the Project Leader in an effort to provide a brief,...

  8. Record of Decision for the Final Remedial Action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Offpost Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Offpost Operable Unit (OU) in southern Adams County, east of...

  9. Technical Work Plan for revegetation continuation, maintenance, and monitoring projects : USFWS Habitat Restoration Plan 51-01 : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal is charged with managing wildlife and wildlife habitat, both during and following cleanup of...

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Analysis of Tissue and Tail-bulb Fat, 2014 Bison Necropsy Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This is the one of...

  11. Proposal for the pre-sediment removal aquatic survey of Lake Mary, Ladora, and Lower Derby Reservois located on the U.S. Army Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for a monitoring program at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) to document the effectiveness of the sediment removal program. This project has been initiated...

  12. Analysis of the implementation of uefa financial fair play: a case study on Arsenal and Machester United football club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sendy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP against European football clubs. Research is conducted based on Arsenal and Manchester United football clubs financial statements for 2010-2012. The study uses financial simulation to test whether the two England-based club are able to meet the UEFA FFP rules. Analyses were also conducted on the financial performance ratios of both clubs and their effects on the implementation of the UEFA FFP. The result is the two clubs can meet the standard provisions for the implementation of UEFA FFP. In the assessment of financial performance, Arsenal have a slightly better financial ratios than Manchester United. Performance aspects of profitability and solvency became an issue in the implementation of UEFA's FFP, related with debt holdings and high salaries that owned by both clubs.

  13. Analysis of The Implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play: A Case Study on Arsenal and Machester United Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendy Sendy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the implementation of UEFA Financial Fair Play (FFP to European football clubs. Research is conducted based on Arsenal and Manchester United football clubs financial statements for 2010-2012. The study uses financial simulation to test whether the two England-based club are able to meet the UEFA FFP rules. Analyses were also conducted on the financial performance ratios of both clubs and their effects on the implementation of the UEFA FFP. The result is the two clubs can meet the standard provisions for the implementation of UEFA FFP. In the assessment of financial performance, Arsenal have a slightly better financial ratios than Manchester United. Performance aspects of profitability and solvency became an issue in the implementation of UEFA's FFP, related with debt holdings and high salaries that owned by both clubs.

  14. [The salon and the laboratory of Lavoisier at the Arsenal, the chamber where the new chemistry evolved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lavoisier and his wife resided at the Arsenal, near the Bastille, from 1776 to 1792. The author paints a picture of daily life and of the scientific life which they led. He brings into review their collaborators, their students and the visitors who frequented their premises. He recalls the principal points of chemical research which Lavoisier was able to effect there and stresses the high cost of his beautiful laboratory.

  15. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  16. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  17. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  18. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  19. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  20. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  1. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  2. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  3. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  4. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  5. Inventing an arsenal: adaptive evolution and neofunctionalization of snake venom phospholipase A2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Vincent J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication followed by functional divergence has long been hypothesized to be the main source of molecular novelty. Convincing examples of neofunctionalization, however, remain rare. Snake venom phospholipase A2 genes are members of large multigene families with many diverse functions, thus they are excellent models to study the emergence of novel functions after gene duplications. Results Here, I show that positive Darwinian selection and neofunctionalization is common in snake venom phospholipase A2 genes. The pattern of gene duplication and positive selection indicates that adaptive molecular evolution occurs immediately after duplication events as novel functions emerge and continues as gene families diversify and are refined. Surprisingly, adaptive evolution of group-I phospholipases in elapids is also associated with speciation events, suggesting adaptation of the phospholipase arsenal to novel prey species after niche shifts. Mapping the location of sites under positive selection onto the crystal structure of phospholipase A2 identified regions evolving under diversifying selection are located on the molecular surface and are likely protein-protein interactions sites essential for toxin functions. Conclusion These data show that increases in genomic complexity (through gene duplications can lead to phenotypic complexity (venom composition and that positive Darwinian selection is a common evolutionary force in snake venoms. Finally, regions identified under selection on the surface of phospholipase A2 enzymes are potential candidate sites for structure based antivenin design.

  6. Virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Markovska, Rumyana; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    This review focuses on the virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna according to recently published data from 2012 to 2016. Virulence factors like sortase dependent pili and F. magna adhesion factor (FAF) facilitate the start of the infection. Albumin binding protein (PAB) enhances F. magna survival. FAF, subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease (SufA) and superantigen protein L protect the bacteria from factors of innate defense system. SufA, capsule and tissue-destroying enzymes provide a deep penetration or spread of the infections and the protein L is associated with infection severity. Biofilm production results in infection chronification and complicated treatment as well as to persistence of multi-species biofilms. Resistance rates to quinolones (13.0->70%) and clindamycin (0-40.0%) are important, and resistance to penicillins (<4%), chloramphenicol (7.0%) and metronidazole (<7%) has been reported. F. magna should not be overlooked when present in monoinfections or mixed infections in humans.

  7. Quantification of natural vapor fluxes of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.; Tisdale, Amy K.; Cho, H. Jean

    1996-01-01

    The upward flux of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor through the unsaturated zone above a contaminated, water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been studied under natural conditions over a 12-month period. Vertical gas-phase diffusion fluxes were estimated indirectly by measuring the TCE vapor concentration gradient in the unsaturated zone and using Fick's law to calculate the flux. The total gas-phase flux (e.g., the sum of diffusion and advection fluxes) was measured directly with a vertical flux chamber (VFC). In many cases, the upward TCE vapor flux was several orders of magnitude greater than the upward TCE diffusion flux, suggesting that mechanisms other than steady-state vapor diffusion are contributing to the vertical transport of TCE vapors through the unsaturated zone. The measured total flux of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere is approximately 50 kg/yr and is comparable in magnitude to the removal rate of TCE from the aquifer by an existing pump-and-treat system and by discharge into a nearby stream. The net upward flux of TCE is reduced significantly during a storm event, presumably due to the mass transfer of TCE from the soil gas to the infiltrating rainwater and its subsequent downward advection. Several potential problems associated with the measurement of total gas-phase fluxes are discussed.

  8. Bison grazing ecology at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen S.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Refuge reintroduced bison to a small pasture in 2007. Refuge managers needed information on the effects of bison grazing on vegetation communities in the bison pasture as well as information on how bison might affect other management priorities at RMA. In particular, RMA managers were interested in bison grazing effects on vegetation productivity, amount of vegetation utilization by bison, and habitat selection by bison to inform RMA herd managers and for potential expansion of bison range on the refuge. In 2007, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) designed a study to investigate bison grazing effects through measurement of vegetation in the 600-hectare enclosure where the bison are currently pastured. This research was a collaborative effort between USGS and RMA refuge staff and had active field components in 2007 and 2010. We found that the effects and intensity of bison grazing on vegetation in the RMA bison pasture is linked to prairie dog presence. Where both species were present, they were removing a significant amount of biomass compared to areas where only bison were present. Also, prairie dogs appeared to enhance the greater production of native forbs, but we were not able to identify the mechanism for this increased production. We were not able, however, to generate an accurate vegetation map for the bison pasture, and this limited our ability to achieve the level of statistical precision necessary to identify grazing impacts and habitat selection of bison.

  9. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Hamilton, Brett R; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F; Venter, Deon J

    2015-03-31

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought.

  10. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  11. SNAKE VENOMICS OF Crotalus tigris: THE MINIMALIST TOXIN ARSENAL OF THE DEADLIEST NEARTIC RATTLESNAKE VENOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALVETE, Juan J.; PÉREZ, Alicia; LOMONTE, Bruno; SÁNCHEZ, Elda E.; SANZ, Libia

    2012-01-01

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7–8 gene products from 6 toxin families: the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA2, Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66% and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1–2 PIII-SVMPs, each represents 0.1–5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend towards neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by paedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, C. horridus, C. oreganus helleri, C. scutulatus scutulatus, and S. catenatus catenatus, indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South American and North American Crotalus. PMID:22181673

  12. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  13. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  14. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  15. 基于LES开缝V形钝体性能研究%Research on the centrically slit bluff body performance using large-eddy simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚京风; 张文平; 宣领宽; 明平剑

    2013-01-01

    为了研究开缝宽度对中缝式V形钝体性能的影响,采用大涡模拟(LES)方法研究不同开缝宽度V形钝体尾流场.首先,模拟标准钝体流场,通过与文献数值模拟结果及实验结果比较,验证方法的正确性.然后,保持钝体张角为60°,阻塞比为0.33不变,分别研究缝宽比为0.1、0.2、0.3及0.4开缝钝体性能.大涡模拟得到的尾流场与文献观察到的实验现象一致.钝体回流区随缝宽比增加先增加后减小;阻力损失随缝宽比增加而减小,并均小于标准钝体.数值模拟表明,中缝流对流场的影响仅局限于钝体尾部一定区域内.过大的开缝宽度将使钝体性能极具恶化.综合比较,缝宽比为0.2时钝体回流区最大,比标准钝体增长24.3%,总压损失系数降低49.6%.%In order to investigate the performance of the centrically slit bluff body, large-eddy simulation ( LES) has been applied to analyze the wake flow of bluff bodies with different gap ratio. Firstly, the turbulent flow over the standard bluff body was simulated and the results agreed well with experimental data and published results, which means that the present method is capable for this research. Secondly, the cases with gap ratio 0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3 and 0.4 and the same open angle 60° and blockage ratio 0. 33 were studied. The predicted flow fields were equivalent to those observed with experiments. As the gap ratio increasing, the length of the recirculation zone increases first and then decreases; the total pressure coefficient decreases and is always smaller than that of the standard one. The influence induced by the gap flow vanishes after a distance from the bluff body. When the gap ratio becomes too large, the performance of the bluff body deteriorates. The slit bluff body with gap ratio 0. 2 possesses the biggest re-circulation length of an increase by 24. 3% and its total pressure loss coefficient decreases by 49. 6% compared to the standard one.

  16. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  17. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  18. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  19. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  20. Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell M. Burns; R.H. Brendemuehl

    1969-01-01

    A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa [Chapm.] Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatchee sand pine are not available. One 28-year-old plantation of this race of sand pine, growing...

  1. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  2. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  3. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  4. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  5. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  6. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  7. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  8. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  9. [The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Mendel, Zvi

    2002-09-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is considered to be a serious pest of medical importance. The hair on the dorsum of the last instar larvae of the moth may cause urticarial reactions (erucism) as well as eye problems and temporary blindness. In Israel, the pest occurs in all pine plantations as well as on ornamental pine trees in urban areas. The biology, ecology and management of the moth population are discussed as well as the mechanism of action of the urticarial hairs and their medical significance. Awareness of the life cycle and ecology of the pest may reduce the contact of the population with the urticarial hairs and prevent the morbidity caused by it.

  10. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  11. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  12. Interglacial Extension of the Boreal Forest Limit in the Noatak Valley, Northwest Alaska: Evidence from an Exhumed River-Cut Bluff and Debris Apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.E.; Hamilton, T.D.; Elias, S.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Krumhardt, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous exposures of Pleistocene sediments occur in the Noatak basin, which extends for 130 km along the Noatak River in northwestern Alaska. Nk-37, an extensive bluff exposure near the west end of the basin, contains a record of at least three glacial advances separated by interglacial and interstadial deposits. An ancient river-cut bluff and associated debris apron is exposed in profile through the central part of Nk-37. The debris apron contains a rich biotic record and represents part of an interglaciation that is probably assignable to marine-isotope stage 5. Pollen spectra from the lower part of the debris apron closely resemble modern samples taken from the Noatak floodplain in spruce gallery forest, and macrofossils of spruce are also present at this level. Fossil bark beetles and carpenter ants occur higher in the debris apron. Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) estimates from the fossil beetles suggest temperatures similar to or warmer than today. Together, these fossils indicate the presence of an interglacial spruce forest in the western part of the Noatak Basin, which lies about 80 km upstream of the modern limit of spruce forest.

  13. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  14. Host Preference by Monochamus alternatus (Hope) during Maturation Feeding on Pine Species and Masson Pine Provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Host preferences pine of the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternates (Hope), during maturation feeding on 8 conifer trees and 40 masson pine provenances, were investigated using 3 types of laboratory bioassay of consistent feeding preference, feeding area and visitation frequency. M. alternatus adults have the highest frequency of feeding and prefer to feed on the branches of P. massoniana and P. densiflora and had significant host selectivity on 8 conifer trees in the area of Nanjing. The adult feeding vi...

  15. Air pollution damage to Austrian pine in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, E.; Davis, S.H. Jr.

    1967-11-01

    Following a period of high pollution, extensive needle damage was observed on Austrian pine trees. Since the species is common in New Jersey, it was possible to obtain an approximation of its sensitivity. In nurseries, Christmas tree plantations and park areas, which included many species of conifers in addition to Austrian pine, species specifically noted as free from apparent damage were white pine (Pinus strobus), scotch pine (P. sylvestris), red pine (P. resinosa), Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica glauca), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Colorado spruce (P. pungens), white spruce (P. canadensis), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), and many varieties of juniper, arbor vitae, hemlock, and yew. During the survey needle damage, which could be traced back to the episode of 24 June, was also observed on Japanese red pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. densiflora) and Japanese black pine (P. Thunbergil). The injury to Japanese red pine was identical to that on Austrian pine, but on Japanese black pine the damage appeared not on the current year's needles, but on 1-year-old needles and it did not have the distinctive dividing line between injured and healthy tissue. These two species did not occur in sufficient number to allow further evaluation. Austrian pine has been cited in the literature as very tolerant of industrial smoke. Currently, German foresters are advising aginst the use of spruce and firs in industrial areas and are recommending ''resistant species as Austrian pine.'' In New Jersey fluoride damage has been observed on Austrian pine on occasion over the past 20 years. Because of the damage also caused by photochemical smog in New Jersey, the resistance of the species should be reevaluated. A need may develop for a breeding program to provide resistant material to the highly polluted metropolitan areas.

  16. Digital-transport model study of Diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) ground-water contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) is an organic compound produced as a by-product of the manufacture and detoxification of GB nerve gas. Ground-water contamination by DIMP from the disposal of wastes into unlined surface ponds at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal occurred from 1952 to 1956. A digital-transport model was used to determine the effects on ground-water movement and on DIMP concentrations in the ground water of a bentonite barrier in the aquifer near the northern boundary of the arsenal. The transport model is based on an iterative-alternating-direction-implicit mathematical solution of the ground-water-flow equation coupled with a method-of-characteristics solution of the solute-transport equation. The model assumes conservative (nonreactive) transient transport of DIMP and steady-state ground-water flow. In the model simulations, a bentonite barrier was assumed that was impermeable and penetrated the entire saturated thickness of the aquifer. Ground water intercepted by the barrier was assumed to be pumped by wells located south (upgradient) of the barrier, to be treated to remove DIMP, and to be recharged by pits or wells to the aquifer north (downgradient) of the barrier. The amount of DIMP transported across the northern boundary of the arsenal was substantially reduced by a ground-water-barrier system of this type. For a 1,500-foot-long bentonite barrier located along the northern boundary of the arsenal near D Street, about 50 percent of the DIMP that would otherwise cross the boundary would be intercepted by the barrier. This barrier configuration and location were proposed by the U.S. Army. Of the ground water with DIMP concentrations greater than 500 micrograms per liter, the safe DIMP-concentration level determined by the U.S. Army, about 72 percent would be intercepted by the barrier system. The amount of DIMP underflow intercepted may be increased to 65 percent by doubling the pumpage, or to 73 percent by doubling the length of the barrier

  17. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  18. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: evidence for a major gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A W; Sniezko, R A; Kegley, A; Burns, K S

    2014-02-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections from >100 limber pine trees confirm that genetic segregation of a stem symptom-free trait to blister rust is consistent with inheritance by a single dominant resistance (R) gene, and the resistance allele appears to be distinct from the R allele in western white pine. Following previous conventions, we are naming the R gene for limber pine "Cr4." The frequency of the Cr4 allele across healthy and recently invaded populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains was unexpectedly high (5.0%, ranging from 0 to 13.9%). Cr4 is in equilibrium, suggesting that it is not a product of a recent mutation and may have other adaptive significance within the species, possibly related to other abiotic or biotic stress factors. The identification of Cr4 in native populations of limber pine early in the invasion progress in this region provides useful information for predicting near-term impacts and structuring long-term management strategies.

  19. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  20. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  1. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  2. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  3. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey

    2006-01-01

    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  4. Specific features of the structure of a technical and tactical arsenal of Non-Olympic single combats of an impact type and a way of its improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Ashanin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify key differences in technical operations and tactical combat potential ways to implement popular athletes in combat shock type, applying for entry into the Olympic Games. Material and Methods: distinctions of sports technique and tactics in duels in karate, taekwondo, kickboxing and Thai boxing were estimated by the expert group. The arsenal of technical and tactical actions of sportsmen was analyzed at competitions of various levels. Results: essential distinctions in competitive exercises, estimated criteria of refereeing, the structure and the arsenal of the applied sports technique and tactics are revealed in chosen for the research types of impact single combats. Conclusions: essential differences in the technical - tactical arsenal of the studied types of impact single combats which are shown in the topography of zones allowed for drawing, the structure of attacking and protective actions, and also tactical stylistics of carrying out duels.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  6. Extreme diversity of scorpion venom peptides and proteins revealed by transcriptomic analysis: implication for proteome evolution of scorpion venom arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibao; He, Yawen; Zhao, Ruiming; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2012-02-16

    Venom is an important genetic development crucial to the survival of scorpions for over 400 million years. We studied the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by means of comparative transcriptome analysis of venom glands and phylogenetic analysis of shared types of venom peptides and proteins between buthids and euscorpiids. Fifteen types of venom peptides and proteins were sequenced during the venom gland transcriptome analyses of two Buthidae species (Lychas mucronatus and Isometrus maculatus) and one Euscorpiidae species (Scorpiops margerisonae). Great diversity has been observed in translated amino acid sequences of these transcripts for venom peptides and proteins. Seven types of venom peptides and proteins were shared between buthids and euscorpiids. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least five of the seven common types of venom peptides and proteins were likely recruited into the scorpion venom proteome before the lineage split between Buthidae and Euscorpiidae with their corresponding genes undergoing individual or multiple gene duplication events. These are α-KTxs, βKSPNs (β-KTxs and scorpines), anionic peptides, La1-like peptides, and SPSVs (serine proteases from scorpion venom). Multiple types of venom peptides and proteins were demonstrated to be continuously recruited into the venom proteome during the evolution process of individual scorpion lineages. Our results provide an insight into the recruitment pattern of the scorpion venom arsenal for the first time.

  7. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  8. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  9. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  10. Loess Bluffs NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  11. Talent - for bluff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    »Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris.......»Talentet er blevet senkapitalismens alkymist,« skriver Susanne Ekman, der netop selv har modtaget en forskertalentpris....

  12. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  13. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  14. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  15. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  16. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  17. Muusikamaailm : Rostropovitshi suurprojekt. Festival "Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Vermeuleni preemia 2000. Thielemann jääb Berliini. Henri Tomasi ئ 100 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    M. Rostropovitsh tõi publiku ette Shostakovitshi ooperi "Mtsenski maakonna leedi Macbeth". Festivalist Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. Rahvusvahelisest festivalist "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Matthijs Vermeuleni nim. preemia sai tänavu R. Rijnvos. C. Thielemann jääb Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks veel aastani 2007. Lühidalt H. Tomasist

  18. Didaktisch-methodisches Modell, Methode und methodisches Instrumentarium im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Pedagogical-Methodological Model, Method and Methodological Arsenal in Foreign Language Teaching)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Klaus

    1975-01-01

    Concentrates on (1) an exposition of the categories "pedagogical-methodological model", "method", and "methodological arsenal" from the viewpoint of FL teaching; (2) clearing up the relation between the pedagogical-methodological model and teaching method; (3) explaining an example of the application of the categories mentioned. (Text is in…

  19. Muusikamaailm : Rostropovitshi suurprojekt. Festival "Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Vermeuleni preemia 2000. Thielemann jääb Berliini. Henri Tomasi ئ 100 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    M. Rostropovitsh tõi publiku ette Shostakovitshi ooperi "Mtsenski maakonna leedi Macbeth". Festivalist Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. Rahvusvahelisest festivalist "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Matthijs Vermeuleni nim. preemia sai tänavu R. Rijnvos. C. Thielemann jääb Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks veel aastani 2007. Lühidalt H. Tomasist

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  1. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977].

  2. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles X. Grano

    1970-01-01

    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  3. Tree retention in boreal pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Santaniello, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Tree retention forestry aims at increasing structural diversity in managed forests. In this study, I have investigated the influence of tree retention forestry on delivery of two ecosystem services (wood production and carbon sequestration) and dead wood (as a proxy for biodiversity). Furthermore, habitat requirements of lichens dependent on dead wood were investigated. The study was conducted in 15 Scots pine forest stands with five various tree retention levels, in which four...

  4. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  5. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46: 902-913. Walker, J.L. and G.G...removal in longleaf pine savannas." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 765-778. Mitchell, R. J., Hiers, J.K., O’Brien, J.J., Jack, S.B...pine forests of the southeastern United States." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2724-2736. Moser, W.K., Jackson, S.M., Podrazsky, V. and

  6. Jilin Arsenal in the Sight of Cultural Heritage%文化遗产视角下的吉林机器局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2014-01-01

    吉林机器局是东北地区第一家近代军火工厂,主要产品为枪弹、炮弹和火药,以满足当时吉林省和黑龙江省的防务所需。此外,还自行试制试造了枪、炮和轮船,并首创用机器铸造银元。“表正书院”是吉林机器局的附属职业技术学校,为机器局培养了实用技术人才。现在,吉林机器局旧址已成为省级文物保护单位。它是吉林老工业基地的历史见证,是一处宝贵的工业遗产。%Jilin Arsenal is the first munitions factory in the northeast of China. The main products included bul-lets,shell and gun powers,which satisfied the needs of the defense of Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces. Besides that,Jilin Arsenal tried to manufacture the guns,the cannons and the ships,and it made the silver dollars by ma-chines at the first. Biaozheng Academy is the affiliated vocational technical school of Jilin Arsenal. It trained the practical and technical talents for Jilin Arsenal. Now,the former site of Jilin Arsenal has became the provincial cultural relics protection unit. It is the historical testimony to the old industrial base of Jilin. It is a precious indus-trial heritage.

  7. Apollinaire et le détournement de l’arsenal militaire : la vitesse comme vecteur amoureux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Cuillé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le détournement de l’arsenal militaire se comprend à la lumière des spéculations de F.T Marinetti sur la vitesse, notion esthétique fédérant le futurisme italien. Le canon de 75, au service duquel Apollinaire est affecté, fut considéré comme une prouesse technologique dont la vélocité devait permettre une victoire fulgurante contre l’Allemagne. C’est ce vecteur de vitesse qui devient le support d’une nouvelle poétique. Certains Calligrammes se lisent dès lors comme un dispositif grâce auquel le poète-artilleur reconfigure, pour la contester, l’opposition entre l’idéal féminin et la luxure, deux postulations que Marinetti déclare exorciser par la magie de la vitesse.

  8. Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open burning area and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open burning area, which is used for burning of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this area is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open burning area. Contaminants from the open burning area appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open burning area and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open burning area. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection

  9. Determination of geohydrologic framework and extent of d- water contamination using surface geophysical techniques at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre

    1986-01-01

    Seismic-refraction, electric-resistivity sounding, and electromagnetic conductivity techniques were used to determine the geohydrologic framework and extent of groundwater contamination at Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey. The area studied encompasses about 4 sq mi at the southern end of the Arsenal. The bedrock surface beneath the glacial sediments was delineated by seismic-refraction techniques. Data for 12 seismic lines were collected using a 12-channel engineering seismograph. Competent bedrock crops out on both sides of the valley, but is about 290 ft below land surface in the deepest part of the topographic valley. Where the exposed bedrock surface forms steep slopes on the valley side, it remains steep below the valley fill. Likewise, gentle bedrock valley slopes have gentle subsurface slopes. The deepest part of the bedrock valley is along the southern extension of the Green Pond fault. The electric-resistivity sounding technique was used to determine the sediment types. Data were collected from four sites using the offset Wenner electrode configuration. Below the surface layer, the sediments have apparent and computed resistivity values of 120 to 170 ohm-meters. These values correspond to a saturated fine-grained sediment such as silt or interbedded sand and clay. Groundwater contamination was by electromagnetic conductivity techniques using transmitting and receiving coils separated by 32.8 ft and 12 ft. Thirteen sites have apparent conductivity values exceeding 15 millimhos/m. Of these, seven sites indicate groundwater contamination from a variety of sources including a sanitary landfill, pyrotechnic testing ground, burning area, former domestic sewage field, salt storage facility, hazardous waste disposal lagoon, sewage treatment plant, and fertilizer storage shed. Three areas underlain by clay or muck are interpreted to be free of contamination. (Author 's abstract)

  10. La salud y la enfermedad en el Real Hospital de la Armada del Arsenal de la Carraca (1756-1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. García-Cubillana de la Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En el primer cuarto del siglo XVIII se crea el Arsenal de la Carraca, considerado como el principal astillero de la Armada Española. La masiva llegada de operarios civiles y militares ante la oferta de trabajo, motivó un problema asistencial sanitario, que se solventó a través de una improvisada enfermería de madera y otros hospitales provisionales instalados en la Isla de León. Finalmente, en 1756 se pudo fundar el «Real Hospital del Arsenal de la Carraca». Este nosocomio tuvo un papel crucial en la epidemia de fiebre amarilla de 1800 y en los dos primeros años de la Guerra de la Independencia, hasta que en agosto de 1810 tuvo que ser desalojado ante el riesgo de bombardeo de las baterías francesas apostadas en Puerto Real, siendo reconvertido en un «hospital de sangre». No obstante, en la segunda grave epidemia de fiebre amarilla de 1819, el hospital tuvo que ser reactivado como en sus orígenes. Debido a la restructuración hospitalaria en la bahía de Cádiz, la Armada procedió a su extinción en el año 1821, tal y como muestra el documento que lo acredita encontrado en el Archivo General de Marina «Álvaro de Bazán». En este trabajo se exponen las vicisitudes sanitarias y humanas de este Real Hospital a lo largo de 65 años claves en la historia de España.

  11. Effect of pine foliage damage on the incidence of larval diapause in the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus(Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Huang; Guo-Hong Wang; Zhong He; Feng Ge

    2008-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker) with a larval facultative diapause is one of the most destructive insect pests of the pine tree Pinus massoniana in China. The larvae feeding on pine trees with different damage levels were studied to determine the induction of diapause under both laboratory and field conditions. Developmental duration of larvae before the third instar was the longest when fed with 75%-90%damaged needles, followed by 25%-40% damaged needles and intact pine needles, whereas mortalities did not differ among different treatments under the conditions of 25℃ and critical photoperiod 13.5:10.5 L:D. At 25℃, no diapause was induced under 15:9 L:D, whereas 100% diapause occurred under 12:12 L:D regardless of the levels of needle damage.Incidences of larvae entering diapause when they were fed with intact, 25%-40% and 75%90% damaged pine needles were 51.7%, 70.8% and 81% under 13.5:10.5 L:D, respectively.Similar results were obtained in the field experiment. Incidence of diapause was significantly different among the pine needle damage levels of pine trees when the photoperiod was close to the critical day length, indicating that the effect of host plants on diapause induction was dependent on the range of photoperiod. The content of amino acid and sugar decreased and tannin increased in pine needles after feeding by the pine caterpillars, suggesting that changed levels of nutrients in damaged needles or a particular substance emitted by damaged pine trees was perhaps involved in the diapause induction of the pine caterpillar.

  12. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  13. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  14. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  15. Interacting genes in the pine-fusiform rust forest pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.V. Amerson; T.L. Kubisiak; S.A. Garcia; G.C. Kuhlman; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin; B. Li

    2005-01-01

    Fusiform rust (FR) disease of pines, caused by Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf), is the most destructive disease in pine plantations of the southern U. S. The NCSU fusiform rust program, in conjunction with the USDA-Forest Service in Saucier, MS and Athens, GA, has research underway to elucidate some of the genetic interactions in this...

  16. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  17. Photosynthesis and growth of selected scotch pine seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gordon; Gordon E. Gatherum

    1968-01-01

    A number of problems related to the culture of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) arose following the increased planting of this species in Iowa. Therefore, a program of controlled-environment experiments to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on physiological processes important to the culture of Scotch pine was begun by the...

  18. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  19. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  20. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  1. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  2. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  3. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  4. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  5. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge;

    2014-01-01

    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...

  6. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  7. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  8. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  9. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  10. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  11. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus

    2011-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  12. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  13. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  14. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be...

  15. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  16. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  17. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  18. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  19. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  20. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  1. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  2. Comments of the State of Colorado on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Rocky Mountain National Wildlife Area Fish and Wildlife Management Plans Fiscal Year 1995 and Biomonitoring Program for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Aquatic Ecosystems March, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment and the Colorado Division of Wildlife reviewed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  3. Surface water-quality and water-quantity data from selected urban runoff-monitoring sites at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, water years 1988-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has monitored the quality and quantity of streamflow at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) northeast of Denver, Colorado, since the early...

  4. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  5. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  6. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  7. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  8. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  9. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  10. Sessile Animals on an Artificial Fish Reef with Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    吉永, 圭輔; ヨシナガ, ケイスケ; YOSHINAGA, Keisuke

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the sessile animals attached to a pine tree reef. The artificial reef was placed off the coast of Ibusuki City in Kagoshima Bay on 21 December 1995. A piece of pine log was recovered from this reef on 30 October 1998, and animal community attached to the pine log was examined. Abundant ship-worms, Teredo navalis japonica, burrowed their ways from the cut end to the core. Sessile animals clung to the bark. There were also observed many other animals within ...

  11. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  12. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  13. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  14. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  15. Closed-Loop Flow Control of the Coupled Wake Dynamics and Aerodynamic Loads of a Freely-Pivoting 3-DOF Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, T.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2016-11-01

    The motion of an axisymmetric bluff body model that is free to pivot in pitch, yaw, and roll in a uniform stream in response to flow-induced aerodynamic loads is controlled in wind tunnel experiments using fluidic actuation. The model is attached to an upstream, wire-supported short streamwise sting through a low-friction hinge, and each of the support wires is individually-controlled by a servo actuator through an in-line load cell. The aerodynamic loads on the body, and thereby its motion, are controlled through fluidic modification of its aerodynamic coupling to its near wake using four independent aft mounted synthetic jet actuators that effect azimuthally-segmented flow attachment over the model's tail end. The effects of actuation-induced, transitory changes in the model's aerodynamic loads are measured by its motion response using motion tracking, while the coupled evolution of the near-wake is captured by high-speed stereo PIV. Flow control authority is demonstrated by feedback-controlled manipulation of the model's dynamic response, and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the wake is used to characterize changes in the wake structure and stability. It is shown that this flow control approach can modify the stability and damping of the model's motion (e.g., suppression or amplification of its natural oscillations), and impose desired directional attitude. Supported by the ARO.

  16. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  17. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yingliang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibao; Zhao, Ruiming; He, Yawen; Li, Songryong; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages. PMID:19570192

  20. The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture. From the Venice Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrie David Ferreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper examines the Aristotelian roots of the mechanics of naval architecture, beginning with Mechanical Problems, through its various interpretations by Renaissance mathematicians including Vettor Fausto and Galileo at the Venice Arsenal, and culminating in the first synthetic works of naval architecture by the French navy professor Paul Hoste at the end of the seventeenth century.