WorldWideScience

Sample records for pimephales promelas exposed

  1. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Palić, Dušan

    2014-11-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail.

  2. First Generation Annotations for the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Genome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a laboratory model organism widely used in regulatory toxicity testing and ecotoxicology research. Despite, the wealth of...

  3. A computational model of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis in female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazorchak James M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17α-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17β-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic androgen used as a growth promoter in livestock. Both 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone have been found in the aquatic environment and affect fish reproduction. In this study, we developed a physiologically-based computational model for female fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas, a small fish species used in ecotoxicology, to simulate how estrogens (i.e., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (i.e., 17β-trenbolone affect reproductive endpoints such as plasma concentrations of steroid hormones (e.g., 17β-estradiol and testosterone and vitellogenin (a precursor to egg yolk proteins. Results Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations, the model was calibrated with data from unexposed, 17α-ethynylestradiol-exposed, and 17β-trenbolone-exposed FHMs. Four Markov chains were simulated, and the chains for each calibrated model parameter (26 in total converged within 20,000 iterations. With the converged parameter values, we evaluated the model's predictive ability by simulating a variety of independent experimental data. The model predictions agreed with the experimental data well. Conclusions The physiologically-based computational model represents the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult female FHM robustly. The model is useful to estimate how estrogens (e.g., 17α-ethynylestradiol or androgens (e.g., 17β-trenbolone affect plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and vitellogenin, which are important determinants of fecundity in fish.

  4. Predicting Fecundity of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas Exposed to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Using a MATLAB®-Based Model of Oocyte Growth Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Watanabe

    Full Text Available Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for flexible, widely-applicable, biologically-based models that can predict changes in fecundity in response to chemical exposures, based on readily measured biochemical endpoints, such as plasma vitellogenin (VTG concentrations, as input parameters. Herein we describe a MATLAB® version of an oocyte growth dynamics model for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas with a graphical user interface based upon a previously published model developed with MCSim software and evaluated with data from fathead minnows exposed to an androgenic chemical, 17β-trenbolone. We extended the evaluation of our new model to include six chemicals that inhibit enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis: fadrozole, ketoconazole, propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol, and trilostane. In addition, for unexposed fathead minnows from group spawning design studies, and those exposed to the six chemicals, we evaluated whether the model is capable of predicting the average number of eggs per spawn and the average number of spawns per female, which was not evaluated previously. The new model is significantly improved in terms of ease of use, platform independence, and utility for providing output in a format that can be used as input into a population dynamics model. Model-predicted minimum and maximum cumulative fecundity over time encompassed the observed data for fadrozole and most propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol and trilostane treatments, but did not consistently replicate results from ketoconazole treatments. For average fecundity (eggs•female(-1•day(-1, eggs per spawn, and the number of spawns per female, the range of model-predicted values generally encompassed the experimentally observed values

  5. Predicting Fecundity of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Using a MATLAB®-Based Model of Oocyte Growth Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Karen H; Mayo, Michael; Jensen, Kathleen M; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Perkins, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for flexible, widely-applicable, biologically-based models that can predict changes in fecundity in response to chemical exposures, based on readily measured biochemical endpoints, such as plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations, as input parameters. Herein we describe a MATLAB® version of an oocyte growth dynamics model for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) with a graphical user interface based upon a previously published model developed with MCSim software and evaluated with data from fathead minnows exposed to an androgenic chemical, 17β-trenbolone. We extended the evaluation of our new model to include six chemicals that inhibit enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis: fadrozole, ketoconazole, propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol, and trilostane. In addition, for unexposed fathead minnows from group spawning design studies, and those exposed to the six chemicals, we evaluated whether the model is capable of predicting the average number of eggs per spawn and the average number of spawns per female, which was not evaluated previously. The new model is significantly improved in terms of ease of use, platform independence, and utility for providing output in a format that can be used as input into a population dynamics model. Model-predicted minimum and maximum cumulative fecundity over time encompassed the observed data for fadrozole and most propiconazole, prochloraz, fenarimol and trilostane treatments, but did not consistently replicate results from ketoconazole treatments. For average fecundity (eggs•female(-1)•day(-1)), eggs per spawn, and the number of spawns per female, the range of model-predicted values generally encompassed the experimentally observed values. Overall, we

  6. Time-specific and population-level differences in physiological responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, John D; Pistole, David H; Moffe, Mickey C

    2012-03-01

    The influence of exposure time on gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity and metabolic rate in populations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) hatcheries in Ohio (OH) and Pennsylvania (PA) when exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (Cu) was examined. The pattern of change in gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity was similar in all species/populations and results support expectations based on the concept of acclimation. In all populations, Na+/K+ ATPase activity declined significantly compared to reference values within 24 h, recovered by 48 h, and then continued to increase before exceeding reference values by 192 h. With the exception of PA fathead minnows, Na+/K+ ATPase activities returned to reference levels by 384 h. Although metabolic rates of individual fish were not strongly correlated with Na+/K+ ATPase activities, the pattern of change in mean values of these physiological parameters was very similar. However, OH populations of both fathead minnows and golden shiners demonstrated much more dramatic changes in metabolic rate compared to PA fish. At 24 h, metabolic rate of PA fathead minnows had decreased by 16% compared to the reference value whereas the OH population had decreased by 31%; metabolic rate of PA golden shiners declined by 23% compared to 59% in OH shiners at 24 h. Similar differences were observed in the maximum metabolic rates achieved at 192 h. While the increased sensitivity of OH fish to Cu is not readily explainable by genetic or environmental factors, results suggest the need for considering population level differences when evaluating the physiological effects of toxicants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearr, Jonathan S; Stapleton, Heather M; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2010-03-01

    Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54 are two brominated formulations that are in use as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Two major components of these mixtures are 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (TBB) and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (TBPH). Both have been measured in environmental matrices; however, scant toxicological information exists. The present study aimed to determine if these brominated flame-retardant formulations are bioavailable and adversely affect DNA integrity in fish. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were orally exposed to either FM 550, FM BZ54, or the nonbrominated form of TBPH, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for 56 d and depurated (e.g., fed clean food) for 22 d. At several time points, liver and blood cells were collected and assessed for DNA damage. Homogenized fish tissues were extracted and analyzed on day 0 and day 56 to determine the residue of TBB and TBPH and the appearance of any metabolites using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Significant increases (p < 0.05) in DNA strand breaks from liver cells (but not blood cells) were observed during the exposure period compared with controls, although during depuration these levels returned to control. Both parent compounds, TBB and TBPH, were detected in tissues at approximately 1% of daily dosage along with brominated metabolites. The present study provides evidence for accumulation, metabolism, and genotoxicity of these new formulation flame retardants in fish and highlights the potential adverse effects of TBB- and TBPH-formulated fire retardants to aquatic species.

  8. MICROSATELLITE DNA VARIATION IN TWO FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) STOCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse effects on more than 2000 species of fish in the U.S. and Canada are estimated by sensitvity results of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) acute toxicity tests. Whether survival and susceptibility to toxicants are influenced by genetic variation is still under question...

  9. Embryotoxicity of maternally transferred methylmercury to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristin N; Soulen, Brianne K; Overturf, Carmen L; Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and potent neurotoxin. In aquatic environments, Hg can be transformed into methylmercury (MeHg), which bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs, including fish. Methylmercury has been shown to transfer from female fish to developing eggs; however, relatively little is known regarding the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fish embryos. The present study evaluated the effects of maternally transferred MeHg on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos. Embryos were collected from adult fatheads exposed for 30 d to 1 of 3 diets spiked with MeHg: a control diet (0.02 ppm Hg dry wt), a low diet (0.87 ppm Hg dry wt), or a high diet (5.5 ppm Hg dry wt). No effects on spawning frequency, clutch size, or total egg output were observed. In embryos, Hg concentration was a function of female diet and the duration (number of days) of female exposure. Compared with controls, embryos from the low-diet treatment displayed altered embryonic movement patterns (hyperactivity) and decreased time to hatch. Embryos from the high-diet treatment had delayed hatching and increased mortality compared with the other treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that maternally transferred Hg may impact survival, behavior, and developmental milestones of the embryo-larval stages of fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1436-1441. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  11. Effect of toluene on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, E.W.; Brammer, J.D.; Puyear, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    The environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons present in freshwater systems have been poorly characterized. This study examines the effect of toluene, a major water-soluble component of petroleum fuels on teleost development under controlled conditions. The fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, was chosen as a model teleost for this study. Live embryos as well as serial sections of paraffin-embedded embryos were examined to determine effects of the toxicant. The toluene concentrations utilized ranged from 30 to 45 mg/L. Abnormalities noted under these conditions included distorted embryonic axis, abnormal heart and circulatory system development, hydration and swelling of the pericardial coelom, hemorrhaging an overall stunted appearance, microphthalmia, and a unique migration of the ventrally located yolk syncytial layer and its associated nuclei.

  12. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  13. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  14. VITELLOGENIN ELISA FOR FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) USING A COMPLETELY HOMOLOGOUS ASSAY SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indication of vitellogenin in fish has been used as a biomarker for estrogen-receptor mediated gene induction pathways resulting from exposure to environmental estrogens. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) have been selected as one of the test models to investigate reprodu...

  15. VITELLOGENIN ELISA FOR FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) USING A COMPLETELY HOMOLOGOUS ASSAY SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indication of vitellogenin in fish has been used as a biomarker for estrogen-receptor mediated gene induction pathways resulting from exposure to environmental estrogens. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) have been selected as one of the test models to investigate reprodu...

  16. Effects of environmental exposure to diazepam on the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Choe, Ree; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs are continuously discharged into the aquatic environment primarily through wastewater discharge; therefore, their possible effects on wildlife is a reason of concern. Diazepam is a widely prescribed benzodiazepine drug used to treat insomnia and anxiety disorders, and it has been found in wastewater effluents worldwide. The present study tested the effects of diazepam on fecundity and the reproductive behavior of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a fish that exhibits male parental care. Sexually mature fathead minnows were housed at a ratio of one male and two females per tank and exposed to nominal (measured) concentrations of 0, 0.1 (0.14 ± 0.06), 1.0 (1.04 ± 0.15), 10 (13.4 ± 1.5) µg L(-1) for 21 days. Fish receiving the low diazepam treatment had significantly larger clutches than fish receiving the highest concentration but neither were different from controls. Diazepam exposure was not associated with a significant change in fertilization rate, hatchability or time to hatch, but a trend toward a higher number of eggs/day was observed in fish exposed to the low diazepam concentration relative to those exposed to the medium concentration. There were no significant differences in any of the behaviors analyzed when responses were averaged over time. The results showed that exposure to diazepam at concentrations as high as 13 µg L(-1) did not significantly impact the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow.

  17. Exposure effects of levonorgestrel on oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler; Yonkos, Lance; Frankel, Jack

    2017-07-06

    The synthetic progestin levonorgestrel is commonly utilized in human oral contraceptives. It enters the environment as a component of wastewater treatment plant effluent, and has been measured at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters. It has been shown to activate fish androgen receptors, causing the physical masculinization of females, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreases in fecundity. In the present study, the effects of levonorgestrel exposure on early-stage oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was examined. Adult females were exposed to 0, 10, or 100 ng/L levonorgestrel for 14 d using a flow-through exposure system. The ovaries from each female were then removed via dissection and weighed for gonadosomatic index (GSI) calculations, and oocytes from one lobe preserved in Serra's fixative. Total numbers of late-stage vitellogenic oocytes exhibiting a germinal vesicle were then quantified. In a second exposure, blood plasma samples were collected from adult females and analyzed for vitellogenin concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Females exposed to both concentrations of levonorgestrel developed male secondary sexual characteristics in a dose-dependent manner, and ovaries contained significantly fewer late stage oocytes. Exposure to 100 ng/L of levonorgestrel resulted in decreased GSI and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations. The results suggest that female exposure to levonorgestrel alone may have profound effects on reproduction in progestin-contaminated environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-6. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Brix, Kevin V; Ryan, Adam C; Grosell, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of lead (Pb) was examined for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 96-h) and daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h) in waters modified for hardness (as CaSO₄), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; as Aldrich humic acid) and alkalinity (as NaHCO₃) for parameterization of an acute freshwater biotic ligand model (BLM). Additionally, acute (96-h) and chronic (30-d) bioassays were performed for P. promelas to more clearly define the influence of pH (5.5-8.3) on Pb toxicity as modified by addition of HCl or NaOH using an automated titration system. Results indicate that Ca(2+) is protective against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas but not C. dubia. Strong protection was afforded by DOC and NaHCO(3) against acute Pb toxicity to P. promelas, whereas milder protection was observed for C. dubia with both parameters. Dissolved Pb LC50s from the P. promelas pH bioassays revealed a complex effect of pH on Pb toxicity, likely explained in part by Pb speciation and the competitive interaction of H(+) with ionic Pb(2+). Chronic pH bioassays also demonstrated that 30-d growth is not impaired in fathead minnows at relevant Pb concentrations. The findings reported herein suggest that development of separate BLMs for P. promelas and C. dubia should be considered.

  19. The effects of silver nanoparticles on fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Geoff; Nies, Loring F; Turco, Ronald F; Bickham, John W; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. We describe the toxicity of two commercial silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) products, NanoAmor and Sigma on Pimephales promelas embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of either sonicated or stirred NP solutions for 96 h. LC(50) values for NanoAmor and Sigma Ag NPs were 9.4 and 10.6 mg/L for stirred and 1.25 and 1.36 mg/L for sonicated NPs, respectively. Uptake of Ag NPs into the embryos was observed after 24 h using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Ag NPs induced a concentration-dependent increase in larval abnormalities, mostly edema. Dissolved Ag released from Ag NPs was measured using Inductively Coupled-Mass Spectrometry and the effects tested were found to be three times less toxic when compared to Ag nitrate (AgNO(3)). The percentage of dissolved Ag released was inversely proportional to the concentration of Ag NPs with the lowest (0.625 mg/L) and highest (20 mg/L) concentrations tested releasing 3.7 and 0.45% dissolved Ag, respectively and percent release was similar regardless if concentrations were stirred or sonicated. Thus increased toxicity after sonication cannot be solely explained by dissolved Ag. We conclude that both dissolved and particulate forms of Ag elicited toxicity to fish embryos.

  20. Influence of copper exposure on whole-body sodium levels in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    Because metals such as Cu inhibit ionoregulation, the increased energy requirement to counter passive diffusive losses in soft water may translate into increased sensitivity to metal exposure. We developed a method to determine whole-body Na concentrations of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a physiological indicator of health. This method was used to characterize net rates of Na flux from fish exposed to Cu in the presence of varying levels of hardness and alkalinity. In extremely soft waters (hardness, hardness (>10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), however, decreased the apparent kinetics of Na loss caused by Cu exposure, which suggests the process was related to uncompetitive inhibition of Cu by hardness cations. Although the percentage of Na loss associated with mortality in larval fish was similar to that in juvenile and adult fish (30% loss of exchangeable Na pool), larvae reached this level within 12 h of exposure, and it was not representative of the onset of mortality. These results suggested that ionoregulatory measures by themselves are not a conclusive metric for Cu regulation using larval fish. To account for increased sensitivity in low-hardness waters in the development of biotic ligand models, the critical amount of Cu associated with the gill to cause mortality (i.e., the median lethal accumulation value) should be characterized more appropriately as a function of hardness below 20 mg/L as CaCO(3).

  1. Joint acute toxicity of esfenvalerate and diazinon to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Debra L; Wheelock, Craig E; Murray, Shauna A; Deanovic, Linda A; Hammock, Bruce D; Hinton, David E

    2003-02-01

    California (USA) agriculture employs pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides to control insects in orchards and other crops. Diazinon and esfenvalerate were selected for this study because of their application overlaps. Toxicological and biochemical responses of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed singly and in combinations to esfenvalerate and diazinon were determined. Exposures were 96-h static renewal tests that used standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute toxicity test methods. After pesticide exposures, larvae were evaluated for carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological effects. Carboxylesterase activity was examined because of its potential influence on the toxicity of both organophosphates and pyrethroids. In vivo studies demonstrated that diazinon significantly inhibited carboxylesterase activity at nominal water concentrations as low as 50 microg/L. However, esfenvalerate did not affect carboxylesterase activity at any concentration tested. Liver glycogen depletion was the only histopathological effect observed; this effect was demonstrated with the individual pesticides and pesticide combinations (i.e., mixtures). The combinations of diazinon and esfenvalerate causing acute toxicity to fathead minnow larvae appeared to be greater than additive (i.e., synergistic) in all three tests.

  2. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  3. Fishy aroma of social status: Urinary chemo-signaling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exhibit life history traits which may be conducive to evolution of systems that use chemical communication to confer information about an individual’s social status. Reproduction in males of this species is dependent upon their ability ...

  4. Modulation of estrogenic exposure effects via alterations in salinity and dissolved oxygen in male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory exposure data indicate that estrogens and estrogen mimics can cause endocrine disruption in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the wild, conditions are not static as is often the case in the laboratory. Changes in water quality parameters, such as salinity influx due to road s...

  5. SUBCHRONIC SENSITIVITY OF ONE-, FOUR-, AND SEVEN-DAY-OLD FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) LARVAE TO FIVE TOXICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow (pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test was used to evaluate the relative sensitivity of 1-,4-, and 7-d-old larvae to five contaminants, KC1, NaC1, 1-octanol, carbaryl, and benzaldehyde. The no observable effect concentration (NOEC) for survival o...

  6. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  7. Sequencing and de novo draft assemblies of a fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Frank R; Cogburn, Amarin L; Ankley, Gerald T; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Waits, Eric; Chang, Yun-Juan; Llaca, Victor; Deschamps, Stephane D; Jackson, Raymond E; Hoke, Robert Alan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide the foundation for development of genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), an important model organism widely used in both aquatic toxicology research and regulatory testing. The authors report on the first sequencing and 2 draft assemblies for the reference genome of this species. Approximately 120× sequence coverage was achieved via Illumina sequencing of a combination of paired-end, mate-pair, and fosmid libraries. Evaluation and comparison of these assemblies demonstrate that they are of sufficient quality to be useful for genome-enabled studies, with 418 of 458 (91%) conserved eukaryotic genes mapping to at least 1 of the assemblies. In addition to its immediate utility, the present work provides a strong foundation on which to build further refinements of a reference genome for the fathead minnow.

  8. Laboratory assessment of the toxicity of urban runoff on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, C.; Coler, R.A.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The early life stage effects of urban runoff (rain and snowmelt) on hatching, growth and survival of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was assessed in static and flow-through systems. The data indicate a Maximum Allowable Toxicant Concentration (MATC) and a reduction of growth to 50% of controls at 28% and 60% runoff, respectivley. Hatchability and average lengths were not as sensitive indicators of stress as millimeters produced per treatment. The data indicate a maximum toxicity in the fall which coincided with the reported drop in macroinvertebrate diversity during the same period, when untreated runoff events can contribute up to 1/4 of the river flow. The reduced diversity may be attributed to leachability and potential availability of sorbed concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, and cadmium in river sediments.

  9. Improved building up a model of toxicity towards Pimephales promelas by the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A; Raskova, Maria; Raska, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    By optimization of so-called correlation weights of attributes of simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) quantitative structure - activity relationships (QSAR) for toxicity towards Pimephales promelas are established. A new SMILES attribute has been utilized in this work. This attribute is a molecular descriptor, which reflects (i) presence of different kinds of bonds (double, triple, and stereo chemical bonds); (ii) presence of nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus atoms; and (iii) presence of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine atoms. The statistical characteristics of the best model are the following: n=226, r(2)=0.7630, RMSE=0.654 (training set); n=114, r(2)=0.7024, RMSE=0.766 (calibration set); n=226, r(2)=0.6292, RMSE=0.870 (validation set). A new criterion to select a preferable split into the training and validation sets are suggested and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Papoulias, D.M.; Whyte, J.J.; Richter, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, the widely used herbicide, has shown to affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in certain vertebrate species, but few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical on fish. Our study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (e.g., gonad development) and biochemical (e.g., hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in fathead minnows. Adult virgin breeding groups of 1 male and 2 females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ??g/L of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 30 days. Total egg production was lower (19-39%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine treated fish were significant by 17-20 days of exposure. Reductions in egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to reduced numbers of spawning events with increased atrazine exposure concentrations. Gonad abnormalities were observed in both male and female fish of atrazine-exposed fish. Our results also indicate that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reproductive effects observed in this study warrant further investigation and evaluation of the potential risks posed by atrazine, particularly feral populations of fish from streams in agricultural areas with high use of this herbicide. ?? 2010.

  11. Triclosan impairs swimming behavior and alters expression of excitation-contraction coupling proteins in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Erika B; Connon, Richard E; Werner, Inge; Davies, Rebecca E; Beggel, Sebastian; Feng, Wei; Pessah, Isaac N

    2013-02-19

    Triclosan (TCS), a high volume chemical widely used in consumer products, is a known aquatic contaminant found in fish inhabiting polluted watersheds. Mammalian studies have recently demonstrated that TCS disrupts signaling between the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two proteins essential for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in striated muscle. We investigated the swimming behavior and expression of EC coupling proteins in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to TCS for up to 7 days. Concentrations as low as 75 μg L(-1) significantly altered fish swimming activity after 1 day; which was consistent after 7 days of exposure. The mRNA transcription and protein levels of RyR and DHPR (subunit CaV1.1) isoforms changed in a dose and time dependent manner. Crude muscle homogenates from exposed larvae did not display any apparent changes in receptor affinity toward known radioligands. In nonexposed crude muscle homogenates, TCS decreased the binding of [(3)H]PN20-110 to the DHPR and decreased the binding of [(3)H]-ryanodine to the RyR, demonstrating a direct impact at the receptor level. These results support TCS's impact on muscle function in vertebrates further exemplifying the need to re-evaluate the risks this pollutant poses to aquatic environments.

  12. Evaluation of potential mechanisms of atrazine-induced reproductive impairment in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Cathy; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine has been implicated in reproductive dysfunction of exposed organisms, and previous studies documented decreased egg production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during 30-d to 38-d exposures to 0.5 µg/L, 5 µg/L, and 50 µg/L atrazine. The authors evaluated possible mechanisms underlying the reduction in egg production. Gene expression in steroidogenesis pathways and the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad axis of male and female fish was measured. Atrazine did not significantly induce gonad aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression. An atrazine-induced shift in the number of females in an active reproductive state was observed. Expression of the egg maturation genes vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) and zona pellucida glycoprotein 3.1 (zp3.1) in medaka females was correlated and had a bimodal distribution. In both species, females with low vtg1 or zp3.1 expression also had low expression of steroidogenesis genes in the gonad, estrogen receptor in the liver, and gonadotropins in the brain. In the medaka, the number of females per tank that had high expression of zp3.1 was significantly correlated with egg production per tank. The number of medaka females with low expression of zp3.1 increased significantly with atrazine exposure. Thus, the decline in egg production observed in response to atrazine exposure may be the result of a coordinated downregulation of genes required for reproduction in a subset of females.

  13. Effects of the biopesticide Zequanox® on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems in the United States. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including several young-of-the-year fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenid mussels, but data are lacking on the treatment-related effects on reproduction and early life stage development of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, after exposure to the maximum approved concentration [100 mg active ingredient (AI)/L] and exposure duration (8h) for open water application. The results showed no significant treatment-related effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg production (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (≤24 h old) exposed to Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of untreated eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched larvae (≤24-h old). Zequanox may be an option for control of dreissenid mussels in localized open water habitats where concerns exist regarding reproduction and recruitment of cyprinids and related species.

  14. CORAL: QSAR models for acute toxicity in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, A P; Toropov, A A; Lombardo, A; Roncaglioni, A; Benfenati, E; Gini, G

    2012-05-05

    CORrelation And Logic (CORAL) is a software that generates quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for different endpoints. This study is dedicated to the QSAR analysis of acute toxicity in Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Statistical quality for the external test set is a complex function of the split (into training and test subsets), the number of epochs of the Monte Carlo optimization, and the threshold that is a criterion for dividing the correlation weights into two classes rare (blocked) and not rare (active). Computational experiments with three random splits (data on 568 compounds) indicated that this approach can satisfactorily predict the desired endpoint (the negative decimal logarithm of the 50% lethal concentration, in mmol/L, pLC50). The average correlation coefficients (r2) are 0.675 ± 0.0053, 0.824 ± 0.0242, 0.787 ± 0.0101 for subtraining, calibration, and test set, respectively. The average standard errors of estimation (s) are 0.837 ± 0.021, 0.555 ± 0.047, 0.606 ± 0.049 for subtraining, calibration, and test set, respectively. The CORAL software together with three random splits into subtraining, calibration, and test sets can be downloaded on the Internet (http://www.insilico.eu/coral/). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigations of transcript expression in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) brain tissue reveal toxicological impacts of RDX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Guan, Xin; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Habib, Tanwir; Yoo, Leslie; Wintz, Henri; Vulpe, Chris D; Perkins, Edward J

    2011-01-17

    Production, usage and disposal of the munitions constituent (MC) cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) has led to environmental releases on military facilities. The chemical attributes of RDX are conducive for leaching to surface water which may put aquatic organisms at risk of exposure. Because RDX has been observed to cause aberrant neuromuscular effects across a wide range of animal phyla, we assessed the effects of RDX on central nervous system (CNS) functions in the representative aquatic ecotoxicological model species, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We developed a fathead minnow brain-tissue cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially expressed in response to RDX and trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. All 4,128 cDNAs were sequenced, quality filtered and assembled yielding 2230 unique sequences and 945 significant blastx matches (E ≤10(-5)). The cDNA library was leveraged to create custom-spotted microarrays for use in transcript expression assays. The impact of RDX on transcript expression in brain tissue was examined in fathead minnows exposed to RDX at 0.625, 2.5, 5, 10mg/L or an acetone-spike control for 10 days. Overt toxicity of RDX in fathead minnow occurred only at the highest exposure concentration resulting in 50% mortality and weight loss. Conversely, Bayesian analysis of microarray data indicated significant changes in transcript expression at concentrations as low as 0.625 mg/L. In total, 154 cDNAs representing 44 unique transcripts were differentially expressed in RDX exposures, the majority of which were validated by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Investigation of molecular pathways, gene ontology (GO) and individual gene functions affected by RDX exposures indicated changes in metabolic processes involved in: oxygen transport, neurological function, calcium binding/signaling, energy metabolism, cell growth/division, oxidative stress and ubiquitination. In total, our study indicated that RDX exposure affected

  16. Identification of copper-responsive genes in an early life stage of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Solange S; Keller, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    While physiological changes associated with copper toxicity have been studied in adult fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, little is known about the effect of copper on newly hatched larvae. As a result we initiated an investigation on the mechanism of copper toxicity in 24 h post-hatch larvae using gene expression changes to identify responsive genes. Fish were exposed to copper concentrations of 0, 50, 125 and 200 mug/L in a 48 h toxicity test. Total RNA from survivors was used in a differential display assay to screen for differentially expressed gene products. Altogether, 654 copper-responsive differentially expressed bands were collected. Database searches found homology for 261 sequences. One hundred and sixty-one bands were homologous to NCBI genes of known function, of which 69 were individual genes. The most abundant categories of functional genes responding to copper were involved in protein synthesis/translational machinery and contractile proteins. Twenty-one dose-responsive genes were measured for expression changes using real-time quantitative PCR. Differential gene expression was validated for 11 of 13 genes, when a 1.2 times qPCR difference between the copper and control samples was observed. Transcripts identified as titin, cytochrome b, fast muscle specific heavy myosin chain 4, fast muscle troponin I, proteasome 26S subunit and troponin T3a were induced over twofold. Differential display bands identified as 60S ribosomal proteins L27 and L12 were repressed approximately threefold. We conclude that copper exposure affects several cellular pathways in larval fathead minnows with protein synthesis, ribosome structure, and muscle contractile proteins being the most sensitive to this stress.

  17. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  18. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  19. Development and validation of a direct homologous quantitative sandwich ELISA for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) vitellogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, Janne K; Kleivdal, Hans; Kroll, Kevin; Denslow, Nancy; van Aerle, Ronny; Tyler, Charles; Panter, Grace; Hutchinson, Tom; Goksøyr, Anders

    2006-06-15

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is an established and sensitive endpoint for analysis of exposure to (anti-)oestrogens and their mimics in fish [Sumpter, J.P., 1995. Feminized responses in fish to environmental estrogens. Toxicol. Lett. 82, 737-742; Arukwe, A., Goksøyr, A., 2003. Eggshell and egg yolk proteins in fish: hepatic proteins for the next generation: oogenetic, population, and evolutionary implications of endocrine disruption. Comp. Hepatol. 2, 4. ]. In some instances, links have been drawn between high level induction of Vtg and adverse health effects in fish [Herman, R.L., Kincaide, H.L., 1988. Pathological effects of orally administered estradiol to rainbow trout. Aquaculture 72, 165-172; Schwaiger, J., Spieser, O.H., Bauer, C., Ferling, H., Mallow, U., Kalbfus, W., Negele, R.D., 2000. Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinyloestraiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquat. Toxicol. 51, 69-78]. The widespread use of Vtg as a biomarker has led to the development of a variety of assays to quantitatively measure Vtg concentrations in tissue samples from fish, and hence a need for a standardization of the performance criteria and validation of such assays [Goksøyr, A., Eidem, J.K., Kristiansen, S.I., Nilsen, B.M., 2003. On the need for a standardized set-up for validation studies of fish vitellogenin assays as an endpoint in endocrine disruptor testing and screening-a proposal. ]. One of the most popular test fish species for assessing chemical effects is the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), which is now used widely for studies into endocrine disruption [Panter, G.H., Hutchinson, T.H., Lange, R., Lye, C.M., Sumpter, J.P., Zerulla, M., Tyler, C.R., 2002. Utility of a juvenile fathead minnow screening assay for detecting (anti)estrogenic substances. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21, 319-326; Hutchinson, T.H., Yokota, H., Hagino, S., Ozato, K., 2003. Development of fish tests for endocrine disruptors. Pure Appl

  20. Influence of water quality and age on nickel toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham Chung; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    This research characterized the effects of water quality and organism age on the toxicity of nickel (Ni) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to facilitate the accurate development of site-specific water-quality criteria. Nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4 x 6H2O) was used as the Ni source for performing acute toxicity tests (median lethal concentration after 96-h exposure [96-h LC50]) with hardness, pH, alkalinity, and natural organic matter (NOM). The toxicity of Ni was inversely related to water hardness between hardness values of 20 and 150 mg/L (as CaCO3). Below 30 mg/L alkalinity, Ni toxicity was related to alkalinity. The effect of pH was confounded by hardness and the presence of NOM. In the absence of NOM, the toxicity of Ni increased as pH increased at high hardness and alkalinity. In general, 28-d-old fish were less sensitive than hardness and alkalinity (20 and 4 mg/L, respectively) to 5-fold at high hardness and alkalinity (100 and 400 mg/L, respectively). The presence of NOM (10 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]) reduced Ni toxicity by up to 50%, but this effect appeared to be saturated above DOC at 5 mg/L. Incubating Ni with the NOM solution from 1 to 17 days had no effect on Ni toxicity. When using multivariate analysis, the 96-h LC50 for Ni was a function of fish age, alkalinity, hardness, and NOM (96-h LC50 = -0.642 + 0.270(fish age) + 0.005(alkalinity) + 0.018(hardness) + 0.138(DOC)). When using this model, we found a strong relationship between measured and predicted 96-h LC50 values (r2 = 0.94) throughout the treatment water qualities. The biotic ligand model (BLM) did not accurately predict Ni toxicity at high or low levels of alkalinity. Results of our research suggest that the BLM could be improved by considering NiCO3 to be bioavailable.

  1. Influence of bicarbonate and humic acid on effects of chronic waterborne lead exposure to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2010-01-31

    Historically, the USEPA has only considered water hardness when establishing acute and chronic water quality criteria (WQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater. Yet, recent evidence suggests that hardness may not be protective during chronic Pb exposure and that other factors (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity) influence toxicity. In fact, we have recently shown that Ca(2+) (as CaSO(4)) does not protect against Pb accumulation in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during chronic exposures whereas DOC as humic acid (HA) clearly does. To more clearly define the water chemistry parameters mediating chronic Pb toxicity we carried out 300 d exposures to study the influence of DOC and alkalinity on Pb accumulation and toxicity to fathead minnows at 2 different Pb concentrations (170 and 580 nM (35 and 120 microg/L)). Alkalinity was adjusted by addition of 500 microM NaHCO(3) and DOC by addition of 4 mg/L HA. Fish were collected at 4, 30, 150 and 300 d of exposure to measure growth and Pb accumulation. Breeding assays (21 d) were performed at the end of these exposures to assess reproductive and larval behavioral endpoints. To determine whether effects were acute or chronic, switched breeding exposures were performed in which control breeders were transferred to either high or low Pb conditions and Pb-exposed breeders transferred to tap water without Pb. Mortality and growth effects were observed primarily in the high Pb treatments and within the first 10 d of exposure. Strong protection against Pb accumulation was afforded by increased DOC at both Pb concentrations. Increased alkalinity also appeared to moderately reduce Pb accumulation although not to the level of statistical significance. Tissue distribution of Pb was analyzed at 300 d and was found to accumulate mostly in bone, gill, intestine and kidney. Unexpectedly, high Pb reduced total reproductive output and increased average egg mass in the HCO(3)(-) and DOC treatments but not in the control water

  2. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  3. Estrogen in the Water: Impacts of Sewage Wastewater on Feminization and Vitellogenin Expression in Male Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Butler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogenic compounds (primarily from substances likebirth control drugs are commonly found in domesticwastewater effluent. These compounds can feminize malefish (e.g., decrease male secondary sex characteristics,reducing competitive advantage during spawning.Exposure to estrogenic chemicals can also lead to theproduction of female-specific proteins such as vitellogenin(VTG. VTG is a yolk-precursor protein synthesizedby the liver of egg-laying females after the stimuli ofestrogen. We hypothesize that upon exposure to estrogencontainingwastewater, adult male fathead minnows(Pimephales promelas will express this female-specificprotein. Adult males were caged at two different sites inthe West Fork of the White River. The downstreamgroup was placed directly below the outflow from theMuncie Water Pollution Control Facility (MWPCF,while another group (upstream was placed 0.25 kmupstream from MWPCF. Following a two-week exposure,secondary sex characteristics were examined, and liverswere processed through quantitative polymerasechainreaction (qPCR to determine expression of VTG. Whileno significant differences resulted from comparison ofsecondary sex characteristics between the study groups,downstream males showed a VTG up-regulation of~ 14-fold (SD = 2.4 when compared to the control group.These results are in agreement with a previous studyin this same area that found “feminization” of nativepopulations of bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus.The “estrogenic” compounds that elicited this responseremain unknown.

  4. 17alpha-ethynylestradiol-induced vitellogenin gene transcription quantified in livers of adult males, larvae, and gills of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattier, David L; Reddy, Tirumuru V; Gordon, Denise A; Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E; Williams, Daniel E; Wiechman, Barry; Flick, Robert W; Miracle, Ann L; Toth, Gregory P

    2002-11-01

    We have applied a method for quantifying relative levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription to assess chemically induced gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Synthetic oligonucleotides designed for the fathead minnow vitellogenin gene transcription product were used in a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. This sensitive and rapid strategy detected vitellogenin gene transcription in livers of male fathead minnows exposed to concentrations as low as 2 ng/L of the endocrine-disrupting compound 17alpha-ethynylestradiol for 24 h. Surprisingly, vitellogenin transcription products also were detected in gill tissue and in 48-h-old posthatch fathead minnow larvae. Relative levels of vitellogenin gene induction among individuals were quantified in a single-step reaction (PCR multiplex) with 18S rRNA universal primers and Competimers concurrently with fathead minnow vitellogenin oligonucleotides. This quantitative approach will markedly enhance detection of the first cellular event of estrogenic exposure to aquatic ecosystems in both field and laboratory systems. Use of the model provides sensitivity of detection at a concentration below those that cause mortality or visible signs of stress in fish or other aquatic organisms. The model may also provide an in vivo screening method for estrogenlike endocrine-disrupting compounds.

  5. Investigation of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a biological control agent of Culex mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick; Paskewitz, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Many urban areas have engineered storm-water runoff control structures such as ditches and detention ponds. These often serve as excellent habitats for Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, the primary enzootic vectors of West Nile virus in the Midwest. We evaluated predation and control of these species by a fish species native to Wisconsin, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). In the lab, a single minnow consumed an average of 74 Cx. pipiens larvae in a 24-h period. Minnow gender and age had minimal effect on predation of 2nd and 4th instars. In the field, fathead minnows (1,000 fish/ha) were introduced 1 time into 3 storm-water ditches with an additional 9 sites serving as controls. Sites where fish were introduced required no Bacillus sphaericus (VectoLex) treatments during the 10-week experiment. The control sites required 19 VectoLex treatments during the same 10-week time span. Survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in time to first VectoLex treatment between fish sites and control sites. Our results suggest fathead minnows may provide a long-lasting and ecologically and economically feasible alternative to the use of VectoLex for Culex larval control.

  6. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-01-01

    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  7. Oral Exposure of PBDE-47 in Fish: Toxicokinetics and Reproductive Effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, Elisabeth K.; Skillman, Ann D.; Hook, Sharon E.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-01-15

    The toxicokinetics of 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodipohenyl ether (PBDE-47) was studied in the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a single oral exposure followed by termination at specific time points. The effects of repeated oral exposure to PBDE-47 on reproductive performance was assessed using a pair breeding experimental design with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) given daily PBDE-47 exposures for 25 days, during which fecundity was measured as an indicator of reproductive performance. Medaka and fathead minnows were orally exposed to PBDE-47 by bioencapsulation in brine shrimp, Artemia sp. In the medaka studies, measurable levels of PBDE-47 were detected in the carcass within 0.25 hr with peak levels occurring at 8 hrs. The body levels of PBDE-47 slowly declined and were still 25% of peak levels at 624 hrs after dosing. Assimilation of the bioencapsulated dose was at least 80% and may well approach 100 %. The PBDE-47 concentration-time profile was fitted to a one-compartment clearance-volume toxicokinetic model and the model-predicted values for elimination half-life was determined to be 281 hrs and the first order absorption rate constant was (Ka) = 0.26 hr 1. In the fathead minnow study, egg laying in the PBDE-treated breeding pairs stopped after 10 days. The condition factor of PBDE-treated males was significantly reduced (P < 0.011) compared with control males, whereas no significant difference was observed in females. Histological examination revealed a greater than 50% reduction in mature sperm in PBDE-47 exposed minnows compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest PBDE-47 is selectively toxic to sexually mature male fathead minnows.

  8. An optimised experimental test procedure for measuring chemical effects on reproduction in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Karen L; Benstead, Rachel; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Tyler, Charles R

    2007-02-15

    The production of viable offspring is fundamental to the survival of any population. Tests that quantify effects on reproduction can, therefore, inform on the potential for long-term health effects of exposure to endocrine active chemicals. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the reproductive capacity of laboratory fish species used for chemical testing. As an example, the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is widely used in chronic assessments of reproductive toxicology, and is readily induced to reproduce in captivity, yet there is little agreement on the reproductive capacity (egg number) of this species. For this species, the notable variation in reported estimates of egg number might relate to differences in the methods of egg collection adopted by many laboratories. To investigate this hypothesis, reproduction was assessed in a total of 200 pair-breeding fathead minnow, using egg collection methods that included the addition of trays placed beneath an inverted U-shaped PVC tile that is conventionally used alone for egg collection. The results demonstrated that the placement of a mesh-screened egg collection tray, beneath the spawning tile, increased estimates of the egg number by 25-67%. In addition, adopting the mesh-screened tray reduced variation in egg number between pairs, within an experiment, from >50% to <30% and variation between experiments was reduced from 53% to 7%. Adoption of the revised system for egg collection shows that egg number in the fathead minnow is considerably more consistent than frequently reported and is a highly robust endpoint against which chemical effects can be challenged effectively.

  9. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an environment with a well-mixed water column can have significant effects on larval fish survival and growth.

  10. Characterization of basic immune function parameters in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a common model in environmental toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Leah M; LeSueur, Meriel C; Yost, Alexandra T; Stephens, Dane A; Oris, James T; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2017-02-01

    The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is an environmental sentinel species, commonly used in toxicity testing. However, there is a lack of data regarding basic immune function in this species. To improve the usefulness of the fathead minnow as a model for basic immune function and immunotoxicity, this study sought to 1) compare the differential expression of immune function genes in naïve fathead minnows and 2) determine the effects of pathogen exposure on immune gene expression and spleen index. To accomplish this, kidney, spleen and liver tissue were collected three days post injection (dpi) from adult male fathead minnows from each of the following groups: 1) uninjected control 2) sham-injected (Hank's balanced salt solution) and 3) pathogen-injected (Yersinia ruckeri). Spleen tissue was also collected at seven and 14 dpi. Differential tissue expression of immune function genes was evaluated in naïve minnows and expression patterns were similar to those found in other fish species, with liver tissue generally having the highest amount of expression. Following pathogen injection, the expression of complement component 3 (c3) (4.4-fold, kidney; 2.5-fold, liver), interleukin 11 (il11) (4.8-fold, kidney; 15.2-fold, liver) and interleukin 1β (il1β) (8.2-fold, kidney; 17.2-fold, spleen; 2.6-fold, liver) were significantly upregulated. Elastase 2 (elas2) was significantly downregulated (5.8-fold) in liver tissue. A significant increase in spleen index at seven dpi was also observed in pathogen-injected minnows. This study has identified endpoints that are part of the normal response to pathogen in fathead minnows, an essential step toward the development of the fathead minnow as a model for immunotoxicity evaluations.

  11. Accumulation and debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) induces thyroid disruption and liver alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Pamela D; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M

    2011-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are known to affect thyroid hormone (TH) regulation. The TH-regulating deiodinases have been implicated in these impacts; however, PBDE effects on the fish thyroid system are largely unknown. Moreover, the liver as a potential target of PBDE toxicity has not been explored in young fish. This study measured decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) effects on TH regulation by measuring deiodinase activity in juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Dietary accumulations and debromination of BDE-209 were also measured, and the morphology of thyroid and liver tissues was examined. Juvenile fathead minnows (28 days old) received a 28-day dietary treatment of BDE-209 at 9.8 ± 0.16 μg/g of food at 5% of their body weight per day followed by a 14-day depuration period in which they were fed clean food. Chemical analysis revealed that BDE-209 accumulated in tissues and was metabolized to reductive products ranging from penta- to octaBDEs with 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154) being the most accumulative metabolite. By day 28 of the exposure, rates of outer and inner ring deiodination (ORD and IRD, respectively) of thyroxine (T4) were each reduced by ∼74% among treatments. Effects on T4-ORD and T4-IRD remained significant even after the 14-day depuration period. Histological examination of treated fish showed significantly increased thyroid follicular epithelial cell heights and vacuolated hepatocyte nuclei. Enlarged biliary passageways may be the cause of the distinctive liver phenotype observed, although further testing is needed. Altogether, these results suggest that juvenile fish may be uniquely susceptible to thyroid disruptors like PBDEs.

  12. A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Jordan, E-mail: jcrago@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States); Klaper, Rebecca, E-mail: rklaper@uwm.edu [School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. At the end of this period there was a reduction in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture, but not in FHM exposed individually to linuron or DEHP or the control FHM. There was also a significant reduction in 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) in the DEHP-only and mixture exposed groups as compared to the control. Contrary to what has been previously published for these two chemicals in mammals, the lower plasma T concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture was not a result of the inhibition of genes involved in steroidogenesis; nor due to an increase in the expression of genes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Rather, an increase in relative transcript abundance for CYP3A4 in the liver and androgen- and estrogen-specific SULT2A1 and SULT1st2 in the testes provides evidence that the decrease in plasma T and E2 may be linked to increased steroid catabolism. Feedback from the pituitary is not repressed as the relative expression of follicle stimulating hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels in the brain was significantly higher in both DEHP and mixture exposed FHM. In addition, luteinizing hormone {beta}-subunit mRNA transcript levels increased

  13. Mixture toxicity of imidacloprid and cyfluthrin to two non-target species, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Michelle; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Two species, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the amphipod Hyalella azteca, were tested to examine acute toxicity to two insecticides, cyfluthrin and imidacloprid individually and as a mixture. Cyfluthrin was acutely toxic to P. promelas and H. azteca with EC50 values and 95 % confidence intervals of 0.31 µg L(-1) (0.26-0.35 µg L(-1)) and 0.0015 µg L(-1) (0.0011-0.0018 µg L(-1)), respectively. Imidacloprid was not acutely toxic to P. promelas at water concentrations ranging from 1 to 5000 µg L(-1), whereas it was toxic to H. azteca with a EC50 value of 33.5 µg L(-1) (23.3-47.4 µg L(-1)). For the P. promelas mixture test, imidacloprid was added at a single concentration to a geometric series of cyfluthrin concentrations bracketing the EC50 value. A synergistic ratio (SR) of 1.9 was found for P. promelas, which was calculated using the cyfluthrin-only exposure and mixture-exposure data. Because cyfluthrin and imidacloprid were toxic to H. azteca, the mixture test was designed based on an equipotent toxic unit method. Results from the mixture test indicated a model deviation ratio (MDR) of 1.7 or 2.7 depending on the model. Mixture test results from the simultaneous exposure to cyfluthrin and imidacloprid with both species indicated a greater than expected toxic response because the SR or MDR values were >1. Because these two insecticides are commonly used together in the same product formulations, nontarget species could be more affected due to their greater-than-additive toxicity observed in the current study.

  14. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  15. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  16. Effects of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) density on the survival and growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): Implications for North American river fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.

    1996-01-01

    I used replicated 37.8 1 aquaria in a factorial design (four densities of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha; two hydrologic regimes) to determine if the survival or growth of juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) was affected by the density of zebra mussel or by the retention time of the test system. None of the fathead minnows died during the 30-d experiment. However, growth of fathead minnows was lower (P0.05). These laboratory results suggest that juvenile fish survival will not be affected by low to moderate densities of mussels (0-3000 m super(-2)) but fish growth might be adversely affected at moderate densities of mussels (e.g., 3000 m super(-2)).

  17. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of July 22--29, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 19.0 and Mile 22.0 on July 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  18. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) pilot study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a pilot study during the week of April 22--29, 1993, prior to initiation of CR-ERP Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis activities. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0 and Poplar Creek Kilometer 1.6 on April 21, 23, and 26. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival, growth, or reproduction) to either species in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Reference toxicant test information; and Personnel training documentation.

  19. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of October 21--28, 1993. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Due to serious reproduction/embryo abortion problems with the TVA daphnid cultures, TVA conducted tests during this study period using only fathead minnows. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Poplar Creek Mile 2.9, Mile 4.3, and Mile 5.1 on October 20, 22, and 25. Samples were split and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) in testing conducted by TVA. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Reference toxicant test information.

  20. Defining the chronic impacts of atenolol on embryo-larval development and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew J; Lillicrap, Adam D; Caunter, John E; Schaffner, Christian; Alder, Alfredo C; Ramil, Maria; Ternes, Thomas A; Giltrow, Emma; Sumpter, John P; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2008-02-18

    Atenolol is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist ('beta-blocker') widely used for the treatment of angina, glaucoma, high blood pressure and other related conditions. Since atenolol is not appreciably metabolized in humans, the parent compound is the predominant excretory product, and has been detected in sewage effluent discharges and surface waters. Consequently, atenolol has been chosen as a reference pharmaceutical for a European Union-funded research consortium, known as ERAPharm (http://www.erapharm.org), which focused on the fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Here, we present data generated within this project from studies assessing population-relevant effects in a freshwater fish species. Using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a standard OECD test species, embryo-larval development (early life stage or ELS) and short-term (21 d) adult reproduction studies were undertaken. In the ELS study, the 4d embryo NOEC(hatching) and LOEC(hatching) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively, and after 28 d, NOEC(growth) and LOEC(growth) values were 3.2 and 10mg/L, respectively (arithmetic mean measured atenolol concentrations were >90% of these nominal values). In the short-term reproduction study, NOEC(reproduction) and LOEC(reproduction) values were 10 and >10mg/L, respectively (mean measured concentrations were 77-96% of nominal values), while the most sensitive endpoint was an increase in male fish condition index, giving NOEC(condition index) and LOEC(condition index) values of 1.0 and 3.2mg/L, respectively. The corresponding measured plasma concentration of atenolol in these fish was 0.0518 mg/L. These data collectively suggest that atenolol has low chronic toxicity to fish under the conditions described, particularly considering the low environmental concentrations reported. These data also allowed the assessment of two theoretical approaches proposed as predictors of the environmental impact of human pharmaceuticals: the Huggett

  1. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  2. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misk, E; Garver, K; Nagy, E; Isaac, S; Tubbs, L; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2016-06-01

    Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a reportable disease to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as it is known to cause significant international economic impact. In Canada, the first and only isolation of SVC virus (SVCV) was in 2006, from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. The susceptibility of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede) to intraperitoneal injection of the Canadian isolate (HHOcarp06) was evaluated using experimental infection, virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Emerald shiner and fathead minnow were most susceptible with 43 and 53% cumulative mortality, respectively, compared with koi at 33%. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that koi had high viral loads throughout the experiment. At 34 days post-infection, SVCV was detected from sampled emerald shiner and white sucker in very low titre and was not detected from fathead minnow. Koi, fathead minnow and emerald shiner had gross lesions typical of SVC disease. The histopathological picture was mostly dominated by necrotic changes in kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine. IHC further confirmed SVCV infection, and staining was largely correlated with histological lesions.

  3. Expression of two vitellogenin genes (vg1 and vg3) in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver in response to exposure to steroidal estrogens and androgens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miracle, Ann L.; Ankley, Gerald; Lattier, David

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we describe the sequence for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) vitellogenin 3 gene (vg3), and compare the response of vg1 and vg3 following exposure to steroidal estrogens and androgens. The fathead minnow vg3 sequence is only the second nucleotide sequence described in teleosts, following the original description of this isoform in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Following a brief exposure (24 hours) to 2, 5, and 10 ng/L 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), both vg1and vg3 are upregulated in male liver. However, levels of vg3 induction are 4 orders of magnitude lower than induction of vg1. Suppression of vg in female liver following androgenic exposure with 50 or 500 ng/L 17 beta-trenbolone occurs at similar significance levels for both vg1 and vg3 isoforms. The results of this study confirm the use of vg1 as an indicator of estrogenic exposure in male fish, and present the potential for vg1 and /or vg3 for use as indicators of androgenic exposure.

  4. Effects of spray-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A (Zequanox®) on reproduction and early development of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The biopesticide, Zequanox®, is registered for dreissenid mussel control in open water systems. Previous toxicity trials with nontarget organisms, including young-of-the year of several fish species and invertebrates, demonstrated selectivity of Zequanox for dreissenids. However, data are lacking on its safety to reproductive and early life stages of fish. The present study evaluated the effects of Zequanox on spawning and early life stages of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg Zequanox active ingredient /L) and exposure duration (8 h) for open water application. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival, condition, or cumulative egg deposition (21 d) in adult fathead minnow. Eggs (Zequanox developed to the eyed-stage at a similar rate to that of unexposed eggs. Additionally, Zequanox did not have a significant effect on survival and growth (90 d) of newly hatched fry (Zequanox treatment will not affect survival, spawning, and early life development of fathead minnows when applied at the recommended treatment regime.

  5. Static renewal tests using Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnids). Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, ambient water toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25--February 1, 1994. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples. Attachments to this report include: Chain of custody forms -- originals; Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Meter calibrations; and Reference toxicant test information.

  6. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  7. Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) gonadotropin ß subunit mRNAs to support endocrine disruptor research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Kahl, Michael D.; Korte, Joseph J.; Greene, Katie J.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Linnum, Ann; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-03-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are one of the most widely-used small fish models for regulatory ecotoxicology testing and research related to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, we isolated and sequenced cDNAs for fathead minnow follicle-stimulating hormone-like and luteinizing hormone-like β (FSHβ and LHβ) and glycoprotein α (GPα) subunits. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for measuring gonadotropin (GtH) β subunit transcripts were developed and used to examine “baseline” transcript levels over a range of age classes and reproductive states encompassed in EDC testing. In females, FSHβ and LHβ transcripts were greater in 4-5 month old than in younger fish and were significantly correlated with one another across all age classes examined. In males, FSHβ transcripts were greatest in 2-3 month old fish and were inversely correlated with various measures of testis development including, gonadal-somatic index (GSI), and histological stage. Overall, the pattern of GtHβ expression over age classes associated with gonad development was similar to that reported for other asynchronous-spawning fish. Despite significant changes in female GSI, gonad stage, and plasma vitellogenin within 24 h of spawning, GtHβ transcript levels in fish that had spawned within the preceding 24 h were not significantly different from those in fish that were 2-3 days post-spawn and expected to spawn within the next 24 h based on spawning history. Results of this study provide insights related to the role of GtHs in fathead minnow reproductive development and function. Additionally they provide useful “baseline” data needed to design and interpret effective experiments for studying direct and indirect effects of EDCs on GtH subunit mRNA expression, which will facilitate a greater understanding of integrated system-wide responses of the fathead minnow brain-pituitary-gonadal axis to stressors including EDCs.

  8. Identification and quantification of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the teleost fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Sumpter, John P

    2013-09-15

    The steroid hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is one of the most physiologically important androgens in male vertebrates, with the exception of teleost fish, in which it is generally assumed that DHT does not play any major physiological role. However, this assumption is challenged by the fact that all the components involved in DHT biosynthesis and action are present and evolutionary conserved in teleost fish. In fact, testosterone (T) is converted into DHT by two isoforms of the enzyme steroid-5-alpha-reductase (5αR), and both 5αRs gene expression and enzymatic activity have been detected in several tissues of different teleost species, which also have an androgen receptor with high binding affinity to DHT. This body of evidence strongly suggest that DHT is synthesised by teleost fish. We investigated this hypothesis using the cyprinid fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as the experimental model. The study of the evolutionary and functional conservation of 5αRs in teleost fish was used to support the experimental approach, based on an ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method to identify and measure simultaneously T and DHT in fathead minnow biological fluids and tissues. The analyses were performed using plasma samples collected from both male and female adult fish and samples of testicular tissue collected from sexually mature males. Both T and DHT were identified and quantified in all the samples analysed, and in particular, the high concentrations of DHT quantified in the testes suggested that these organs are a likely site of synthesis of DHT in the teleost fathead minnow, as they are in mammals. These results may represent the basis for future studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role, if any, of DHT in teleost fish.

  9. The genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute exposure to the androgen, 17β-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Richter, Catherine A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Carter, Barbara J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the genomic transcriptional response of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an acute (4 days) exposure to 0.1 or 1.0 ??g/L of 17??-trenbolone (TB), the active metabolite of an anabolic androgenic steroid used as a growth promoter in cattle and a contaminant of concern in aquatic systems. Our objectives were to investigate the gene expression profile induced by TB, define biomarkers of exposure to TB, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms of adverse effects of TB on fish reproduction. In female gonad tissue, microarray analysis using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray (EcoArray Inc., Gainesville, FL) showed 99 significantly upregulated genes and 741 significantly downregulated genes in response to 1 ??g TB/L. In particular, hydroxysteroid (17??) dehydrogenase 12a (hsd17b12a), zona pellucida glycoprotein 2.2 (zp2.2), and protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2 (pias2) were all downregulated in gonad. Q-PCR measurements in a larger sample set were consistent with the microarray results in the direction and magnitude of these changes in gene expression. However, several novel potential biomarkers were verified by Q-PCR in the same samples, but could not be validated in independent samples. In liver, Q-PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) mRNA expression. In brain, cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1b (cyp19a1b, previously known as aromatase B) transcript levels were significantly reduced following TB exposure. Our study provides a candidate gene involved in mediating the action of TB, hsd17b12a, and two potential biomarkers sensitive to acute TB exposure, hepatic vtg1 and brain cyp19a1b.

  10. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T

    2011-10-15

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  11. Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine impact behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological impacts. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific impacts on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly impact mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also impacted at 1 μg/L. Feeding was impacted at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in the first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential impacts of dose depending on brain

  12. Predator avoidance performance of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure to estrogen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, M.R.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) at early life-stages may have reduced reproductive fitness via disruption of reproductive and non-reproductive behavioral and physiological pathways. Survival to reproductive age relies upon optimal non-reproductive trait expression, such as adequate predator avoidance responses, which may be impacted through EDC exposure. During a predator–prey confrontation, larval fish use an innate C-start escape behavior to rapidly move away from an approaching threat. We tested the hypotheses that (1) larval fathead minnows exposed to estrogens, a primary class of EDCs, singularly or in mixture, suffer a reduced ability to perform an innate C-start behavior when faced with a threat stimulus; (2) additive effects will cause greater reductions in C-start behavior; and (3) effects will differ among developmental stages. In this study, embryos (post-fertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) singularly and in mixture. Exposed embryos were allowed to hatch and grow in control well water until 12 days old. Similarly, post-hatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 days to these compounds. High-speed (1000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by-frame analysis of latency period, escape velocity, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 days post-hatch, only E1 adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 days post-hatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to E1, while adverse responses were seen in E2 and the estrogen mixture. Ethinylestradiol exposure did not elicit changes in escape behaviors at either developmental stage. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on

  13. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the {beta}-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giltrow, Emma [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Eccles, Paul D. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Rand-Weaver, Mariann [Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Natural Environmental Research Council, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-27

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker ({beta}-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC{sup hatchability} and LOEC{sup female} {sup GSI} values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC{sup m}ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC{sup r}eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human

  14. Expression profiling and gene ontology analysis in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) liver following exposure to pulp and paper mill effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Shannon L.; Werner, Julieta; Ouellet, Jacob D.; Hill, Lauren G. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada); Law, R. David, E-mail: dlaw@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Ontario P7B 5E1, (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Many studies link pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) exposure to adverse effects in fish populations present in the mill receiving environments. These impacts are often characteristic of endocrine disruption and may include impaired reproduction, development and survival. While these physiological endpoints are well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms causing them are not yet understood. To investigate changes in gene transcription induced by exposure to a PPME at several stages of treatment, male and female fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed for 6 days to 25% (v/v) secondary (biologically) treated kraft effluent (TK) or 100% (v/v) combined mill outfall (CMO) from a mill producing both kraft pulp and newsprint. The gene expression changes in the livers of these fish were analyzed using a 22 K oligonucleotide microarray. Exposure to TK or CMO resulted in significant changes in the expression levels of 105 and 238 targets in male FHMs and 296 and 133 targets in females, respectively. Targets were then functionally analyzed using gene ontology tools to identify the biological processes in fish hepatocytes that were affected by exposure to PPME after its secondary treatment. Proteolysis was affected in female FHMs exposed to both TK and CMO. In male FHMs, no processes were affected by TK exposure, while sterol, isoprenoid, steroid and cholesterol biosynthesis and electron transport were up-regulated by CMO exposure. The results presented in this study indicate that short-term exposure to PPMEs affects the expression of reproduction-related genes in the livers of both male and female FHMs, and that secondary treatment of PPMEs may not neutralize all of their metabolic effects in fish. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data may enable identification of biological processes altered by toxicant exposure and thus provide an additional tool for monitoring the impact of PPMEs on fish populations.

  15. Examining waterborne and dietborne routes of exposure and their contribution to biological response patterns in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozon-Ramilo, Lisa D., E-mail: lisa.ramilo@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3 (Canada); Dube, Monique G., E-mail: moniqe.dube@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, School of Environment and Sustainability, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 2X8 (Canada); Squires, Allison J., E-mail: allison.squires@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Toxicology Centre, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Objective (i) was achieved by isolating each route of exposure (diet, water and the combination of the two) and comparing it to a control. The metal mining effluent studied encompassed several different effluent types including: mine water, mill facility, tailing impoundment, treatment pond, treatment facility, seepage and surface drainage effluent. Experiment 1 examined exposure pathways by isolating effluent exposure through the diet, water or the combination of the two. Experiment 2 examined whether differences in Fathead minnow responses occurred when fish were fed a live or frozen (dead) diet of chironomids. Multiple trophic levels (consumers and carnivores) were placed in each artificial stream simultaneously. Primary route of exposure to Fathead minnow when held in control water and fed effluent-exposed chironomid larvae. - Abstract: The objectives of the current study were: (i) to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of water and diet as routes of exposure causing toxicity in fathead minnow (FHM) exposed to metal mining effluents (MME) using a full factorial water/food experimental design (Experiment 1), and (ii) to assess differences in the effects of food quality on toxicity by comparing FHM fed both a live and frozen diet of Chironomus dilutus (Experiment 2). The results showed significant increases in general water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, conductivity) and various metals in the effluent treatment waters compared to control waters, with maximum increase seen in the multi-trophic streams. Metals accumulation (Rb, Al, Se, Sr, Tl, Ce, Co, Cu, Pb) effects of both waterborne and multi-trophic exposures were significant in one or more fathead minnow tissue type (muscle, gonads, liver, larvae) relative to those in the control systems. Condition factor and liver somatic index (LSI) of FHM were also significantly affected in both exposures by one or both routes of exposure (water and/or diet). In addition, cumulative

  16. Responses to various exposure durations of levonorgestrel during early-life stages of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, Matthew D; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are routinely detected in the environment; and several of these compounds have been extensively researched due to their potential impacts to the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The negative reproductive consequences of synthetic progestins in teleost species have only recently been investigated. The current study examined different exposure periods that may be most sensitive for levonorgestrel (LNG) in early-life stages of fathead minnow larvae. Larvae were exposed to a single concentration of LNG (125ng/L) for different durations from fertilized egg through 28 days post hatch (dph) with growth and mRNA expression of FSH, 3β-HSD, 20β-HSD, and CYP19a1 measured. Regardless of the duration of exposure, LNG significantly decreased growth in the fathead minnow larvae at day 28. For both 20β-HSD and CYP19a1, mRNA expression was decreased following LNG exposure durations ≥7 days. 3β-HSD and FSH showed similar trends after exposure to LNG with later stages of development exhibiting decreased expression. 20β-HSD and 3β-HSD were the only transcripts to remain down regulated once larvae were moved to clean water after the 7-14dph LNG exposure. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure time to a synthetic progestin on developing fish. Future research is needed to understand what impacts these changes have on adult stages of development.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic waterborne lead exposure on the swimming performance and aerobic scope of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Fathead minnows were subjected to an incremental velocity test using swim tunnel respirometry for the analysis of aerobic scope and swimming performance, as critical aerobic swim speed (U(crit)), following chronic exposures (33-57 ) to 0.9±0.4, 157±18 or 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb and an acute exposure (24 h) to 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (mean±SEM). Assessment of Pb-induced anemia and neurological impairment were evaluated by blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and a cost of transport (COT) analysis, respectively. Fish from the acute 672±35 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.4±1.2 BL s⁻¹) and chronic 689±66 nmol L⁻¹ Pb (24.6±0.9 BL s⁻¹) treatments exhibited reduced U(crits) compared to control fish (27.6±0.8 BL s⁻¹). Aerobic scope was reduced by acute Pb exposure (8.6±2.6 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 22.6±3.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls) owing to a decrease in maximum oxygen consumption rate (38.8±0.8 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ vs. 54.0±4.2 μmol O₂ g⁻¹ h⁻¹ from controls). However, no effect on aerobic scope was observed with fish chronically exposed to Pb. Significant differences were not observed for Hb concentrations or COT. These findings suggest that the impaired swimming performances arising from acute and chronic Pb exposures reflect different mechanisms of toxicity.

  18. Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Lado, Wudu E; Martel, Pierre H; Arnason, John T.; Vance L Trudeau

    2014-01-01

    Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by indus...

  19. Gene expression and chemical exposure data for larval Pimephales promelas exposed to one of four pyrethroid pesticides.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Uploaded datasets are detailed exposure information (chemical concentrations and water quality parameters) for exposures conducted in a flow through diluter system...

  20. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (ETH Zuerich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 {mu}g/L and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 {mu}g/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 {mu}g/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish.

  1. Exposure to the contraceptive progestin, gestodene, alters reproductive behavior, arrests egg deposition, and masculinizes development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Gillis, Amanda B.; Alvarez, David A.; Orlando, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous progestogens and pharmaceutical progestins enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant effluent and agricultural field runoff. Lab studies demonstrate strong, negative exposure effects of these chemicals on aquatic vertebrate reproduction. Behavior can be a sensitive, early indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants associated with altered reproduction yet is rarely examined in ecotoxicology studies. Gestodene is a human contraceptive progestin and a potent activator of fish androgen receptors. Our objective was to test the effects of gestodene on reproductive behavior and associated egg deposition in the fathead minnow. After only 1 day, males exposed to ng/L of gestodene were more aggressive and less interested in courtship and mating, and exposed females displayed less female courtship behavior. Interestingly, 25% of the gestodene tanks contained a female that drove the male out of the breeding tile and displayed male-typical courtship behaviors toward the other female. Gestodene decreased or arrested egg deposition with no observed gonadal histopathology. Together, these results suggest that effects on egg deposition are primarily due to altered reproductive behavior. The mechanisms by which gestodene disrupts behavior are unknown. Nonetheless, the rapid and profound alterations of the reproductive biology of gestodene-exposed fish suggest that wild populations could be similarly affected.

  2. Exposure to the Contraceptive Progestin, Gestodene, Alters Reproductive Behavior, Arrests Egg Deposition, and Masculinizes Development in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Tyler E; Meyer, Michael T; Kolpin, Dana W; Gillis, Amanda B; Alvarez, David A; Orlando, Edward F

    2016-06-07

    Endogenous progestogens and pharmaceutical progestins enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant effluent and agricultural field runoff. Lab studies demonstrate strong, negative exposure effects of these chemicals on aquatic vertebrate reproduction. Behavior can be a sensitive, early indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants associated with altered reproduction yet is rarely examined in ecotoxicology studies. Gestodene is a human contraceptive progestin and a potent activator of fish androgen receptors. Our objective was to test the effects of gestodene on reproductive behavior and associated egg deposition in the fathead minnow. After only 1 day, males exposed to ng/L of gestodene were more aggressive and less interested in courtship and mating, and exposed females displayed less female courtship behavior. Interestingly, 25% of the gestodene tanks contained a female that drove the male out of the breeding tile and displayed male-typical courtship behaviors toward the other female. Gestodene decreased or arrested egg deposition with no observed gonadal histopathology. Together, these results suggest that effects on egg deposition are primarily due to altered reproductive behavior. The mechanisms by which gestodene disrupts behavior are unknown. Nonetheless, the rapid and profound alterations of the reproductive biology of gestodene-exposed fish suggest that wild populations could be similarly affected.

  3. A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17á-ethynylestradiol and 17â-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics) are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17a-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17a-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic and...

  4. A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17á-ethynylestradiol and 17â-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens, androgens and their mimics) are known to affect reproduction in fish. 17a-ethynylestradiol is a synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills. 17a-trenbolone is a relatively stable metabolite of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic and...

  5. Predicting fecundity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed toeEndocrine-disrupting chemicals using a MATLAB®-based model of oocyte growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for fle...

  6. Predicting fecundity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed toeEndocrine-disrupting chemicals using a MATLAB®-based model of oocyte growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish spawning is often used as an integrated measure of reproductive toxicity, and an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health in the context of forecasting potential population-level effects considered important for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, there is a need for fle...

  7. Gene prediction in the fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas] genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established model organism which has been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over half century. While much information has been gathered on the organism over the years, the fathead minnow genome, a critical source of infor...

  8. Effects of Nanosilver on Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing use of nanosilver in consumer products warrants investigation into its toxicity to aquatic organisms. A series of studies were conducted comparing the potency of nanosilver to ionic silver (Ag+) at acute and sublethal levels and to evaluate the likelihood that the ...

  9. Gene prediction in the fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas] genome-presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fathead minnow is a well-established ecotoxicological model organism, having been widely used for regulatory ecotoxicity testing and research for over a half century. While a large amount of molecular information has been gathered on the organism over the years, to date, the ...

  10. Effects of the azole fungicide imazalil on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) steroidogenesis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azole fungicides, used for both agriculture and human therapeutic applications may disrupt endocrine function of aquatic life. Azole fungicides are designed to inhibit the fungal enzyme lanosterol 14 á-demethylase (cytochrome P450 [CYP] 51). However, they can also interact...

  11. Differential Toxicity and Accumulation of Fipronil Enantiomers in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a chiral insecticide applied as a racemate of two enantiomers. Because of its high log Koc, fipronil will be found primarily in sediments of aquatic environments. Although a number of studies have examined toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, data on enantioselective t...

  12. Meeting in China: Differential Toxicity and Accumulation of Fipronil Enantiomers in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a chiral insecticide applied as a racemate with two enantiomers. Because of its high log KOC, fipronil will be found primarily in sediments of aquatic environments. Although a number of studies have examined toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, data on enantioselective...

  13. Enantioselective Toxicity and Biotransformation of Fipronil in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a relatively new chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide used to control both agricultural and household invertebrate pests. Fipronil is applied as a racemate, or equal mixture, of its two enantiomers. As regulations on older pesticides increase, production and applicatio...

  14. Enantioselective toxicity and bioaccumulation of fipronil in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) following water and sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a widely used, broad-spectrum pesticide that is applied as an equal mixture of two enantiomers. As regulations on older pesticides become more stringent, production and application of fipronil is expected to grow, leading to increased inputs into aquatic environments ...

  15. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  16. Effects of gemfibrozil on lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Gemfibrozil is a fi...

  17. Comparison of nanosilver and ionic silver toxicity in Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work evaluates the relative contribution of soluble (Ag+) silver and and nano-scale silver particles (n-Ag) and thus addresses an important issue relative to potential ecological risk of n-Ag and of other partially-soluble metal nanoparticles. We used acute to chronic (based...

  18. EVALUATION OF METHOXYCHLOR AS AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR IN FATHEAD MINNOWS (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent concern over the possible effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on humans and wildlife has resulted in considerable interest in environmental contaminants that adversely affect aspects of ...

  19. Propiconazole inhibits steroidogenesis and reproduction in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed effects of the conazole-fungicide propiconazole on endocrine function and reproductive success of the fathead minnow, using an experimental approach based on previously defined adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that inhibit steroidogenesis in fish...

  20. Influence of Ovarian Stage on Transcript Profiles in Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Ovary Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small fish species with an asynchronous pattern of gonad development and reproduction are commonly used test organisms in aquatic ecotoxicology and more recently in ecotoxicogenomics. This study applies coordinated histological examination and fathead minnow oligonucleotide micr...

  1. Transcriptional networks associated with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Marr, Joshua; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Androgens play a significant role in regulating oogenesis in teleost fishes. The androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent non-aromatizable androgen involved in sexual differentiation in mammals; however, its actions are not well understood in teleost fish. To better characterize the physiological role of DHT in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary on a temporal scale, in vitro assays for 17β-estradiol (E2) production were conducted in parallel with microarray analysis. Ovarian explants were incubated at different concentrations of DHT (10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8)M DHT) in three separate experiments conducted at 6, 9, and 12h. DHT treatment resulted in a rapid and consistent increase in E2 production from the ovary at all three time points. Therefore, DHT may act to shift the balance of metabolites in the steroidogenic pathway within the ovary. Major biological themes affected by DHT in the ovary in one or more of the time points included those related to blood (e.g. vasodilation, blood vessel contraction, clotting), lipids (e.g. lipid storage, cholesterol metabolism, lipid degradation) and reproduction (e.g. hormone and steroid metabolism). Gene networks related to immune responses and calcium signaling were also affected by DHT, suggesting that this androgen may play a role in regulating these processes in the ovary. This study detected no change in mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes (cyp19a1, star, 11βhsd, 17βhsd, srd5a isoforms), suggesting that the observed increase in E2 production is likely more dependent on the pre-existing gene or protein complement in the ovary rather than the de novo expression of transcripts. This study increases knowledge regarding the roles of DHT and androgens in general in the teleost ovary and identifies molecular signaling pathways that may be associated with increased E2 production.

  2. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): raw data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Richter, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide, atrazine, routinely is observed in surface and groundwaters, particularly in the “corn belt” region, a high-use area of the United States. Atrazine has demonstrated effects on reproduction in mammals and amphibians, but the characterization of endocrine-related effects in fish has received only limited attention. Peak concentrations of atrazine in surface water of streams from these agricultural areas coincide with annual spawning events of native fishes. Consequently, there was an unacceptable level of uncertainty in our understanding of the risks associated with the periods of greatest atrazine exposure and greatest vulnerability of certain species of fishes. For this reason, a study of the effects of atrazine on fathead minnow reproduction was undertaken (Tillitt and others, 2010). This report provides the raw data from that study.

  3. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  4. From Scenarios to Test Implementations Via Promela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Andreas; Alikacem, El-Hachemi; Hallal, Hesham H.; Boroday, Sergiy

    We report on a tool for generating executable concurrent tests from scenarios specified as message sequence charts. The proposed approach features three steps: 1) Deriving a MSC test implementation from a MSC scenario, 2) Mapping the test implementation into a Promela model, 3) Generating executable test scripts in Java. The generation of an intermediate Promela model allows for model-checking to inspect the test implementation for properties like soundness, fault detection power as well as for consistency checking between different test scenarios. Moreover decoupling the executable test scripts from the scenario specification makes it possible to use different backend code generators to support other scripting languages when needed.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Pimephales_promelas_L.png Pim...ephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pime...phales+promelas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+...promelas&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  6. Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen/anti-estrogen mixtures, we exposed male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas for 48 hours via the water to 2, 5, 10, and 50 ng 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2/L, 100 ng ZM 189,154/L (a potent antiestrogen known to block activity of estrogen receptors or mixtures of 5 or 50 ng EE2/L with 100 ng ZM 189,154/L. We analyzed gene expression changes in the gonad, as well as hormone and vitellogenin plasma levels. Results Steroidogenesis was down-regulated by EE2 as reflected by the reduced plasma levels of testosterone in the exposed fish and down-regulation of genes in the steroidogenic pathway. Microarray analysis of testis of fathead minnows treated with 5 ng EE2/L or with the mixture of 5 ng EE2/L and 100 ng ZM 189,154/L indicated that some of the genes whose expression was changed by EE2 were blocked by ZM 189,154, while others were either not blocked or enhanced by the mixture, generating two distinct expression patterns. Gene ontology and pathway analysis programs were used to determine categories of genes for each expression pattern. Conclusion Our results suggest that response to estrogens occurs via multiple mechanisms, including canonical binding to soluble estrogen receptors, membrane estrogen receptors, and other mechanisms that are not blocked by pure antiestrogens.

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS318 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1... DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month... adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 ...DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales prome...669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN566

  8. Fishy aroma of social status: urinary chemo-signalling of territoriality in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma Martinovic-Weigelt

    Full Text Available Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males, suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is known to bind trace amine-associated receptors, indicating that these receptors may play role in chemical signalling of social status in fish.

  9. Polycarbonate and polystyrene nanoparticles act as stressors to the innate immune system of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque 1820)

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of plastic debris in the environment has been recognized as a matter of international concern. A minimum of 5.25 trillion plastic particles were estimated to float on the surface of the ocean which is due to a low amount of recycling (37 %) and mismanaged waste that enters into the environment. Large plastic debris can lead to suffocation and death after entanglement or ingestion. Small plastic items like microplastic (< 5 mm) and nanoplastics (< 100 nm) can harm organisms on...

  10. Effects of Cholesterol-altering Pharmaceuticals on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Gene Expression in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals that target cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are among the most widely prescribed drugs and have been detected in the aquatic environment. Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome pr...

  11. Current lineages of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line are contaminated with fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.; Batts, W.; deKinkelin, P.; LeBerre, M.; Bremont, M.; Fijan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initially established from proliferative skin lesions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line (Fijan, Sulimanovic, Bearzotti, Muzinic, Zwillenberg, Chilmonczyk, Vautherot & de Kinkelin 1983) has become one of the most widely used tools for research on fish viruses and the diagnosis of fish viral diseases.

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  13. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and four membrane progesterone receptors in the fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). Progestagens regulate gamete maturation in vertebrates, are critical regulators of placental mammal pregnancy, and act as reproductive ...

  14. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  15. SpinS: Extending LTSmin with Promela through SpinJa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van der Freark; Laarman, Alfons; Heljanko, K.; Knottenbelt, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We show how PROMELA can be supported by the high-performance generic model checking tools of LTSMIN. The success of the SPIN model checker has made PROMELA an important modeling language. SPINJA was created as a Java implementation of SPIN, in an effort to make the model checker easily extendible an

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS428 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales prome...47978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promela...17.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...las testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA ...clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales prome

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS488 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1... DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females ...DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales prome...669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN5669 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.2...1 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 mon

  18. A Method for the Determination of Genetic Sex in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas, to Support Testing of Endocrine-active Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows are used as a model fish species for the characterization of the endocrine-disrupting potential of environmental contaminants. This research describes the development of a PCR method that can determine the genetic sex in this species. This method, when incorpora...

  19. Effects of short time-course exposure to antiandrogen flutamide on steroidogenesis and gene expression in ovary of female fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the mechanisms through which antiandrogens disrupt reproduction in fish are not well-characterized, this work sought to identify genes and pathways affected by antiandrogen exposure, and to compare differentially expressed genes in the fathead minnow to those previously r...

  20. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2013-12-01

    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of (226)Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A field-based approach for assessing the impact of paper pulp mill effluent on the metbolite profile of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although evidence indicates that exposure to effluent from paper pulp mills (PME) can alter the body condition, secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive success of aquatic organisms, there is currently little understanding of the biochemical mechanisms for these effects...

  2. CLONING AND IN VITRO EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR α FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR). Although we know that the amino acid sequences of steroid receptors in nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the ma...

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHB543 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 J...GI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...I_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHK819 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_...CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...X1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHG806 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas...GI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN5669 3', mRNA sequence.... 48 0.21 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHC130 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT3479...78 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...5 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHF328 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.29 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.29 1 DT1023...44 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN5669 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.29 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHB776 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tal lobe. 48 0.20 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas...AX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHJ850 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0139.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas....rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas cDNA ...clone CAAT7978 3', mRNA sequence. 42 3.8 1 DT232772 |DT232772.1 JGI_CAAT6112.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas... brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone... CAAT6112 3', mRNA sequence. 42 3.8 1 DT231117 |DT231117.1 JGI_CAAT5211.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHH284 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...T309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHB878 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complete sequence. 117 3e-22 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT347978 |DT3479...78.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...5.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHH334 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mplete sequence. 127 4e-25 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT347978 |DT347978....1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08444-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GS-30-02-01-1... 48 0.32 1 ( DT357332 ) JGI_CABY681.rev CABY Pimephales promelas 2-14 day... 48 0.32 1 ( DT2...86951 ) JGI_CAAV12997.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis... 48 0.32 1 ( DT284532 ) JGI_CAAV11605.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas... testis... 48 0.32 1 ( DT283123 ) JGI_CAAV10784.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas... testis... 48 0.32 1 ( DT276825 ) JGI_CAAV7157.fwd CAAV Pimephales promelas testis ... 48 0.32 ...1 ( DT276824 ) JGI_CAAV7157.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis ... 48 0.32 1 ( DT274041 ) JGI_CAAV5543.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHJ391 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1509 |DT351509.1 JGI_CABS854.rev CABS Pimephales promelas kidney 7-8 month adults,3', mRNA sequence. 44 1.5 ...1 DT260347 |DT260347.1 JGI_CAAU10866.fwd CAAU Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females ...U9063.rev CAAU Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promela....rev CAAU Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA ...clone CAAU8353 3', mRNA sequence. 44 1.5 1 DT177217 |DT177217.1 JGI_ANNO46026.rev ANNO Pimephales promelas

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHD626 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT34...7978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...as testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA c

  16. Sequencing and De novo Draft Assemblies of the Fathead Minnow (Pimphales promelas)Reference Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to develop genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) an important model organism widely used in both aquatic ecotoxicology research and in regulatory toxicity testing. We report on the first sequencing and two draft assemblies fo...

  17. Sequencing and De novo Draft Assemblies of the Fathead Minnow (Pimphales promelas)Reference Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to develop genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) an important model organism widely used in both aquatic ecotoxicology research and in regulatory toxicity testing. We report on the first sequencing and two draft assemblies fo...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHD269 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN92...78 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 mo...nth adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 ...1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females ...T347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales prome

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHR604 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 78.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278... 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 mon...th adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 ...1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females ...T309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promel

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHB725 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um 3D7 chromosome 10 section 4 of 7 of the complete sequence. 36 0.14 5 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promela...s Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.18 1 DT...347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month ad...ults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.18 1 DT3...09975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHG790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone... ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testi...s 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence.... 48 0.26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis ...7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHC251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5'..., mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', m

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHK504 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lib_D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT3...47978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT30...9975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHA585 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN...9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8... month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0....32 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 m...onth adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHD149 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd, mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month... adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 D...T364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHB428 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequenc...e. 48 0.20 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males ...and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT309975 |DT309...975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS145 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22... 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and female...s pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_...CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHG405 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA seq...uence. 48 0.31 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, ma...les and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequ...ence. 48 0.31 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, male...s and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.31 1 dna update 200

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHE239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lib_D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mR...NA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adul...ts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT309...975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHB109 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce. 48 0.26 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas c...DNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA ...sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA seq

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHB640 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 ...3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 mont...h adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5...', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month ...adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHC582 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0....21 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 m...onth adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.2...1 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and female...s pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_C

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHC555 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRN...A sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA... sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults,... males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309974

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHB790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 64098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA... sequence. 42 3.2 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults,... males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3.2 1 DT309975 ...|DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, ma...les and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 42 3.2 1 DT309974 |DT3

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHC655 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males a...nd females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.13 1 DT364098 |DT36409...8.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA seq...uence. 48 0.13 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, mal...es and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequen

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHE620 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone A...NNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis ...7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAA...X10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-...8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHK470 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequen...ce. 48 0.34 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males... and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequenc...e. 48 0.34 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males a...nd females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.34 1 DT102344 |DT10234

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHB263 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone A...NNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis ...7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 4...8 0.25 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-...8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0

  19. Dicty_cDB: SHB457 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ence. 48 0.32 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas c...DNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA s

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHA745 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 ...0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and fe...males pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0....26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and fema...les pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS272 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3',... mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', ...mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT102

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHC448 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lib_D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT3...47978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT30...9975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHA301 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .25 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clon...e ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.25 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas test...is 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence.... 48 0.25 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis... 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 4

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHE813 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3',... mRNA sequence. 48 0.17 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.17 1 DT...309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.17 1 DT309

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHE201 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN92...78 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 m...onth adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.2...2 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 mon...th adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1

  6. Dicty_cDB: SHK757 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.24 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone... CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.24 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone C

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHL320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAA...X10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHB547 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available essed in brain occipital lobe. 48 0.26 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT3479...78 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...las testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHB830 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.10 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX...10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.10 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX15

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHK590 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX...10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.27 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX15

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHQ453 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA seq...uence. 48 0.19 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas ...testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequ...ence. 48 0.19 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, male...s and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequenc

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHA188 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHJ883 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available espore protein gene, complete cds. 200 5e-48 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.040 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_C...AAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females ...AAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.040 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHB786 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 201047-5455781 strain AX4, complete sequence. 56 5e-05 4 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.077 1 DT347978 |DT3479...78.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males an...d females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.077 1 DT309975 |DT3099...75.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHR469 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .21 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clon...e ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ...CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis... 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 4

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHB879 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANN...N9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.15 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-...8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 ...0.15 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and fem...ales pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.1

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHK784 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3',... mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT...309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT102

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHK809 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1...517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 m...onth adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517... 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.28 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHQ203 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ete sequence. 100 7e-17 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHJ564 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 0.29 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA c...lone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.29 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clo...ne CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.29 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas tes...tis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHE567 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 78 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...las testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT309974 |DT309974.1 JGI_CAAX1517.rev CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clo...ne CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHC626 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas... cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas... testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5',... mRNA sequence. 48 0.23 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month ad...ults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mR

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHQ763 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 38 0.35 2 DT231687 |DT231687.1 JGI_CAAT5522.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAT5522 3', mRNA sequence. 32 0.60 2 DT210...123 |DT210123.1 JGI_CAAS16336.rev CAAS Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas

  4. Metabolomics for Informing Adverse Outcome Pathways: Androgen Receptor Activation and the Pharmaceutical Spironolactone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Metabolite Input Files for Determining Biochemical Pathways Impacted by Spironolactone Exposures of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Using the Mummichog...

  5. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    . A prominent research theme in health care studies is, therefore, to explicate the gap between theory and practice. The question this paper addresses is how a learning environment can be designed to bridge this theory-practice gap, expose the differences in situated interactions and qualify health...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...

  6. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHQ457 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A sequence. 54 0.006 1 DT270276 |DT270276.1 JGI_CAAV3409.fwd CAAV Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adult...s, males and females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAV3409 5', mRNA ...sequence. 54 0.006 1 DT298153 |DT298153.1 JGI_CAAW9022.fwd CAAW Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults,... males and females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAW9022 5', mRNA sequence. 54 0.006 1 DT342033... |DT342033.1 JGI_CAAX7432.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, m

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHJ765 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ib_D Pinus taeda cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRN...A sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adult...s, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.32 1 DT3099...75 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults,

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS326 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 0.076 2 DT283771 |DT283771.1 JGI_CAAV11164.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males an...d females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAV11164 3', mRNA sequence. ...48 0.19 1 DT275805 |DT275805.1 JGI_CAAV6564.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and ...females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAV6564 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.19 1 DT230922 |DT230922.1... JGI_CAAT5104.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and fema

  10. Dicty_cDB: SHB168 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA clone PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.31 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0....31 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and fema...les pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.31 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JG...I_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and female

  11. Dicty_cDB: SHH290 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 map 5201047-5455781 strain AX4, complete sequence. 103 4e-18 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas... Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA se...quence. 48 0.22 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, m...ales and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.22 1 DT309975 |...DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, mal

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHD486 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available map 5817431-5836155 strain AX4, complete sequence. 74 2e-15 3 DT260079 |DT260079.1 JGI_CAAU9566.rev CAAU Pimephales promelas... brain 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAU956...6 3', mRNA sequence. 58 3e-04 1 DT355089 |DT355089.1 JGI_CABW868.fwd CABW Pimephales promelas ovary 7-8 mont...h adults, females pooled (M) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CABW868 5', mRNA sequ...ence. 50 0.063 1 DT355088 |DT355088.1 JGI_CABW868.rev CABW Pimephales promelas ovary 7-8 month adults, femal

  13. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  14. NMR ANALYSIS OF MALE FATHEAD MINNOW URINARY METABOLITES: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR STUDYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for profiling endogenous metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy w...

  15. Male Fathead Minnow Urine-Based Metabolomics for Assessing Impacts of Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed the potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was us...

  16. Toxicity of major geochemical ions to freshwater species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive testing regarding the toxicity of major geochemical ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, and Pimephales promelas will be presented. For C. dubia, tests of single salts and binary mixtures in various dilution waters demonstrated multiple mechanisms of toxicity an...

  17. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  18. A time-course analysis of effects of the steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnows (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  19. Adaptation, Compensation, and Recovery: Unraveling the Mechanisms through Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We examined the responses of female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, using transcriptional network inferen...

  20. Caracterización de la curva de crecimiento en dos especies de pez blanco Chirostoma estor, C. promelas y sus híbridos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carmen Delgadillo-Calvillo; Carlos Antonio Martínez-Palacios; José Manuel Berruecos-Villalobos; Raúl Ulloa-Arvizu; Reyes López-Ordaz; Carlos Gustavo Vásquez-Peláez

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar parámetros de las curvas de crecimiento del peso y la longitud en el pez blanco Chirostoma estor (EE), el pez blanco pico negro Chirostoma promelas (PP) y de sus híbridos recíprocos (EP y PE) hasta los 300 días de edad a partir de un cruzamiento dialélico completo bajo condiciones de cultivo en Morelia, Michoacán, México. La longitud se midió mensualmente desde la eclosión, mientras que el peso se midió mensualmente a partir de los 120 días. Los nú...

  1. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  2. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  3. Predation of freshwater fish in environments with elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, Stephen R.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Wagner, Tyler; Suski, Cory D.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in fresh-water environments is poorly understood, yet in marine environments CO2 can affect fish behaviour, including predator–prey relationships. To examine changes in predator success in elevated CO2, we experimented with predatory Micropterus salmoides and Pimephales promelas prey. We used a two-factor fully crossed experimental design; one factor was 4-day (acclimation) CO2 concentration and the second factor CO2 concentration during 20-min predation experiments. Both factors had three treatment levels, including ambient partial pressure of CO2(pCO2; 0–1000 μatm), low pCO2 (4000–5000 μatm) and high pCO2 (8000–10 000 μatm). Micropterus salmoides was exposed to both factors, whereas P. promelas was not exposed to the acclimation factor. In total, 83 of the 96 P. promelas were consumed (n = 96 trials) and we saw no discernible effect of CO2 on predator success or time to predation. Failed strikes and time between failed strikes were too infrequent to model. Compared with marine systems, our findings are unique in that we not only saw no changes in prey capture success with increasing CO2, but we also used CO2 treatments that were substantially higher than those in past experiments. Our work demonstrated a pronounced resiliency of freshwater predators to elevated CO2 exposure, and a starting point for future work in this area.

  4. Immunotoxicology of titanium dioxide and hydroxylated fullerenes engineered nanoparticles in fish models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Boris

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles have the potential to cause adverse effects on the fish health, but the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is limited. Major task of this dissertation was to connect gaps in current knowledge with a comprehensive sequence of molecular, cellular and organismal responses toward environmentally relevant concentrations of engineered nanoparticles (titanium dioxide -- TiO2 and hydroxylated fullerenes), outlining the interaction with the innate immune system of fish. The research was divided into following steps: 1) create cDNA libraries for the species of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas); 2) evaluate whether, and how can nanoparticles modulate neutrophil function in P. promelas; 3) determine the changes in expression of standard biomarker genes as a result of nanoparticle treatment; 4) expose the P. promelas to nanoparticles and appraise their survival rate in a bacterial challenge study; 5) assess the impact of nanoparticles on neuro-immunological interface during the early embryogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). It was hypothesized that engineered nanoparticles can cause measurable changes in fish transcriptome, immune response, and disease resistance. The results of this dissertation are: 1) application of environmentally relevant concentration of nanoparticles changed function of fish neutrophils; 2) fish exposed to nano-TiO2 had significantly increased expression of interleukin 11, macrophage stimulating factor 1, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 2, while expression of interleukin 11 and myeloperoxidase was significantly increased and expression of elastase 2 was significantly decreased in fish exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes; 3) exposure to environmental estimated concentration of nano-TiO2 significantly increased fish mortality during Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Analysis of nano-TiO 2 distribution in fish organism outlined that the nano-TiO2 is concentrating in the fish kidney and spleen; 4) during the early embryogenesis of D

  5. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely t...

  6. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  7. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrined-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  8. Sex-specific gonadal and gene expression changes throughout development in fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish in endocrine disruption studies, none have characterized sex-specific baseline expression of genes involved in sex differentiation during development in this species. Using a sex-linked DNA marker t...

  9. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  10. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  11. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  12. Control for occupationally exposed personnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Momose, Takuma

    1999-03-01

    The present status of the technology for the measurement of personnel exposure dose was reviewed based on the basic concept of ICRP Recommendation on new assessment of exposure dose. The personnel dosimeter which has been mostly used by occupationally exposed personnels in Japan is film badge or thermoluminescence dosimeter. Now, photoluminescent glass dosimeter has been paid attention because pulse excitation method by UV laser has been developed. Measurement at an accuracy of 0.1 mSv or more became possible by using this dosimeter at present. In addition, characteristic studies for practical application of electronic, photostimulated luminescence and neutron dosimeters are progressing now. Revision of kinetic model of in vivo metabolism of radioactive substances is progressing based on the recent findings since ICRP Recommendation in 1990. Monitoring an individual internal exposure is made by two methods; direct measurement of the radiation emitted from the body and indirect one by radioanalysis of excretes etc. The latter is inferior to the former in respect of the accuracy of dose assessment, but the direct method is more suitable to detect a little amount of radioactive substance incorporated because of its high sensitivity. In future, it is needed to provide a considerable number of whole body counters against a large-scale nuclear accident. (M.N.)

  13. EXPOSE-R2, the 3rd successful EXPOSE mission – a mission and mission ground reference overview

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 2 years the 3rd ESA EXPOSE mission, the 2nd on the Russian Zvezda module of the ISS, exposed a variety of astrobiological samples to space and simulated Mars environmental conditions. Various chemical compounds and organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, plant seeds, lychens, mosses and animal eggs and larvae from the international experiments BIOMEX, BOSS, P.S.S. and the IBMP-experiment were exposed to space vacuums dryness, extraterrestrial short wavelength UV, radiation and tem...

  14. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  15. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  16. Long-term reproductive and behavioral toxicity of anthracene to fish in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.T. [Sandoz Agro, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Oris, J.T. [Miami Univ. Oxford, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The long-term, low-level effects of anthracene in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR) were examined in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Adult fish exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced egg laying capacity, with altered oocyte maturation as a potential mechanism of action. Eggs and larvae maternally exposed to anthracene exhibited reduced hatching success and severe developmental abnormalities when incubated under SUVR. The combination of reduced egg output and developmental effects resulted in an inhibition in reproductive capacity in the range of 70--100%. Maternal transfer of anthracene to eggs was efficient; the BCF was 717 for maternally exposed eggs. However, anthracene deputation from eggs after oviposition with only maternal PAH exposure was rapid; anthracene half-life from eggs equaled 1.3 days. Exposure to anthracene under SUVR altered locomotor activity patterns in fathead minnows by inducing hyperactivity or hypoactivity during the light or dark phases of the photoperiod, respectively. Altered activity patterns indicated potential effects of anthracene on the nervous system and/or pineal gland. These alterations disrupted normal activity patterns and reproductive behaviors, and thus have major implications on a fish`s ability to survive and reproduce. Anthracene, a model phototoxic PAH, has many potential sites of toxic action, and any organism exposed to such contaminants will be an considerable SUVR-enhanced risk in the environment.

  17. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    J?rs, Erik; Gonz?les, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; dos Santos, Raquel A.; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; B?lum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated wit...

  18. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  19. The interactive effects of multiple stressors on physiological stress responses and club cell investment in fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada); Niyogi, Som; Chivers, Douglas P. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased over the past decades, with the consequence that many organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Understanding how organisms respond to these stressors is a key focus for scientists from many disciplines. Here we investigated the interactive effects of two stressors, UV radiation (UVR) and cadmium (Cd) exposure on a common freshwater fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). UVR is known to influence the density of epidermal club cells (ECCs), which are not only a key component of the innate immune system of fishes, but are also the source of chemical alarm cues that serve to warn other fishes of nearby predators. In contrast, Cd impairs the physiological stress response and ability of fish to respond to alarm cues. We used an integrative approach to examine physiological stress response as well as investment in ECCs. Fish exposed to UVR had higher levels of cortisol than non-exposed controls, but Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UVR. Fish exposed to UVR, either in the presence or absence of Cd, showed consistent decreases in ECC investment compared to non-exposed controls. Despite differences in ECC number, there was no difference in the potency of alarm cues prepared from the skin of UVR and Cd exposed or non-exposed fish indicating that UVR and Cd exposure combined may have little influence on chemically-mediated predator–prey interactions. - Highlights: • UV radiation caused a physiological stress response (cortisol release) in fish. • Cd reduced cortisol levels substantially for fish exposed to UV. • Fish exposed to UV, with or without Cd, showed decreases in club cell investment. • There was no difference in alarm cues potency from UV and Cd exposed fish. • Our work highlights the difficulty of untangling effects of multiple stressors.

  20. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal...... aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage...

  1. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  2. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  3. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  4. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire expos

  6. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...

  7. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  8. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  9. Demonstration and Certification of Amphibian Ecological Risk Assessment Protocol. Cost and Performance Report (Version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    day benthic invertebrate toxicity tests conducted with the midge, Chironomus tentans, and the amphipod, Hyalella azteca . Actual unit costs for these...management decisions in wetlands often rely on site-specific benthic invertebrate toxicity testing using organisms such as the amphipod, H. azteca ...amphipod (H. azteca ), and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Although remediation has not yet occurred, the arsenic NOAEC from the amphibian

  10. Simulation of the Migration, Fate, and Effects of Diazinon in Two Monticello Stream Channels,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    of eggs has been shown in much lower concentrations for fathad minnows. Spinal scoliosis has been diagnosed by Allison and Hermanutz (1977) at a...at 90 pg/l Pimephales promelas Reduced hatching and increase in Allison and (fathead minnow) incidence of scoliosis at 3.2 wg/l Hermanutz 1977...upstream boundary condition of 0.31 Og/l. The lag time appears less prevalent in the test Channel 7 than in the calibration Channel 6. The steady

  11. The fish sexual development test: an OECD test guideline proposal with possible relevance for environmental risk assessment. Results from the validation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Kinnberg, Karin Lund;

    2010-01-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) has gone through two validations as an OECD test guideline for the detection of endocrine active chemicals with different modes of action. The validation has been finalized on four species: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), three...... spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and with four model compounds: the weak estrogens 4-tert Octylphenol and 4-tert pentylphenol, the aromatase inhibitor prochloraz and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. All species were tested in different laboratories...

  12. Development of Environmental Health Criteria for Insensitive Munitions: Aquatic Ecotoxicological Exposures Using 2,4-Dinitroanisole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    al. 2012). Acute toxicity testing Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests employed the larval fish Pimephales promelas and the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia...NTO, CAS No. 932-64-9) - Acute toxicity to water fleas (Daphnia magna) under flow-through conditions, following OPPTS Draft Guideline 850.1010...environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental

  13. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  14. Neurocognitive effects in welders exposed to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto Mario; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Brecciaroli, Renato; Abbate, Adriana; Spatari, Giovanna; Tringali, Maria Antonietta; Gangemi, Silvia; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-05-01

    Various authors who studied the effects of aluminium (Al) exposure on the neurocognitive system in the last 30 years have reached different and often contradictory conclusions. The aim of this study is to help clarify the effects that the metal causes on cognitive ability in a group of naval welders exposed to Al. The study was performed on a sample of 86 male Al welders in a shipyard in Messina. The average value of environmental Al, recorded in the workplace, was 19.5 mg/m(3). The blood levels of Al, zinc, manganese, lead and chromium were monitored in all the subjects. The reagents used for the neuropsychic study were the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), the Colour Word Test or Stroop Test and the Test of Attention Matrixes. The results were compared with those obtained in a similar control group not exposed to Al and with an Al-b value of 6.93 g/l. For all the mental reagents used, the reply is obtained in the sample of exposed subjects showed decreased cognitive response with regard to attention and memory performance. The comparison between the individual tests showed greater sensitivity of performance studied using the WMS and the Stroop Test compared with the Test of Attention Matrixes. The alterations encountered in the cognitive functions studied increased proportionally to time of exposure and quantity of metal absorbed. The study confirmed that occupational exposure to Al causes alteration in cognitive responses that are more evident in complex functions.

  15. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M; Barber, Larry B; Gray, James L; Lopez, Elena M; Bolden, Ashley M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Norris, David O

    2011-06-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent.

  17. Phytoestrogens in the environment, II: microbiological degradation of phytoestrogens and the response of fathead minnows to degradate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Fleischhacker, Nathan T; Rearick, Daniel C; Arnold, William A; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Novak, Paige J

    2014-03-01

    Phytoestrogens are endocrine active compounds derived from plants, including the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, and their methylated derivatives biochanin A and formononetin. These compounds have been detected at the µg/L level in the effluents of plant-processing industries and municipal treatment plants and at the ng/L level in surface waters worldwide. The present study assessed the persistence of genistein and daidzein in natural aquatic systems, specifically riverine samples. Initial concentration, temperature, sample location, and time of sample collection varied. Genistein and daidzein were found to be readily biodegradable at all tested concentrations, at both 10 °C and 20 °C, in samples collected during different seasons, and in samples from 3 different rivers. In addition, organismal responses in larval and sexually mature fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were quantified following exposure to microbiologically degraded phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, and formononetin). Products of the microbiological degradation of parent phytoestrogens did not affect larval survival, growth, or predator avoidance. Female adult fathead minnows exposed to these degradation products produced significantly fewer eggs than those exposed to a control, but no other morphological, physiological, or behavioral changes were observed with male or female minnows. The present research suggests that although phytoestrogens are not likely to persist in aquatic systems, they may pseudo-persist if discharges are continuous; in addition, caution should be exercised with respect to high-concentration effluents because of the potentially antiestrogenic effects of phytoestrogen degradates.

  18. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ♂ Northern Pike Esox lucius × ♀ Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV.

  19. Toxicity of lithium to three freshwater organisms and the antagonistic effect of sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kszos, Lynn Adams; Beauchamp, John J; Stewart, Arthur J

    2003-10-01

    Lithium (Li) is the lightest metal and occurs primarily in stable minerals and salts. Concentrations of Li in surface water are typically toxicity of Li to common toxicity test organisms, we evaluated the toxicity of Li to Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a freshwater snail (Elimia clavaeformis). In the laboratory, the concentration of Li that inhibited P. promelas growth or C. dubia reproduction by 25% (IC25) was dependant upon the dilution water. In laboratory control water containing little sodium (approximately 2.8 mg l(-1)), the IC25s were 0.38 and 0.32 mg Li l(-1) and in ambient stream water containing approximately 17 mg Na l(-1), the IC25s were 1.99 and 3.33, respectively. A Li concentration of 0.15 mg l(-1) inhibited the feeding of E. clavaeformis in laboratory tests. Toxicity tests conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the toxicity of Li were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia. The presence of sodium greatly affected the toxicity of Li. Fathead minnows and Ceriodaphnia, for example, tolerated concentrations of Li as great as 6 mg l(-1) when sufficient Na was present. The interaction of Li and Na on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia was investigated in depth and can be described using an exponential model. The model predicts that C. dubia reproduction would not be affected when animals are exposed to combinations of lithium and sodium with a log ratio of mmol Na to mmol Li equal to at least 1.63. The results of this study indicate that for most natural waters, the presence of sodium is sufficient to prevent Li toxicity. However, in areas of historical disposal or heavy processing or use, an evaluation of Li from a water quality perspective would be warranted.

  20. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  1. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  2. Mortality patterns among workers exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Swaen, G.M.; Marsh, G.M.; Utidjian, H.M.; Caporossi, J.C.; Lucas, L.J. (American Cyanamid Co., Wayne, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A cohort of 8854 men, 2293 of whom were exposed to acrylamide, was examined from 1925 to 1983 for mortality. This cohort consisted of four plant populations in two countries: the United States and The Netherlands. No statistically significant excess of all-cause or cause-specific mortality was found among acrylamide workers. Analysis by acrylamide exposure levels showed no trend of increased risk of mortality from several cancer sites. These results do not support the hypothesis that acrylamide is a human carcinogen.

  3. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...... the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented...

  4. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  5. Cancer occurrence among workers exposed to acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, K J

    1994-10-01

    A MEDLINE search identified 12 published epidemiologic studies that have reported incidence or mortality experience among workers exposed to acrylonitrile. Many of the studies contain scanty descriptions of subject ascertainment, and most do not have good information on exposure assessment. Many also may have suffered from incomplete follow-up, as evinced by an overall deficit in the number of deaths observed, compared with the number expected from general population mortality rates. Such problems are not unique to studies on acrylonitrile, and to some extent they reflect the difficulties of conducting retrospective cohort studies. Despite these drawbacks, a simplified meta-analysis of the mortality experience reported for these cohorts revealed little evidence for carcinogenicity. Approximately the same number of cancer deaths was observed as was expected according to general population mortality rates (standardized mortality ratio 1.03, 90% confidence interval 0.92-1.15). The combined information from these studies is insufficient to support confidence about a lack of carcinogenicity at all sites. Nevertheless, despite the flaws in some of the individual studies, the summarized findings offer reassurance that workers exposed to acrylonitrile face no striking increases in mortality for all cancers or for respiratory cancer.

  6. Dynamic properties of ultraviolet-exposed polyurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, George; Whitten, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Polyurea is used in military and civilian applications, where exposure to the sun in long durations is imminent. Extended exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can deteriorate its mechanical performance to suboptimal levels. This study reports on the dynamic mechanical properties of polyurea as a function of ultraviolet radiation exposure duration. Six sets of samples were continuously exposed to ultraviolet radiation for different durations up to 18 weeks. Control samples were also tested that did not receive ultraviolet exposure. The dynamic properties were measured using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Exposed samples exhibited significant color changes from transparent yellow to opaque tan after 18 weeks of exposure. Changes of color were observed as early as 3 weeks of exposure. The dynamic properties showed an initial increase in the dynamic modulus after 3 weeks of exposure, with no further significant change in the stiffness thereafter. The ultraviolet exposure had a significant impact at relatively short loading times or low temperature, for example, up to 6 decades of time. As loading time increases or polyurea operates at high temperature, the effect of ultraviolet exposure and temperature on the performance become highly coupled.

  7. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S.S., E-mail: sharilal@purdue.edu [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hendricks, M.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nieto-Perez, M. [CICATA-IPN, Cerro Blanco 141 Cimatario, Queretaro QRO 76090 (Mexico)

    2009-07-30

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  8. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  9. Exposing calculus students to advanced mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Barry J.; Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Erhan

    2014-07-01

    To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in mathematics. This paper posits that one of the main reasons is that the mathematical community does not expose calculus students to the beauty and complexity of upper-level mathematics, and that by doing so before they fully commit to their programme of study, the number of students with a qualification in mathematics can be increased. The results show a significant increase in the number of students planning to add a minor in mathematics, and an increased likelihood among freshmen and sophomores to change their major.

  10. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  11. 7 CFR 28.37 - Exposing of samples for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposing of samples for classification. 28.37 Section... Standards Act Classification § 28.37 Exposing of samples for classification. Classification shall not proceed until the samples, after being delivered to the Classing Office, shall have been exposed for...

  12. 46 CFR 116.960 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 116.960 Section 116.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.960 Guards for exposed hazards. An exposed hazard, such as gears...

  13. 7 CFR 27.33 - Exposing of samples for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exposing of samples for classification. 27.33 Section... Micronaire Determinations § 27.33 Exposing of samples for classification. Classification shall not proceed until the samples, after being delivered to the Marketing Services Office, shall have been exposed...

  14. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  15. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) consists of one or more biologically based, computational models describing key event relationships linking a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. A qAOP provides quantitative, dose–response, and time-course predictions that can support regulatory decision-making. Herein we describe several facets of qAOPs, including (a) motivation for development, (b) technical considerations, (c) evaluation of confidence, and (d) potential applications. The qAOP used as an illustrative example for these points describes the linkage between inhibition of cytochrome P450 19A aromatase (the MIE) and population-level decreases in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). The qAOP consists of three linked computational models for the following: (a) the hypothalamic-pitutitary-gonadal axis in female FHMs, where aromatase inhibition decreases the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), thereby reducing E2-dependent vitellogenin (VTG; egg yolk protein precursor) synthesis, (b) VTG-dependent egg development and spawning (fecundity), and (c) fecundity-dependent population trajectory. While development of the example qAOP was based on experiments with FHMs exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, we also show how a toxic equivalence (TEQ) calculation allows use of the qAOP to predict effects of another, untested aromatase inhibitor, iprodione. While qAOP development can be resource-intensive, the quan

  16. Development and application of a density dependent matrix ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranging along the Atlantic coast from US Florida to the Maritime Provinces of Canada, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems. Matrix population models are useful tools for ecological risk assessment because they integrate effects across the life cycle, provide a linkage between endpoints observed in the individual and ecological risk to the population as a whole, and project outcomes for many generations in the future. We developed a density dependent matrix population model for Atlantic killifish by modifying a model developed for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) that has proved to be extremely useful, e.g. to incorporate data from laboratory studies and project effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. We developed a size-structured model (as opposed to one that is based upon developmental stages or age class structure) so that we could readily incorporate output from a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, currently under development. Due to a lack of sufficient data to accurately define killifish responses to density dependence, we tested a number of scenarios realistic for other fish species in order to demonstrate the outcome of including this ecologically important factor. We applied the model using published data for killifish exposed to dioxin-like compounds, and compared our results to those using

  17. Conversion of estrone to estradiol in male fathead minnows ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens are frequently observed in aquatic environments associated with anthropogenic influence, such as agricultural runoff and wastewater treatment effluent. While 17â-estradiol (E2) is the most potent naturally-occurring estrogen, estrone (E1) is often found at higher environmental concentrations. However, exogenous sources of E1 could potentially be converted to the more potent E2 through the action of endogenous 17â-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, specifically, the 17â-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 isoform (HSD17B1). Observation of increased plasma E2 concentrations without measureable changes in aromatase (cytochrome P45019a) expression in male fish caged in ambient waters containing elevated concentrations of E1, but low or non-detectable concentrations of E2, suggested this may be occurring in the field. If so, exogenous E1 may have a greater impact on reproductive function in aquatic vertebrates than previously assumed. The present study was conducted to evaluate this hypothesis. Male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to aqueous concentrations of 16.7, 50, and 150 ng E1/L in the laboratory exhibit significantly (pplasma E2 concentrations relative to control. Plasma testosterone (T) was elevated at a low E1 exposure concentration (1.8 ng E1/L) and depressed at the highest level of exposure (150 ng E1/L). Additionally, vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression was significantly elevated at concentrations of 50 and 10

  18. NMR analysis of male fathead minnow urinary metabolites: A potential approach for studying impacts of chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, D.R. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)], E-mail: ekman.drew@epa.gov; Teng, Q. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Jensen, K.M.; Martinovic, D.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Ankley, G.T. [Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Collette, T.W. [Ecosystems Research Division, U.S. EPA, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2007-11-30

    The potential for profiling metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy was used for the assignment of metabolites in urine from unexposed fish. Because fathead minnow urine is dilute, we lyophilized these samples prior to analysis. Furthermore, 1D {sup 1}H NMR spectra of unlyophilized urine from unexposed male fathead minnow and Sprague-Dawley rat were acquired to qualitatively compare rat and fish metabolite profiles and to provide an estimate of the total urinary metabolite pool concentration difference. As a small proof-of-concept study, lyophilized urine samples from male fathead minnows exposed to three different concentrations of the antiandrogen vinclozolin were analyzed by 1D {sup 1}H NMR to assess exposure-induced changes. Through a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and measurements of {sup 1}H NMR peak intensities, several metabolites were identified as changing with statistical significance in response to exposure. Among those changes occurring in response to exposure to the highest concentration (450 {mu}g/L) of vinclozolin were large increases in taurine, lactate, acetate, and formate. These increases coincided with a marked decrease in hippurate, a combination potentially indicative of hepatotoxicity. The results of these investigations clearly demonstrate the potential utility of an NMR-based approach for assessing chemical exposures in male fathead minnow, using urine collected from individual fish.

  19. The impact of mitochondrial and thermal stress on the bioenergetics and reserve respiratory capacity of fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam

    2012-12-01

    Various stressors affect the health of wild and cultured fish and can cause metabolic disturbances that first manifest at the cellular level. Here, we sought to further our understanding of cellular metabolism in fish by examining the metabolic responses of cell lines derived from channel catfish Ictalurus puntatus (CCO), white bass Morone chrysops (WBE), and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (EPC) to both mitochondrial and thermal stressors. Using extracellular flux (EF) technology, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR; a measure of mitochondrial function) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR; a surrogate of glycolysis) in each cell type. We performed a mitochondrial function protocol whereby compounds modulating different components of mitochondrial respiration were sequentially exposed to cells. This provided us with basal and maximal OCR, OCR linked to ATP production, OCR from ion movement across the mitochondrial inner membrane, the reserve capacity, and OCR independent of the electron transport chain. After heat shock, EPC and CCO significantly decreased OCR and all three cell lines modestly increased ECAR. After heat shock, the reserve capacity, the mitochondrial energetic reserve used to cope with stress and increased bioenergetic demand, was unaffected in EPC and CCO and completely abrogated in WBE. These findings provide proof-of-concept experimental data that further highlight the utility of fish cell lines as tools for modeling bioenergetics.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R

    2017-02-01

    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed.

  1. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  2. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  3. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  4. Effects of Pesticides on Occupationally Exposed Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos M. Piperakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to contain numerous genotoxic compounds; however, genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides have produced variable results. In this study, we employed the Comet assay to examine DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from 64 greenhouse workers from Almería in south-eastern Spain in comparison to PBLs from 50 men from the same area but not engaged in any agricultural work. The results indicated that there were no differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in the two study groups. In addition, exposure of PBL from the workers and controls to hydrogen peroxide or γ-irradiation led to similar levels of DNA damage; the subsequent repair of the induced DNA damage was also similar for both study populations. Smoking had no impact on any of the responses. The results of this study indicate that the greenhouse workers had no detectable increase in DNA damage or alteration in the cellular response to DNA damage compared to our control population.

  5. Exposing cloud computing as a failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Chauhan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is considered to be the architecture of the IT enterprise for the next generation. With an ever-growing list of cloud computing service providers, the decision for enterprises on how far to leverage computing platforms and with whom is quite complex. Cloud Computing has replaced the traditional solutions, where the IT services are under proper physical, logical and personnel controls by moving the application software and databases to the large data centers. But there the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy and is bound to failure. This exclusive aspect of cloud computing, however, causes many new challenges like data failure and disasters. In this paper, we have focused on exposing the various aspects of failure in cloud computing, which has always been an important aspect of the safety and consistency of data and quality of service. We characterize the problems and the impact of failure and disasters of cloud computing with few examples. In addition, and equally importantly, we describe how the complexity of the failure increases with the complexity of the system.

  6. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Malaguarnera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

  7. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

    1983-03-01

    Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

  8. Single authentication: exposing weighted splining artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptasari, Rimba W.

    2016-05-01

    A common form of manipulation is to combine parts of the image fragment into another different image either to remove or blend the objects. Inspired by this situation, we propose a single authentication technique for detecting traces of weighted average splining technique. In this paper, we assume that image composite could be created by joining two images so that the edge between them is imperceptible. The weighted average technique is constructed from overlapped images so that it is possible to compute the gray level value of points within a transition zone. This approach works on the assumption that although splining process leaves the transition zone smoothly. They may, nevertheless, alter the underlying statistics of an image. In other words, it introduces specific correlation into the image. The proposed idea dealing with identifying these correlations is to generate an original model of both weighting function, left and right functions, as references to their synthetic models. The overall process of the authentication is divided into two main stages, which are pixel predictive coding and weighting function estimation. In the former stage, the set of intensity pairs {Il,Ir} is computed by exploiting pixel extrapolation technique. The least-squares estimation method is then employed to yield the weighted coefficients. We show the efficacy of the proposed scheme on revealing the splining artifacts. We believe that this is the first work that exposes the image splining artifact as evidence of digital tampering.

  9. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavian, Fariba; Vaezi, Gholamhassan; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Malekirad, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact with pesticides matched with the subject group in terms of age, gender, and didactics. Oxidative DNA damage, the activities of AChE, interleukin-6 (IL6), IL10 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum were measured and clinical examinations conducted in order to register all clinical signs. Results Compared with the control group, substantial gains were observed in the farmers’ levels of oxidative DNA damage, IL10 and CRP. There was significantly less AChE activity in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The levels of IL6 in both groups did not significantly differ. Conclusion The outcomes show that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides may cause DNA oxidative damage, inhibit AChE activity and increase the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Using biological materials instead of chemical pesticides and encouraging the use of safety equipment by farmers are some solutions to the adverse effects of exposure to organophosphorous pesticides. PMID:27054123

  10. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Taghavian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact with pesticides matched with the subject group in terms of age, gender, and didactics. Oxidative DNA damage, the activities of AChE, interleukin-6 (IL6, IL10 and C-reactive protein (CRP in serum were measured and clinical examinations conducted in order to register all clinical signs. Results: Compared with the control group, substantial gains were observed in the farmers’ levels of oxidative DNA damage, IL10 and CRP. There was significantly less AChE activity in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The levels of IL6 in both groups did not significantly differ. Conclusion: The outcomes show that exposure to organophosphorus pesticides may cause DNA oxidative damage, inhibit AChE activity and increase the serum levels of inflammatory markers. Using biological materials instead of chemical pesticides and encouraging the use of safety equipment by farmers are some solutions to the adverse effects of exposure to organophosphorous pesticides.

  11. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  12. Exterior exposed ductwork: Delivery effectiveness and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delp, W.W.; Matson, N.; Modera, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    Most of California`s light commercial buildings use air transport through ductwork for thermal distribution. The same air distribution systems are often used to provide both thermal comfort and ventilation. Some air distribution ductwork is installed on rooftops, exposed directly to the outside environment. As such, there exist potential energy penalties related to externally installed ductwork. In order to evaluate the magnitude of these penalties, a case study was conducted of a one-story community college building, located in California`s Sacramento Valley. The majority of the building`s air distribution ductwork was located on the roof. Energy-related issues studied in this case included duct-related thermal losses (duct leakage and conduction), delivery effectiveness and efficiency, thermal comfort issues and the effect of a roof retrofit (additional insulation and a reflective coating). The building in this study underwent a retrofit project involving additional insulation and a highly reflective coating applied to the roof and ducts. As part of this project, methods were developed to analyze the air distribution system effectiveness independent of the introduction of outside air through an outside air damper. A simplified model was developed to predict the effectiveness and efficiency of the distribution system. The time frame of the retrofit allowed two separate three week monitoring periods. Despite the fact that the ducts started off with a conduction efficiency of 97%, the delivery efficiency was on average only 73% (with a supply side effectiveness of 78% and return effectiveness of 92%). This is due to the losses from the ducts being located on the roof. The retrofit increased the delivery efficiency to an average of 89% (with a supply side effectiveness of 90% and return effectiveness of 99%), reducing the average energy use for conditioning by 22%. The model predicted, on average, the results within 10%, or better, of measured results.

  13. Under-Exposed Image Enhancement Based on Relaxed Luminance Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunxiao Liu; Feng Yang

    2013-01-01

    ... optimization based under-exposed image clearness enhancement algorithm, which treats it as the simultaneous augmentation of luminance and contrast, and combines them in an optimization framework under...

  14. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  15. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  17. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.M.; Painter, M.M.; Bartell, S.E.; Logue, A.; Furlong, E.T.; Werner, S.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305. ng/L and 1104. ng/L) and SER (5.2. ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28. ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish-a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Renormings concerning exposed points and non-smoothness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARCíA-PACHECO; Francisco; Javier

    2009-01-01

    Intuitively, non-smooth points might look like exposed points. However, in this paper we show that real Banach spaces having dimension greater than or equal to three can be equivalently renormed to obtain non-smooth points which are also non-exposed.

  19. 46 CFR 177.960 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 177.960 Section 177.960 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.960 Guards for exposed hazards. An...

  20. 46 CFR 28.215 - Guards for exposed hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards for exposed hazards. 28.215 Section 28.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL....215 Guards for exposed hazards. (a) Each space on board a vessel must meet the requirements of...

  1. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...

  2. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  4. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed...

  5. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  6. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  7. Preliminary indications of blood lead concentrations, among occupationally exposed and non exposed Palestinians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz A. Al-Qutob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lower rate of exposure to leaded compounds in the past ten years, due to reducedlead petrol concentrations in the ambient air and improvement in environmental control measures, leadpoisoning is still an occupational and environmental disease of great concern in public health. Thepresence of other sources of lead exposure after the ban of leaded gasoline could be a risk factor forelevated blood lead concentrations. In this study blood lead levels (BLL were screened in bothoccupationally and non-occupationally exposed groups in the Palestinian Territories by inductive coupledplasma-mass spectrometry (Agilent 7500 ICP-MS. The non-occupationally exposed groups included 18normal healthy smoker males, 18 non smoker males, and 18 females. Occupationally exposed groupsinclude 25 workers in the assaying and refining of gold and 19 workers in auto-repair garages. Data wasanalyzed using the statistical computer package (SPSS. Mean blood lead levels of all groups were belowthe action level according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC and Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA (<10 μg/dL. No statistical significant differences were found between workersgroup and control groups. In the control group, a paired t-test showed a statistically significant difference(p<0.05 between the female group and smoker male group. There was no correlation with age for allgroups except the female group and auto-repair workers which showed significant correlation (p<0.05with both age and years of work. This could be contributed to differences in genetic make-up, chemicalexposure history and age related decreased function of the detoxification processes. Since mean BLL(3.66 μg/dL of the control group was comparable to economically advantaged countries like USA (1.6μg/dL and those with low mean of (1.96 μg/dL like Jordan, lead is not considered a majorenvironmental pollutant in Palestine and the screening is recommended only at the workers in

  8. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  9. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  10. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  11. management of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones at moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the characteristics of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones ... Conclusions and Recommendations: Majority of patients were: referred, males, of low literacy and low ..... existing medical conditions (diabetes mellitus,.

  12. Investigating genetic damage in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何继亮

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this article, the genetic damage at 3 genetic endpoints in the workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastc drug was studied with micronucleus test, comet assay, hprt gene mutation assay and TCR gene mutation assay.

  13. Mortality patterns among men exposed to methyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Page, L.C.; Caporossi, J.C.; Utidjian, H.M.; Saipher, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A cohort of 2,671 men, 1561 of whom were exposed to methyl methacrylate, was observed from 1951 to 1983 for mortality. This cohort consisted of men from two plants. This study utilizes detailed exposure estimates and smoking status to evaluate mortality patterns. We find no statistically significant excess all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Analysis of dose of methyl methacrylate with several cancer sites showed no trend. Men exposed to high levels of methyl methacrylate had cancer rates similar to those for men not exposed in the workplace, as well as for other men in the US population. An earlier epidemiology study reported a significant excess of colorectal cancer among persons exposed to several substances including methyl methacrylate. Our study results and results from animal studies do not support the hypothesis that methyl methacrylate is a human carcinogen.

  14. [Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  15. Dissolved organic carbon ameliorates the effects of UV radiation on a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manek, Aditya K., E-mail: aditya.manek@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5B4 SK (Canada); Chivers, Douglas P.; Niyogi, Som [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 SK (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Anthropogenic activities over the past several decades have depleted stratospheric ozone, resulting in a global increase in ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Much of the negative effects of UVR in aquatic systems is minimized by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which is known to attenuate UVR across the water column. The skin of many fishes contains large epidermal club cells (ECCs) that are known to play a role in innate immune responses and also release chemical alarm cues that warn other fishes of danger. This study investigated the effects of in vivo UVR exposure to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), under the influence of two sources of DOC: Sigma Aldrich humic acid, a coal based commercial source of DOC and Luther Marsh natural organic matter, a terrigenous source of DOC. Specifically, we examined ECC investment and physiological stress responses and found that fish exposed to high UVR, in the presence of either source of DOC, had higher ECC investment than fish exposed to high UVR only. Similarly, exposure to high UVR under either source of DOC, reduced cortisol levels relative to that in the high UVR only treatment. This indicates that DOC protects fish from physiological stress associated with UVR exposure and helps maintain production of ECC under conditions of UVR exposure. - Highlights: • We examined the combined effect of UV radiation and Dissolved Organic Carbon on fish. • Physiological stress response and epidermal club cell investment were measured. • Fish exposed to high UVR and DOC had higher ECC investment and reduced cortisol levels. • DOC plays a role in protecting fish from physiological stress and maintains ECC production.

  16. Screening complex effluents for estrogenic activity with the T47D-KBluc cell bioassay: assay optimization and comparison with in vivo responses in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmas, Leah C; Cavallin, Jenna E; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Kahl, Michael D; Martinovic, Dalma; Mayasich, Joe; Tuominen, Tim; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can contain estrogenic chemicals, which potentially disrupt fish reproduction and development. The current study focused on the use of an estrogen-responsive in vitro cell bioassay (T47D-KBluc), to quantify total estrogenicity of WWTP effluents. We tested a novel sample preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay, using powdered media prepared with direct effluent. Results of the T47D-KBluc assay were compared with the induction of estrogen receptor-regulated gene transcription in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to the same effluents. Effluent samples for the paired studies were collected over the course of three months. According to the T47D-KBluc assay, the effluent estrogenicity ranged from 1.13 to 2.00 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents/L. Corresponding in vivo studies exposing male fathead minnows to 0, 10, 50, and 100% effluent dilutions demonstrated that exposure to 100% effluent significantly increased hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor α subunit transcripts relative to controls. The induction was also significant in males exposed to 250 ng E2/L or 100 ng E2/L. The in vitro and in vivo results support the conclusion that the effluent contains significant estrogenic activity, but there was a discrepancy between in vitro- and in vivo-based E2 equivalent estimates. Our results suggest that the direct effluent preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay is a reasonable approach to estimate the estrogenicity of wastewater effluent.

  17. [Anemia in workers exposed to lead: update on differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, L; Soleo, L; Cassano, F; Elia, G; Schiavulli, N; Martino, M G; Corfiati, M; Bulfaro, D; Apostoli, P

    2005-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure can cause anemia at blood lead levels >50 microg/dl, as high as rarely occurs in industrialized countries nowadays. Whereas other forms of anemia are fairly probable to be found in lead exposed workers, especially in areas highly endemicfor extraoccupational anemias, such as beta thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia. The etiology of anemias has to be correctly defined in order to assess suitable therapeutical approaches and medicolegal consequences. The objective of this study is to verify in male lead exposed workers whether an accurate evaluation of hemocromocytometric parameters and of usual biological indices of lead exposure and effect on heme can differentiate the most common forms of anemia in Southern Italy. 68 workers occupationally exposed to low to moderate lead doses were studied and 59 workers of an alimentary plant have been taken as control group. On venous blood samples collected from these workers a complete hemocromocytometric test was performed and blood lead and erythrocytic zincoprotoporphyrin were determined. Anemia (Hb lead exposed workers and in a nonexposed worker. The reasoned evaluation of laboratory parameters led to identify among lead exposed workers four subjects with high probability of beta-thalassemic trait and two with lead poisoning anemia. Moreover a diagnostic algorithm was developed based on literature that seems to be able to discriminate lead poisoning from other causes of anemia in lead exposed workers in this study.

  18. The AMINO experiment: methane photolysis under Solar VUV irradiation on the EXPOSE-R facility of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Cottin, Hervé; Cloix, Mégane; Jérome, Murielle; Bénilan, Yves; Coll, Patrice; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Raulin, François; Saiagh, Kafila; Chaput, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The scientific aim of the present campaign is to study the whole chain of methane photo-degradation, as initiated by Solar vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation in Titan's atmosphere. For this purpose, the AMINO experiment on the EXPOSE-R mission has loaded closed cells for gas-phase photochemistry in space conditions. Two different gas mixtures have been exposed, named Titan 1 and Titan 2, involving both N2-CH4 gas mixtures, without and with CO2, respectively. CO2 is added as a source of reactive oxygen in the cells. The cell contents were analysed thanks to infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Methane consumption leads to the formation of saturated hydrocarbons, with no detectable influence of CO2. This successful campaign provides a first benchmark for characterizing the whole methane photochemical system in space conditions. A thin film of tholin-like compounds appears to form on the cell walls of the exposed cells.

  19. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  20. Skin cancer development in mice exposed chronically to immunosuppressive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynes, R A; Harris, C C; Connor, R J; Eichwald, E J

    1979-04-01

    Inbred female C3Hf/HeN, murine mammary tumor virus-negative mice exposed to either UV light or benzo[a]pyrene (BP), were subjected to four different chronic immunosuppressive regimens to determine their effect on skin cancer development. The immunosuppressive agents were cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cortisone, and heterologous antilymphocyte globulin. Because of an unexpectedly high morbidity and mortality of mice exposed to chronic immunosuppressive measures, the dosages were kept at a level that permitted them to survive but did not prolong allogeneic skin graft survival and lower antibody titers, nor did this level diminish proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogens or allogeneic lymphocytes. Nevertheless, the latency periods (time interval between beginning of medication and appearance of skin tumors) of tumors in mice exposed to immunosuppressant measures were significantly shortened in several groups of mice exposed to UV and subjected to cyclophosphamide, cortisone, or antilymphocyte globulin and mice exposed to BP and subjected to cortisone acetate. In 3 groups, spindle cell tumors (fibrosarcomas) shifted to squamous cell carcinomas. A suppressed immune function would not be regarded as the mechanism for the observed responses because immunosuppression was not detected in the experimental mice.

  1. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pipeline when exposed. 192.459 Section 192.459 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... exposed. Whenever an operator has knowledge that any portion of a buried pipeline is exposed, the exposed... operator shall investigate circumferentially and longitudinally beyond the exposed portion (by...

  2. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  3. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  4. p16 promoter methylation in Pb2+ -exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatsi, Leda; Leda, Kovatsi; Georgiou, Elisavet; Elisavet, Georgiou; Ioannou, Antrea; Antrea, Ioannou; Haitoglou, Costas; Costas, Haitoglou; Tzimagiorgis, George; George, Tzimagiorgis; Tsoukali, Helen; Helen, Tsoukali; Kouidou, Sofia; Sofia, Kouidou

    2010-02-01

    One of the principle symptoms of lead poisoning is the development of neurological disorders. Neuronal response is closely related to DNA methylation changes. Aim. In this study, we estimated p16 methylation in nine individuals exposed to lead using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by analysis of the methylated cytosine content of the product by thermal denaturation. We found that, based on lead blood concentration, lead-exposed individuals were divided into two groups. Among highly exposed individuals (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 51-100 microg/dL), we observed complete CpG methylation, whereas for low Pb(2+) concentrations (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 6-11 microg/dL), we observed partial methylation. Our results show that among lead-overexposed individuals, p16 methylation is frequent and extensive, and suggest that DNA methylation could be involved in the mechanism by which lead induces neurotoxicity.

  5. Temporary impairment of reproduction in freshwater teleost exposed to nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Marco; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Mosconi, Gilberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta M; Carnevali, Oliana

    2004-06-01

    New born guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were exposed to a sublethal concentration of nonylphenol (NP) for 90 days, with the aim of evaluating the influence that this pollutant has on reproductive functions. At the end of treatment, the gender balance was significantly biased towards females (sex ratio = 0.3 males per female). Treated males displayed anomalous transcription of vitellogenin in correlation with a significant reduction of the gonadosomatic index (GSI); however, an increase of vitellogenin gene transcription, correlating directly with an increase in GSI, was observed in NP treated females. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly increased in exposed males and females. Females exposed to NP showed no alteration of sexual behavior or reproduction. These findings in guppies suggest that NP has estrogenic potency sufficient to disturb reproduction. Effects were transitory in nature because three months in uncontaminated water allowed males to recover normal sexual efficiency.

  6. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  7. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 9 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 13 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 12°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw and 10°C higher at 100% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 7°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 100% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  8. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Roider, Gabriele; Nowak, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav

    2017-03-30

    Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia). Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252). Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209), living in an exposed area (N = 408), working with mercury as panners (N = 181), working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454). Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners) were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in exposed people in artisanal small-scale mining areas. The mercury exposure needs to be

  10. Quantifying bank retreat rates with exposed tree roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, S. N.; O'Neal, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we use a biometric approach based on anatomical changes in the wood of exposed tree roots to quantify riverbank erosion along South River, Va, a site where commonly applied techniques for determining bank erosion rates are either not appropriate due to the required spatial scale of analysis (i.e., erosion pins, traditional surveys, LiDAR analysis) or have failed to detect obvious erosion (i.e. photogrammetric techniques). We sampled 78 exposed roots from 24 study reaches and processed them both macroscopically (2 to 20 times magnification) and microscopically (20 to 100 times magnification), comparing the estimated erosion rates between levels of magnification and to those obtained with photogrammetric techniques. We found no statistical differences between the output of macroscopic and microscopic analyses (t-test, alpha =0.01) but encountered difficulty in identifying the year of root exhumation in some samples. Therefore, we suggest analyzing roots at both levels of magnification to increase confidence and obtain erosion rate estimates from every sample. When comparing exposed root analysis to photogrammetric techniques, the results indicate that the exposed root approach is a feasible and effective method for estimating decadal to centennial scale bank erosion. In addition to producing erosion rates statistically indistinguishable from photogrammetric techniques (t-test, alpha = 0.01), exposed root analysis demonstrated more consistent detection of erosion. The results of this study indicate that exposed tree root analysis is a robust tool that provides insights into decadal scale erosion where other commonly applied techniques may not be appropriate or easily applied.

  11. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  12. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  13. Semantic Technology to Exploit Digital Content Exposed as Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Albertoni, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the research result of the application of semantic technology to ease the use and reuse of digital contents exposed as Linked Data on the web. It focuses on the specific issue of explorative research for the resource selection: a context dependent semantic similarity assessment is proposed in order to compare datasets annotated through terminologies exposed as Linked Data (e.g. habitats, species). Semantic similarity is shown as a building block technology to sift linked data resources. From semantic similarity application, we derived a set of recommendations underlying open issues in scaling the similarity assessment up to the Web of Data.

  14. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early-life stage fathead ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid axis plays a critical role in teleost fish development. The present study investigated whether inhibition of deiodinase, the enzyme which converts thyroxine (T4), to the more biologically-active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder (SB), processes which we previously demonstrated to be thyroid-hormone regulated. Two experiments were conducted using iopanoic acid (IOP), a pharmaceutical used to treat hyperthyroidism, as a model deiodinase inhibitor. In the first study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos (~1 day post-fertilization [dpf]) were exposed in a flow-through system to three concentrations of IOP (0.6, 1.9, 6.0 mg/L) or control water and sampled at 4 and 6 dpf. Whole body T4 and T3 concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. Abundance of deiodinase 1-3 (dio1-3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), and thyroperoxidase (tpo) transcripts was examined using quantitative polymerase-chain reaction. Posterior SB inflation was assessed at 6 dpf. To examine effects on anterior SB inflation, a second study was conducted in which 6 dpf larvae, whose posterior SB had already inflated, were exposed to the same IOP concentrations. Fish were sampled at 10, 14, 18, and 21 dpf for T4/T3 measurements, gene transcription analyses, and thyroid histopathology. In the embryo study, incidence and length of inflated posterior SBs were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dp

  15. Comparative study of the phonology of preschool children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs and non-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, C L; Johnson, J M; Seikel, J A; Arnold, M; Schultheis, L

    1998-01-01

    Cocaine and multiple drug abuse among young adults has spawned research interest in fetal exposure and the sequela of that exposure during the formative developmental years. Previous study of the language development of exposed children has not specifically addressed phonological acquisition. In the present study, the speech of 25 children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs was analyzed and compared to that of 25 children who were not prenatally exposed to determine if differences were evident in their phonological patterns. The children ranged in age from 22 months to 51 months. The number and type of phonological processes produced, number of utterances needed to produce a 50-word sample, number of unintelligible words produced, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores were recorded and analyzed. The use of cocaine and multiple drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increase in the use of phonological processes.

  16. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  17. Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A.; Schwab-Stone, Mary E.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how parent, school, and peer support differentially affected resilience among urban sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-graders. Findings indicated that both parent and school support factors positively related to resilience in children who had been exposed to community violence; however, peer support negatively related to resilience in…

  18. The anaesthetic management of microgravity-exposed individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaesthetic management of microgravity-exposed individuals. ... will land astronauts on Mars, will pose significant challenges to anaesthesia providers. ... space medicine, we will lay the groundwork for an entirely new field of medicine. ... It aims to pique the interest of the reader at a time when privatisation of the space ...

  19. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...

  20. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments, eros

  1. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  2. Children Exposed to Violence: Criminal Justice Resources. OVC Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Helen

    Children exposed to violence are at higher risk of behavior problems and academic failure, as well as chronic delinquency and adult criminal behavior. This bulletin provides information about resources that are available to help improve the system's response to child victims and witnesses of violence. Information is provided about 14 private…

  3. Exposing Trust Assumptions in Distributed Policy Enforcement (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Coordinated defenses appear to be feasible • Writing policies from scratch is hard – Exposing assumptions requires people to think about what assumptions... critical capabilities as: – Adaptation to dynamic service availability – Complex situational dynamics (e.g., differentiating between bot-net and

  4. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  5. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments,

  6. Out-of-Home Placement of Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Berkowitz, Steven; Marans, Steven; Murphy, Robert A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing number of children in the USA who are exposed to community violence and the need to remove some of them from their families. This study examines risk factors for out-of-home placement among a large pool of children and adolescents who were referred for general clinical assessment following exposure to…

  7. Surface analysis of CVD diamond exposed to fusion plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porro, S.; De Temmerman, G.; MacLaren, D. A.; Lisgo, S.; Rudakov, D. L.; Westerhout, J.; Wiora, M.; John, P.; Villalpando, I.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2010-01-01

    Microcrystalline undoped and heavily boron-doped polycrystalline diamond layers have been deposited on various substrates by hot filament CVD and exposed to hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma reactor (Pilot-PSI, The Netherlands) that simulates the high flux and high density plasma conditions of toka

  8. Neurobehavioral Assessment of Rats Exposed to Yttrium Nitrate during Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chen Xi; MA Chuan; FANG Hai Qin; ZHI Yuan; YU Zhou; XU Hai Bin; JIA Xu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the effects of yttrium nitrate on neurobehavioral development in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods Dams were orally exposed to 0, 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg daily of yttrium nitrate from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Body weight and food consumption were monitored weekly. Neurobehavior was assessed by developmental landmarks and reflexes, motor activity, hot plate, Rota-rod and cognitive tests. Additionally, brain weights were measured on PND 21 and 70. Results No significant difference was noted among all groups for maternal body weight and food consumption. All yttrium-exposed offspring showed an increase in body weight on PND 21;however, no significant difference in body weight for exposed pups versus controls was observed 2 weeks or more after the yttrium solution was discontinued. The groups given 5 mg/kg daily decreased significantly in the duration of female forelime grip strength and ambulation on PND 13. There was no significant difference between yttrium-exposed offspring and controls with respect to other behavioral ontogeny parameters and postnatal behavioral test results. Conclusion Exposure of rats to yttrium nitrate in concentrations up to 45 mg/kg daily had no adverse effects on their neurobehavioral development.

  9. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  10. Fire-exposed continuous span composite steel-concrete slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    1996-01-01

    From experimental evidence, it was concluded that existing rules for the calculation of the behaviour of fire-exposed composite beams and slabs often lead to conservative solutions. Furthermore, the range of common applications had grown beyond the limits of existing calculation mies. It was feit

  11. Fire-exposed continuous span composite steel-concrete slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, K.

    1996-01-01

    From experimental evidence, it was concluded that existing rules for the calculation of the behaviour of fire-exposed composite beams and slabs often lead to conservative solutions. Furthermore, the range of common applications had grown beyond the limits of existing calculation rules. It was felt

  12. Behavioral evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizlish, N.A.; Langolf, G.D.; Whitehead, L.W.; Fine, L.J.; Albers, J.W.; Goldberg, J.; Smith, P.

    1985-09-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioral impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioral performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop color-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies.

  13. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  14. Fire-exposed continuous span composite steel-concrete slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, K.

    1996-01-01

    From experimental evidence, it was concluded that existing rules for the calculation of the behaviour of fire-exposed composite beams and slabs often lead to conservative solutions. Furthermore, the range of common applications had grown beyond the limits of existing calculation rules. It was felt t

  15. Aluminium structures exposed to fire conditions. An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Snijder, H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the structural behaviour and design of aluminium structures exposed to fire conditions. Two design approaches are elaborated: the "traditional" approach that is mainly based on conventions and the fire safety engineering approach that is more based on physics. For the

  16. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  17. Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2011-03-18

    Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 μg/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  19. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  20. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  1. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Bose-O'Reilly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Material and Methods: Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia. Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252. Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209, living in an exposed area (N = 408, working with mercury as panners (N = 181, working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454. Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman’s rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Results: Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p < 0.001. Conclusions: Chronic mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in

  2. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues.

  3. Reliability analysis of wind turbines exposed to dynamic loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades...... the reliability of the structural components. Illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment for structural wind turbine components exposed to extreme loads and fatigue, respectively.......Wind turbines are exposed to highly dynamic loads that cause fatigue and extreme load effects which are subject to significant uncertainties. Further, reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources...

  4. Heat transfer to finned tubes exposed to hot waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, E.; Kremer, H.

    1975-05-01

    Transfer of heat by forced convection to finned tubes, particularly to those with an elliptical center pipe, is described. These pipes are used in gas-fired water heaters, boilers, and heat exchangers. Finned tubes in a test tunnel were exposed to a stream of waste gas from a gas/air mixture at different Reynolds numbers. Mathematical relationships showing the dependence of the Nusselt number on the Reynolds number and on the geometry of the tubes were derived. The single pipe showed a significant drop in the heat-transfer coefficient as the gap between fins became closer. The results of the measurement of heat transfer by forced convection to finned tubes were expressed in a standard form for all tubes. The same heat transfer law can be applied to electrically heated finned tubes exposed to a stream of cooling air.

  5. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  6. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  7. A New Type of Exposed Oil Sand Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With several means of analysis, the unique organic compound component and distribution of exposed oil sand existing in Qinghai, north-west China, is revealed. Qinghhai oil sand has great content of light components with high saturated hydrocarbon content up to approximately 50%, while its heavy components of colloid and asphaltene is rather low (<38%); straight-chain alkane has a regular distribution concentrating mainly around C28; it has a very high atom ratio of H/C. The physical parameters of the oil sand mine are within the range of common heavy oils. Such chemical composition and distribution obviously differs from that of other known exposed oil sand mines. This particular property of the oil sand is formed due to the unique geographical and geological environment. Therefore, it is intended to exploit the mine with a new combined method, i.e., first drill horizontal wells and then opencut.

  8. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring...... studies in children are a promising field, since because of evident differences in the uptake, metabolism, distribution and excretion of mutagens this population seems to be more susceptible than adults. Further, the effect of major confounders such as cigarettes smoking, occupation, life......-style, and dietary factors plays a minor role. Among cytogenetic assays, the micronucleus assay (MN) has several advantages and is increasingly used. A review was then carried out to synthesize the published data on the occurrence of MN in children and adolescents (age range 0-18 years), and to assess the impact...

  9. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  10. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    doses of radiation; (b) effects on children from combined exposure to low doses of radiation and chemical agents from food, water and air; and (c) specific effects from exposure during early childhood (radioisotopes from water, radon in homes). Special consideration should also be given to a possible......, environmental radiation pollution and indoor accidental contamination reveals consistently increased chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequency in exposed than in referent children. Future research in this area should be focused on studies providing information on: (a) effects on children caused by low...... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...

  11. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.Y.; Liu, W.; Luo, G. N.; Yuan, Y.; Jia, Y. Z.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-01-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1–2 × 1024/m2/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2–7 × 1026 D/m2) and surface temperature (423–873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to

  12. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  13. Surface degradation of silicone rubber exposed to corona discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong; Haji, Kenichi; Otsubo, Masahisa; Honda, Chikahisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the surface degradation of unfilled high-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (HTV-SR)###resulting from creeping corona discharges under atmospheric pressure. In this paper, HTV-SR specimens were exposed to corona###stress generated by a parallel needle-plate electrode system; furthermore, physicochemical analyses were conducted on the surface layer of SR before and after corona discharge treatment. The results showed that the plasma impingement from the corona discharg...

  14. [Hematologic changes in workers exposed to radio wave radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinscak, V; Goldoni, J; Sarić, M

    1991-12-01

    Haematological parameters were measured in 43 radar operators employed in air traffic control occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of low intensity over a period of four years. Exposure to heat, soft X-ray radiation and noise were within maximally allowed limits. The haematological changes included a decreased number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets, segmented granulocytes and monocytes, and an increased number of leucocytes and lymphocytes. The changes were not pathologically significant and most of them were reversible.

  15. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differen...

  16. Landslide-exposed areas modeling using the multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Landslide occurrence is governed by numerous spatial and temporal factors that can be divided into the causes and the triggers. Human interaction with the environment coincides mainly with the triggers, which are also of natural origin. For a better understanding of the causing factors, which mainly influence the spatial distribution, several methods based on GIS technology are used. Results, derived from these methods, define areas that are more exposed to triggering factors, consequencially...

  17. Chromosomic aberrations in female workers exposed to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca, Patricia; Ramírez, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if the occupational exposure to those pesticides used at banana plantations’ packaging plants produces genetic damage to somatic cells of female workers. Chromosomal aberrations were scored in lymphocytes of 20 women, 10 female exposed workers and 10 female controls. Workers were recruited from independent farms from two locations in Costa Rica, during January through June in 1996 and 1997. These females had a minimum of three months of work, had neve...

  18. Unleashing Cancer Cells on Surfaces Exposing Motogenic IGDQ Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaglia, Valentina; Marega, Riccardo; De Leo, Federica; Michiels, Carine; Bonifazi, Davide

    2016-01-20

    Thiolated peptides bearing the Ile-Gly-Asp (IGD) motif, a highly conserved sequence of fibronectin, are used for the preparation of anisotropic self-assembled monolayers (SAM gradients) to study the whole-population migratory behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells). Ile-Gly-Asp-Gln-(IGDQ)-exposing SAMs sustain the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells by triggering focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation, similarly to the analogous Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-(GRGD)-terminating surfaces. However, the biological responses of different cell lines interfaced with the SAM gradients show that only those exposing the IGDQ sequence induce significant migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. In particular, the observed migratory behavior suggests the presence of cell subpopulations associated with a "stationary" or a "migratory" phenotype, the latter determining a considerable cell migration at the sub-cm length scale. These findings are of great importance as they suggest for the first time an active role of biological surfaces exposing the IGD motif in the multicomponent orchestration of cellular signaling involved in the metastatic progression.

  19. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  20. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  1. Learning From Biomarkers in Victims Accidentally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Liqing Du; Chang Xu; Qin Wang; Zhiyi Song; Jianxiang Liu; Xu Su

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers,such as chromosome aberration and micronuclei assays,prove to be reliable for facilitating clinical diagnosis in radiation accidents.In a radiation accident in India,chromosomal aberration,γ-H2AX,as well as other blood markers,were detected in accidentally exposed victims.This multi-parametric approach aided in confirming that individuals had been exposed by ionizing radiation.However,doses were impossible to estimate because of a 30-day delay in accident awareness.Exposure dose for victims was estimated using a dose-response curve previously established.Dose estimation,blood cell depletion kinetics,and no appearance of prodromal symptoms suggested that doses of exposure were low.Hematologic investigation,sampling time,and chromosome aberration scoring were all proposed according to data from the victims exposed to 60Co.Finally,knowledge regarding chromosome aberration analysis and the importance of international co-operation and assistance should be shared from this accident.

  2. Maternal depression and neurobehavior in newborns prenatally exposed to methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Monica S.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of maternal depression on neonatal neurodevelopment in MA exposed neonates have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neonates exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Design The purpose of the IDEAL study is to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on child outcome. IDEAL screened 13,808 subjects, 1632 were eligible and consented and 176 mothers were enrolled. Only biological mothers with custody of their child at the one-month visit (n=50 MA; n=86 comparison) had the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) administered. The NNNS was administered to the neonate by an examiner blinded to MA exposure within the first five days of life. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS outcomes, with and without covariates. Significance was accepted at p<.05. Results After adjusting for covariates, regardless of exposure status, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower handling and arousal scores, elevated physiological stress scores and an increased incidence of hypotonicity. When adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and higher lethargy scores. Conclusions Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of decreased arousal and increased stress. Prenatal MA exposure combined with maternal depression was not associated with any additional neonatal neurodevelopmental differences. PMID:19059478

  3. Genetic damage in subjects exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Despite many research efforts and public debate there is still great concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on human health. This is especially due to the enormous increase of wireless mobile telephones and other telecommunication devices throughout the world. The possible genetic effects of mobile phone radiation and other sources of radiofrequencies constitute one of the major points of concern. In the past several review papers were published on laboratory investigations that were devoted to in vitro and in vivo animal (cyto)genetic studies. However, it may be assumed that some of the most important observations are those obtained from studies with individuals that were exposed to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation, either as a result of their occupational activity or as frequent users of radiofrequency emitting tools. In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion.

  4. Fate of graphene in polymer nanocomposite exposed to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C; Nguyen, T; Pellegrin, B; Holbrook, R D; Zhao, M; Chin, J, E-mail: tinh.nguyen@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-07-06

    Graphene is increasingly incorporated in polymers to enhance their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, organic polymers are prone to degrade when exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, graphene in polymer nanocomposites could eventually be released into the environment during their life cycle, which might have a negative impact on the environment and thus presents a roadblock to their use. This study investigates the degradation of a graphene/polyurethane composite and characterizes the graphene concentration at the nanocomposite surfaces during exposure to UV radiation. The polyurethane was a one-component, water-borne polyurethane and graphene material was graphene oxide (GO) sheets. GO/WBPU composites having a thickness between 105 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m were exposed to 75% RH, 50 deg. C, and UV radiation between 290 nm and 400 nm in a NIST-developed UV chamber. Chemical degradation, mass loss, and surface morphology were measured at specified exposure time using FTIR, gravimetry, SEM, AFM and LCSM techniques. Results showed that, when exposed to UV radiation having wavelengths similar to those of the sunlight, the polyurethane matrix underwent photodegradation, subsequent mass loss and accumulation of a large amount of graphene on the composite surface.

  5. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  6. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of glucogenesis on the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is investigated. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with C-14 lactate, alanine, of glycerol, and six of the rats are exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. The plasma glucose and liver glycogen of the centrifuged and noncentrifuged rats are analyzed. A significant increase in the C-14 incorporation of the substrate into the plasma glucose and liver glycogen is observed in the centrifuged rats. The injection of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, results in a blocked increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen. The role of epinephrine on the hyperglycemic and liver glycogen responses of centrifuged rats is studied. It is concluded that the initial increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is the result of an increased rate of gluconeogenesis.

  7. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  8. Do pyrethroid-resistant Hyalella azteca have greater bioaccumulation potential compared to non-resistant populations? Implications for bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggelberg, Leslie L; Huff Hartz, Kara E; Nutile, Samuel A; Harwood, Amanda D; Heim, Jennifer R; Derby, Andrew P; Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of pyrethroid-resistant Hyalella azteca populations in California, USA suggests there has been significant exposure of aquatic organisms to these terrestrially-applied insecticides. Since resistant organisms are able to survive in relatively contaminated habitats they may experience greater pyrethroid bioaccumulation, subsequently increasing the risk of those compounds transferring to predators. These issues were evaluated in the current study following toxicity tests in water with permethrin which showed the 96-h LC50 of resistant H. azteca (1670 ng L(-1)) was 53 times higher than that of non-resistant H. azteca (31.2 ng L(-1)). Bioaccumulation was compared between resistant and non-resistant H. azteca by exposing both populations to permethrin in water and then measuring the tissue concentrations attained. Our results indicate that resistant and non-resistant H. azteca have similar potential to bioaccumulate pyrethroids at the same exposure concentration. However, significantly greater bioaccumulation occurs in resistant H. azteca at exposure concentrations non-resistant organisms cannot survive. To assess the risk of pyrethroid trophic transfer, permethrin-dosed resistant H. azteca were fed to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for four days, after which bioaccumulation of permethrin and its biotransformation products in fish tissues were measured. There were detectable concentrations of permethrin in fish tissues after they consumed dosed resistant H. azteca. These results show that bioaccumulation potential is greater in organisms with pyrethroid resistance and this increases the risk of trophic transfer when consumed by a predator. The implications of this study extend to individual fitness, populations and food webs.

  9. Toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, and toxicoproteomic aspects of short-term exposure to trenbolone in female fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Irvin R; Nagler, James J; Swanson, Penny; Wunschel, Dave; Skillman, Ann D; Burnett, Vicki; Smith, Derek; Barry, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The toxicokinetics of trenbolone was characterized during 500 ng/l water exposures in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Related experiments measured various toxicodynamic effects of exposure. In both species, trenbolone was rapidly absorbed from the water and reached peak plasma levels within 8h of exposure. Afterwards, trenbolone concentrations in trout (66-95 ng/ml) were 2-6 times higher compared with minnows (15-29 ng/ml), which was attributable to greater plasma binding in trout. During water exposures, circulating levels of estradiol (E2) rapidly decreased in both species to a concentration that was 25%-40% of control values by 8-24h of exposure and then remained relatively unchanged for the subsequent 6 days of exposure. In trout, changes in circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone were also significantly greater after trenbolone exposure, relative to controls. In both species, the pharmacokinetics of injected E2-d3 was altered by trenbolone exposure with an increase in total body clearance and a corresponding decrease in elimination half-life. The unbound percentage of E2 in trout plasma was 0.25%, which was similar in pre- or postvitellogenic female trout. Subsequent incubation with trenbolone caused the unbound percentage to significantly increase to 2.4% in the previtellogenic trout plasma. iTRAQ-based toxicoproteomic studies in minnows exposed to 5, 50, and 500 ng/l trenbolone identified a total of 148 proteins with 19 downregulated including vitellogenin and 18 upregulated. Other downregulated proteins were fibrinogens, α-2-macroglobulin, and transferrin. Upregulated proteins included amine oxidase, apolipoproteins, parvalbumin, complement system proteins, and several uncharacterized proteins. The results indicate trenbolone exposure is a highly dynamic process in female fish with uptake and tissue equilibrium quickly established, leading to both rapid and delayed toxicodynamic effects.

  10. Several synthetic progestins with different potencies adversely affect reproduction of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnalls, Tamsin J; Beresford, Nicola; Losty, Erin; Scott, Alexander P; Sumpter, John P

    2013-02-19

    Synthetic progestins are widely used as a component in both contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), both on their own and in combination with EE2. Their presence in the environment is now established in wastewater effluent and river water and this has led to concerns regarding their potential effects on aquatic organisms living in these waters. We carried out in vivo experiments to determine the potencies of four different synthetic progestins on the reproductive capabilities of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). We then performed a series of in vitro assays to try and determine the reason for the effects seen in the in vivo experiments. In the first experiment, fathead minnow exposed to a single concentration of 100 ng/L of either Levonorgestrel or Gestodene stopped spawning almost completely. The same nominal concentration of Desogestrel and Drospirenone did not affect reproduction (21 d NOECs of 100 ng/L). The second experiment investigated two progestins of different potency: Gestodene at 1, 10, and 100 ng/L and Desogestrel at 100 ng/L, 1 μg/L, and 10 μg/L. Gestodene concentrations as low as 1 ng/L had significant effects on reproduction over 21 d, whereas concentrations of Desogestrel at or above 1 μg/L were required to significantly reduce egg production. The synthetic progestins also masculinized the female fish in a concentration-dependent manner. Results from yeast-based in vitro assays demonstrated that the progestins are all strongly androgenic, thereby explaining the masculinization effects. The results strongly suggest that synthetic progestins merit serious consideration as environmental pollutants.

  11. A systems toxicology approach to elucidate the mechanisms involved in RDX species-specific sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Christopher M; Gust, Kurt A; Stanley, Jacob K; Habib, Tanwir; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J

    2012-07-17

    Interspecies uncertainty factors in ecological risk assessment provide conservative estimates of risk where limited or no toxicity data is available. We quantitatively examined the validity of interspecies uncertainty factors by comparing the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to the energetic compound 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a known neurotoxicant. Relative toxicity was measured through transcriptional, morphological, and behavioral end points in zebrafish and fathead minnow fry exposed for 96 h to RDX concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 27.7 mg/L. Spinal deformities and lethality occurred at 1.8 and 3.5 mg/L RDX respectively for fathead minnow and at 13.8 and 27.7 mg/L for zebrafish, indicating that zebrafish have an 8-fold greater tolerance for RDX than fathead minnow fry. The number and magnitude of differentially expressed transcripts increased with increasing RDX concentration for both species. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in functions related to neurological disease, oxidative-stress, acute-phase response, vitamin/mineral metabolism and skeletal/muscular disorders. Decreased expression of collagen-coding transcripts were associated with spinal deformity and likely involved in sensitivity to RDX. Our work provides a mechanistic explanation for species-specific sensitivity to RDX where zebrafish responded at lower concentrations with greater numbers of functions related to RDX tolerance than fathead minnow. While the 10-fold interspecies uncertainty factor does provide a reasonable cross-species estimate of toxicity in the present study, the observation that the responses between ZF and FHM are markedly different does initiate a call for concern regarding establishment of broad ecotoxicological conclusions based on model species such as zebrafish.

  12. Dietary Exposure of Fathead Minnows to the Explosives TNT and RDX and to the Pesticide DDT using Contaminated Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Lotufo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Explosive compounds have been released into the environment during manufacturing, handling, and usage procedures. These compounds have been found to persist in the environment and potentially promote detrimental biological effects. The lack of research on bioaccumulation and bioconcentration and especially dietary transfer on aquatic life has resulted in challenges in assessing ecological risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential trophic transfer of the explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX using a realistic freshwater prey/predator model and using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, a highly bioaccumulative compound, to establish relative dietary uptake potential. The oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to 14C-labeled TNT, RDX or DDT for 5 hours in water, frozen in meal-size packages and subsequently fed to individual juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Fish were sampled for body residue determination on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 following an 8-hour gut purging period. Extensive metabolism of the parent compound in worms occurred for TNT but not for RDX and DDT. Fish body residue remained relatively unchanged over time for TNT and RDX, but did not approach steady-state concentration for DDT during the exposure period. The bioaccumulation factor (concentration in fish relative to concentration in worms was 0.018, 0.010, and 0.422 g/g for TNT, RDX and DDT, respectively, confirming the expected relatively low bioaccumulative potential for TNT and RDX through the dietary route. The experimental design was deemed successful in determining the potential for trophic transfer of organic contaminants via a realistic predator/prey exposure scenario.

  13. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  14. From single chemicals to mixtures--reproductive effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on the fathead minnow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnalls, Tamsin J; Beresford, Nicola; Kugathas, Subramaniam; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Scholze, Martin; Scott, Alexander P; Sumpter, John P

    2015-12-01

    The aquatic environment is polluted with thousands of chemicals. It is currently unclear which of these pose a significant threat to aquatic biota. The typical exposure scenario is now represented by a widespread blanket of contamination composed of myriads of individual pollutants-each typically present at a low concentration. The synthetic steroids, 17α-ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel, have been widely reported to be present in the aquatic environment in the low ng to sub-ng/l range. They are widely used in contraceptive formulations, both individually and in combination. Our research employed the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 21 day 'pair-breeding' assay to assess reproductive output when pairs of fish were exposed to the single chemicals at low environmentally relevant concentrations, and then to a binary mixture of them. A variety of endpoints were assessed, including egg production, which was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by both the individual chemicals and the mixture. Significant, sex specific effects were also seen with both chemicals, at differing levels of biological organisation. Plasma concentrations of EE2 and levonorgestrel were predicted and in the case of levonorgestrel measured, and compared with the human therapeutic plasma concentrations (Read-Across approach) to support the interpretation of the results. A novel quantitative method was developed for the data analysis, which ensured a suitable endpoint for the comparative mixture assessment. This approach compares the reproductive performance from individual pairs of fish during chemical exposure to its pre-treatment performance. The responses from the empirical mixture study were compared to predictions derived from the single substance data. We hypothesised combined responses which were best described by the concept of concentration addition, and found no clear indications against this additivity expectation. However, the effect profiles support the current

  15. Frequency and Severity of Trauma in Fishes Subjected to Multiple-pass Depletion Electrofishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank; Densmore, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of trauma associated with multiple-pass electrofishing and the effects on short-term (30-d) survival and growth of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and five representative co-inhabiting nontarget or bycatch species were examined. Fish were held in four rectangular fiberglass tanks (190 × 66 cm) equipped with electrodes, a gravel–cobble stream substrate, and continuous water flow. Fish were exposed to one, two, or three electroshocks (100-V, 60-Hz pulsed DC) spaced 1 h apart or were held as a control. The heterogeneous field produced a mean (±SD) voltage gradient of 0.23 ± 0.024 V/cm (range = 0.20–0.30 V/cm) with a duty cycle of 30% and a 5-s exposure. Radiographs of 355 fish were examined for evidence of spinal injuries, and necropsies were performed on 303 fish to assess hemorrhagic trauma in soft tissue. Using linear regression, we demonstrated significant relationships between the number of electrical shocks and the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic and spinal trauma in each of the nontarget species (Potomac Sculpin Cottus girardi, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, and Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides). Most of the injuries in these species were either minor or moderate. Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout generally sustained the highest incidence and severity of injuries, but those injuries were generally independent of the number of treatments. The 30-d postshock survival for the trout species was greater than 94%; survival for the bycatch species ranged from 80% (Fathead Minnow) to 100% (Green Sunfish and Channel Catfish). There were no significant differences in 30-d postshock condition factors despite observations of altered feeding behavior lasting several days to 1 week posttreatment in several of the study species.

  16. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus. Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, pulp was exposed. In the experimental group, the perforations were capped with Emdogain® (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland, while in the control group pulp capping was performed with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. The observational period was 28 days, after which the animal was sacrificed and histological preparations were made. A light microscope was used to analyze dentin bridge formation, tissue reorganization and inflammation, and the presence of bacteria in the pulp. Results. The formation of dentin bridge was observed in the experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Angiogenesis and many odontoblast-like cells, responsible for dentin bridge formation, were observed. Necrosis was not observed in any case, nor were bacteria present in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated a favorable therapeutic effect of Emdogain® Gel in direct pulp capping of Vietnamese pigs. Pulp reaction was similar to that of MTA®. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON172026

  17. Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account

  18. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R; Sharma, Yashwant K; Saiyed, Habibullah N

    2007-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV(1) values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  19. Tuberculosis among workers exposed to free silica dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a global emergency. Poverty, increasing migration, homelessness and the compulsions to live and work in high-risk environments are making people increasingly susceptible to the disease. Those working in mines, construction work, stone-crushing and in other similar occupations where there is a greater level of exposure to silica dust are specially vulnerable. Though the association between TB and silicosis has been firmly established by the results of epidemiologic studies no attempts have been made to study the epidemiological features of radiologically active TB among free silica exposed workers. Thus the cross sectional study was carried out among slate pencil workers and quartz stone crushers to assess the prevalence of TB and some associated epidemiological factors. It included 253 quartz workers and 102 slate pencil workers. Clinical history and chest radiographs were used for labeling the subjects as tuberculotic. The pulmonary functions of the subjects were measured using Spirovit SP- 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical software package Epi Info 3.3.2. Among stone crushers the prevalence of TB was found to be 10.7% while among slate pencil workers it was as high as 22.5%. Among the quartz stone-crushers the workers aged ≥35 years, those exposed for ≥3 years and those who were smokers had higher risk TB while among the slate pencil workers, only those exposed for ≥10 years had higher risk. Though the FVC and FEV 1 values of the workers having TB were lower than those having normal radiographs, the differences were found to statistically non-significant.

  20. Test method for spalling of fire exposed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  1. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  2. Libraries’ Role in Curating and Exposing Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Teets

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how one data hub is working to become a relevant and useful source in the Web of big data and cloud computing. The focus is on OCLC’s WorldCat database of global library holdings and includes work by other library organizations to expose their data using big data concepts and standards. Explanation is given of how OCLC has begun work on the knowledge graph for this data and its active involvement with Schema.org in working to make this data useful throughout the Web.

  3. Charge fluctuations for particles on a surface exposed to plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, T E

    2011-01-01

    We develop a stochastic model for the charge fluctuations on a microscopic dust particle resting on a surface exposed to plasma. We find in steady state that the fluctuations are normally distributed with a standard deviation that is proportional to $CT_{e})^{1/2}$, where $C$ is the particle-surface capacitance and $T_{e}$ is the plasma electron temperature. The time for an initially uncharged ensemble of particles to reach the steady state distribution is directly proportional to $CT_{e}$.

  4. Effective UV radiation dose in polyethylene exposed to weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Calero Marín, S. P.; Vega-Durán, J. T.; Moreno-Virgen, R.

    2009-09-01

    In this work we quantified the effective UV radiation dose in orange and colorless polyethylene samples exposed to weather in the city of Aguascalientes, Ags. Mexico. The spectral distribution of solar radiation was calculated using SMART 2.9.5.; the samples absorption properties were measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy and the quantum yield was calculated using samples reflectance properties. The determining factor in the effective UV dose is the spectral distribution of solar radiation, although the chemical structure of materials is also important.

  5. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M;

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride-exposed wor......Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  7. Susuk - black magic exposed "white" by dental radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Arishiya Thapasum; Mohammed, Faraz

    2014-07-01

    Susuk or charm needles are a facial cum body art widely practiced among women of Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. These are small, needle-shaped metallic talismans inserted subcutaneously in different parts of the body. The concealed art of susuk was "exposed" by routine radiographic examination in the oral and maxillofacial region. This paper reports two such cases of unusual incidental radiographic finding in dental radiographs which were taken on a routine basis as part of the diagnostic work up. This article will also primarily enlighten the importance of radiographs in detecting such charm needles as the wearer keeps the body art a "hidden secret" thereby avoiding misdiagnosis.

  8. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  9. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  10. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  11. Ultrastructural and metabolic changes in osteoblasts exposed to uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Pcia de Bs.As. (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Orona, N.S. [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Pcia de Bs.As. (Argentina); Mandalunis, P.M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrini, R.L. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Radiobiologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ubios, A.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Radiobiologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Catedra de Histologia y Embriologia, Facultad de Odontologia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Exposure to uranium is an occupational hazard to workers who continually handle uranium and an environmental risk to the population at large. Since the cellular and molecular pathways of uranium toxicity in osteoblast cells are still unknown, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the adverse effects of uranyl nitrate (UN) on osteoblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Herein we studied the osteoblastic ultrastructural changes induced by UN in vivo and analyzed cell proliferation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (APh) activity in osteoblasts exposed to various UN concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 {mu}M) in vitro. Cell proliferation was quantified by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, ROS was determined using the nitro blue tetrazolium test, apoptosis was morphologically determined using Hoechst 3332 and APh activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of active and inactive osteoblasts exposed to uranium presented cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. In vitro, 1-100 {mu}M UN failed to modify cell proliferation ratio and to induce apoptosis. ROS generation increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tested doses. APh activity was found to decrease in 1-100 {mu}M UN-treated cells vs. controls. Our results show that UN modifies osteoblast cell metabolism by increasing ROS generation and reducing APh activity, suggesting that ROS may play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage. (orig.)

  12. Antibody responses of raccoons naturally exposed to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Sullivan, Heather J; Blitvich, Bradley J; McLean, Robert G; Franklin, Alan B

    2010-10-01

    An investigation was performed to describe the responses of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in raccoons (Procyon lotor) over time. Seven wild raccoons, some of which had been exposed to multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, were held in captivity for 279 days, and serum samples were collected on 10 occasions during this interval. Serum samples from 9 of 10 bleeding occasions were tested using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Although titer declines were noted in most animals over time, all animals maintained detectable antibodies for the duration of the study. These data indicate that naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus can remain detectable in raccoons for many months, with the actual duration presumably being much longer because all animals had been exposed to influenza A virus before this study commenced. This information is important to surveillance programs because the duration of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in wildlife populations is largely unknown.

  13. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms "otoacoustic emissions" and "occupational exposure." The type of published article (national/international, the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12. Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders.

  14. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored. PMID:27733852

  15. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  16. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  17. The Exposed Proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Vanessa; Vadillo, Santiago; San Juan, Carlos; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included three strains of B. hyodysenteriae and two strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29,000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design. PMID:27493641

  18. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  19. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT EXPOSED TO ICE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Tat'yana Erikovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic nature of effects of ice loading contributes to the formation of non-reversible deformations and defects of structural elements that may cause loss of the bearing capacity of the structure due to the accumulation of fatigue damages in dangerous sections. The damages in question are caused by moderate loads of multiple repeatability. In order to assess the number of cycles of ice loading that the structure may be exposed to without any substantial damages, the authors have developed a simulation model of ice load formation that serves as the basis for the analysis of the loading pattern that the structure is exposed to. This loading pattern is the initial one for the purposes of calculation of the fatigue resistance of structural elements to ice load effects. In the research, the authors provide for the joint application of the simulation model of ice load formation and the model of accumulation of fatigue damages to assess the ice resistance of a platform and its reliability from the viewpoint of its failure.

  20. Exposing public health surveillance data using existing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbelin, Clément; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    With the growing use of information technologies, an increased volume of data is produced in Public Health Surveillance, enabling utilization of new data sources and analysis methods. Public health and research will benefit from the use of data standards promoting harmonization and data description through metadata. No data standard has yet been universally accepted for exchanging public health data. In this work, we implemented two existing standards eligible to expose public health data: Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange - Health Domain (SDMX-HD) proposed by the World Health Organization and Open Data Protocol (OData) proposed by Microsoft Corp. SDMX-HD promotes harmonization through controlled vocabulary and predefined data structure suitable for public health but requires important investment, while OData, a generic purpose standard, proposes a simple way to expose data with minimal documentation and end-user integration tools. The two solutions were implemented and are publicly available at http://sdmx.sentiweb.fr and http://odata.sentiweb.fr. These solutions show that data sharing and interoperability are already possible in Public Health Surveillance.

  1. Role of exposed metal sites in hydrogen storage in MOFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Regli, Laura; Chavan, Sachin; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Bordiga, Silvia; Zecchina, Adriano

    2008-07-02

    The role of exposed metal sites in increasing the H2 storage performances in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been investigated by means of IR spectrometry. Three MOFs have been considered: MOF-5, with unexposed metal sites, and HKUST-1 and CPO-27-Ni, with exposed Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively. The onset temperature of spectroscopic features associated with adsorbed H2 correlates with the adsorption enthalpy obtained by the VTIR method and with the shift experienced by the H-H stretching frequency. This relationship can be ascribed to the different nature and accessibility of the metal sites. On the basis of a pure energetic evaluation, it was observed that the best performance was shown by CPO-27-Ni that exhibits also an initial adsorption enthalpy of -13.5 kJ mol(-1), the highest yet observed for a MOF. Unfortunately, upon comparison of the hydrogen amounts stored at high pressure, the hydrogen capacities in these conditions are mostly dependent on the surface area and total pore volume of the material. This means that if control of MOF surface area can benefit the total stored amounts, only the presence of a great number of strong adsorption sites can make the (P, T) storage conditions more economically favorable. These observations lead to the prediction that efficient H2 storage by physisorption can be obtained by increasing the surface density of strong adsorption sites.

  2. Growth characteristics of maize seeds exposed to magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Joshi, Devendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Standardization of magnetic field was done for maximum enhancement in germination characteristics of maize seeds. Seeds of maize were exposed to static magnetic fields of strength 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h for all field strengths. Results indicate that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of percentage germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 200 mT for 1 h exposure gave best results. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced cellular leakage and, consequently, electrical conductivity. Experiments conducted at a research farm as well as farmer's field showed that plants raised from seeds exposed to 200 mT for 1 h had higher values of leaf area index, shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, shoot/root dry weight, and root characteristics as compared to corresponding values in untreated control. From the studies, it may be concluded that exposure of dry seeds to static magnetic field of 200 mT for 1 h improved shoot and root growth. Improved root system and biomass led to increased seed yield. Improved functional root parameters suggested that magnetically treated maize seeds could be used under moisture stress conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:151-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, M F; Kleinsorge, E C; Scagnetti, J A; Grigolato, R A; Poletta, G L; Carballo, M A

    2008-11-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but represent at the same time a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of this work is the evaluation of 54 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides and 30 subjects as a control group using the quantification of DNA damage level by means of the alkaline Comet assay and the evaluation of repair processes. Damage index Comet assay (DICA) and damage index repair assay (DIRA) were studied in 27 pesticide applicator workers, 27 non-pesticide applicators and controls. Our results show that both exposed groups revealed significant increase in DICA when compared with controls (P pesticides was investigated and no significant differences were observed considering age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to DICA and DIRA. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading from carcinogen exposure to cancer disease, our study highlights the potential health risk associated with agrochemical exposure in developing countries with vast cultivated areas, such as Argentina.

  4. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered immunological reactivity in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Lima, Patrícia G; Filho, Renato G S; Silva, Agostinho A L; Saramago, Carmen S M; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Daniel M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2008-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate immune events in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates born from mothers who control (G1) or not (G2) the plasma viral load, using unexposed neonates as controls. Cord blood from each neonate was collected, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and the lymphoproliferation and cytokine pattern were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the in vitro lymphoproliferation induced by polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 neonates. Nevertheless, no cell culture responded to poll synthetic HIV-1 envelope peptides. The cytokine dosage in the plasma and supernatants of polyclonally-activated cultures demonstrated that, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the dominant cytokines produced in G1 and control groups, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in G2 neonates. Systemic levels of IL-10 observed among the G1 neonates were higher in those born from anti-retroviral treated mothers. In summary, our results indicate an altered immune responsiveness in neonates exposed in utero to HIV and support the role of maternal anti-retroviral treatment to attenuate it.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  7. Cataract incidence in the cohort of occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bragin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cataract incidence in the cohort of workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation. Material and Methods: Cataract incidence was studied in the cohort of workers of the first Russian nuclear enterprise — the Mayak, who were firstly employed at one of the main facilities (reactors, radiochemical and plutonium production plants in 1948‑1958 and followed up to the end of 2008 (12210 persons. Total of 3100 cataract cases were registered in the study cohort. All cataract cases were reviewed and verified by experts; the study included only confirmed senile cataracts. All workers of the study cohort were exposed to external gamma-rays; mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays was 0.91±0.01 Gy in males and 0.65±0.01 Gy in females. Statistical analysis provided non-standardized and standardized incidence rates per 100 000 workers. Standardization by sex and age was performed by indirect method using internal reference.Results: 2523 cases of senile cataract were included in the study. Mean age of cataract diagnosis was 62.88±0.26 years in males and 64.88±0.28 years in females. Standardized incidence rates of cataract in females were significantly higher as compared to males and increased with workers age. Comparison between the subcohorts of workers with / without diagnosed cataracts demonstrated that among workers with cataracts the proportions of the following groups of workers were significantly higher: workers employed before 1954; workers employed at reactors; smoking workers; workers with the smoking index exceeding 20 pack*years; workers who consumed alcohol; workers with excessive body weight; workers with glaucoma and arterial hypertension. Moreover the mean cumulative dose from external gamma-rays and / or neutron exposure was significantly higher in the subcohort of workers diagnosed with cataracts than that in the subcohort of workers free of the disease. The highest cataract incidence

  8. An evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay and the Fish Short-Term Reproduction Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine; Marino, Troy; Thomas, Johnson; Sosinski, Lindsay; Neal, Barbara; Hammond, Larry

    2013-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was evaluated in both the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) and the Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay (FSTRA). In the AMA, tadpoles were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.273, 3.24, 38.0 and 113 mg acid equivalents (ae)/L for either seven or 21 days. In the FSTRA, fathead minnows were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.245, 3.14, 34.0, and 96.5 mg ae/L for 21 days. The respective concentrations of 2,4-D were not overtly toxic to either Xenopus laevis tadpoles or fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the AMA, there were no signs of either advanced or delayed development, asynchronous development, or significant histopathological effects of the thyroid gland among 2,4-D exposed tadpoles evaluated on either day seven or day 21 of the exposure. Therefore, following the AMA decision logic, 2,4-D is considered "likely thyroid inactive" in the AMA with a No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) of 113 mg ae 2,4-D/L. In the FSTRA, there were no significant differences between control and 2,4-D exposed fish in regard to fertility, wet weight, length, gonado-somatic indices, tubercle scores, or blood plasma concentrations of vitellogenin. Furthermore, there were no treatment-related histopathologic changes in the testes or ovaries in any 2,4-D exposed group. The only significant effect was a decrease in fecundity among fish exposed to 96.5 mg ae 2,4-D/L. The cause of the reduced fecundity at the highest concentration of 2,4-D tested in the assay was most likely due to a generalized stress response in the fish, and not due to a specific endocrine mode of action of 2,4-D. Based on fish reproduction, the NOEC in the FSTRA was 34.0 mg ae 2,4-D/L.

  9. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  10. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Santos, Luís Silva; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2008-10-30

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44+/-0.08ppm (0.04-1.58ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47+/-0.76) when compared with controls (3.27+/-0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the exposed group (6.13+/-0.29) compared with control group (4.49+/-0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00+/-2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85+/-1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA

  11. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  12. Oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in biological tissue exposed to laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2011-09-01

    We have obtained quantitative data on the differential (with respect to depth) and the integrated oxyhemoglobin photodissociation efficiency in the dermis when the skin surface is exposed to a light beam in the wavelength range 300-650 nm. With this aim, we have used our own previously developed optical model for skin tissue and analytical procedure for calculating the characteristics of optical fields in a medium. We have estimated the number of oxygen molecules formed at different depths in the medium, and also their integrated number over the entire thickness of the dermis as a function of the irradiation wavelength. We consider models for a dermis that is homogeneous with respect to depth and a dermis that has a layered structure. We show that the spectral photodissociation efficiency has a number of maxima associated with the absorption spectrum of oxyhemoglobin and the optical properties of all the layers of skin tissue. We discuss the effect of the epidermis on these maxima.

  13. Exposing the dead cone effect with jet substructure techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-09-01

    The dead cone is a well-known effect in gauge theories, where radiation from a charged particle of mass m and energy E is suppressed within an angular size of m /E . This effect is universal as it does not depend on the spin of the particle nor on the nature of the gauge interaction. It is challenging to directly measure the dead cone at colliders, however, since the region of suppressed radiation either is too small to be resolved or is filled by the decay products of the massive particle. In this paper, we propose to use jet substructure techniques to expose the dead cone effect in the strong-force radiation pattern around boosted top quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. Our study shows that with 300 /fb of 13-14 TeV collision data, ATLAS and CMS could obtain the first direct evidence of the dead cone effect and test its basic features.

  14. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslandes, Alec, E-mail: acd@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Guenette, Mathew C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Corr, Cormac S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Karatchevtseva, Inna [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Thomsen, Lars [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10{sup 24} ions m{sup −2}. Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four.

  15. Optical noise suppression device and method. [laser light exposing film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device and method is disclosed for suppression of optical noise in an optical spatial filtering system using highly coherent light. In the disclosed embodiment, input photographic film to be processed in the system, and output photographic film to be exposed, are each mounted on lateral translation devices. During application of the coherent light for exposure of the output film, the two translation devices are moved in synchronism by a motor-driven gear and linkage assembly. The ratio of the resulting output film translation to the input film translation is equal to the magnification of the optical data processing system. The noise pattern associated with the lenses and other elements in the optical processing system remains stationary while the image-producing light moves laterally through the pattern with the output film, thus averaging out the noise effect at the output film.

  16. Supporting awareness in creative group work by exposing design rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.

  17. Thermoluminescent characteristic of MWCVD diamond films exposed to gamma dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Chernov, V.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The thermoluminescence measurements of microwave plasma assisted CVD diamond of 6 and 12 {mu}m thick films grown on (100) silicon substrates indicated the existence of a suitable thermoluminescence dosimetric peak around 310 C. The range of linearity of the 6 {mu}m diamond sample exposed to 0.67 Gy/min {sup 60} Co gamma radiation is observed up to 125 Gy being non -linear for higher doses. The 12 {mu} m displayed lower thermoluminescence efficiency as compared to the 6 {mu}m specimen. The discrepancy was attributed to the non uniform distribution- of nucleated diamond on the substrate as revealed by SEM micrograph of the samples. The thermoluminescence behaviour of the samples exhibited very low thermal fading and show a good reproducibity of the thermoluminescence signal. The kinetics parameters were calculated by Initial Rise and Chen methods. (Author)

  18. Experiences with Compiler Support for Processors with Exposed Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Schleuniger, Pascal; Hindborg, Andreas Erik;

    2015-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays, FPGAs, have become an attractive implementation technology for a broad range of computing systems. We recently proposed a processor architecture, Tinuso, which achieves high performance by moving complexity from hardware to the compiler tool chain. This means...... that the compiler tool chain must handle the increased complexity. However, it is not clear if current production compilers can successfully meet the strict constraints on instruction order and generate efficient object code. In this paper, we present our experiences developing a compiler backend using the GNU...... Compiler Collection, GCC. For a set of C benchmarks, we show that a Tinuso implementation with our GCC backend reaches a relative speedup of up to 1.73 over a similar Xilinx Micro Blaze configuration while using 30% fewer hardware resources. While our experiences are generally positive, we expose some...

  19. Fluorescence microscopy test in porphyrias, photodermatoses and lead exposed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, A

    1975-07-18

    Fluorescence microscopy tests were carried out in different groups of patients Peripheral blood diluted with saline was used and 200 high power fields were inspected in every case. The results were presented as the number of fluorescing erythrocytes (FE) per 100000 red blood cells (or 200 fields). In the controls, porphyria cutanea tarda patients and patients with photodermatoses other than erythopoietic protoporphyria and pellagra almost no FE were detected. In erythropoietic protoporphyria the mean value was 10600, in lead poisoning 1032, in patients exposed to lead 48.2, in sideropenic anaemia 123 and in patients with pellagra 8.1 FE/100000 red blood cells. The conclusion is made that one has to take care, when using this test for detection of latent carriers in genetic studies of the relatives of patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. The test is useful for the confirmation of the diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria.

  20. Magical Empiricism and 'Exposed Being' in Medicine and Traditional Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Southern African traditional healers often generalize too broadly from discrete ('accidental') instances of success, partly to recruit a clientele, while biomedicine frequently reasons incorrectly from the general to the specific. Both logics are based on empirical observations, but are inversions of each other; these I characterize as 'magical empiricism.' 'Magic' functions as a metapragmatic discourse to recruit a clientele from a skeptical public that doubts the efficacy of any therapeutic interventions, and it acts in parallel with other practical (and efficacious) healing acts. I introduce the concept of 'exposed beings' to describe locally specific constructions of the person as patient and healer. This helps to explain the existence and enduring appeal of many different medical practices and beliefs in South Africa, but I suggest that 'medical parallelism' rather than 'pluralism' might be more accurate.

  1. Immunological reactivity of experimental animals exposed to noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubik, V.M.; Negriyenko, K.V.

    1979-11-01

    Male white rats were exposed to 65 dBA noise for 5 hours, 5 days for a week. Some of the animals were then killed and indices of natural immunity were assayed; another series immunized by i. . application of typhoid monovaccine enriched with Vi-antigen and, after 7, 14, and 21 days, their blood was assayed for 0- and Vi-antigens of typhoid vaccine. The control animals underwent parallel study but were not subjected to the noise. Exposure to the noise level proved to be undesirable in that it led to some depression of blood bactericidity, of complement activity and of antigen production. The noise led to strengthened formation of anti-tissue, complement-fixing auto-antibodies. 7 references.

  2. Wear of connector contacts exposed to relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, R. A.

    Connectors play a significant role in the performance, cost, and reliability of electronic equipment. In connection with the development of the system interconnection design, a factor which is often overlooked is related to the importance of connector selection and mounting to minimize relative motion between contacts during vibration encountered in handling, transportation, and service. This motion can lead to the loss of protective coatings (gold and nickel) due to frictional wear. If this happens, fretting corrosion of the base metals may occur. The produced damage can adversely affect performance due to increased joint resistance, eventually causing intermittent contacts. The present investigation is concerned with the study of different style contacts (tuning fork, box, and circular) to determine their endurance and wear characteristics when exposed to relative motion created by vibration. All contacts investigated were fabricated from brass, beryllium copper, or phosphor bronze, and had .00127 mm minimum gold plating over .00127 mm minimum nickel plating.

  3. Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David

    2002-09-01

    Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.

  4. Brominated flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, brominated flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, brominated flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight brominated flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.

  5. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  6. Chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes exposed to energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and are therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/µm. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy range the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction products such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are energy dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  7. Neonatal Discontinuation Syndrome in Serotonergic Antidepressant-Exposed Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Amy; Ciolino, Jody D; Pinheiro, Emily; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether infants exposed in utero to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants or a DSM-IV-TR-defined mood disorder have significantly more neonatal discontinuation signs compared to an unexposed group of infants at 2-4 weeks after birth. This secondary analysis was derived from 2 observational studies with enrollment from July 2000 to December 2011 in Cleveland, Ohio, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Mothers (n = 214) belonged to one of 3 groups based on exposure status during pregnancy: (1) Comparison-women who did not take psychotropics during pregnancy and had no major mood disorder; (2) SRI-exposed-women with a mood disorder who were taking an SRI but no benzodiazepines; and (3) Mood Disorder-women with depression or bipolar disorder who did not take psychotropic medications. The infants were examined for signs according to the Finnegan Scale by evaluators blind to maternal exposure status. The rates of sign presence (defined as a score ≥ 2 on the Finnegan Scale) in the SRI, Mood Disorder, and Comparison groups were similar at 34.1%, 35.1%, and 30.4%, respectively. Women in the SRI group had a significantly higher preterm birth rate (24.4%) compared to the other 2 groups (7.4% and 8.9% in the Mood Disorder and Comparison groups, respectively; P = .012). Preterm newborns had a significantly higher sign rate compared to full-term newborns (54% vs 31%, P = .020). We observed a significant relationship between Finnegan signs and preterm birth. The presence of neonatal signs at 2-4 weeks was more closely associated with prematurity than with in utero SRI or mood disorder exposure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00279370 and NCT00585702.

  8. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  9. Chromosome Aberration in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to a space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/micrometer. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction produces such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are LET dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ovine lymphocytes exposed in vitro to tolylfluanid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiaková, Irena; Kovalkovičová, Natália; Sutiak, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations have been used as important cytogenetic biomarkers to study the mutagenic effects of different chemicals in vivo and in vitro. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in cultures of sheep lymphocytes in vitro exposed to the fungicide tolylfluanid. Lymphocyte cultures from three donors were exposed to four different concentrations of fungicide (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L; 1.10(-6) M(.)L; 1 × 10(-7) M(.)L). Chromosomal analysis showed a significant (P = 0.018 and 0.038 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) increase in the frequency of aberrant cells (ABC) in cultures treated with the highest negative experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L) compared to control. Significantly increased numbers of chromatid breaks (7.67 ± 0.58% against 1.67 ± 2.08%, P = 0.009, Anova test, P Tukey test) and chromatid gaps (7.67 ± 1.15% against 2.67 ± 0.58%, P = 0.003, Anova test, P Tukey test) were observed in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentration of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L). Tolylfluanid induced also chromosomal exchanges (P = 0.038, and 0.016 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L). The mitotic index has not shown any statistical differences between the various treatments and control groups. Our results suggest a significant genotoxic effect of tolylfluanid only at the highest concentration in sheep peripheral lymphocytes in vitro.

  11. Toxicokinetics of captan and folpet biomarkers in dermally exposed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Bouchard, Michèle; Vernez, David

    2012-03-01

    To better assess biomonitoring data in workers exposed to captan and folpet, the kinetics of ring metabolites [tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), phthalimide (PI) and phthalic acid] were determined in urine and plasma of dermally exposed volunteers. A 10  mg kg(-1) dose of each fungicide was applied on 80  cm(2) of the forearm and left without occlusion or washing for 24  h. Blood samples were withdrawn at fixed time periods over the 72  h following application and complete urine voids were collected over 96  h post-dosing, for metabolite analysis. In the hours following treatment, a progressive increase in plasma levels of THPI and PI was observed, with peak levels being reached at 24  h for THPI and 10  h for PI. The ensuing elimination phase appeared monophasic with a mean elimination half-life (t(½) ) of 24.7 and 29.7 h for THPI and PI, respectively. In urine, time courses PI and phthalic acid excretion rate rapidly evolved in parallel, and a mean elimination t(½) of 28.8 and 29.6  h, respectively, was calculated from these curves. THPI was eliminated slightly faster, with a mean t(½) of 18.7  h. Over the 96  h period post-application, metabolites were almost completely excreted, and on average 0.02% of captan dose was recovered in urine as THPI while 1.8% of the folpet dose was excreted as phthalic acid and 0.002% as PI, suggesting a low dermal absorption fraction for both fungicides. This study showed the potential use of THPI, PI and phthalic acid as key biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet.

  12. Dry heat exposures of surface exposed and embedded Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne

    Dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) is the primary technique used to reduce the microbial load of spacecraft and component parts. Often, manufacturing procedures require heating flight hardware to high temperatures for purposes other than planetary protection DHMR. The existing specifications, however, do not allow for additional planetary protection bioburden reduction credit if the hardware is exposed without controlled relative humidity. The intent of this study was to provide adequate data on the DHMR technique to support modification of four aspects of current requirements; expansion of acceptable time and temperature combinations used for spacecraft dry heat microbial reduction processes above 125° C, determining the effect that humidity has on spore lethality as a function of temperature, understanding the lethality for spores with exceptionally high thermal resistance and to investigate the extended exposure requirement for materials that might contain embedded microorganisms. Spores from two bacterial species were tested, B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372 and B. sp. ATCC 29669, under three conditions encompassing 5 temperature points. Embedded experiments utilized a silicone rubber polymer that is commonly used on robotic spacecraft, and surface exposed experiments were performed under both ambient and vacuum-controlled humidity conditions. The results obtained support the use of DHMR protocols that extend the maximum temperature range from 125° C to 170° C, with either controlled or ambient humidity. If implemented, this will give projects bioburden reduction credit for shorter treatments at extended temperatures, and allow spacecraft to be processed in more readily available and less expensive facilities that do not have humidity control, with significant cost and schedule benefits. The study also demonstrated that the required heating time for materials presumed to have embedded bioburden is conservative.

  13. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, L E; Gamborg, M O; Järventaus, H; Norppa, H

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116 greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding was especially due to an increased number of cells with chromatid gaps between the first and second samples (P=0.001). The results may reflect an additive genotoxic effect of the spraying season, for which the use of insecticides and growth regulators (but not fungicides) culminates. The highest elevation in the risk of chromatid gaps was observed for persons who did not use gloves during re-entry activities such as nipping, cutting, pricking, and potting (risk ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.63-5.11). The present results suggest a genotoxic effect from a complex subtoxic occupational pesticide exposure. In general, the findings indicate the importance of personal protection, during high-exposure re-entry activities, in preventing pesticide uptake and genetic damage.

  14. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  15. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  16. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or exposed swine, other than swine described in § 85.4 (a) or (b), shall only be moved interstate...

  17. 76 FR 67761 - Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... of Justice Programs Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed... Exposed to Violence (the Task Force) is established in accordance with the provisions of the Federal... mitigating the negative effects experienced by children who are exposed to violence. The Task Force...

  18. Cellular origin and procoagulant activity of tissue factor-exposing microparticles in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Berckmans, R.J.; Böing, A.N.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H.R.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Nieuwland, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In patients with cancer, tissue factor-exposing microparticles (TF-exposing MP) have been associated with disease progression and thrombosis. The cellular origin and coagulant activity of TF-exposing MP, however, remain disputed. Therefore, we investigated the cellular origin of the TF-e

  19. 77 FR 12881 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of the third hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence... Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of...

  20. 77 FR 22000 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of the fourth hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of...

  1. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. The reasonably maximally exposed individual is...

  2. 76 FR 67761 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... Children Exposed to Violence (hereafter refered to as the Task Force). The Task Force is chartered to... and National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence Designated Federal Officer, Office of...

  3. 77 FR 39264 - Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of a meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the..., with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of addressing...

  4. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  5. BIOMEX on EXPOSE-R2: First results on the preservation of Raman biosignatures after space exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqué, Mickael; Böttger, Ute; Leya, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul

    2017-04-01

    After a 15-month exposure on-board the EXPOSE-R2 space platform, situated on the outside of the International Space Station, four astrobiology experiments successfully came back to Earth in March and June 2016. Among them, the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) experiment aims at investigating the endurance of extremophiles and stability of biomolecules under space and Mars-like conditions in the presence of Martian mineral analogues (de Vera et al., 2012). The preservation and evolution of Raman biosignatures under such conditions is of particular interest for guiding future search-for-life missions to Mars (and other planetary objects) carrying Raman spectrometers (such as the Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument on board the future ExoMars rover). The photoprotective carotenoid pigments (present either in photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, cyanobacteria and in some bacteria and archaea) have been classified as high priority targets for biomolecule detection on Mars and therefore used as biosignature models due to their stability and easy identification by Raman spectroscopy (Böttger et al., 2012). We report here on the first results from the analysis of two carotenoids containing organisms: the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (strain CCCryo 231-06; = UTEX EE21 and CCMEE 391) isolated from Antarctica and the green alga cf. Sphaerocystis sp. (strain CCCryo 101-99) isolated from Spitsbergen. Desiccated cells of these organisms were exposed to space and simulated Mars-like conditions in space in the presence of two Martian mineral analogues (phyllosilicatic and sulfatic Mars regolith simulants) and a Lunar regolith analogue and analyzed with a 532nm Raman microscope at 1mW laser power. Carotenoids in both organisms were surprisingly still detectable at relatively high levels after being exposed for 15 months in Low Earth Orbit to UV, cosmic rays, vacuum (or Mars-like atmosphere) and temperatures stresses regardless of the mineral matrix used. Further

  6. Comparative analysis of performance in reading and writing of children exposed and not exposed to high sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Feitosa dos; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de; Seligman, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationships between high sound pressure levels in the classroom and performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes in reading and writing. This consisted on a quantitative and exploratory study. The following measures were carried out: acoustic measurement, using the dosimeter, visual inspection of the external auditory canal, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition tests and acoustic immittance; instrument for evaluation of reading and writing of isolated words. The non-parametric χ² test and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. The results of acoustic measurements in 4 schools in Santa Maria divided the sample of 87 children of third and fourth years of primary school, aged 8 to 10 years, in 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to sound levels higher than 80 dB(A) (Study group) and the 2nd group at levels lower than 80 dB(A) (Control group). Higher prevalence of correct answers in reading and writing of nonwords, reading irregular words and frequency effect were observed. Predominance of correct answers in the writing of irregular words was observed in the Control group. For the Study group, a higher number of type errors neologism in reading and writing were observed, especially regarding the writing of nonwords and the extension effect; fewer errors of lexicalization type and verbal paragraphy in writing were observed. In assessing the reading and writing skills, children in the Study group exposed to high noise levels had poorer performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes, both in reading and in writing.

  7. Coagulant activity and cellular origin of circulating tissue factor exposing microparticles in cancer patients - two forms of TF-exposing microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Boing, A. N.; Di Nisio, M.; Twint, D.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Nanayakkara, P.; Buller, H. R.; Nieuwland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because plasma of cancer patients presenting with venous thrombosis contains high numbers of tissue factor (TF)-exposing microparticles (TF-MP1), TF-MP have been causally linked to the occurrence of venous thrombosis in cancer patients. The relationship between numbers of TF-exposing MP

  8. Enantiospecific sublethal effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine to a model aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob K; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2007-08-01

    Many contaminants are chiral compounds with enantiomers that may differ markedly in environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity. Enantiospecific environmental fate and ecotoxicological information are lacking for many chiral contaminants. The primary objective of this investigation included an assessment of potential enantiospecific differences in sublethal standardized and behavioral responses of the model organisms Pimephales promelas (teleost) and Daphnia magna (crustacean) to the widely prescribed chiral antidepressant fluoxetine. Endpoints assessed included D. magna immobilization, reproduction, and grazing rate and P. promelas survival, growth, and feeding rate. S-Fluoxetine was found to be more toxic to sublethal standardized and behavioral endpoints in P. promelas, potentially because its primary active metabolite, S-norfluoxetine, is more potent than the same metabolite of R-fluoxetine in mammals. This was not observed for D. magna responses. This differential enantiospecific response between model organisms may have resulted from closer target homology between mammals and fish than between mammals and crustaceans. P. promelas feeding rate, an ecologically relevant and mode-of-action related response, was the most sensitive endpoint tested for R- and S-fluoxetine with 10% effect concentration (EC10) values (+/-SE) of 16.1 (+/-20.2) and 3.7 (+/-4.6) microg l(-1), respectively. Up to a 9.4-fold difference in toxicity between enantiomers was observed; P. promelas growth EC10s (+/-SE) for R- and S-fluoxetine were 132.9 (+/-21.2) and 14.1 (+/-8.1) microg l(-1), respectively. Such differences in sublethal responses to fluoxetine enantiomers suggest that enantiospecific toxicity and mode-of-action related responses that are ecologically relevant (e.g., feeding rate) should be considered in future ecological hazard and risk assessments for chiral contaminants.

  9. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  10. Durability of Selected Membrane Materials when Exposed to Chlorine Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Marianne Soerflaten

    2001-03-01

    This thesis is focusing on the durability of selected membrane materials when exposed to chlorine gas in the temperature range 30-100{sup o}C. Studies of the changes of membrane separation properties and the mechanisms promoting these changes have been studied. The selected membrane materials were poly(dimethylsioxane) (PDMS), Fluorel, fluorosilicone, and blends of PDMS and Fluorel. The thesis is organised in seven chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the background of the work. The second chapter presents the theory for gas separation using dense rubbery membranes. The properties of the selected membrane materials are presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter describes degradation mechanisms for polymeric materials in general and for the selected membrane materials in particular. Presentation of the experimental work is given in chapter five, while the results with discussions are presented in chapter six. The conclusions and recommendations for further studies are given in chapter seven. Five appendixes are attached: Appendix A describes the calculations of permeability and solubility coefficients and the accuracy of the experimental measurements. Appendix B summarises the measured values in tables and Appendix C describes the analytical methods. Appendix D gives the properties of the gases used in the experiments. Appendix E is the article ''Durability of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) when Exposed to Chlorine Gas'', submitted to the Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Highly crosslinked PDMS was found to have an initial high permeability for chlorine gas and a high Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity. However when exposed to chlorine gas the permeability decreased significantly. Crosslinking of the PDMS polymer chain and chlorination of the polymer gave a denser polymer structure and thus lower permeability. Fluorel showed very low permeabilities and selectivities for the gases in question and was thus not interesting for this

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from various plant sources. Our previous studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. Here, we extended our understanding of propolis-mediated cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by applying systems biology tools to analyze the transcriptional profiling of cells exposed to propolis. Methods We have used transcriptional profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to propolis. We validated our findings by using real-time PCR of selected genes. Systems biology tools (physical protein-protein interaction [PPPI] network) were applied to analyse the propolis-induced transcriptional bevavior, aiming to identify which pathways are modulated by propolis in S. cerevisiae and potentially influencing cell death. Results We were able to observe 1,339 genes modulated in at least one time point when compared to the reference time (propolis untreated samples) (t-test, p-value 0.01). Enrichment analysis performed by Gene Ontology (GO) Term finder tool showed enrichment for several biological categories among the genes up-regulated in the microarray hybridization such as transport and transmembrane transport and response to stress. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed by our microarray hybridization approach was capable of providing information about S. cerevisiae gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Finally, a physical protein-protein (PPPI) network design and global topological analysis stressed the importance of these pathways in response of S. cerevisiae to propolis and were correlated with the transcriptional data obtained thorough the microarray analysis. Conclusions In summary, our data indicate that propolis is largely affecting several pathways in the eukaryotic cell. However, the most

  12. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures

  13. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  14. OPC Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The study presented in this report focused on a low-activity wasteform containing a high pH pore solution with a significant level of sulfate. The purpose of the study was to improve understanding of the complex concrete/wasteform reactive transport problem, in particular the role of pH in sulfate attack. Paste samples prepared at three different water-to-cement ratios were tested. The mixtures were prepared with ASTM Type I cement, without additional admixtures. The samples were exposed to two different sodium sulfate contact solutions. The first solution was prepared at 0.15M Na2SO4. The second solution also incorporated 0.5M NaOH, to mimic the high pH conditions found in Saltstone. The data collected indicated that in Na2SO4 solution, damage occurs to the pastes. In the case of the high pH sulfate solution (Na2SO4 + NaOH), no signs of damage was observed on any of the paste mixtures. These results indicate that the high sulfate content found in the wasteform pore solution will not necessarily lead to severe damage to concrete. Good-quality mixtures could thus prove durable over the long term, and act as an effective barrier to prevent radionuclides from reaching the environment.

  15. Identifying redundancy and exposing provenance in crowdsourced data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Ginosar, Shiry; Steinitz, Avital; Hartmann, Björn; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a system that lets analysts use paid crowd workers to explore data sets and helps analysts interactively examine and build upon workers' insights. We take advantage of the fact that, for many types of data, independent crowd workers can readily perform basic analysis tasks like examining views and generating explanations for trends and patterns. However, workers operating in parallel can often generate redundant explanations. Moreover, because workers have different competencies and domain knowledge, some responses are likely to be more plausible than others. To efficiently utilize the crowd's work, analysts must be able to quickly identify and consolidate redundant responses and determine which explanations are the most plausible. In this paper, we demonstrate several crowd-assisted techniques to help analysts make better use of crowdsourced explanations: (1) We explore crowd-assisted strategies that utilize multiple workers to detect redundant explanations. We introduce color clustering with representative selection--a strategy in which multiple workers cluster explanations and we automatically select the most-representative result--and show that it generates clusterings that are as good as those produced by experts. (2) We capture explanation provenance by introducing highlighting tasks and capturing workers' browsing behavior via an embedded web browser, and refine that provenance information via source-review tasks. We expose this information in an explanation-management interface that allows analysts to interactively filter and sort responses, select the most plausible explanations, and decide which to explore further.

  16. Coating concrete secondary containment structures exposed to agrichemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    Concrete has traditionally been the material of choice for building secondary containment structures because it is relatively inexpensive and has structural properties which make it ideal for supporting the loads of vehicles and large tanks. However, concrete`s chemical properties make it susceptible to corrosion by some common fertilizers. Though fairly impervious to water movement, concrete is easily penetrated by vapors and solvents. It is also prone to cracking. For these reasons, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) believes that concrete alone may not provide an effective barrier to pesticide movement and has proposed that concrete in pesticide secondary containment structures be sealed or coated to reduce its permeability. Some state secondary containment regulations require that concrete exposed to fertilizers and pesticides be sealed or protected with a coating. Lacking guidelines, some retailers have used penetrating sealants to satisfy the law, even though these products provide little protection from chemical attack nor do they prevent pesticide egress. Other retailers who have applied thick film coatings which were properly selected have had disastrous results because the application was poorly done. Consequently, much skepticism exists regarding the performance and benefit of protective coatings.

  17. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  18. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  19. Antioxidant status in MgO nanoparticle-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmai, G; Reddy, A Rama Narsimha

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, antioxidant status was evaluated in rat serum following exposure to magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. The lungs of rats were intratracheally instilled with (single dose) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + 1% of Tween 80 (solvent control) or MgO or carbonyl iron (negative control) or quartz particles (positive control) at a dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg of body weight. The blood samples were collected at 1, 7, and 30 days of postinstillation of nanoparticles after their exposure, and different parameters were estimated to assess the oxidative stress induced by the instillation of MgO. Exposure of rats to MgO produced a significant (p MgO nanoparticle-exposed rats indicates the reduction in antioxidant defense mechanisms due to the instillation of MgO. These results indicate that exposure to MgO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress by reducing the total antioxidant capacity in rats. The findings suggest possible occupational health hazard in chronic exposures.

  20. Phenolic metabolism of Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

    2009-09-01

    We examined accumulation of phenolic acids, total soluble phenolics and flavonoids, and activities of phenolic metabolism-related enzymes (shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO)) in Matricaria chamomilla plants exposed to 3, 60 and 120 microM of nickel (Ni) for 10 days. Ni showed low toxicity as indicated by unaltered content of total soluble phenolics in the leaf rosettes. In the roots, the effects of Ni were more visible, including increased total phenolics and PAL activity, but a decrease in PPO activity was observed. CAD activity was not affected by any of the Ni concentrations. Cinnamic acid derivatives were affected more than benzoic acid derivatives. Accumulation of chlorogenic acid, an important antioxidant compound, was enhanced by Ni treatment (ca. 4-fold in 120 microM Ni). Accumulation of protocatechuic acid, a phenol with high chelating strength, even decreased in the leaf rosettes. These observations are discussed in connection to antioxidative properties of phenolic metabolites and previously tested metals (cadmium and copper).

  1. Behaviour of time-dependent materials exposed to periodical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupancic B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents methodology for analyzing behaviour of time-dependent (viscoelastic materials when exposed to periodical (cyclic loading. Within each loading cycle time-dependent material undergoes a combination of the creep and retardation process. At certain conditions the retardation process between two loading cycles cannot be fully completed to a strain free state. Consequently, strain starts to accumulate, which leads to hardening of the material and ultimately to the failure of polymeric product. Critical frequency of the applied periodical loading depends on the material retardation time (location of mechanical spectrum, while the magnitude of accumulated strain on the strength of corresponding discrete spectrum lines. The shape of mechanical spectrum defines the intensity and the magnitude of accumulated strain. Thus, the mechanical spectrum of time-dependent material is the most important function for predicting durability of dynamically loaded polymeric products. In continuation we present mathematical methodology for predicting durability of periodically loaded polymeric components of drive belt. Methodology includes numerical calculations of accumulated strain as a function of the number of loading cycles and function of loading angular velocity. Based on these calculations we can determine the critical angular velocity area of periodical loading where the strain accumulation is the most intensive.

  2. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  3. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  4. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.Y., E-mail: donaxu@163.com [Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, Institute of Materials, CAEP, Chengdu 610200 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, W., E-mail: liuw@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yuan, Y. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Y.Z.; Fu, B.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon CS 90046-13067, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1–2 × 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2}/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2–7 × 10{sup 26} D/m{sup 2}) and surface temperature (423–873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to temperatures of 873 K. The blister parameters are evaluated with blister size, blister density and surface coverage. The blister size always peaked at less than 0.5 μm and no blister larger than 10 μm is observed even at high fluence. The blister densities are found in high magnitude of 10{sup 6} blisters/m{sup 2}, with the surface coverages lower than 2%. The formation of cracks in the sub-surface region was observed by cross-section imaging. Changes in blister size and shape with fluence and temperature suggest processes of predominantly nucleation and subsequent growth of blisters. The smaller blister size is considered to be caused by a combination of flux-related effects such as enhanced defect formation in the near surface region, reduced deuterium diffusivity and relatively short exposure times.

  5. OPC Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The study presented in this report focused on a low-activity wasteform containing a high-pH pore solution with a significant level of sulfate. The purpose of the study was to improve understanding of the complex concrete/wasteform reactive transport problem, in particular, the role of pH in sulfate attack. Paste samples prepared at three different water-to-cement ratios were tested. The mixtures were prepared with ASTM Type I cement, without additional admixtures. The samples were exposed to two different sodium sulfate contact solutions. The first solution was prepared at 0.15M Na2SO4. The second solution also incorporated 0.5M NaOH, to mimic the high pH conditions found in Saltstone. The data collected indicated that, in Na2SO4 solution, damage occurs to the pastes. In the case of the high-pH sulfate solution (Na2SO4 + NaOH), no signs of damage were observed on any of the paste mixtures. These results indicate that the high sulfate content found in the wasteform pore solution will not necessarily lead to severe damage to concrete. Good-quality mixtures could thus prove durable over the long term, and act as an effective barrier to prevent radionuclides from reaching the environment.

  6. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  7. Radiation damage in silicon photomultipliers exposed to neutron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musienko, Yu.; Heering, A.; Ruchti, R.; Wayne, M.; Andreev, Yu.; Karneyeu, A.; Postoev, V.

    2017-07-01

    We studied performances of two SiPMs before and after irradiation at the Lubljana reactor. These high density (15 μ m cell pitch size) SiPMs were developed by Hamamatsu (in cooperation with the CMS SiPM group) for the CMS HCAL Upgrade Phase I project. The S10943-4732 is a photosensor selected for the CMS HE HCAL where the SiPMs will be exposed to 2× 1011 n/cm2 (1 MeV equivalent) for the operation time of the SLHC (integrated luminosity—5000 fb-1). The HD-1015CN SiPM was developed using new Hamamatsu trench technology to reduce optical cross-talk (X-talk) between SiPM cells. Both SiPMs are considered as candidates for the CMS HCAL barrel upgrade. The SiPMs were irradiated with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 2× 1012 n/cm2 (that corresponds to the maximum integrated neutron fluence in the HCAL barrel for the duration of the SLHC operation).

  8. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  9. Ion adsorption on titanium surfaces exposed to a physiological solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauchiger, L.; Taborelli, M.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Descouts, P.

    1999-04-01

    Changes in surface properties of titanium platelets exposed to a physiological solution (Hanks' solution) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy for surface chemical composition analysis and by Scanning Force Microscopy for surface topography measurements. An adsorbed layer of calcium-phosphate was spontaneously formed on the titanium oxide surface and its thickness as well as the Ca/P ratio was found to increase with immersion time. After 71 days of immersion, the Ca/P ratio corresponded to that of brushite or monetite and after 6 months it was close to the value of hydroxyapatite. A higher Ca/P ratio was found for adsorption from solutions where the pH had been increased. After adsorption, the grains of the evaporated titanium substrate appeared slightly smoother because they were covered by a thin layer of calcium phosphate. A comparison between immersion in a Hanks' solution and solutions containing only phosphates or only calcium ions, showed that the presence of phosphates is necessary for the adsorption of Ca-ions.

  10. Men in nursing on television: exposing and reinforcing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Ferguson, Caleb; Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna

    2014-04-01

    To describe the results of a study of images of men in nursing on television. Previous research has highlighted stereotypical images around nursing, such as the battle-axe, naughty nurse and handmaiden. More recent research focuses on images of nurses who are men, because of the growing numbers of men in the nursing workforce. Given that negative images can harm recruitment and retention in the profession, it is important to interrogate how men in nursing are portrayed in popular culture. Representations on television are particularly critical to explore because of the medium's wide audience. Qualitative study. Five American medical television programmes appearing between 2007 and 2010 were analysed for their construction of men in nursing: Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie and Private Practice. Men in nursing on television were portrayed in ways that engaged with explicit and implicit stereotypes. The men were often subject to questions about their choice of career, masculinity and sexuality and their role usually reduced to that of prop, minority spokesperson or source of comedy. Thus, rather contradictorily, although the programmes often sought to expose common stereotypes about men in nursing, they nonetheless often reinforced stereotypes in more implicit ways. This research has implications for better understanding not only the status of nursing in our society but also for nursing practice and education and attracting more men to the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evolution of patinas on copper exposed in a suburban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masamitsu [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan)]. E-mail: mwatanabe@east.ntt.co.jp; Toyoda, Etsuko [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Handa, Takao [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Ichino, Toshihiro [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Kuwaki, Nobuo [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Higashi, Yasuhiro [NTT Service Integration Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3-9-11 Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180 8585 (Japan); Tanaka, Tohru [NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243 0198 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Copper plates were exposed under sheltered outdoor conditions for up to one year, starting in September 2001 in Musashino City, Tokyo, a suburban area. Following various periods of exposure, the patinas on the plates were characterized to investigate their evolution by using X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The difference in the roles of sulfur and chlorine in the early stages of copper patination were identified by analyzing the depth profiles of these two elements. Sulfur was found on top of the patina as cupric sulfates such as posnjakite (Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6} . H{sub 2}O) or brochantite (Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}). Brochantite appeared only after 12 months of exposure. In contrast, chlorine was found on the surface after only one month of exposure. It gradually penetrated the patina as the exposure period lengthened, forming copper chloride complexes. Chloride ions accumulated at the patina/copper interface, forming nantokite (CuCl), which promoted corrosion.

  12. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  13. The effect of kinetin on wheat seedlings exposed to boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ahmet; Aydemir, Tülin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine relationship between boron (B) induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in boron sensitive and tolerant wheat cultivars Bezostaya and Kutluk, and also to investigate whether Kinetin (KN) enhances the level of antioxidant system, relative growth, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline and chlorophyll content in both cultivars exposed to B stress. B treatments diminished growth and chlorophyll content whereas, it enhanced accumulation of H2O2, MDA and proline, and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in the shoot and root of both cultivars. However, the follow-up application of KN to the B stressed plants improved growth and chlorophyll content and further enhanced the mentioned antioxidant enzymes and level of H2O2, MDA and proline. This study thus suggests that KN improves B tolerance of the studied cultivars grown under B toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  15. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Yue; Shi, Futian; Jia, Yaoqi; Liang, Zhenkai

    2017-02-25

    Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users' browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  16. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Mao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users’ browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  17. Exposing variation to aid climate change risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Purves, D. W.; Joppa, L. N.; Emmott, S.; Lyutsarev, V.; Bishop, C. M.; Palmer, P. I.; Calderhead, B.; Vanderwel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Considerable efforts to quantify different sources of variation in climate change projections (some might say uncertainty) have led to a welcome set of additional information on which to base confidence about what and how different futures might unfold and how different types of mediating efforts might affect the future. Quantifying the impacts of these different sources of variation on key climate change projection metrics should be used in part to guide future model development efforts. I will report on several of my team's recent research projects to better quantify and assess the importance of different sources of variation. I will show how we use inference techniques to estimate parameter uncertainty in land and marine carbon components of earth system models by comparing them with observational evidence and show how we propagate such uncertainty to better assess how such systems might respond to climate change and quantify the impact of reducing uncertainty for different applications. I will also show how we use such techniques on simulation models themselves to identify key sources of variation in their predictions: helping to pinpoint important focal areas for model improvement. Lastly, I will show a new software prototype being designed to enable any user to view climate model projections alongside historical and recent observational evidence while, importantly, also exposing some of the variation / uncertainty in the reported information.

  18. Biochemical response of the Africanized honeybee exposed to fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa C; Carvalho, Stephan M; Palma, Mário S; Malaspina, Osmar

    2017-06-01

    Bees are recognized worldwide for their social, economic, and environmental value. In recent decades they have been seriously threatened by diseases and high levels of pesticide use. The susceptibility of bees to insecticides makes them an important terrestrial model for assessing environmental quality, and various biomarkers have been developed for such assessments. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in Africanized honeybees exposed to fipronil. The results showed that fipronil at a sublethal dose (0.01 ng/bee) modulates the activity of CaE in all isoforms analyzed (CaE-1, CaE-2, and CaE-3) in both newly emerged and aged bees, and does not affect the activity of AChE or GST. The recovery of the bees after fipronil exposure was also investigated, and these results demonstrated that even the cessation of fipronil ingestion might not lead to complete recovery of individual bees. Even at low doses, fipronil was shown to cause changes in the activity of key enzymes in bees. The possible consequences of these changes are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1652-1660. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Blistering on tungsten surface exposed to high flux deuterium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H. Y.; Liu, W.; Luo, G. N.; Yuan, Y.; Jia, Y. Z.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2016-04-01

    The blistering behaviour of tungsten surfaces exposed to very high fluxes (1-2 × 1024/m2/s) of low energy (38 eV) deuterium plasmas was investigated as a function of ion fluence (0.2-7 × 1026 D/m2) and surface temperature (423-873 K). Blisters were observed under all conditions, especially up to temperatures of 873 K. The blister parameters are evaluated with blister size, blister density and surface coverage. The blister size always peaked at less than 0.5 μm and no blister larger than 10 μm is observed even at high fluence. The blister densities are found in high magnitude of 106 blisters/m2, with the surface coverages lower than 2%. The formation of cracks in the sub-surface region was observed by cross-section imaging. Changes in blister size and shape with fluence and temperature suggest processes of predominantly nucleation and subsequent growth of blisters. The smaller blister size is considered to be caused by a combination of flux-related effects such as enhanced defect formation in the near surface region, reduced deuterium diffusivity and relatively short exposure times.

  20. Moisture diffusivity of HPFRC exposed to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, Jan; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Concrete structures suffer from a high-temperature exposure, among others from the damage induced by spalling. The cracks propagation is connected with the degree of material water saturation and rate of damage during the release of free and bound water from cement hydrates as a result of material high-temperature heating. In case of High Performance Concrete (HPC), its dense structure increases concrete damage due to the formation of higher water vapor pressures compared to normal strength concrete. On this account, detail information on the influence of a high-temperature load on the permeability of a High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) represents worth information for proper building and structural design. In this study, 1-D liquid water transport in HPFRC samples exposed to the laboratory temperature and temperatures of 800 °C and 1000 °C is studied. Experimentally measured moisture profiles are used for the calculation of moisture dependent moisture diffusivity using inverse analysis method based on Boltzmann-Matano treatment. The K-spline software tool, developed at the Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, FCE, CTU in Prague is used to get high accuracy of the computational inverse procedure.

  1. Exposing the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt-aggregate mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Uzan, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    In this study asphalt-aggregate mixes are treated as both viscoelastic and viscoplastic. Following a damage mechanics approach, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation is generated from a linear formulation by replacing `applied stresses' with `effective viscoelastic stresses'. A non-dimensional scalar entity called `relative viscoelastic stiffness' is introduced; it is defined as the ratio of applied to effective viscoelastic stress and encapsulates different types of nonlinearities. The paper proposes a computational scheme for exposing these nonlinearities by uncovering, through direct analysis of any test data, changes experienced by the `relative viscoelastic stiffness'. In general terms, the method is based on simultaneous application of creep and relaxation formulations while preserving the interrelationship between the corresponding time functions. The proposed scheme is demonstrated by analyzing a uniaxial tension test and a uniaxial compression test (separately). Results are presented and discussed, unveiling and contrasting the character of viscoelastic nonlinearities in both cases. A conceptual viewpoint is offered to explain the observations, illustrating the requirements from any candidate constitutive theory.

  2. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  3. Structural analysis of guyed mast exposed to wind action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Milada L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the mast is non-linear due to its slenderness and compliant guy-support system, having a tendency to lose stability and even crush suddenly. Wind load is one of the main factors affecting the stability of the structure of the mast. Structural assessment of the different mast configurations has been investigated in the past. Furthermore, European standards EN 1993-3-1:2006 and EN 1993-1-6:2007 already provides some guidelines about the basis of structural analysis of masts and towers. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of a guyed mast exposed to wind action using finite element method. Structural analyses were performed for three different constant wind loads, modal analysis provides the values of natural frequency and mode shapes, while the stability analysis was performed for the first three buckling load factor values. The motivation for this study is to investigate the contribution of finite element method to structural analysis of a lattice structure such as guyed mast as an alternative and/or improvement to the literature and codes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036

  4. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  5. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  6. Loss of gas from echogenic liposomes exposed to pulsed ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jason L.; Luan, Ying; Peng, Tao; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-12-01

    The destruction of echogenic liposomes (ELIP) in response to pulsed ultrasound excitations has been studied acoustically previously. However, the mechanism underlying the loss of echogenicity due to cavitation nucleated by ELIP has not been fully clarified. In this study, an ultra-high speed imaging approach was employed to observe the destruction phenomena of single ELIP exposed to ultrasound bursts at a center frequency of 6 MHz. We observed a rapid size reduction during the ultrasound excitation in 139 out of 397 (35%) ultra- high-speed recordings. The shell dilation rate, which is defined as the microbubble wall velocity divided by the instantaneous radius, \\dot{{R}}  /R, was extracted from the radius versus time response of each ELIP, and was found to be correlated with the deflation. Fragmentation and surface mode vibrations were also observed and are shown to depend on the applied acoustic pressure and initial radius. Results from this study can be utilized to optimize the theranostic application of ELIP, e.g. by tuning the size distribution or the excitation frequency.

  7. Mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to simulated space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, N.; Natsume, T.; Takahashi, K.; Hieda, K.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.

    Bacterial spores can endure in a variety of extreme earthly environments. However, some conditions encountered during the space flight could be detrimental to DNA in the spore, delimiting the possibility of transpermia. We investigate the genetic consequences of the exposure to space environments in a series of preflight simulation project of EXPOSE. Using Bacillus subtilis spores of repair-proficient HA101 and repair-deficient TKJ6312 strains, the mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin were detected, isolated and sequenced. Most of the mutations were located in a N-terminal region of the rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase beta-subunit. Among several potentially mutagenic factors, high vacuum, UV radiation, heat, and accelerated heavy ions induced mutations with varying efficiencies. A majority of mutations induced by vacuum exposure carried a tandem double-base change (CA to TT) at a unique sequence context of TCAGC. Results indicate that the vacuum and high temperature may act synergistically for the induction of mutations.

  8. Model for a dune field with exposed water table

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Marco Cesar M de M; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    Aeolian transport in coastal areas can be significantly affected by the presence of an exposed water table. In some dune fields, such as in Len\\c{c}\\'ois Maranhenses, northeastern Brazil, the water table oscillates in response to seasonal changes of rainfall and rates of evapotranspiration, rising above the ground during the wet season and sinking below in the dry period. A quantitative understanding of dune mobility in an environment with varying groundwater level is essential for coastal management as well as for the study of long-term evolution of many dune fields. Here we apply a model for aeolian dunes to study the genesis of coastal dune fields in presence of an oscillating water table. We find that the morphology of the field depends on the time cycle, $T_{\\mathrm{w}}$, of the water table and the maximum height, $H_{\\mathrm{w}}$, of its oscillation. Our calculations show that long chains of barchanoids alternating with interdune ponds such as found at Len\\c{c}\\'ois Maranhenses arise when $T_{\\mathrm{w}...

  9. Salivary biomarkers of neural hypervigilance in trauma-exposed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungyeon A; Weierich, Mariann R

    2016-01-01

    More than half of all adults will be exposed to a traumatic event at some point in their lives, yet we do not yet have reliable biomarkers to help predict who experiences trauma-related symptoms in response to exposure. We tested the utility of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase as markers of (1) neural reactivity to negative affective information and (2) neural hypervigilance in the absence of threat. 20 women (mean age 23.6 +/- 5.8 years) with a history of trauma exposure. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity were measured in response to a trauma reminder during a clinical interview. Neural reactivity to novel and familiar affective scenes was measured in a later session using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Salivary alpha amylase, but not cortisol, increased in response to the trauma reminder. Salivary alpha amylase reactivity was associated with neural reactivity in the salience network in response to novel negative scenes and neural hypervigilance as indexed by reactivity to novel neutral scenes. Salivary alpha amylase might serve as a more reliable marker of trauma-related reactivity to negative affective information, and also as a marker of hypervigilance in the absence of threatening information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposing nanobubble-like objects to a degassed environment

    CERN Document Server

    Berkelaar, Robin P; Kip, Gerard A M; Kooij, E Stefan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    The primary attribute of interest of surface nanobubbles is their unusual stability and a number of theories trying to explain this have been put forward. Interestingly, the dissolution of nanobubbles is a topic that did not receive a lot of attention yet. In this work we applied two different experimental procedures which should cause gaseous nanobubbles to completely dissolve. In our experiments we nucleated nanobubble-like objects by putting a drop of water on HOPG using a plastic syringe and disposable needle. In method A, the nanobubble-like objects were exposed to a flow of degassed water (1.17 mg/l) for 96 hours. In method B, the ambient pressure was lowered in order to degas the liquid and the nanobubble-like objects. Interestingly, the nanobubble-like objects remained stable after exposure to both methods. After thorough investigation of the procedures and materials used during our experiments, we found that the nanobubble-like object were induced by the use of disposable needles in which PDMS contam...

  11. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  12. Over exposed image information recovery via stochastic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi-Bing; Tao Wei-Ming; Huang Jia-Min; Xu Bo-Hou

    2012-01-01

    Over exposure is rather annoying in photo taking. However,in some severe light conditions over exposure is inevitable using conventional cameras due to the limitation of dynamic range of the image sensor.The over exposed information would be completely lost and unrecoverable. In order to cope with this problem,we propose a novel technique in which the noise is used to enlarge the dynamic range of the image sensor.The essential mechanism that noise contributes to the information recovery is investigated.It is also proved that the visibility of regained information can reach the peak when specifically added noise is synchronized with the image sensor,thus activating the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR).Four different types of noises are investigated to show the effects of variant distributions on the quality of recovered information.The experimental outcomes are consistent with our theoretical results,which indicates that the SR-based lost information recovery is quite promising.

  13. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with a pH as low as 3. The exposure of acid rain and rain water to bricks is expected to have an influence on the brick matrix dependent on the specific exposure but to which extend? The present work is a systematic test of the influence of the pH on the brick matrix where the effect of water...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...

  14. Modeling temperature and stress in rocks exposed to the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie, P.; Shi, J.; Eppes, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The potential contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is recognized but under studied. To shed light on this contribution we have launched a collaborative study integrating modern instrumental and numerical approaches to define surface temperatures, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the thermo-mechanical response of boulders to diurnal solar exposure. The instrumental portion of our study is conducted by M. Eppes and coworkers who have monitored the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for one and tow years, respectively. Each boulder is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 acoustic emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously and to locate it within 2.5 cm. Herein, we focus on the numerical modeling. Using a commercially available finite element program, MSC.Marc®2008r1, we have developed an adaptable, realistic thermo-mechanical model to investigate quantitatively the temporal and spatial distributions of both temperature and stress throughout a boulder. The model accounts for the effects of latitude and season (length of day and the sun's path relative to the object), atmospheric damping (reduction of solar radiation when traveling through the Earth's atmosphere), radiative interaction between the boulder and its surrounding soil, secondary heat exchange of the rock with air, and transient heat conduction in both rock and soil. Using representative thermal and elastic rock properties, as well as realistic representations of the size, shape and orientation of a boulder instrumented in the field in North Carolina, the model is validated by comparison with direct measurements of temperature and strain on the surface of one boulder exposed to the sun. Using the validated

  15. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  16. Aquatic plants exposed to pharmaceuticals: effects and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R; Brooks, Bryan W

    2008-01-01

    largely overlooked in the risk assessment process to date, which typically relies heavily on physiological and/or morphological endpoints for deriving toxicity data. However, a small number of studies have indicated that measuring the response of a pathway- or receptor-specific target in conjunction with a physiological endpoint with direct relatedness can yield sublethal responses that are two to three times more sensitive that the traditional gross morphological endpoints typically employed in risk assessment. The risk assessment for this review was based almost entirely on evaluations of gross morphological endpoints, which generally indicated that the risk pharmaceuticals pose to aquatic plants is generally low, with a few exceptions, particularly blue-green algae exposed to antibiotics, and both green and blue-green algae exposed to triclosan. It is critical to note, however, that the application of sublethal pathway or receptor-specific responses in risk assessment has largely been unconsidered, and future research is needed to elucidate whether evaluating the toxicity of pharmaceuticals using these endpoints provides a more sensitive, subtle, yet meaningful indication of toxicity than the traditional endpoints used in prospective and retrospective risk assessments for aquatic plants.

  17. Ultrasonic emissions from conifer xylem exposed to repeated freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Zublasing, Verena

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic emission measurements enable the analysis of xylem cavitation induced by drought and freeze-thaw events. Several studies have indicated that ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) in conifers occur upon freezing and not upon thawing, although classical theory has postulated gas bubble formation during freezing and cavitation during thawing. We analyzed the pattern and quality of freeze-thaw-induced UAE in seven conifers (Abies alba, Larix decidua, Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus mugo, Pinus sylvestris). Axes samples dehydrated to different water potentials were exposed to repeated frost cycles. The number, amplitude and energy of UAE signals were registered and related to water potential, temperature course and wood characteristics (wood density, tracheid diameter). For P. abies, ultrasonic emission analysis was also performed on bark samples, xylem samples without bark, as well as on stems of young potted trees. In all conifers, UAE were registered in water-stressed samples but not in saturated or dehydrated samples. No signals were emitted by the bark of P. abies. Ultrasonic activity occurred only upon freezing, and identical patterns were observed in axes samples and stems of potted P. abies trees. A weak positive relationship between tracheid diameter and UAE energy was observed, indicating wide tracheids to emit signals with higher energy. The classical bubble formation hypothesis cannot sufficiently explain the occurrence of UAE during freezing and upon repeated temperature cycles, as demonstrated in this study. We suggest that the low water potential of ice induces air-seeding near the ice-water interface, and consequently, causes UAE.

  18. Helium segregation on surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios; Blondel, Sophie; Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D; Wirth, Brian D

    2016-02-17

    We report a hierarchical multi-scale modeling study of implanted helium segregation on surfaces of tungsten, considered as a plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors. We employ a hierarchy of atomic-scale simulations based on a reliable interatomic interaction potential, including molecular-statics simulations to understand the origin of helium surface segregation, targeted molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of near-surface cluster reactions, and large-scale MD simulations of implanted helium evolution in plasma-exposed tungsten. We find that small, mobile He n (1⩽  n  ⩽  7) clusters in the near-surface region are attracted to the surface due to an elastic interaction force that provides the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. This elastic interaction force induces drift fluxes of these mobile He n clusters, which increase substantially as the migrating clusters approach the surface, facilitating helium segregation on the surface. Moreover, the clusters' drift toward the surface enables cluster reactions, most importantly trap mutation, in the near-surface region at rates much higher than in the bulk material. These near-surface cluster dynamics have significant effects on the surface morphology, near-surface defect structures, and the amount of helium retained in the material upon plasma exposure. We integrate the findings of such atomic-scale simulations into a properly parameterized and validated spatially dependent, continuum-scale reaction-diffusion cluster dynamics model, capable of predicting implanted helium evolution, surface segregation, and its near-surface effects in tungsten. This cluster-dynamics model sets the stage for development of fully atomistically informed coarse-grained models for computationally efficient simulation predictions of helium surface segregation, as well as helium retention and surface morphological evolution, toward optimal design of plasma facing components.

  19. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Hanlin; Ichihara, Gaku

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn(2+))-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p<0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn(2+)-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity.

  20. Cancer incidence in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmar, L; Mikoczy, Z; Welinder, H

    1995-03-01

    To assess the risk of cancer, especially leukaemia, in a cohort of sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EtO). A cohort of 2170 workers employed for at least one year in two plants that produce disposable medical equipment sterilised with EtO has previously been established. The results of an update with four more years of observation are presented. The cancer incidence was assessed for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1972 to 1990 and cause specific standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO, expressed as ppm-years, was estimated and used in exposure-response analyses. Six lymphohaematopoietic tumours were observed (SIR 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.65-3.88), of which two were leukaemias (SIR 2.44; 95% CI 0.30-8.81). When those with cumulative exposures to EtO below the median value (0.13 ppm-years) were excluded, and a minimum of 10 years induction latency period was applied, the incidence ratio for leukaemia increased further (SIR 7.14, 95% CI 0.87-25.8), but was still not significantly enhanced. The risk estimate for leukaemia increased, but non-significantly, with time since start of exposure, and with cumulative exposures to EtO above the median value. The subjects with leukaemia had, however, only slightly higher cumulative exposure estimates for EtO than the average cohort member. Nevertheless, the present results may add some minor evidence for an association between EtO and an increased risk of leukaemia.