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Sample records for pimenta racemosa myrtales

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa (Myrtaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billmary Z. Contreras-Moreno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Essential oils represent a therapeutic alternative in natural products against pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics and threaten public health and individual health of patients. Aims: To determine the antimicrobial activity of two essential oils of different densities, obtained by hydrodistillation of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa fresh leaves collected from Táchira, Venezuela against different multirresistant bacterial strains of nosocomial origin. Methods: Disc diffusion agar method was carried out against seven reference strains: Candida albicans (CDC-B385, Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 23357, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and three different bacterial strains of nosocomial origin: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. Results: The essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa inhibited the development of all microorganisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 20 to 400 μL/mL. Conclusions: This is the first report concerning antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa collected from Táchira, Venezuela with different densities. Furthermore, results showed the essential oils of this species might be an alternative as antimicrobial agent for the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Gênero Pimenta: aspectos botânicos, composição química e potencial farmacológico Pimenta genus: botanical aspects, chemical composition and pharmacological potential

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    J.A.M Paula

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A família Myrtaceae possui representantes de grande interesse medicinal e o gênero Pimenta é um dos que merecem destaque. A maioria das espécies desse gênero é nativa da América Central, com exceção da Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L. R. Landrum, nativa nas regiões centro-oeste e sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo revisar aspectos botânicos, químicos e farmacológicos descritos na literatura sobre o gênero Pimenta. Os dados foram obtidos de artigos originais e revisões indexadas nas bases Periódicos Capes, ISI Web of Knowledge, Bireme e SciELO. As espécies desse gênero podem ser arbustivas ou arbóreas, possuem pelos unicelulares, folhas usualmente coriáceas, inflorescência em dicásio ou panícula e são distinguidas, principalmente, pela estrutura do ovário. As propriedades farmacológicas são conferidas, principalmente, pelos óleos essenciais que são constituídos, na maioria, por derivados fenilpropanóides, monoterpenos, aldeídos monoterpênicos e alcoóis monoterpênicos. Dentre as propriedades farmacológicas apresentadas por espécies desse gênero destacam-se as anti-hipertensivas, anti-inflamatórias, analgésicas, antimicrobianas e antioxidantes. Das quinze espécies de Pimenta conhecidas, a Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill e a Pimenta racemosa (Miller J. Moore são as espécies de maior importância econômica e, por esse motivo são as mais estudadas do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico.The family Myrtaceae has representatives of great medical interest, and the genus Pimenta deserves attention. Most species of this genus are native to the Central America, except Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L. R. Landrum, which is native to the Central-West and Southeast Brazilian Regions. This study aimed to review botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects described in the literature for Pimenta genus. Information was obtained from original papers and reviews indexed in the databases

  3. Flavonoids from Symplocos racemosa

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    Mila Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel isoflavone glycoside, peseudobatigenin 7-O-[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1''''→5'''-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'']-β-d-glucopyranoside, namely sympracemoside (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Symplocos racemosa along with 15 known flavonoids (2–16. Their structures were characterized by Q-TOF mass, optical rotation, UV, 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 9, 16 showed moderate inhibitory activities against NO production with IC50 value of 88.2, 42.1 and 74.3 μM, respectively.

  4. Antiprotozoal activity of Senna racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J; Quijano, Leovigildo; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto

    2007-06-13

    Methanol extracts of leaves, roots and bark of Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) were tested for antiprotozooal activity against Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. All of the tested extracts showed good activity against both protozoa species. Extracts from stem bark and leaves were most active, with an IC(50) of 2.10 microg/mL for Giardia intestinalis and 3.87 microg/mL for Entamoeba histolytica. Of the previously isolated compounds from Senna racemosa, the piperidine alkaloid cassine had greater activity against Giardia intestinalis with an IC(50) of 3.28 microg/mL and chrysophanol, a 1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone, was the most active agent against Entamoeba histolytica, with an IC(50) of 6.21 microg/mL.

  5. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The micromorphology and distribution of vestures were studied in 22 species representing all families within the order Myrtales based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Vestures are consistently ...

  6. Antibacterial phenolics from the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.; PrabhaDevi

    Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract and fractions of Lumnitzera racemosa was evaluated against fungi, virus and pathogenic bacteria. Crude methanolic extract and n-butanol fraction were ineffective against fungi and virus tested...

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of Bauhinia Racemosa Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Sohrab A.; Ghaisas, Mahesh M.; Deshpande, Avinash D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: The specific humoral immunity was assessed by performing hemagglutinating antibody titer (H.A.Titer) and the non-specific immunity was assessed by performing carbon clearance test and neutrophil adhesion test. Results: The methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia Racemosa (MEBR) was found effective in increasing the H.A.Titer. Primary and sec...

  8. Racemochrysone, a dihydroanthracenone from Senna racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Pérez-Rivas, Karla; Sansorez-Peraza, Pablo; Rios, Tirso; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2002-01-01

    From the hexane extract of the bark of the stems of Senna racemosa (syn. Cassia racemosa) a new dihydroanthracenone derivative, named racemochrysone, was isolated. Its structure was established as 8,9-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-(2H)-anthracen-1-one based on spectroscopical data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments. In addition beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, chrysophanol and physcion were obtained. From the leaves extracts the piperidine alkaloid cassine and the hexitol pinitol were obtained.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis of Danae Racemosa L. Moench Leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Fathiazad; Sanaz Hamedeyazdan

    2015-01-01

      Danae racemosa (L.) Moench (Ruscus racemosa L., Asparagaceae) is an erect, muchbranched evergreen shrub, native in the mountains from Syria to Iran, commonly used for its decorative green foliage in fresh flower arrangements...

  10. A new Neotropical species of Liothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae associated with Ludwigia (Myrtales: Onagraceae

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    María I. ZAMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae y se presenta una clave para diferenciarla de las otras cuatro especies citadas para la Argentina. Esta especie se distingue por los siguientes estados de caracteres: setas mayores de la cabeza y del pronoto, delgadas y de color castaño amarillento, setas anteromarginales cortas (14μ-21μ y metanoto reticulado con celdas hexagonales. Liothrips ludwigi se alimenta y reproduce sobre Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx. Greuter & Burdet, y sobre L. grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn. G. L. Nesom & Kartesz (Myrtales: Onagraceae; siendo éste el primer registro de asociación de Liothrips con esta familia de plantas.

  11. Potencial ornamental de acessos de pimenta

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    Leane Fialho de Melo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial ornamental de dez acessos de pimenta Capsicum spp. procedentes da Coleção de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Piauí, Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Fitotecnia, do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, no município de Teresina, Piauí, obedecendo ao delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Na caracterização morfoagronômica dos acessos, conforme orientação do Bioversity International, utilizaram-se os seguintes descritores qualitativos e quantitativos para o gênero Capsicum: forma da folha, hábito de crescimento da planta, antocianina no nó da planta, posição da flor, cor da corola, cor do fruto no estado intermediário e maduro, forma do fruto, forma do ápice do fruto, textura da epiderme do fruto, comprimento do fruto, comprimento do pedicelo, persistência do fruto maduro e altura da planta. Dentre os dez acessos avaliados, sete foram considerados com potencial ornamental: CGC-06 (C. chinense, CGC-07 (C. chinense, CGC-11 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-23 (C. chinense, CGC-36 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-59 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum e CGC-67 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum. O CGC 11 apresentou estética mais harmoniosa, com flores eretas, as quais são de fácil percepção; frutos eretos e vistosos e folhas de formato lanceolado.

  12. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.

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    Hellismar W. da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L., variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados modelos matemáticos frequentemente utilizados para representação da higroscopicidade de produtos agrícolas. Para uma atividade de água constante o aumento da temperatura reduz o teor de água de equilíbrio higroscópico das sementes de pimenta. As isotermas de dessorção apresentam formato sigmoidal do tipo II. Os modelos de Cavalcanti Mata, Chen Clayton, Chung Pfost, Chung Pfost Modificado, Henderson e Henderson Modificado são adequados para representar a higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta Cabacinha para a faixa de temperatura de 10 a 40 °C e atividade de água de 0,213 a 0,975.

  13. Aceites volátiles de hojas y frutos de Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae de Costa Rica

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    Carlos Chaverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta es un género de plantas perteneciente a la familia Myrtaceae que contiene cerca de 15 especies, la mayoría ubicadas en las regiones del Caribe del Continente Americano, donde es utilizado con propósitos culinarios y medicinales. Las especies comerciales mejor conocidas son “pimienta de Jamaica” (P. dioica o P. officinalis y “bay-rum” (P. racemosa y existe muy poca información científica acerca de la especie P. guatemalensis. Cuando las hojas y frutos son triturados, desprenden un aroma de composición desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la composición química de los aceites esenciales de las hojas y frutos de P. guatemalensis. La extracción de los aceites esenciales de P. guatemalensis, una especie arbórea silvestre en Costa Rica, se efectuó mediante el método de hidrodestilación a presión atmosférica, empleando un aparato de vidrio de tipo Clevenger. Se analizó la composición química de los aceites esenciales mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de flama (GC/FID y cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de masas (GC/MS y, utilizando índices de retención en una columna cromatográfica capilar tipo DB-5. En los aceites de hojas se identificaron 103 y en los de frutos 63 compuestos, correspondiendo a 96.8% y 86.1%, respectivamente, de los constituyentes totales. El aceite de las hojas está constituido principalmente por compuestos de naturaleza fenilpropanoide (72.9% y de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos (18.2%. Los componentes mayoritarios del aceite de las hojas se identificaron como eugenol (72.8%, β-cariofileno (8.2% y terpinoleno (3.0%. El aceite de los frutos está constituido principalmente por eugenol (74.7%, monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados (7.3% principalmente óxido de cariofileno (3.3%. Este es el primer informe acerca de la composición química de aceites esenciales obtenidos a partir de esta especie vegetal.

  14. ANATOMI DAUN FICUS RACEMOSA L. (BIRAENG DAN POTENSINYA DI TAMAN NASIONAL BANTIMURUNG BULUSARAUNG

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    Magfirah Rasyid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ficus racemosa L., is a species of Ficus who found in National Parks Bantimurung Bulusaraung Kab. Maros. Ficus racemosa L., and belongs to the family Moraceae. This research present an anatomical study concerning the leaf structure of Ficus racemosa L., and the potential contained in these plants. In this research showed that Ficus racemosa L., have stomata with diasitik type contained on the lower side of leaves (hipostomata and trichomes shaped non-glandular unicellular, it found on both sides of the leaves (adaksial and abaksial. Anatomical structures of Ficus racemosa L., there litosit cells that characterizes of family Moracea, it has a rounded shape and it’s found upper of epidermis cells. Ficus racemosa L., has the potential to treat diabetes, antioxidants, anti-inflamantory, hpatopro-tective, anti-diuretic, and it contained phytochemicals. Ficus racemosa L., merupakan salah satu jenis Ficus yang ditemukan di Taman Nasional Bantimurung Bulusaraung Kab. Maros, termasuk dalam famili Moraceae. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati struktur anatomi daun Ficus racemosa L., serta potensi yang dikandungnya. Ficus racemosa memiliki tipe stomata diasitik, terdapat di permukaan bawah daun (hipostomata dan trikoma yang berbentuk non-glandular bersel satu yang ditemukan pada kedua permukaan daun (adaksial dan abaksial. Pada struktur anatomi daun Ficus racemosa L., terdapat sel litosit yang menjadi ciri khas pada famili Moracea, berbentuk membulat dan terdapat pada deretan sel epidermis bawah. Ficus racemosa L., berpotensi mengobati penyakit diabetes, antioksidan, serta mengandung fitokimia.

  15. Two New Acetyl Cimicifugosides from the Rhizomes of Cimicifuga Racemosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new acetyl cimicifugosides were isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa. Their structures were elucidated as 2'-O-acetyl cimicifugoside H-1 1 and 3'-O-acetyl cimicifugoside H-1 2 by the spectroscopic evidence and chemical methods.

  16. As peças para piano de Altino Pimenta

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Rômulo Mota de

    2005-01-01

    113f. Essa dissertação tem por fim criar referenciais sobre a produção para piano do compositor paraense Altino Rosauro Salazar Pimenta (Belém, 1921-2003), catalogando sua obra pianística, mostrando sua importância artística, traçando comentários sobre seu estilo e descrevendo cada uma das peças. O corpo da dissertação é estruturado em três capítulos. O primeiro é uma biografia que mostra o compositor como um vulto ilustre e importante artisticamente. O segundo capítulo, a princípio, consi...

  17. Anti-androgenic effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. against letrozole induced polycystic ovary using rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamata Jadhav; Sasikumar Menon; Sunita Shailajan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-androgenic properties of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (S. racemosa) in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a letrozole induced PCOS rat model. Methods: The testosterone levels were used to evaluate the anti-androgenic effect of S. racemosa in letrozole induced PCOS rats for 21 d. The low (250 mg/kg), mid (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa was given to the PCOS induced rats for 15 d post letrozole induction to determine the effective dose of S. racemosa in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated PCOS. The hormones such as estrogen and progesterone were also assayed along with testosterone to determine the fluctuations in sex steroid levels in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. Results: S. racemosa treatment significantly decreased testosterone levels which were found to be elevated in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. S. racemosa significantly restored other blood biochemical parameters such as estrogen, progesterone and cholesterol levels. It also restored the histology of ovarian tissue. The ovarian weights and uterine weights were also significantly recovered after the S. racemosa treatment. Conclusions: The mid dose (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa were found to be effective in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. This effect of S. racemosa was found to be comparable with clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene citrate which was being used as the major medicine in the treatment of PCOS could now be replaced with S. racemosa in the management of PCOS.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE LEAF EXTRACT

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    Dr Pratima Khandelwal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available All-spice (pimenta is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to access the antimicrobial and anti-oxidation potentials of leaf extracts using three solvent systems, (Aqueous, acetone and methanol. All solvent systems at different concentrations were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and reducing capacity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens; zone of inhibition was exhibited by methanol leaf extracts in decreasing order for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lesser inhibitory zones were obtained by acetone leaf extracts, whereas, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not inhibited by any extracts. Aqueous extract demonstrated no inhibitory activity against tested bacterial pathogens. All the three leaf extracts were found to be ineffective against fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans tested. Protein content in each extract was determined and reducing capability was estimated which was found to be high in methanol and acetone extract whereas aqueous extract showed low reducing ability.

  19. On the enigmatic origin of the Mediterranean invasive Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta

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    P. PANAYOTIDIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sexual reproduction of the Mediterranean invasive species Caulerpa racemosa could explain not only its rapid expansion during the last decade of the 20th century, but also its origin, through hybridation and genetic recombination of preexisting varieties. This paper argues on the cryptogenic origin of the Mediterranean invasive Caulerpa racemosa.

  20. A Novel C30 Sterol from Porana racemosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBo-Gang; CHENBin; WANGDing-Yong; YEQi; ZHANGGuo-Lin

    2004-01-01

    A novel C30 sterol, (22E, 24ξ)-24-n-propylcholest-7, 22-dien-3β-ol (racemosol, 1), along withscopoletin (2), scopolin (3), umbelliferone (4), methylβ-D-frucopyranoside (5), syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8),eupatilin (9), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10) and (E)-N-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl cinnamamide(11), was isolated from the whole plants of Porana racemosa Roxb. Their structures were elucidatedpredominantly by spectral evidence.

  1. Chemistry and antifungal potential of Alantolides from Inula racemosa H

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalvir Kataria; K K Chahal

    2013-01-01

    Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the compounds were carried out using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their antifungal potential at various concentrations against Alternaria brassicae and Penicillium italicum using spore germination inhibition technique and against Rhizoctonia solani by poisoned food technique. All the compounds exhibited fairly good fungitoxicity against the test fungi with ED50 values of less than 500 g mL-1.

  2. Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishna Murti; Upendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots ofFicus racemosa (F. racemosa). Methods: Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. incision and excision models. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointment for comparison with other groups. Results: From the observation in both two models, aqueous extract of F. racemosa was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups. Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that aqueous extract of F. racemosa possesses better wound healing ability than the ethanolic extract.

  3. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Difo, V. H.; Onyike, E.; D.A. Ameh; Njoku, G. C.; Ndidi, U. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were ana...

  4. Optimization of callus and cell suspension cultures of Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae family) for lycopene production

    OpenAIRE

    Behbahani, Mandana; Shanehsazzadeh, Mehrnaz; Hessami,Mohamad Javad

    2011-01-01

    Lycopene is present in a range of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in the leaves of Barringtonia racemosa. The traditional lycopene extraction from the plant is being employed instead of an easy propagation technique like cell culture process from the leaf explants. We intend to assess how lycopene could be extracted via tissue culture under light (illuminance: 8,200 lux under white fluorescent lamps, photoperiod 16 h per day at 25ºC) and dark. Leaf explants of Barringtonia racemosa we...

  5. Cycloartane Triterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Actaea racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ayano; Lankin, David C; Nikolić, Dejan; Ahn, Soyoun; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-03-25

    Investigating the phytochemical equivalence of the aerial parts of Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) relative to the widely used roots/rhizomes, this study provides a perspective for the potential use of renewable ("green") plant parts as a source of black cohosh botanical preparations. In addition to the characterization of Nω-methylserotonin as one representative marker of the Actaea alkaloids, nine cycloartane triterpenes were isolated and characterized, including the two new triterpene glycosides (1S,15R)-1,15,25-trihydroxy-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-acta-(16S,23R,24R)-16,23;16,24-binoxoside (1) and 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1S,24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxy-15-oxo-acta-(16R,23R)-16,23-monoxoside (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The relative configuration of 1 was deduced by (1)H iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA), making it the first example of the complete analysis of the complex (1)H NMR spectrum of a triterpene glycoside. In addition to the new compounds 1 and 2, the aerial plant parts were shown to contain the previously known binoxosides 3, 4, 6, and 7, the monoxoside 8, and the binoxols 5 and 9. Overall, the metabolome of the aerial plant parts consists of a variety of Actaea triterpenes, similar to those found in roots/rhizomes, a tendency toward C-1 and C-7 hydroxylation of the cycloartanol skeleton, a greater abundance of aglycones, and the presence of comparable amounts of Nω-methylserotonin.

  6. THE CRITICAL FACE OF THE POET IN ‘INDULGÊNCIA PLENÁRIA’, ALBERTO PIMENTA

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    Ana Cristina Joaquim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an essay whose motto focuses on the junction between criticism and poetry, between ethics and aesthetics, in the long poem named Indul­gência plenária of Alberto Pimenta. For present purposes it is important to consider criticism in a double sense: first of all, a way of explanation of some of the procedure language, so that poetic writing is presented as a procedure that folds over their own means, which allows reflection and valorization on the writing evidence; and, in another possible approach, criticism towards a detailed examination followed by evaluation about the motivating fact on which this long poem was wrote (violence - followed by death - suffered by the transsexual Gisberta Salce in Porto/Portugal –, at this moment of the analyses, the conjunction of ethics and aesthetics will be relevant. Alberto Pimenta also wrote critical essays, which matter consider this third meaning of criticism: a characteristic literary genre that will be the basis of some of the reflections raised by the poem. We intend to think how the criticism and the poetry are confluents achievements in Alberto Pimenta activity.

  7. Subtle Effects of Biological Invasions: Cellular and Physiological Responses of Fish Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa racemosa: e38763

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serena Felline; Roberto Caricato; Adele Cutignano; Stefania Gorbi; Maria Giulia Lionetto; Ernesto Mollo; Francesco Regoli; Antonio Terlizzi

    2012-01-01

      The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms...

  8. Subtle effects of biological invasions: cellular and physiological responses of fish eating the exotic pest Caulerpa racemosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felline, Serena; Caricato, Roberto; Cutignano, Adele; Gorbi, Stefania; Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Mollo, Ernesto; Regoli, Francesco; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms...

  9. Determination of caffeic acid in root and rhizome of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifuga racemosa, is a plant with a diverse and long history of medicinal use. Caffeic acid, bioactive compound, which often occurs with other polyphenols can influence the biological activity of this plant. The aim of our work was quantitative analysis of caffeic acid in roots and rhizomes of two varieties of C. racemosa. Analysis was performed by HPLC method. The extracts were separated on C18 reversed-phase column using mixture of methanol, water and formic acid (25:75:0.5 v/v/v as a mobile phase. The flow rate of eluent was 1.0 ml·min-1. The obtained validation parameters such as linearity, linear regression equation and precision expressed as a relative standard deviation were adequate for quantitative determination. Caffeic acid was found in all tested extracts. The highest total amount of caffeic acid was determined in C. racemosa var. racemosa (255.3 μg·g-1 while its concentration in C. racemosa var. cordifolia was significantly lower (213.0 μg·g-1.

  10. Muscle damage induced by black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, P L; Saija, A; Patafi, M; Marotta, G; Ferlazzo, B; Gangemi, S

    2006-01-01

    Extracts of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are commonly used for the treatment of symptoms associated with menopause. Adverse events with black cohosh are rare, mild and reversible. A few number of serious adverse events, including hepatic and circulatory conditions, have been also reported, but without a clear causality relationship. We report the case of a woman with severe asthenia and very high blood levels of creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The patient referred to take a dietary supplement derived from black cohosh for ameliorating menopause vasomotor symptoms. To exclude a possible involvement of this product, the patient was suggested to discontinue this therapy. After suspicion the patient showed a progressive normalization of biochemical parameters and improvement of clinical symptoms. We can hypothesise a causative role for black cohosh in the muscle damage observed in this patient. Factors suggesting an association between black cohosh and the observed myopathy included the temporal relationship between use of herbal product and asthenia and the absence of other identified causative factors. Rechallenge with the suspected agent was inadvisable for ethic reasons because of the risk of a serious relapse. This is the first time that asthenia associated with high muscle enzymes serum levels by black cohosh has been reported. In our opinion, this report is of interest because of the widespread diffusion of use of black cohosh as an alternative medicine for relief from menopausal symptoms.

  11. Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups T1T2, T3, T4, and T5 and were given 0.5 ml normal saline, aqueous extract in the dose rate of100mg/kg body weight, 200mg/kg body weight, alcoholic extract @100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered Paracetamol at a dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight orally. After 24hrs, the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that aqueous extract in the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight and alcoholic extract (100mg/kg & 200mg/kg body weight could produce antiulcer activity. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 217-218

  12. Phenological model of bird cherry Padus racemosa with data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Sīle, Tija; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2017-07-01

    The accuracy of the operational models can be improved by using observational data to shift the model state in a process called data assimilation. Here, a data assimilation approach using the temperature similarity to control the extent of extrapolation of point-like phenological observations is explored. A degree-day model is used to describe the spring phenology of the bird cherry Padus racemosa in the Baltic region in 2014. The model results are compared to phenological observations that are expressed on a continuous scale based on the BBCH code. The air temperature data are derived from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. It is assumed that the phenology at two points with a similar temperature pattern should be similar. The root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the time series of hourly temperature data over a selected time interval are used to measure the temperature similarity of any two points. A sigmoidal function is used to scale the RMSD into a weight factor that determines how the modelled and observed phenophases are combined in the data assimilation. The parameter space for determining the weight of observations is explored. It is found that data assimilation improved the accuracy of the phenological model and that the value of the point-like observations can be increased through using a weighting function based on environmental parameters, such as temperature.

  13. Caracteriza??o morfol?gica e produtiva de pimentas (Capsicum spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Lucifrancy Vilagelim

    2012-01-01

    As pimentas do g?nero Capsicum s?o utilizadas de diferentes formas por muitas culturas no mundo. No Brasil ? encontrada ampla variabilidade desse g?nero sendo a Amaz?nia um importante centro de diversidade, existindo uma ampla variabilidade gen?tica expressa em diversas caracter?sticas de plantas, flores e frutos. Informa??es a respeito da diversidade em cole??o de germoplasma servem para aumentar a efici?ncia de trabalhos de melhoramento de esp?cies cultivadas, por meio da caracteriza??o mor...

  14. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit ofFicus racemosa Linn. (M)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Satinder Kakar; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a novelStandardization technique, which can pave the way for rapid determination of different phytoconstitutents ofFicus racemosa(F. racemosa)Linn.(Moraceae). From extensive literature survey it was revealed that no reports were available on, standardization parameters of fruits ofF. racemosaLinn.Methods:Phytochemical test,TLC analysis,Foreign matter,Ash values,Swelling index,Foaming index,Extractive value,Moisture content, Microbiological analysis,Crude fibre content, amino acid content, aflatoxin, toxic element analysis and analysis of pesticide residue were performed in the present investigation for the quality control of the drug.Results:Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this plant on the basis of it’s standardization parameters.Alkaloids, steroid, flavanoids and tannins were found to be present inF. racemosaLinn. extracts.Ash value, insoluble ash value, soluble ash value, crude fibre content, crude fat,Swelling index andFoaming index were found to be3.96%w/w,9.29%w/w,7.45%w/w,16.65%,(4.39±0.14),1 cm,10.30%w/w.The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.Conclusions:These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts ofF. racemosaLinn. is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening.In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents for isolation of newer molecule fromF. racemosaLinn.

  15. EFFECTS OF FRUITS OF BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA LINN. ON HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic extracts of B. racemosa fruits in vitro on human polymorphonuclear (PMN cells to screen their effects on phagocytosis and chemotaxis. Ethyl acetate extract of B. racemosa fruits was found to be a stimulant of PMN cell phagocytosis of Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT dye and candida albicans. It also stimulated intracellur killing capacity of PMN cells. It was further found to increase the chemotaxis of human PMN cells. While, petroleum ether extract and hydroalcoholic extract were lesser active as far as these activities are concerned.

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halkare Suryanarayana Vasavi; Punchapady Devasya Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods:In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results: EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions:This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum.

  17. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected was high (96.97%, but the marker frequencies for each species showed polymorphism levels of 79.4% for Piper hispidinervum and 5.3% for P. aduncum. The genetic similarity clustering analysis resulted in three distinct groups corresponding to Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum. Four and nine characteristic RAPD markers were identified for P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum, respectively, supporting the existence of two separate species. However, six genotypes collected in Tarauacá county formed a distinct subgroup within the P. hispidinervum group and may be considered as an ecotype of this species or an intermediate between the P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum groups. More extensive sampling of both P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations throughout the region are needed to further establish their relation and its implication for breeding efforts.

  18. Antitumor activity and antioxident role of Bauhinia racemosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malaya GUPTA; Upal Kanti MAZUMDER; Ramanathan Sambath KUMAR; Thangavel Siva KUMAR

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect and antioxidant role of Bauhinia racemosa. METHODS: Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of methanol extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 d. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, mice were then sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of MEBR on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC bearing hosts and simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. RESULTS: The MEBR showed decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, and increased the nonviable cell count and mean survival time thereby increasing life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in extract treated mice. Treatment with MEBR decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CONCLUSION: The methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice.

  19. Failure of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizome transplants: potential causes and forest farming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine J. Small; James L. Chamberlain; Christopher M. Nuckols

    2014-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizomes are harvested extensively from eastern North American forests and sold worldwide for treatment of menopausal symptoms. While forest farming is encouraged to reduce wild-harvest impacts, little information is available to aid landowners in successfully cultivating black cohosh. This study examined survival and multi-year growth...

  20. Could molecular effects of Caulerpa racemosa metabolites modulate the impact on fish populations of Diplodus sargus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbi, S; Giuliani, M E; Pittura, L; d'Errico, G; Terlizzi, A; Felline, S; Grauso, L; Mollo, E; Cutignano, A; Regoli, F

    2014-05-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa is a non-native, invasive species in the Mediterranean, and an important stressor for several native organisms. The algal capacity to produce secondary metabolites has been suggested to modulate success of the C. racemosa invasion, although many of potentially involved biological pathways still remain unexplored. In this respect, the aim of the present study was to investigate some molecular and cellular effects in the white seabream Diplodus sargus, an ecologically key species, which included the alien C. racemosa in its diet. Organisms were sampled in 2 seasonal periods from 3 locations of Southern Italy, each characterized by different levels of algal abundance. The level of caulerpin, one of the main secondary algal metabolites, in fish tissues has been used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related with molecular and cellular responses. Chemical analyses indicated that fish from invaded sites can accumulate caulerpin, with liver concentrations ranging from a few up to hundreds of μg/g. Biomarkers analyses revealed only limited alterations of the main antioxidant defences, such as glutathione reductase and levels of glutathione; on the other hand, increased enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases and acyl CoA oxidase, as well as enhanced gene transcription for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, cytochrome P4501A and vitellogenin 1 were observed in fish more exposed to C. racemosa as indicated by liver concentrations of caulerpin higher than 50 μg/g. Despite a direct molecular relationship with this algal metabolite could not be established, our results suggest that a C. racemosa enriched diet can modulate biotransformation and fatty acids metabolism of D. sargus. Assessing whether similar effects represent short- or long-term effects will be of crucial importance to understand consequences on the general health status and reproductive performance of

  1. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa, Hypericum perforatum and Agnus castus in the treatment of climacteric complaints : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laakmann, Elena; Grajecki, Donata; Doege, Katja; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Buhling, Kai J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The systematic review examines whether Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), Hypericum perforatum (HP), Agnus castus, vitamins and minerals, either as monotherapy or in combination, have an evidence-based impact on vasomotor, genital and psychological climacteric complaints. Data sources and methods

  2. Sneddon syndrome and the diagnostic value of skin biopsies - Three young patients with intracerebral lesions and livedo racemosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legierse, Catharina M.; Dijk, Marijke R. Canninga-Van; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Kuck-Koot, Veronica C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by generalised livedo racemosa of the skin with extracutaneous neurological symptoms like headache, vertigo, transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), stroke, and seizures. Diagnosis of Sneddon syndrome is based on these clinical features and positive

  3. Potential of the Essential Oil from Pimenta Pseudocaryophyllus as an Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Érika Yoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis. The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6 %. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL-1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  4. Antibacterial and anti-hemolytic activity of tannins from Pimenta dioica against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Al-Harbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High rate of resistance among Staphylococcus infection initiates scientists to discover new antibiotics. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of tannins isolated from the Pimenta dioica leaves on Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus as well as to evaluate their effect on hemolysin production. The antimicrobial activity of 4,6-(S-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(α/β-D-glucopyranose and casuarinin, pedunculagin and nilocitin tannins from P. dioica was examined using agar diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated by microtiter plate assay method. Pedunculagin and nilocitin exhibited antibacterial and anti-hemolytic effect against S. aureus. This will open the era for in vivo assessment of such compounds for clinical applications.

  5. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The ...

  6. Estudo da cinética de secagem da pimenta de cheiro em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Carlos Soares Melo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta de cheiro é um produto natural e vem sendo alvo de diversos estudos, em razão de apresentar propriedades importantes para a saúde e aprimorar sabores aos alimentos. Estudos direcionados vem chamando a atenção e um meio de conservação é de suma importância para que possa ser difundido pelo mundo. A secagem é um método de conservação muito utilizado para diminuir o teor de água do alimento, visando prolongar a sua vida útil durante o armazenamento. Diversos modelos matemáticos têm sido utilizados para descrever o processo de secagem. Este trabalho objetivou ajustar modelos matemáticos de secagem em camada fina, aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da pimenta de cheiro em diferentes temperaturas de secagem (50, 60 e 70 ºC, verificar a difusividade efetiva e a energia de ativação. Os resultados da secagem foram avaliados ajustando-se aos modelos: Newton, Page, Henderson & Pabis, Logaritmico, Dois termos, Wang e Sing, Midilli et al., Henderson & Pabis modificado e de Fick. A maioria dos modelos utilizados apresentou coeficientes de determinação maiores que 0,98, descrevendo satisfatoriamente a secagem do produto. A difusividade efetiva aumentou com a elevação da temperatura de secagem e o valor da energia de ativação foi de 38,66 kJ mol-1.

  7. Química y Funcionalidad Biológica de Mollinedia racemosa (Monimiaceae) Chemical and Biological Functionality of Mollinedia racemosa (Monimiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Murillo; Oscar Lombo; MÉNDEZ, JONH J

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se caracterizó la especie Mollinedia racemosa, colectada en Yopal-Casanare-Colombia, desde el punto de vista del perfil fitoquímico, cuantificación de algunos de sus metabolitos secundarios, potencial antioxidante, composición y perfil químico del aceite esencial, de su actividad antimicrobiana y de su toxicidad aguda. Con ello se busca dar soporte científico al conocimiento empírico de comunidades indígenas y campesinas colombianas y para aportar al mejor conocimiento de esta...

  8. Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Shabir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.

  9. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cruz Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Bolívar Balbás, Paulina; Juárez, Zaida Nelly; Sánchez Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23843731

  11. Antinociceptive properties of extracts and two flavonoids isolated from leaves of Danae racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Garjani, Alireza

    2007-12-01

    The antinociceptive properties of the hydro-methanolic extract (HME) and two flavonoids isolated from Danae racemosa have been investigated in several nociceptive rat models. The HME from D. racemosa (100-400 mgkg(-1), i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction. In the same dose range, the HME produced dose-related inhibition in both phases of a formalin-test. Treatment of animals with naloxone (5 mgkg(-1), i.p.) completely reversed the antinociceptive effect caused by morphine (5 mgkg(-1), s.c.) and the HME (200 mgkg(-1), i.p.) when assessed against the first phase of the formalin-test, but this effect was less significant for the HME in the second phase. Furthermore, when assessed via a hot-plate test, the HME (100-400 mgkg(-1), i.p.) caused a significant increase in response latency. The HME, given daily for to 7 consecutive days, develop tolerance, but did not induce cross-tolerance to morphine. These data demonstrate that the HME elicites pronounced antinociception against several pain models. The actions of the HME involve, at least in part, an interaction with the opioid system, but does not seem to be related with non-specific peripheral or central depressant actions. Finally, the active principle(s) responsible for the antinociceptive action of D. racemosa is likely to be partially related to the presence of quercetin and kaempferol.

  12. EXTRATOS HEXÂNICOS DE FUMO, ALHO E PIMENTA-ROXA SOBRE FRANKLINIELLA SCHULTZEI (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vando Miossi Rondelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomateiro é uma das hortaliças mais importantes, no entanto o ataque de pragas, como o tripes, Frankliniella schultzei, pode causar prejuízos a essa cultura, principalmente por transmitir o complexo de vírus denominados de vira-cabeça do tomateiro. Contudo, os extratos de plantas podem ser uma alternativa no manejo de pragas. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de extratos hexânicos de fumo, alho e pimenta-roxa sobre F. schultzei. Esses extratos na concentração de 500 µg mL-1 foram testadas sobre ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. schultzei. O extrato hexânico de fumo foi o que causa maior mortalidade (28,1%. Assim, nenhum dos extratos hexânicos avaliados neste trabalho causa mortalidade satisfatória sobre ninfas de F. schultzei, na concentração de 500 µg mL-1.

  13. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains.

  14. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria bassiana associated with auger beetle (Sinoxylon anale) infesting allspice (Pimenta dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; D'Silva, Sharon; Nandeesh, P G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of auger beetle, Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera), a destructive pest of cosmopolitan occurrence is reported for the first time on allspice trees, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. in Kerala, India. The insects bored through the basal region of fresh twigs resulting in dieback symptoms. Morphological characterization and sequencing of a partially amplified fragment of the mitochondrial CO1 gene (696bp) revealed the insect to be Sinoxylon anale. An entomopathogenic fungus was isolated from infected cadavers of S. anale that was identified as Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., sensu stricto (s.s.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) based on morphological and molecular studies. The partial sequences of the ITS, TUB, TEF and Bloc gene regions were sequenced. The fungus grew well in ambient room temperature conditions (28-32±2°C; 60-70% relative humidity) and the infection process on the insect was documented by scanning electron microscopy. Bioassay studies with the isolate indicated that the fungus was virulent against adult beetles as evidenced by the LC50 (3.6×10(6)conidia/ml) and ST50 values (6.8days at a dose of 1×10(7)conidia/ml and 5.8days at a dose of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, respectively). This is the first record of B. bassiana naturally infecting S. anale and the fungus holds promise to be developed as a mycoinsecticide.

  15. NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL DE PIMENTA ORNAMENTAL SOB DEFICIÊNCIAS NUTRICIONAIS

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    COELHO, V. A. T.

    2014-04-01

    was conducted in a greenhouse of Departamento de Ciência do Solo in Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The statistical design was completely randomized design with three replications, containing twelve treatments in nutrient solution based on the solution of Hoagland ; Arnon (1950. The treatments were: complete nutrient solution (control and nutrient solutions with individual omissions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. After germination, the seedlings were transferred to a complete nutrient solution with 10% of its ionic strength (adjustment period, which remained under constant aeration. After adaptation, plants were selected for uniformity of size of shoots and roots and transplanted to plastic pots (one liter nutrient solution with 100%, in which the treatments were established. Harvesting of the plants was performed, and then the material dried and weighed to obtain the dry matter. After drying, the plants also to milling for chemical analysis. The plants grown under omissions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B were the most affected in the height. The lower dry matter productions of shoots were obtained in pepper plants grown under omissions of N, K and P. The omissions that more restrict root growth of ornamental pepper plants are K, B and N. The content of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the shoots of the ornamental pepper of the control treatment are 2.53, 28.20, 10.67, 3.88 and 7.93 g kg-1, respectively. The decreasing order of accumulation of nutrients in shoots of ornamental pepper in nutrient solution are K> Ca> S> Mg> P. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e nutrição mineral de pimenta ornamental sob deficiências nutricionais. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo na Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, contendo doze tratamentos, em solução nutritiva baseada na solu

  16. Química y Funcionalidad Biológica de Mollinedia racemosa (Monimiaceae Chemical and Biological Functionality of Mollinedia racemosa (Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó la especie Mollinedia racemosa, colectada en Yopal-Casanare-Colombia, desde el punto de vista del perfil fitoquímico, cuantificación de algunos de sus metabolitos secundarios, potencial antioxidante, composición y perfil químico del aceite esencial, de su actividad antimicrobiana y de su toxicidad aguda. Con ello se busca dar soporte científico al conocimiento empírico de comunidades indígenas y campesinas colombianas y para aportar al mejor conocimiento de esta familia vegetal en Colombia. El extracto etanólico de la planta posee un alto contenido de constituyentes fenólicos, en tanto que en los volátiles obtenidos de sus hojas es notable el contenido en sesquiterpenos. La bioactividad revelada por la planta podría estar asociada tanto a los fitofenoles, a sus alcaloides y a los constituyentes de su aceite esencial.Mollinedia racemosa, a species collected in Yopal-Casanare-Colombia, has been characterized from the point of view of its phytochemical profile, quantification of some of its secondary metabolites, antioxidant potential, composition and chemical profile of essential oil, antimicrobial activity and acute toxicity. The objective was giving scientific support to the empirical knowledge from Colombian indigenous and peasant communities and to contribute to better understanding of this type of plant in Colombia. The ethanolic extract of the plant has a high content of phenolic constituents, while volátiles compounds obtained from its leaves have high content of sesquiterpenes. The bioactivity revealed by the plant could be associated to phytophenols, alkaloids and essential oil constituents.

  17. Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Eva Rachmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Kemampuan hati mengatasi stres oksidatif dapat ditingkatkan dengan konsumsi antioksidan eksogen yang berasal dari alam. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari kemampuan hepatoprotektif dari ekstrak metanol  daun  Fagraea racemosa, dengan menggunakan CCL4 sebagai model sumber radikal bebas. Metode: Tiga kelompok perlakuan tikus Wistar  (enam ekor per  kelompok, masing-masing diberi dosis ekstrak berturut-turut 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bb per oral, sekali perhari selama 30 hari. CCl4 diinjeksikan intraperitoneal kepada ketiga kelompok , dua kali per minggu (1,5 ml/kg bb.  Sebagai pembanding, digunakan dua kelompok kontrol, yaitu kontrol normal dan kontrol CCl4.  Pada hari ke-30, tikus dibunuh dan hati diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin. Perubahan histopatologi ditentukan berdasar derajat steatosis, degenerasi hidropik, dan inflamasi. Data dianalisis dengan Anova dan uji post hoc LSD (p≤0.05 menggunakan SPSS versi 13.0 Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan perbaikan derajat degenerasi hidropik dan inflamasi (p≤0,05 pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan bila dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol CCl4. Tetapi, derajat steatosis meningkat pada kelompok perlakuan dosis  50 dan 100 mg/kg bb, dan kemudian menurun secara bermakna pada perlakuan 200 mg/kg bb. Kesimpulan : Ekstrak methanol daun Fagraea racemosa  mampu melindungi hati dari radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dari CCl4. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa Fagraea racemosa menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan sebagai suplemen antioksidan. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:46-51   Abstract Background: The ability of the liver in dealing with oxidative stress can be enhanced by consumption of exogenous antioxidants derived from nature. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective ability of Fagraea racemosa leaves methanolic extract against CCl4 exposure as a model of free radicals source. Methods: Three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw were administered orally to three treatment groups of Wistar rats

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO PARA PRODUÇÃO DE GELEIADA

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    Inayara Beatriz Araújo Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense vem sendo muito utilizada para consumo in natura e na forma processada. Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de extrato de pimenta-biquinho para produção de geleiada. Foi utilizado um extrato armazenado por 90 dias, com as seguintes características físico-químicas: umidade (80%, extrato seco (19%, oBrix (12, acidez (0,320%, coloração vermelha a amarela e teores de vitamina C e de carotenoides totais consideráveis e estáveis. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,00 a 4,06 Log UFC/g, de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,34 Log UFC/g, bactérias láticas <1,0 Log UFC/g, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes <3 NMP/g e ausência de Salmonella sp/25g.  Foram elaboradas as seguintes formulações de geleiada: 1 50% de extrato: 50% de açúcar; 2 25% de extrato: 25% de abacaxi: 50% de açúcar e; 3 25% de extrato: 25% de maça: 50% de açúcar. O emprego de extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma alternativa viável para a produção de geleiadas e agregação de valor à produção de pimenta. A adição do abacaxi na formulação contribuiu para aumento da aceitabilidade do produto. Assim, deve-se considerar o tipo de fruta adicionada na geleiada com fins de saborização para aumento da aceitabilidade e, em consequência, da intenção de compra.

  19. Efeito da pimenta rosa associada a diversas dosagens de antibióticos em frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Fabiano Gomes; Zanini,Surama Freitas; Feitosa,Mariana Lorenção; Gonçalves, Elaine Paiva Moraes; Colnago,Geraldo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de antibióticos associado ao farelo de pimenta rosa (FPR) sobre a função hepática e desempenho de frangos de corte. Utilizou-se 528 pintos, machos, da linhagem Cobb de um dia de idade distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições com 22 aves cada: T1: Controle Negativo (CN): Dieta Basal; T2: Controle Positivo (CP): Dieta Basal com 1,2% FPR; T3: CP+11ppm bacitracina Zn e 17p...

  20. Isolation and characterisation of three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites from Symplocos racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Ali, Mumtaz; Khan, Saleha Suleman

    2016-01-01

    Three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites were isolated from Symplocos racemosa, a small tree of family symplocaceae. The structures of compounds (1-3) were elucidated to be 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)-8-propylanthracene-9,10-dione (1), 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-butylanthracene-9,10-dione (2) and 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-propyl anthracene-9,10-dione (3) using their spectral data, i.e. through IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and correlation spectroscopy.

  1. Desenvolvimento de espécies de pimentas sobre efeito de doses urina de vaca

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    L. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda do mercado de pimentas tem impulsionado o aumento da área cultivada no Brasil anualmente, no Nordeste brasileiro esse cultivo vem sendo feito não apenas em hortas caseiras para o consumo doméstico, como também em áreas comerciais que abastecem o mercado local e externo. Diante disso objetivou-se verificar os efeitos da utilização da adubação orgânica no cultivo de espécies de pimenta no intuito de possibilitar aos agricultores desenvolverem sua produção utilizando-se de práticas onde produtos alternativos e de baixo custo econômico e ambiental disponíveis em suas propriedades como é o caso da urina de vaca que pode ser utilizados como fertilizante além de possuir outras propriedades favoráveis a este cultivo. Foram usadas as espécies Cambuci, Dedo-de-moça, Bode Amarela e as proporções de urina de vaca utilizadas nas pulverizações foram de 1 a 5%. As variáveis analisadas foram à altura, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca do caule das plantas após a semeadura. A dosagem de urina nas concentrações a partir de 2%, 4% e 5% obtiveram médias maiores de alturas que nas demais concentrações exercendo maior influência sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas. No diâmetro do caule verificou-se um desenvolvimento maior nas aplicações com concentração de urina aplicada a 4%, 5%. E na matéria seca os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas plantas que receberam adubação com urina a 3 a 5% na maioria das amostras indicando que os melhores efeitos foram atingidos nas maiores concentrações. Development of pepper species on effect of doses of cow urineAbstract: The growing demand of the peppers market has driven the increase of cultivated area in Brazil annually, in the Brazilian Northeast this cultivation has been done not only in home gardens for domestic consumption, as well as in commercial gardens that supply the local and foreign markets. Therefore, it was decided to observe the effects of the use of

  2. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus inhibits virulence factors and promotes metabolic changes in Candida yeast

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    Flávio Ezeddinne El Assal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This is the first study to examine the in vitro susceptibility and the expression of virulence factors in Candida species in the presence of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae, a Brazilian plant known as paucravo. Additionally, the mechanisms of action of the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of this plant were investigated. Methods The in vitro susceptibility of Candida was tested using the broth microdilution method, whereas an XTT reduction assay was used for biofilms. Adherence was determined by counting the number of yeast cells that adhered to 100 oral epithelial cells, and hyphal formation was verified in the hyphal induction medium M199. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide and FUN-1 was performed to assess the mechanism of action. Results The results revealed that the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of P. pseudocaryophyllus inhibited the growth of Candida isolates at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ranging from 64 to 256µg/mL, whereas the 50% sessile minimal inhibitory concentration (SMIC50 ranged from 512 to >1,024µg/mL. Adherence and hyphal formation were significantly reduced in the presence of the crude ethanol extract and both fractions. Although cell membrane injury was detected, the predominant mechanism of action appeared to be the alteration of yeast metabolism, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. Conclusions Our results indicated that antifungal activity reduced the expression of virulence factors in yeast via the alteration of yeast metabolism, suggesting that the crude extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus and its fractions may contain novel antifungal agents.

  3. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

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    A.-M. Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product, and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE and Grades of Recommendation (GR were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR: the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints.

  4. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Phyllostachys bambusoides and Arundinaria racemosa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Upadhyaya; A.Arunachalam; K.Arunachalam; A.K.Das

    2012-01-01

    We investigated decomposition and nutrient release patterns of leaf and sheath litter of two important highland bamboo species (viz.Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb.(Zucc.) and Arundinaria racemosa Munro) by using a litter bag technique.Our objective was to improve understanding of the addition of organic matter and nutrients to soil from the litter of two abundant highland bamboo species,species that support the local population of the region in many ways.N concentration and N/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) in leaf litter of P.bambusoides.Significantly,larger values of lignin concentration,C/N ratio,and lignin/N ratio were found in the sheath litter ofA racemosa.Weight loss of both leaf and sheath litter was strongly positively correlated with N and N/P ratio,and significantly negatively correlated (p<0.01) with C/N ratio.Liginn/N had a negative correlation with decay rate.In both species,only lignin concentration of the litter showed strong positive correlation with N release.Litter decomposition and N release patterns were similar for the two bamboo species,whereas,P release rate from leaf litter was higher in P.bambusoides and differed significantly between sheath and leaf litter for both species.The complex pattern of nutrient release through mineralization and immobilization during litter decomposition ensures nutrient availability in both managed and natural bamboo stands subjected to anthropogenic disturbances.

  5. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and HPTLC Fingerprinting of Bark Extracts of Symplocos racemosa

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    Rashmi Tambe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish physical constants and fingerprint profile of Symplocos racemosa using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done, physical constants were evaluated and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins, glycosides, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The proximate analysis showed satisfactory result with respect to foreign matter, moisture content, ash value and extractive values. HPTLC finger printing of methanol extract of bark powder revealed presence of eight components 0.23 0.44, 0.57, 0.68 0.97,1.17,1.35,1.43 Component number 6 at Rf 1.17 showed maximum concentration.Aqueous extract of bark powder showed seven peaks with Rf values in the range with their Rf value Rf - 0.23 0.27 0.32, 0.38 0.54, 0.75 Component number 5 at 0.0.54 Rf showed maximum concentration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that HPTLC fingerprint analysis of bark powder extract of Symplocos racemosa can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and it is useful as a phytochemical marker and also a good estimator of genetic variability in plant populations.

  6. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapur, V P; Prabhakar, K R; Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Kandadi, Machendar Reddy; Ramakrishana, S; Mishra, B; Satish Rao, B S; Srinivasan, K K; Priyadarsini, K I; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol extract (FRE) and water extract (FRW) of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae) were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS(*-), hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC(50) comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79). Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy gamma-radiation resulted in a significant (P FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P FRE (20 mug/ml) 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy gamma-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  7. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veerapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract (FRE and water extract (FRW of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•-, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79. Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01 when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  8. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A.-M.; Neff, A.

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints. PMID:24062793

  9. Comportamento higroscópico de partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de L. O. C. e Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isotermas de dessorção de pimenta-de-macaco foram determinadas pelo método gravimétrico estático nas temperaturas de 35, 45 e 55 ºC, com umidade relativa variando de 5,5-81%. Três modelos matemáticos foram aplicados para analisar os dados experimentais. O modelo de GAB modificado apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais. O calor isostérico e a entropia diferencial foram determinados pela aplicação das equações de Clausius-Clapeyron e Gibbs-Helmholtz, respectivamente. O calor isostérico e a entropia da isoterma de dessorção apresentaram comportamento similar. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas indicando que o mecanismo de dessorção de umidade das partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco é controlado pela entalpia.

  10. Modeling below-ground biomass to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal forest product

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine J. Small; Simon J. Bonner; Elizabeth B. Hiebert

    2013-01-01

    Non-timber forest products, particularly herbaceous understory plants, support a multi-billion dollar industry and are extracted from forests worldwide for their therapeutic value. Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of...

  11. Cytotoxic effect of root extract of Tiliacora racemosa and oil of Semecarpus anacardium nut in human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sutapa; Roy, Madhumita; Taraphdar, Amit K; Bhattacharya, R K

    2004-08-01

    Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity. The alkaloid fraction from T. racemosa had maximum cytotoxicity and was effective against all four cell lines. S. anacardium oil was cytotoxic only in leukaemic cells. These herbal preparations were not cytotoxic towards normal human lymphocytes, suggesting their action is specific for tumour cells. On microscopic examination the cells treated with these agents exhibited characteristic morphological features of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Fluorescent staining with propidium iodide revealed distinct chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The apoptotic index paralleled the cytotoxic parameters, and fragmented DNA extracted free of genomic DNA from treated cells displayed a typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis induced by alkaloids and phenolics, the active principles present in T. racemosa and S. anacardium, respectively, was found to be mediated by the activation of caspases. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  13. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  14. Effects of variations in culture media and hormonal treatments upon callus induction potential in endosperm explant of Barringtonia racemosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul Izzati Osman; Norrizah Jaafar Sidik; Asmah Awal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To induce callus from the medicinally valuable species, Barringtonia racemosa L.(B. racemosa) whereby the formation of callus is essential for micropropagation studies and in vitro plant secondary metabolites production.Methods: The callus induction potential in B. racemosa was assessed from endosperm explant cultured on different culture media and plant hormonal treatments. Lloyd and Mc Cown’s woody plant medium and Murashige and Skoog’s medium were used in the study as culture media. On the other hand, various concentrations and combinations of2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(1.0–2.0 mg/L) and kinetin(0.5–2.5 mg/L) had been incorporated in the culture media to exert the effects of auxin and cytokinin on callus induction.Results: From the present study, it was found that the profuse [(1.681 ± 0.770) g fresh weight,(0.239 ± 0.239) g dry weight] and friable callus formation was optimally produced with desirable morphology and considerable percentage of callus induction(56.70%) in endosperm explants cultured on 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin in Murashige and Skoog’s medium.Conclusions: A reliable protocol for inducing callus formation of profuse and friable morphology in endosperm explant of B. racemosa had therefore been successfully established.

  15. Sneddon syndrome and the diagnostic value of skin biopsies - Three young patients with intracerebral lesions and livedo racemosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legierse, Catharina M.; Dijk, Marijke R. Canninga-Van; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A. F. M.; Kuck-Koot, Veronica C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by generalised livedo racemosa of the skin with extracutaneous neurological symptoms like headache, vertigo, transient ischaemic attacks (TIA), stroke, and seizures. Diagnosis of Sneddon syndrome is based on these clinical features and positive findi

  16. High levels of intra- and inter-individual polymorphism in the rDNA ITS1 of Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fama, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Procaccini, G

    2000-01-01

    The coenocytic green alga Caulerpa racemosa colonized the Mediterranean some time after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. For most of the past century it has remained confined to the southeastern Mediterranean, but over the past several years the species has been reported in abundance along the

  17. Preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon removal power of Caulerpa racemosa in seawater by means of infrared and visible spectroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroletti, Marco; Capobianchi, Alfredo; Ragosta, Emanuela; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2010-10-15

    In this paper we tested the power of Caulerpa racemosa for removal hydrocarbons from seawater. C. racemosa was implanted in two aquariums filled with natural seawater having a hydrocarbon content lower than 0.05mg/L which is the detection limit of the FTIR spectrophotometric method used for the determination. One aquarium was submitted to sequential additions of hydrocarbons (n-esadecane 10, 20 and 40mg/L, n-docosane 15mg/L) and diesel fuels (20mg/L) while the second one remained uncontaminated and used as control. After any addition, hydrocarbon content in seawater was determined at regular time intervals (one or two days) and when comparable hydrocarbon contents (i.e. lower than 0.05mg/L) were again observed, the real removal power of hydrocarbons was verified by several spectroscopic measurements performed on algae from both aquariums. Total hydrocarbon contents in algae determined by infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, always resulted higher in the polluted aquarium for all the concentrations of added pollutants. Further FTIR studies performed on algae showed the presence of marked quantitative and structural molecular modifications involving carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and chlorophyll pigments in C. racemosa from the aquarium test. In addition, visible (VIS) spectroscopic examination of C. racemosa showed a reduction of chlorophyll pigments in the polluted aquarium with respect to the control one. At last, FTIR spectra all the algal samples submitted to hydrocarbon pollution were re-examined by means of two-dimensional correlation analysis, a statistical tool helpful for studying the dynamic evolution of any molecular and biological system submitted to an external perturbation producing compositional and structural changes. This approach showed differences among the molecular modifications caused by any type of hydrocarbon used, modifications related reasonably to the molecular dimensions and concentration of the added pollutants. All these

  18. Influência do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides em leito com umidade controlada Influence of indolebutyric acid on "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides rooting bed under controlled humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae é conhecida no Brasil como alecrim-pimenta, um arbusto típico da vegetação do nordeste brasileiro. Este trabalho foi realizado no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, em Montes Claros, Brasil, com a finalidade de estudar a propagação vegetativa do alecrim-pimenta em leito de enraizamento com umidade controlada. Estacas da planta foram submetidas às seguintes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 mg L-1 durante 24 horas. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições, sendo dez estacas por repetição. Após 45 dias de implantação foram avaliados o número de raízes, o número de brotações, o comprimento da maior raiz, o índice de enraizamento e a porcentagem de enraizamento. Observou-se que as variáveis comprimento de raiz, número de raízes e índice de enraizamento apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as diversas concentrações de IBA. No entanto, a porcentagem de enraizamento não foi afetada significativamente, provavelmente pelo controle da umidade relativa e pela manutenção das folhas das estacas.The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae is known in Brazil as "alecrim-pimenta", a typical shrub from the Northeastern Brazil vegetation. This work was carried out in the Agronomical Sciences Institute from Minas Gerais State University (UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in order to study the vegetative propagation of this species in rooting bed under controlled humidity. Herbaceous cuttings were treated with the following concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg L-1 for 24 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five replicates of 10 cuttings each. After 45 days, root and sprout numbers, the highest root length, and rooting index and percentage were evaluated. Root length and number and rooting index had

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of marine halophyte Luminetzera racemosa bark extract in CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MurugesanGnanadesigan; SundaramRavikumar; SamuelJacobInbaneson

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To identify the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Luminetzera racemosa (L. racemosa )bark extract. Methods:Wistar albino rats were divided into 6 groups:Group 1 served as control;Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (CCL4 treated) group;Group 3 served as positive control (Silymarin) treated groups;Group 4, 5 and 6 served as (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw p.o.) L. racemosa bark extract treated groups. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant indexes, including DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), NO, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were also analyzed in the bark extract. Results:The results suggested that, the level of serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), bilurubin, cholesterol, sugar and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in hepatotoxin treated rats when compared with the control group. But, the maximum reduction of SGOT [(225.36±13.65) IU/L], SGPT [(96.85±17.36) IU/L], ALP [(315.37±17.16) IU/L], bilirubin [(2.97±0.46) mg/dL], cholesterol [(163.73±17.54) mg/dL], sugar [(127.35±27.35) mg/dL] and LDH [(1 784.00±268.36) IU/L] were observed with 300 mg/kg bw of bark extract treated rats. Histopathological scores showed that, no visible changes were observed with high dose (300 mg/kg bw) of bark extract treated rats except mild fatty changes. The in vitro antioxidant assays showed that, the IC50 values were observed as (44.17±6.87)μg/mL, (42.45±2.81)μg/mL, (62.37±3.98)μg/mL, (54.24±3.09)μg/mL, (87.25±5.90)μg/mL and (71.54±5.42)μg/mL for DPPH, HRSA, NO, FRAP, LPO and SOD radical scavenging activities, respectively. Conclusions:The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the bark extract might be to the presence of unique chemical classes such as flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenols.

  20. Leaf and fruit essential oil compositions of Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Carlos; Cicció, José F

    2015-03-01

    Pitnenta is a genus of flowering plants in the Myrtaceae family, which has about 15 species, mostly found in the Caribbean region of the Americas. Commonly used for culinary and medicinal purposes, the best known commercial species are allspice, P. dioica (P. officinalis) and bay rum, P. racemosa, but there is little information concerning P. guatemalensis. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical composition of the leaf and fruit essential oils ofP. guatemalensis. The extraction of essential oils of P. guatemalensis growing wild in Costa Rica was carried out by the hydrodistillation method at atmospheric pressure, using a modified Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatographyflame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using the retention indices on DB-5 type capillary column. A total of 103 and 63 compounds were identified in the leaf and fruit oils, respectively, corresponding to 96.8% and 86.1% of the total amount of the oils. The leaf oil consisted mainly of eugenol (72.8%), and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (18.2%). Among terpenes the major components were beta-caryophyllene (8.2%) and terpinolene (3.0%). The fruit oil also consisted mainly of eugenol (74.7%) and minor amounts of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes (7.3%), mainly caryophyllene oxide (3.3%). This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from this plant species.

  1. Allelopathic action essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenesAção alelopática de óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capimsanto na germinação de aquênios de alface

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    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alecrim-pimenta and the lemongrass produce secondary compounds that can be used in alternative management of weed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of the essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenes. It was used mature leaves of both species, and extracted the essential oil by distillation method of drag by water vapor. The bioassay was performed using achenes of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer and arranged in factorial scheme 5 x 2, being five concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% and two species of medicinal plants. It was used four replicates of 50 achenes. The oil of lemongrass was more detrimental to the germination of lettuce achenes when compared with the oil of alecrim-pimenta, being this effect dependent of the concentration. Germination of lettuce achenes treated with lemongrass oil declined by 34%, 12% and 75% for concentrations of 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.0%, respectively when compared with alecrim-pimenta oil. The germination speed index, the length and dry weight of hypocotyl and radicle of lettuce seedlings was compromised by the contact of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass oils. Although there were lettuce achenes germination treated with alecrim-pimenta oil, the percentage of abnormal seedlings was high, which compromises their survival in field.O alecrim-pimenta e o capim-santo produzem compostos secundários que podem ser utilizados no manejo alternativo de plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar o efeito alelopático dos óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capim-santo na geminação de aquênios de alface. Foram utilizadas folhas maduras de ambas as espécies, e extraído o óleo essencial pelo método de destilação de arraste por vapor de água. O bioensaio foi realizado utilizando aquênios de alface da cultivar crespa de verão e arranjado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco concentrações 0, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 e 1,0 % e duas

  2. Photosynthetic performance of mangroves Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa under field conditions Desempenho fotossintético de Rhizophora mangle e Laguncularia racemosa em condições de campo

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    Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In mature mangrove plants Rhizophora mangle L. and Laguncularia racemosa Gaerth. growing under field conditions, photosystem 2 (PS2 photochemical efficiency, determined by the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fν/Fm, increased during the day in response to salinity in the rainy seasons. During the dry season, fluorescence values (Fo were higher than those observed in rainy season. In addition, Fo decreased during the day in both season and species, except for R. mangle during the dry season. A positive correlation among Fν/Fm and salinity values was obtained for R. mangle and L. Racemosa during the dry and rainy seasons, showing that photosynthetic performance is maintained in both species under high salinities. Carotenoid content was higher in L. Racemosa in both seasons, which represents an additional mechanism against damage to the photosynthetic machinery. The chlorophyll content was not affected by salinity in either species.Em plantas adultas de Rhizophora mangle L. e Laguncularia racemosa Gaerth. crescendo em condições de campo, a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema 2 (FS2, determinada pela razão fluorescência variável : fluorescência máxima (Fν/Fm, aumentou durante o dia em resposta à salinidade, durante a estação chuvosa. Durante a estação seca, os valores de Fo foram superiores aos observados durante a estação chuvosa. Além disso, Fo reduziu-se ao longo do dia em ambas as estações e espécies, exceto para R. mangle durante a estação seca. Uma correlação positiva entre os valores de Fν/Fm e da salinidade foi obtida em R. mangle e L. racemosa durante as estações seca e chuvosa, mostrando que o desempenho fotossintético é mantido em ambas as espécies sob altas salinidades. O conteúdo de carotenóides foi maior em L. racemosa, em ambas as estações, representando um mecanismo adicional contra danos à maquinaria fotossintética. O conteúdo de clorofila não foi afetado pela salinidade das esp

  3. Antibacterial activity of Green Seaweed Caulerpa racemosa from Takalar Waters against pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice diseases in the agar-producing red algae Gracilaria verrucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah; Anshary, Hilal; Huyyirnah; Hiola, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The Ice-ice disease caused by bacterial pathogens which attack the algae tissue resulted white and brittle of seaweed thallus on red seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa farming. Study of antibacterial activity of green seaweed Caulerpa racemosa against the pathogens has been done using method include isolation of bacteria, pathogenicity test with Koch's postulates method, characterization of ice-ice bacteria, extraction of Caulerpa racemosa, and antibacterial test by agar diffusion method. The res...

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS AND FICUS RACEMOSA AQUOUES EXTRACTS

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    Krishna Murti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to develop a desired ointment for treatment of wound. Main objective of this study was to formulate the ointment with different ointment bases having good consistency, better diffusion and antiseptic properties. To assess the efficacy of uniformity, viscosity, diffusivity, rheology, stability, spreadability, permeability and other physical characteristics were evaluated. Two Formulations, formulation A (Aq. extract of Ficus racemosa and B (Aqueous extract of Ficus benghalensis were prepared with same bases. Both the Formulation A and B contains hard paraffin, cetostearyl alcohol, Light liquid paraffin and microcrystalline wax. Formulation B was found better than formulation A in all aspects like spreadability, viscosity, consistency, stability, diffusibility. In conclusion, it was clearly observed that Formulation B was better than formulation A.

  5. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

  6. Similaridade genética de populações naturais de pimenta-de-macaco por análise RAPD Genetic similarity of natural populations of pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. obtained throug RAPD analysis

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    José Maria D. Gaia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie conhecida como pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. possui grande potencial para exploração econômica em função da comprovada utilidade do seu óleo essencial na agricultura e saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de populações naturais dessa planta. Um total de dezoito acessos da planta, provenientes de quatro procedências da Amazônia Brasileira, foi examinado por meio de locos de DNA, gerados por análise RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso. O estudo evidenciou a existência de real diversidade entre as populações examinadas, sendo provável que dentro das localidades investigadas, os padrões da diversidade genética acompanhem os padrões de distribuição geográfica.The species known as pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. has great economic explotation potential based on the proved usefulness of the essential oil in agriculture and human health. The genetic diversity of their natural populations was characterized. A total of eighteen accessions of the plant, obtained from four different origins in the Brazilian Amazon, was examined by means of DNA loci, generated by RAPD analysis. Real genetic diversity was observed between the analyzed populations and it appear that the patterns of the genetic diversity follow the patterns of the geographical distribution.

  7. Estabelecimento de alecrim-pimenta in vitro In vitro establishment of Lippia sidoides Cham

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    Andréa S da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. é um arbusto nativo da região do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, cujo óleo essencial possui elevado valor comercial devido aos seus constituintes majoritários, o timol e o carvacrol, de potente propriedade antimicrobiana e anti-séptica. Avaliou-se os efeitos de concentrações e tempos de imersão em hipoclorito de sódio, de meios de cultivo e da utilização de antibiótico e antioxidantes no estabelecimento in vitro de alecrim-pimenta. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio e 8; 12; 16 e 20 minutos de imersão, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4; as concentrações 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mg L-1 do antibiótico cefatoxima sódica; os meios-de-cultura MS, B5 e WPM; e o efeito de antioxidantes (PVP: 0,5 e 2 g L-1; e carvão ativado: 3 e 12 g L-1. A concentração de 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio proporcionou um número significativamente maior (pLippia sidoides Cham. is a native shrub from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Its essential oil has high commercial value, due to the major compounds thymol and carvacrol, which have strong antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. The effect of concentrations and immersion time in sodium hypochlorite, culture media, the use of antibiotic and antioxidants on in vitro establishment of L. sidoides were evaluated. The assays were conducted in a completely randomized design. We evaluated the concentrations 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite and 8; 12; 16 and 20 minutes of immersion, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme; the concentrations 0; 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg L-1 of cefotaxime sodium; the medium cultures MS, B5 and WPM; and the effect of antioxidants (PVP: 0.5 and 2 g L-1; and activated charcoal: 3 and 12 g L-1. The concentration of 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.01 number of leaves per shoot: 1

  8. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Bartogenic Acid Isolated from Fruits of Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Lecythidaceae

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    Kalpesh Ramdas Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa are prescribed in the ayurvedic literature for the treatment of pain, inflammation and rheumatic conditions. In present investigation, activity guided isolation of bartogenic acid (BA and its evaluation in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis in rats is reported. Among the various extracts and fractions investigated preliminarily for carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats, the ethyl acetate fraction displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity. Large-scale isolation and characterization using chromatography and spectral study confirmed that the constituent responsible for the observed pharmacological effects was BA. Subsequently the BA was evaluated for effectiveness against CFA-induced arthritis in rats. The results indicate that at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o., BA protects rats against the primary and secondary arthritic lesions, body weight changes and haematological perturbations induced by CFA. The serum markers of inflammation and arthritis, such as C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor, were also reduced in the BA-treated arthritic rats. The overall severity of arthritis as determined by radiological analysis and pain scores indicated that BA exerts a potent protective effect against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In conclusion, the present study validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of B. racemosa in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. It further establishes the potent anti-arthritic effects of BA. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of BA in the treatment of various immuno-inflammatory disorders.

  9. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa fruit extracts in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line

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    Norliyana Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. Objective: This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and its antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total phenolic content (TPC were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin-Ciocalteu′s reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%. B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively. In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC 50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL compared to H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use.

  10. Bromatologia da pimenta malagueta in natura e processada em conserva Bromatology of fresh and processed chili pepper

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    Tiyoko NH Rebouças

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sendo uma das especiarias mais consumidas no mundo, a pimenta malagueta está presente na culinária brasileira há mais de 500 anos. A crescente procura do mercado interno e externo pelas pimentas provocou a expansão da área cultivada em vários estados brasileiros. Seus teores de vitamina C são superiores aos encontrados no pimentão e demais olerícolas. Obteve-se a caracterização físico-química da pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens in natura e processadas em conserva e, definiu-se, se após o processamento, a hortaliça apresentou perda na qualidade nutricional, para fornecer subsídios ao desenvolvimento da pesquisa tecnológica e divulgar a espécie. O estudo foi realizado no período de dezembro de 2010 a março de 2011, na UESB. Para a determinação das propriedades físico-químicas da matéria-prima foram avaliados o pH, acidez titulável e atividade de água (Aw. Da composição química foram determinados a umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteína bruta e vitamina C. Foram escolhidas pimentas in natura e processadas em conservas em estádio de maturação fisiológica completa (maduras, adquiridas dos produtores do Município de Barra do Choça-BA. As análises foram realizadas com três repetições. Foi realizada análise estatística dos dados que foram expressos como média e desvio padrão. Os resultados obtidos para amostras de pimenta in natura e processada para análise de atividade de água, pH e acidez foram (0,9893; 0,9832; (5,48; 3,76 e (0,0353%, 0,2046% respectivamente. Para umidade, lipídios, proteínas e cinzas foram (29,4%, 15,3%;(0,636%; 0,620%; (4,8%; 4,76% e (0,039%; 0,043% respectivamente e para a vitamina C 121,5 mg/100 g para a in natura e 14,5 mg/100 g para a processada. Conclui-se que, após o processamento, ocorreu perda considerável na qualidade nutricional da pimenta malagueta.Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens, which is one of the most widely consumed spices in the world, has been present in

  11. Atypical presentation of livedo racemosa in a factor V Leiden heterozygous positive patient with Pseudomonas aeruginosa urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jesse; Noakes, Rowland; Davidson, Kurt

    2016-11-12

    Impairment of the protein C pathway, detectable by reduced plasma levels of activated protein C (APC), are risk factors for venous thrombosis. Activated protein C maintains clotting homeostasis by regulation of pro-coagulant factors Va and VIIIa. Both infection and the factor V Leiden mutation reduce the formation of APC from protein C in the blood. With low levels of APC, excess factors Va and VIIIa exist, increasing the risk of thrombus formation. Livedo racemosa is characterised by a striking, violaceous branch-like pattering of the skin. It is similar to livedo reticularis, but with a different morphology and histopathology. In this case report we present the first case of livedo racemosa, in an 89-year-old factor V Leiden-positive patient with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection. The cutaneous biopsies demonstrated vasculopathy with intraluminal thrombi in subcutaneous vessels with no evidence of inflammatory vasculitis.

  12. Subtle effects of biological invasions: cellular and physiological responses of fish eating the exotic pest Caulerpa racemosa.

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    Serena Felline

    Full Text Available The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms. However, the understanding of how such invasion can potentially affect functional properties of Mediterranean subtidal systems is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that C. racemosa changes foraging habit of the native white seabream, Diplodus sargus. In invaded areas, we found a high frequency of occurrence of C. racemosa in the stomach contents of this omnivorous fish (72.7 and 85.7%, while the alga was not detected in fish from a control area. We also found a significant accumulation of caulerpin, one of the main secondary metabolites of C. racemosa, in fish tissues. The level of caulerpin in fish tissues was used here as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the invasive pest and related with observed cellular and physiological alterations. Such effects included activation of some enzymatic pathways (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, total glutathione and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, 7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase, the inhibition of others (acetylcholinesterase and acylCoA oxidase, an increase of hepatosomatic index and decrease of gonadosomatic index. The observed alterations might lead to a detrimental health status and altered behaviours, potentially preventing the reproductive success of fish populations. Results of this study revealed that the entering of alien species in subtidal systems can alter trophic webs and can represent an important, indirect mechanism which might contribute to influence fluctuations of fish stocks and, also, the effectiveness of protection regimes.

  13. Subtle effects of biological invasions: cellular and physiological responses of fish eating the exotic pest Caulerpa racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felline, Serena; Caricato, Roberto; Cutignano, Adele; Gorbi, Stefania; Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Mollo, Ernesto; Regoli, Francesco; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has invaded Mediterranean seabed including marine reserves, modifying the structure of habitats and altering the distributional patterns of associated organisms. However, the understanding of how such invasion can potentially affect functional properties of Mediterranean subtidal systems is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that C. racemosa changes foraging habit of the native white seabream, Diplodus sargus. In invaded areas, we found a high frequency of occurrence of C. racemosa in the stomach contents of this omnivorous fish (72.7 and 85.7%), while the alga was not detected in fish from a control area. We also found a significant accumulation of caulerpin, one of the main secondary metabolites of C. racemosa, in fish tissues. The level of caulerpin in fish tissues was used here as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the invasive pest and related with observed cellular and physiological alterations. Such effects included activation of some enzymatic pathways (catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, total glutathione and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, 7-ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase), the inhibition of others (acetylcholinesterase and acylCoA oxidase), an increase of hepatosomatic index and decrease of gonadosomatic index. The observed alterations might lead to a detrimental health status and altered behaviours, potentially preventing the reproductive success of fish populations. Results of this study revealed that the entering of alien species in subtidal systems can alter trophic webs and can represent an important, indirect mechanism which might contribute to influence fluctuations of fish stocks and, also, the effectiveness of protection regimes.

  14. Produtividade de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha cultivadas em sucessão a mucuna preta e feijão de porco

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    D.G. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso de adubos verdes e/ou de plantas de cobertura é uma técnica que vem sendo difundida para o cultivo de espécies medicinais, por garantir a sustentabilidade do solo agrícola, ser flexível em seu uso e por melhorar a atividade biológica do solo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o uso de culturas de cobertura para incrementar a produção de massa de plantas de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas tropicais (mucuna preta e feijão de porco como cobertura do solo e uma testemunha (sem cultura de cobertura e três espécies medicinais (vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. O experimento foi arranjado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as coberturas vegetais e nas subparcelas, as plantas medicinais. As plantas para a cobertura vegetal foram propagadas por semeadura direta no local de cultivo, enquanto as medicinais foram transplantadas diretamente entre a palhada da cobertura vegetal. A produção da mucuna preta foi de 8,37 t ha-1 de massa seca e do feijão de porco, de 14,37 t ha-1 de massa seca. O uso das culturas de cobertura contribuiu para uma maior biomassa microbiana do solo. As produções de massas frescas de folhas, caules e frutos de vinagreira e de frutos da pimenta rosa foram maiores quando cultivadas em sucessão às coberturas vegetais do solo, independente da espécie. As produções da carobinha foram semelhantes quando cultivadas em áreas com ou sem a cobertura. Visando à maior produtividade da vinagreira e pimenta rosa, são indicadas as culturas antecessoras feijão de porco e mucuna preta.

  15. Protective effect of tannins from Ficus racemosa in hypercholesterolemia and diabetes induced vascular tissue damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Velayutham Ravichandiran; Sankaradoss Nirmala; KFH Nazeer Ahamed

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the protective effect of tannins fromFicus racemosa (F. racemosa) on the lipid profile and antioxidant parameters in high fat mealand streptozotocin induced hypercholestremia associated diabetes model in rats.Methods: The crude tannin fraction was separated from the acetone (70% v/v) bark extract ofF. racemosa. Oral administration of tannin fraction (TF) (100 & 200 mg/kg body weight) to rats fed with high fat meal for30days (4%cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 0.5% egg albumin) and injected with streptozotocin(35mg/kg i.p. in citrate buffer on14th day).Results: The administration ofTF significantly reverse the increased blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and also significantly restored the insulin and high density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition tannins significantly restored the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreased the, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, thereby restoring the antioxidant status of the organs to almost normal levels.Conclutions:The results of this study show that two different doses of tannin supplementation had a favorable effect on plasma glucose and lipid profile concentrations. It also had an influence on attenuating oxidative stress in diabetic tats.

  16. One new and six known triterpene xylosides from Cimicifuga racemosa: FT-IR, Raman and NMR studies and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamróz, Marta K.; Jamróz, Michał H.; Cz. Dobrowolski, Jan; Gliński, Jan A.; Gleńsk, Michał

    One new and six known triterpene xylosides were isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh, Actaea racemosa). The structure of a new compound, designated as isocimipodocarpaside (1), was established to be (24S)-3β-hydroxy-24,25-oxiirane-16,23-dione-9,10-seco-9,19-cyclolanost-1(10),7(8),9(11)-trien 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, by means of 1H and 13C NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopies and Mass Spectrometry. The six known compounds are: 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside (2), 23-epi-26-deoxyactein (3), 25-anhydrocimigenol xyloside (4), 23-O-acetylshengmanol xyloside (5), 25-O-acetylcimigenol xyloside (6) and 3'-O-acetylcimicifugoside H-1 (7). On the basis of NMR data supported by DFT calculations of NMR shielding constants of (2), its structure, previously described as 26-deoxycimicifugoside was corrected and determined as 23-epi-26-deoxycimicifugoside. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of the studied compounds (1)-(7) provided data on their solid-state interactions. The IR and Raman spectra in the Cdbnd O, Cdbnd C, and Csbnd H stretching vibration regions clearly discriminate different triterpenes found in C. racemosa.

  17. Chromosomal stickiness and related meiotic irregularities in Inula racemosa - a critically endangered medicinal herb of North Western Himalayas

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    Peerzada Arshid Shabir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The species Inula racemosa, a rare species of Kashmir Himalaya, has been included in the list of endangered species of India. In the present study, we aimed to make a more formal quantitative analysis of the fertility of I. racemosa, wild as well as transplanted populations, using a meiotic behaviour analysis and pollen viability test. Materials and Methods: Inflorescences at an ideal stage for meiotic study were collected and fixed in acetic ethanol (1:3 for 24 h and stored in 70% alcohol under refrigeration at 4˚C until use. For slide preparation the anthers were squashed in 2% acetocarmine. Results: The present study revealed a peculiar chromosomal stickiness and formation of interbivalent chromatin connections among 2-4 bivalents. This stickiness of chromosomes along with interbivalent chromatin connections impairs the correct segregation of chromosomes, as a result single and double chromosomal bridges of different thickness, different number of lagging chromosomes, unequal separation, and multipolarity were continuously observed from anaphase I to microspore stage. Consequent to stickiness and associated meiotic abnormalities, the pollen grains varied greatly in size, individuals show 24.05-38.83% pollen sterility. Conclusion: The presence of sticky chromosomes in I. racemosa impairs the correct segregation during anaphase which compromises the pollen viability of the species. Although the percentage of pollen sterility was not completely concord to the high rates of observed chromosomal abnormalities but the findings can aid in the successful conservation and management of the species.

  18. Influência das características do ar na cinética de secagem de pimenta variedade bico

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    Douglas Rodrigues dos Reis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA pimenta bico, pertencente à espécie Capsicum chinense, é muito utilizada na culinária brasileira no preparo de diversos pratos e também em conservas. Por se tratar de um alimento altamente perecível, faz-se necessária a utilização de métodos para a sua conservação, destacando-se o processo de secagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar e analisar a cinética de secagem da pimenta bico em diferentes condições de temperatura e velocidade do ar de secagem. A pimenta foi submetida ao processo de secagem por meio de um secador de bandejas em camada delgada, com velocidade do ar de secagem controlada a 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 m/s e temperatura de 40, 50 e 60 °C. As pimentas foram colocadas no interior do equipamento em bandejas removíveis de aço inoxidável e as amostras, pesadas periodicamente até o equilíbrio ser atingindo. Os modelos matemáticos de Page, Henderson e Pabis, Midilli e Kucuk, Thompson e Aproximação da difusão foram ajustados aos dados experimentais. O melhor ajuste foi determinado em função dos maiores valores do coeficiente de determinação (R2, menores valores de desvio médio relativo (P e do erro médio estimado (SE. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a secagem da pimenta é influenciada pela velocidade e temperatura do ar de secagem, visto que quanto maior a temperatura do ar de secagem, mais rapidamente obtém-se o equilíbrio de umidade das amostras. O modelo de Midilli e Kucuk foi o que se ajustou melhor aos dados experimentais. Os valores de difusividade efetiva encontrados variam de 1,65 × 10–10 a 5,01 × 10–10 m2/s e a energia de ativação varia de 98,42 a 108,13 kJ/mol.

  19. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

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    Fabio Firenzuoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European Medicines Agency (EMEA and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107 and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107 to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  20. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of isoalantolactone,a major sesquiterpene lactone of Inula racemosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Isoalantolactone,a major constituent of Inula racemosa (Compositae) was tested for its antimicrobial action against five bacteria,six human and six plant pathogenic fungi. The lactone showed absolute toxicities at 500 mg/mL against 3 soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici,Rhizoctonia cerealis and Phytophthora capsici) with the MICs determined to be 100,100 and 300 mg/mL,respectively. At the MICs,isoalantolactone exhibited its fungistatic nature of toxicity. The lowest fungicidal concentrations of the lactone to G. graminis var. tritici,R. cerealis and P. capsici were shown to be 150,150 and 350 mg/mL,respectively. Moreover,isoalantolactone displayed weaker antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas fluorecense,Sarcina lentus and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 125,425,150,150 and 100 mg/mL,respectively. The investigation disclosed the strong inhibition of isoalantolactone to the phytopathogenic fungi,raising a possibility that the lactone could be considered as a starting point for the project aiming at the development of new fungicide(s).

  2. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L. C.F. Gaertn.

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    Caroline Fabri Bittencourt Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH and hydroalcoholic (HA extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L. C.F. Gaertn. leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn. Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications.

  3. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

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    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  4. Inheritance of malate dehydrogenase in wild pepper Herança da malato desidrogenase em pimenta-silvestre

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    ADILSON RICKEN SCHUELTER

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf extracts from wild pepper (Capsicum flexuosum Sendt were analysed for the presence of malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37; MDH isozymes using starch gel electrophoresis. Seven phenotypes for MDH isozymes were observed in the genitors. Genetic analysis in F1 progenies revealed five loci coding for MDH. Isozyme banding patterns of hybrids indicated that MDH-3 and MDH-4 genes code for monomeric enzymes, while MDH-5 for a dimeric isoform. In MDH-2 loci, one particular F1 progeny showed a significant deviation from the expected isozyme pattern. It is possible that other genes are controlling the expression of MDH-2 in pepper. Also, there are two alleles coding for MDH-2 isozyme. On the other hand, MDH-1 was monomorphic for all genotypes used in the experiment.Extratos de folhas de pimenta silvestre (Capsicum flexuosum Sendt foram analisados para a presença do sistema isoenzimático malato desidrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37; MDH, usando a técnica eletroforese em gel de amido hidrolisado. Sete fenótipos de malato desidrogenase foram observados entre os genitores. As análises de segregação em progênies F1 revelaram que cinco locos gênicos estavam envolvidos na codificação de MDH. Os padrões de bandeamento dos híbridos indicaram que os genes MDH-3 e MDH-4 codificavam para enzimas monoméricas, enquanto o MDH-5, para uma isoforma dimérica. Para o loco MDH-2, detectou-se desvio significativo para proporção de segregação esperada. Outros genes podem estar controlando a expressão de MDH-2 em pimenta. Como nos outros locos MDH, detectaram-se dois alelos codificando para MDH-2. Por outro lado, o MDH-1 foi monomórfico para todos os genótipos avaliados no experimento.

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Two Chemotypes of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues; Costa, Maysa P; Diniz, Danielle Guimarães Almeida; Sá, Fabyola A S; Alves, Suzana Ferreira; Costa, Elson Alves; Lino, Roberta Campos; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Preparations from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae) have been widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extracts, fractions, semipurified substances, and essential oils obtained from leaves of two chemotypes of P. pseudocaryophyllus and to perform the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening. The ethanol extracts were purified by column chromatography and main compounds were spectrally characterised (1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR). The essential oils constituents were identified by GC/MS. The broth microdilution method was used for testing the antimicrobial activity. The abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and the ear oedema induced by croton oil were used for screening of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes, flavonoids, and phenol acids. The oleanolic acid showed the best profile of antibacterial activity for Gram-positive bacteria (31.2-125 μg mL(-1)), followed by the essential oil of the citral chemotype (62.5-250 μg mL(-1)). Among the semipurified substances, Ppm5, which contained gallic acid, was the most active for Candida spp. (31.2 μg mL(-1)) and Cryptococcus spp. (3.9-15.6 μg mL(-1)). The crude ethanol extract and fractions from citral chemotype showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Two Chemotypes of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae

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    Joelma Abadia Marciano de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae have been widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extracts, fractions, semipurified substances, and essential oils obtained from leaves of two chemotypes of P. pseudocaryophyllus and to perform the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening. The ethanol extracts were purified by column chromatography and main compounds were spectrally characterised (1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR. The essential oils constituents were identified by GC/MS. The broth microdilution method was used for testing the antimicrobial activity. The abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and the ear oedema induced by croton oil were used for screening of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes, flavonoids, and phenol acids. The oleanolic acid showed the best profile of antibacterial activity for Gram-positive bacteria (31.2–125 μg mL−1, followed by the essential oil of the citral chemotype (62.5–250 μg mL−1. Among the semipurified substances, Ppm5, which contained gallic acid, was the most active for Candida spp. (31.2 μg mL−1 and Cryptococcus spp. (3.9–15.6 μg mL−1. The crude ethanol extract and fractions from citral chemotype showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced.

  8. Resolving phenotypic plasticity and species designation in the morphologically challenging Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex (Chlorophyta, Caulerpaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Gareth S; van Reine, Willem F Prud'homme; Huisman, John M; Draisma, Stefano G A; D Gurgel, Carlos Frederico

    2014-02-01

    Although recent molecular studies have indicated the presence of a number of distinct species within the Caulerpa racemosa-peltata complex, due to the difficulties presented by high levels of phenotypic plasticity and the large number of synonyms, infra-specific taxa, and names of uncertain affinity, taxonomic proposals are yet to be made. In this study, we aimed to resolve the taxonomy of the complex and provide an example of how historical nomenclature can best be integrated into molecular based taxonomies. We accomplished this by first determining the number of genetic species within our globally sampled data set through a combination of phylogenetic and species-delimitation approaches of partial elongation factor TU and RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Guided by these results, comparative morphological examinations were then undertaken to gauge the extent of phenotypic plasticity within each species, as well as any morphological overlap between them. Our results revealed the presence of 11 distinct species within the complex, five of which showed high levels of phenotypic plasticity and partial overlap with other species. On the basis of observations of a large number of specimens, including type specimens/descriptions, and geographic inferences, we were able to confidently designate names for the lineages. Caulerpa peltata, C. imbricata and C. racemosa vars. laetevirens, occidentalis and turbinata were found to represent environmentally induced forms of a single species, for which the earlier-described C. chemnitzia, previously regarded as a synonym of C. racemosa var. turbinata, is reinstated. C. cylindracea, C. lamourouxii, C. macrodisca, C. nummularia and C. oligophylla are also reinstated and two new species, C. macra stat. nov. and C. megadisca sp. nov., are proposed.

  9. The Cimicifuga racemosa special extract BNO 1055 prevents hot flashes in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Priya; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2010-09-01

    Hot flashes are a disorder of thermoregulation due to the lack of estrogens and are the most common and characteristic climacteric complaint. Hormone replacement therapy is the gold standard treatment but now its use is limited due to several side effects. Need therefore arises to search for non-estrogenic alternatives. It is well established that extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) ease climacteric complaints but solid animal experimental data supporting such effects are not available. The availability of sensitive transponders which record subcutaneous temperature continuously enables nowadays experiments in rats to establish whether they have hot flashes following ovariectomy (Seidlova-Wuttke et al. 2003) and if so, whether they can be influenced by the extract of CR BNO 1055. Intact Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were acclimatized and their subcutaneous body temperature was measured in 5 min intervals and mean values from 3h recordings were calculated. Thereafter, the rats were ovx and fed either with soy free (sf) or CR BNO 1055 (25 mg/animal/day) food. Temperature was recorded again after acute and sub-acute application of CR. In individual intact animals temperature was stable over the 3h recording period. Following ovx temperature pulses appeared with peaks occurring every 20-40 min. These fluctuations were not seen in CR BNO 1055 treated animals resulting in significantly higher mean temperatures in ovx in comparison to intact or ovx CR BNO treated rats. This reduction of hot flashes by BNO 1055 outlasted the experimental period of 3 weeks. These results suggest that the ovx rats and the new temperature-sensitive device may be useful for the study of hot flashes. Furthermore the results prove that the CR BNO 1055 exerts hot flash reducing effects.

  10. Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. A new 5-HT(7) bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new two-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by (1)H NMR using a structure-based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. A new CA was characterised. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT(7) ligand, N(omega)-methylserotonin. This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ácido giberélico na produção de frutos partenocárpicos de pimenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofanelli Mauro Brasil Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sementes em frutos, dependendo da espécie, pode ser dispensável ou até mesmo indesejável ao consumo e à culinária, como seria o caso, por exemplo, de algumas pimentas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 na produção e nas características de frutos partenocárpicos em plantas de pimenta "escabeche" (Capsicum baccatum L.. A semeadura foi realizada em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e o plantio das mudas em estrutura plástica com irrigação por gotejamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 700; 1.400 e 2.800 mg L-1 de GA3. Foram feitas duas aplicações de GA3: a primeira quando as plantas estavam em plena floração e a segunda aos 10 dias após a primeira aplicação. Observou-se que o GA3 favoreceu a produção de frutos partenocárpicos (94,6% com 2.100 mg L-1 de GA3, diminuiu a produção de frutos (87,1 g fruto/planta com 2.250 mg L-1 de GA3, aumentou a altura da planta (168,0 cm com 2.450 mg L-1 de GA3, porém, prejudicou as características comerciais dos frutos. É possível produzir frutos partenocárpicos com a aplicação de GA3 em pimenta "escabeche", porém esta técnica não foi agronomicamente viável.

  12. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  13. Preferência hospedeira e desempenho do ácaro branco em pimenta malagueta e em plantas espontâneas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiguachi, Juliana Andrea Martinez

    2014-01-01

    O ácaro-branco, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), destaca-se por ser praga polifaga, cosmopolita e ter sido encontrada atacando várias culturas de importância mundial entre elas o cultivo de Capsicum frutescens pimenta- malagueta. Devido aos danos causados os agricultores incorrem em práticas inadequadas na tentativa de controle desta praga. Desta forma, há a necessidade de se encontrar alternativas ao controle da praga para diminuir os danos causados. A manutençã...

  14. Ethanolic extract of Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) potentiates bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, B Y; Lau, K S; Jiang, B; Kennelly, E J; Kronenberg, F; Kung, A W C

    2008-09-01

    Aceaea racemosa (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh, AR) extracts have been widely used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Recent evidences suggest AR extracts are also effective in protecting against postmenopausal bone loss. To determine whether AR has any direct anabolic effect on osteoblasts, we investigated the ethanolic extract of AR on bone nodule formation in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. AR did not stimulate osteoblast proliferation. Rather, at high doses of 1000 ng/mL for 48 h, AR suppressed (7.2+/-0.9% vs. control) osteoblast proliferation. At 500 ng/mL, a significant increase in bone nodule formation was seen with Von Kossa staining. Using quantitative PCR analysis, AR was shown to enhance the gene expression of runx2 and osteocalcin. Co-treatment with ICI 182,780, the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, abolished the stimulatory effect of AR on runx2 and osteocalcin gene induction, as well as on bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. This is a first report of the direct effect of AR on enhancement of bone nodule formation in osteoblasts, and this action was mediated via an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. The results provide a scientific rationale at the molecular level for the claim that AR can offer effective prevention of postmenopausal bone loss.

  15. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE and stem (BSE from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80% at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage.

  16. A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

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    Norma Elizabeth Moreno-Anzúrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetically transformed hairy root line LRT 7.31 obtained by infecting leaf explants of Lopezia racemosa Cav with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834/pTDT, was evaluated to identify the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic compounds reported previously for the wild plant. After several subcultures of the LRT 7.31 line, the bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane–methanol (1:1 extract obtained from dry biomass afforded a fraction that showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory, and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Chemical separation of the active fraction allowed us to identify the triterpenes ursolic (1 and oleanolic (2 acids, and (23R-2α,3β,23,28-tetrahydroxy-14,15-dehydrocampesterol (3 as the anti-inflammatory principles of the active fraction. A new molecule 3 was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of its tetraacetate derivative 3a. This compound was not described in previous reports of callus cultures, in vitro germinated seedlings and wild plant extracts of whole L. racemosa plants. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities displayed by the fraction are associated to the presence of compounds 1–3. The present study reports the obtaining of the transformed hairy roots, the bioguided isolation of the new molecule 3, and its structure characterization.

  17. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

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    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  18. Estrogen-like effect of a Cimicifuga racemosa extract sub-fraction as assessed by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, P; Mastrangelo, S; Perrone, F; Evandri, M G

    2007-01-01

    Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) is used in the treatment of painful menstruation and menopausal symptoms. Data about the nature of the active compounds and mechanism(s) of action are still controversial, chiefly with respect to its estrogenic activity. This work aimed to assess the possible estrogenic activity of a commercial dry hydro-alcoholic extract of C. racemosa and its hydrophilic and lipophilic sub-fractions on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro assays. In a yeast estrogen screen, only the lipophilic sub-fraction was able to activate the human estrogen receptor alpha, with a lower potency but comparable efficacy to that of 17 beta-estradiol. Neither the total extract nor the lipophilic sub-fraction showed an in vivo uterotrophic effect in 21-day-old rats. Uterine tissues obtained ex vivo from C. racemosa treated animals were generally much less sensitive to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin than tissues obtained from estradiol valerate treated rats. The lipophilic sub-fraction, instead, induced a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the in vitro response to oxytocin, prostaglandin F(2alpha,) and bradykinin of uterine horns from naïve 28-day-old rats, with a potency rate close to 1:30 of that of 17 beta-estradiol. Reported results confirm the effectiveness of C. racemosa in menstrual distress and further emphasize the possibility that lipophilic constituents bind to an as yet not identified estrogen receptor, likely inversely involved in inflammation.

  19. Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus andCulex gelidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanayairam Velayutham; Chinnadurai Siva; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Selvaraj Mohana Roopan; Gandhi Elango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Sampath Marimuthu; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Moorthy Iyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous bark extract ofFicus racemosa (F. racemosa) was tested against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector,Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and japanese encephalitis vectors,Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus).Methods:The synthesizedAgNPs was characterized byUV-vis spectrum,X-ray diffraction (XRD),Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) andFourier transform infrared (FTIR).The larvicidal activities were assessed for24 h against the larvae ofCx. quinquefasciatus andCx. gelidus with varying concentrations of aqueous bark extract ofF. racemosa and synthesizedAgNPs.LC50 andr2 values were calculated.Results:The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous extract ofF. racemosa against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus andCx. gelidus (LC50=67.72 and63.70 mg/L;r2=0.995 and0.985) and the synthesizedAgNPs (LC50=12.00 and11.21 mg/L;r2=0.997 and0.990), respectively.SynthesizedAg NPs showed theXRD peaks at2θ values of27.61,29.60,35.48,43.48 and79.68were identified as (210), (121), (220), (200) and (311) reflections, respectively.TheFTIR spectra ofAgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at3425,2878,1627 and1382 in the region500-3000 cm-1.The peaks correspond to the presence of a stretching vibration of (NH)C=O group.SEM analysis showed shape in cylindrical, uniform and rod with the average size of250.60 nm.Conclusions:The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract ofF. racemosa and its larvicidal activity against the larvae of disease spreading vectors.The maximum larvicidal efficacy was observed in the synthesizedAgNPs.

  20. Produtividade da pimenta-do-reino em função de doses de esterco bovino Yield of black pepper submitted to different levels of cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o estado da Paraíba tenha mostrado certa aptidão para o cultivo da pimenta-do-reino, sendo possível recomendá-la como alternativa de diversificação agrícola, não existe qualquer recomendação de adubação para a espécie. Este trabalho foi realizado na UFPB, em Areia, PB, e teve como objetivo avaliar genótipos de pimenta-do-reino adubados com doses crescentes de esterco bovino, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator representado pelas doses de esterco (0; 4; 8; 12 e 16 kg planta-1 e o segundo pelos genótipos (Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, com quatro repetições. A pimenta-do-reino respondeu positivamente ao emprego de esterco bovino, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Areia. As máximas produções de pimenta verde por planta, dos genótipos Bragantina (1012 g, Iaçará (1269 g e Cingapura (627 g, foram obtidas com as doses estimadas de 7,3; 8,6 e 7,0 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente. Para produção da pimenta seca, as doses estimadas em 6,5; 8,9 e 7,8 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produções correspondendo a 358, 793 e 204 g planta-1 para os genótipos Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, respectivamente.Although Paraíba State, has shown aptitude for black pepper cultivation, being possible to recommend it as an alternative for agricultural diversification in that area, no recommendation for black pepper crop fertilization exists. This research was conducted at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate black pepper genotypes submitted to increasing levels of cattle manure. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with treatments in the factorial 5 x 3 scheme. The first factor was represented by cattle manure levels (0; 4; 8; 12; and 16 kg plant-1 and the second factor, by the black pepper genotypes (Iaçará, Cingapura and

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of Caulerpa racemosa var peltata polysaccharide and its selenizing product on T lymphocytes and NK cells in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN WeiZai; WANG Hui; GUO GuoQing; TUO JingJing

    2008-01-01

    A polysaccharide, CrvpPS, was isolated from Caulerpa racemosa vat peltata. It was reacted with nano-selenium in distilled water containing ascorbic acid (Vit C) to form a stable CrvpPS-nano-Se complex. The immunomodulatory effects of CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se on T lymphocytes subgroups and NK cells in mice were investigated. After intragastric administration for 10 days separately, both CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se showed significant stimulatory functions to thymus gland of mice. Moreover, the CrvpPS-nano-Se induced the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, NK cells and the CD4+/CD8+ value to increase significantly (P<0.05) when analyzed by flow cytometry, which is better than the CrvpPS, sucrose-nano-Se, and even the positive drug levamisole.

  2. Immunomodulatory effects of Caulerpa racemosa var peltata polysaccharide and its selenizing product on T lymphocytes and NK cells in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A polysaccharide, CrvpPS, was isolated from Caulerpa racemosa var peltata. It was reacted with nano-selenium in distilled water containing ascorbic acid (Vit C) to form a stable CrvpPS-nano-Se complex. The immunomodulatory effects of CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se on T lymphocytes subgroups and NK cells in mice were investigated. After intragastric administration for 10 days separately, both CrvpPS and CrvpPS-nano-Se showed significant stimulatory functions to thymus gland of mice. Moreover, the CrvpPS-nano-Se induced the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, NK cells and the CD4+/CD8+ value to increase significantly (P<0.05) when analyzed by flow cytometry, which is better than the CrvpPS, sucrose-nano-Se, and even the positive drug levamisole.

  3. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial Efeito da pimenta vermelha nos sintomas de pacientes com fissuras anais agudas

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    Pravin J. Gupta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. AIM: To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. METHODS: Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group. The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group. Patient’s mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. CONCLUSION: Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.RACIONAL: A pimenta vermelha e outras especiarias têm sido responsabilizadas por agravar a sintomatologia das doenças anais, tais como fissuras e hemorróidas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se o consumo de pimentas vermelhas aumentaria os sintomas em fissuras anais agudas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram recrutados e randomizados para receber cápsulas contendo pimenta ou placebos por 1 semana, somadas a analgésicos e suplementos de fibras. Foi solicitado que anotassem um escore de sintomas, tais como dor, queimação anal, prurido durante o per

  4. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum sp. sobre quatro bactérias toxinfectivas alimentares In vitro antibacterial activity of hot and sweet peppers (Capsicum sp. on four food toxinfective bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se in vitro a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB, através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos, de extratos de oito pimentas do gênero Capsicum, etnograficamente acessadas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS/BR, frente a inóculos bacterianos padronizados (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, respectivamente Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076 e Escherichia coli (11229, em doses-desafio = 10(7 UFC mL-1. Quatro destas plantas, pimenta calabresa ("pool" Capsicum sp, pimenta-de-jardim (C.annuum, pimenta dedo-de-moça (C. baccatum e pimenta malagueta (C. frutescens, apresentaram atividades de inibição e inativação seletivas, em ordem decrescente, para salmonela, coliforme fecal, enterococo e estafilococo. As demais, pimenta cambuci (C. baccatum e os pimentões (C. annuum amarelo, verde e vermelho, apresentaram nenhuma atividade. Discute-se a validade da ferramenta etnográfica na prospecção de fatores de proteção anti-bacteriana em plantas, bem como a influência da inibição/inativação na preditividade do diagnóstico bacteriológico.The intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and the intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB of extracts of eight peppers of the genus Capsicum, ethnographically located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were assessed in vitro through Dilution Tests in Multiple Tube Series against standardized bacterial inocula (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076, and Escherichia coli (11229, respectively, at challenge doses = 10(7 CFU mL-1. Four of these species, cayenne pepper (Capsicum sp pool, garden pepper (C. annuum, ají pepper (C. baccatum, and malagueta pepper (C. frutescens, had

  5. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  6. Efficacité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon citratus et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha piperita in ... Mentha piperita essential oil has menthol (46.7%) and neomenthol (8.28%) as major ..... Tunisian Thymus capitus Hoff. et Link. ... vulgaris (L) and Pimenta racemosa.

  7. Antimicrobial and physico-chemical effects of essential oils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... extracted from local plants Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. and Pimenta racemosa ... Based on the MICs determined, essential oils were added to fermented milk and ... and preservatives are applied to reach this purpose.

  8. Caulerpa racemosa: a marine green alga for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its catalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Kamal, Chennappan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple and green method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa) as a reducing and capping agent. The formation and stability of AgNPs were studied using visual observation and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) methods. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed a sharp surface plasmon resonance peak at 441 nm in the visible region and they have extended stability which has been confirmed by the UV-Vis spectroscopic results. XRD result revealed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and they are mainly oriented in (111) plane. FT-IR studies proved that the phytoconstituents of C. racemosa protect the AgNPs from aggregation and also which are responsible for the high stability. The size of synthesized AgNPs was approximately 25 nm with distorted spherical shape, identified from the HR-TEM images. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent catalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue.

  9. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO COMO FORMA DE CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves na sua cadeia produtiva é a ocorrência de perdas consideráveis dos frutos após a colheita, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas para a sua conservação pós-colheita. Desta forma, objetivou-se desenvolver extrato de pimenta-biquinho como forma de conservação da hortaliça e disponibilizar matéria-prima para a elaboração de produtos derivados, com alto valor agregado, principalmente em períodos de entressafra. Para o preparo do extrato, as pimentas foram lavadas, sanitizadas, branqueadas (80oC/3min, trituradas e concentradas até 12oBrix. Avaliou-se o rendimento, extrato seco, umidade, pH, acidez  titulável, oBrix, cor (L*, a*, b*, índices chroma e hue, teor de vitamina C e carotenoides, contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, mesófilos aeróbios, bactérias láticas, coliformes totais e termotolerantes e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., durante 90 dias de armazenamento.  Não houve variação de umidade, extrato seco, oBrix e  acidez  mas, observou-se  variação do pH. Os valores de L* indicaram baixa luminosidade e os valores de a* e b* indicaram a tendência do extrato para coloração vermelha e amarela. A concentração de vitamina C e de carotenoides foi considerável e, estável. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,0 a 4,1 Log UFC/g e de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,3 Log UFC/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de bactérias láticas foi <1,0 Log UFC/g, de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP/g e constatou-se ausência de Salmonella sp. em 25 g do extrato. O extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma excelente alternativa para o processamento da hortaliça em períodos de entressafra e para prevenção de perda de matéria-prima pela agroindústria e em outras indústrias que

  10. Pronounced genetic differentiation and recent secondary contact in the mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa revealed by population genomic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Yang, Yuchen; Chen, Qipian; Fang, Lu; He, Ziwen; Guo, Wuxia; Qiao, Sitan; Wang, Zhengzhen; Guo, Miaomiao; Zhong, Cairong; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Systematically investigating the impacts of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations on mangrove plants may provide a better understanding of their demographic history and useful information for their conservation. Therefore, we conducted population genomic analyses of 88 nuclear genes to explore the population dynamics of a mangrove tree Lumnitzera racemosa across the Indo-West Pacific region. Our results revealed pronounced genetic differentiation in this species between the populations from the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which may be attributable to the long-term isolation between the western and eastern coasts of the Malay Peninsula during sea-level drops in the Pleistocene glacial periods. The mixing of haplotypes from the two highly divergent groups was identified in a Cambodian population at almost all 88 nuclear genes, suggesting genetic admixture of the two lineages at the boundary region. Similar genetic admixture was also found in other populations from Southeast Asia based on the Bayesian clustering analysis of six nuclear genes, which suggests extensive and recent secondary contact of the two divergent lineages in Southeast Asia. Computer simulations indicated substantial migration from the Indian Ocean towards the South China Sea, which likely results in the genetic admixture in Southeast Asia. PMID:27380895

  11. Fragmentation Effects on Diversity of Wasp Community and Its Impact on Fig/Fig Wasp Interaction in Ficus racemosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Wu WANG; Cheng-Yun YANG; Gui-Fang ZHAO; Jun-Xing YANG

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation usually results in alteration of species composition or biological communities. However, little is known about the effect of habitat fragmentation on the fig/fig wasp system.In this study, we compared the structure of a fig wasp community and the interaction between figs and fig wasps of Ficus racemosa L. in a primary forest, a locally fragmented forest and a highly fragmented forest.Our results show that, in the highly fragmented forest, the proportion of pollinator wasps is lower and the proportion of non-pollinator wasps is higher compared with the primary forest and locally fragmented forest. The proportion of fruits without pollinator wasps in mature fruits is also greatly increased in the highly fragmented forest. The proportion of galls in all female flowers increases in the highly fragmented forest, whereas the proportion of viable seeds does not change considerably. The disruption of groups of fig trees results in a decrease in pollinator wasps and even might result in the extinction of pollinator wasps in some extreme cases, which may transform the reciprocal interaction between figs and fig wasps into a parasite/host system. Such an effect may lead to the local extinction of this keystone plant resource of rain forests in the process of evolution, and thereby, may change the structure and function of the tropical rain forest.

  12. Investigation of the Key Pharmacological Activities of Ficus racemosa and Analysis of Its Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC-DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Salma Akter; Siraj, Md. Afjalus; Hossain, Amir; Mia, Md. Sagir; Afrin, Seagufta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress leads to numerous physiological disorders including infectious diseases, inflammation, and cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity of methanol crude extract of leaves and fruits of the Ficus racemosa (LCME and FCME, resp.) and to analyse its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC-DAD. Methods. Antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenolic, total flavonoid, total tannin content assay, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenols were done by HPLC-DAD method. Antibacterial activity was tested by “disc diffusion” method. Brine shrimp lethality assay was carried out to check the cytotoxic potential. Result. Both LCME and FCME showed DPPH scavenging ability and concentration dependent reducing power activity. They had phenolic content, flavonoid content, and tannin content. Both the extracts showed superoxide radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability. HPLC analysis of LCME and FCME indicated the presence of significant amount of gallic acid along with other phenolic constituents. Conclusion. Significant amount of gallic acid along with other phenolic constituents might have played an important role in the observed antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity. PMID:28105059

  13. Modelagem matemática da secagem da pimenta Cumari do Pará Mathematical modeling of drying kinetics of pepper Cumarí do Pará

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    Renata C. Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar e modelar as curvas de secagem da pimenta Cumari do Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui, nas temperaturas de 45, 55 e 65 ºC e estimar seu coeficiente de difusão. As pimentas foram coletadas no município de Ceres, GO, e transportadas para UEG - Anápolis, GO; a secagem foi conduzida em secador experimental com controle de temperatura e fluxo de ar de 60 m³ min-1 m-2; os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos nove modelos matemáticos; as magnitudes do coeficiente de determinação (R², do erro médio relativo (P e do erro médio estimado (SE foram utilizadas para verificar o grau de ajuste dos modelos. Concluiu-se que: a o comportamento das curvas de secagem da pimenta Cumari do Pará foi semelhante ao da maioria dos produtos agrícolas; b o tempo de secagem foi de 4 h; 2 h e 50 min e 1 h e 55 min para as temperaturas de secagem de 45, 55 e 65 ºC, respectivamente; c o modelo matemático de secagem de Midilli et al. (2002, foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais; d os valores do coeficiente de difusão aumentaram de acordo com a elevação da temperatura do ar de secagem, apresentando resultados entre 2,29 10-11 e 2,57 10-11 m² s-1.Among the processes of food preservation, drying the product stands out for maintaining the nutritional quality and flavor of products. The objective of this study was to determine and adjust the curves of drying of Pará Cumari pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacqui, at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 ºC. The Pará Cumari peppers were collected in the city of Ceres, GO and transported to UEG - Anápolis, GO. Drying was conducted in fixed bed dryer with temperature control and airflow of 60 m³ min-1 m-2. Experimental data were adjusted to nine mathematical models. The magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R², the mean relative error (P and the estimated mean error (SE were used to verify the degree of fit of the models. It was concluded that: a the behavior of

  14. Actividad analgésica y antipirética de un extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. y evaluación de su toxicidad aguda oral

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    Ania Benítez López

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad analgésica y antipirética del extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. en animales de experimentación, así como su toxicidad aguda oral. Se evaluó el efecto analgésico a las dosis 825, 1 320 y 1 650 mg/kg mediante la técnica de contorsiones inducidas por agentes químicos (Witkin y col, 1961, y la antipiresia fue testada en conejos a las dosis 206 y 406 mg/kg, frente a una endotoxina de E. coli. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos en ambos estudios con ibuprofeno 200 mg/kg, y se demostró que el extracto administrado por vía oral, a las dosis de 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- y 406 mg/kg -antipiresia- posee una efectividad similar al ibuprofeno. Se realizó el estudio toxicológico en ratones, y se obtuvo una DL50 de 2,56 g/kg, lo que permite clasificar al extracto como no tóxico.The analgesic and antipyretic activity of the Pimenta dioica L. fluid extract was studied in experimental animals, as well as its acute oral toxicity. The analgesic effect was evaluated at doses of 825, 1 320 and 1 650 mg/kg by the technique of contorsions induced by chemical agents (Witkin et. al., 1961, whereas antipyresis was tested in rabbits at doses of 206 and 406 mg/kg against an endotoxin of E. coli. The results obtained in both studies were compared with ibuprofen 200 mg/kg, and it was proved that the oral administration of the extract at doses of 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- and 406 mg/kg -antipyresis- has an efectivity similar to that of ibuprofen. The toxicological study was conducted in mice and it was obtained a DL50 of 2.56 g/kg, which allows to classify the extract as non toxic.

  15. Biosorption of Cr (Ⅵ), Cr (Ⅲ), Pb (Ⅱ) and Cd (Ⅱ) from Aqueous Solutions by Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa racemosa Algal Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Kumar Saurav; Krishnan Kannabiran

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important environmental problems today.Biosorption is an innovative technology that employs biological materials to accumulate heavy metals from waste water through metabolic process or physicochemical pathways of uptake.Even though several physical and chemical methods are available for removal of heavy metals,currently many biological materials such as bacteria,algae,yeasts and fungi have been widely used due to their good performance,low cost and large quantity of availability.The aim of the present study is to explore the biosorption of toxic heavy metals,Cr(Ⅵ),Cr(Ⅲ),Pb(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) by algal biomass obtained from algae Sargassum wightii (brown) and Caulerpa racemosa (green).Biosorption of algal biomass was found to be biomass concentration- and pH-dependent,while the maximal biosorption was found at pH 5.0 and with the metal concentration of 100 mgL-1.S.wightii showed the maximal metal biosorption at the biomass concentration of 25 g L-1,followed by C.racemosa with the maximal biosorption at 30gL1.S.wightii showed 78% biosorption of Cr(Ⅵ),Cr(Ⅲ),Pb(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) ions.C.racemosa exhibited 85% biosorption of Cd(Ⅱ) and Cr(Ⅵ),and 50% biosorption of Cr(Ⅲ) and Pb(Ⅱ).The results of our study suggest that seaweed biomass can be used efficiently for biosorption of heavy metals.

  16. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  17. The non-estrogenic alternative for the treatment of climacteric complaints: Black cohosh (Cimicifuga or Actaea racemosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Wolfgang; Jarry, Hubertus; Haunschild, Jutta; Stecher, Guenter; Schuh, Markus; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    In postmenopausal women estrogens in combination with progestins have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints and on osteoporosis but this hormone replacement therapy (HRT) bears the risk of increased mammary carcinomas and cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens at low doses have little or no effects on climacteric complaints, at high doses they mimic the effects of estrogens. Therefore other plant derived substances are currently intensively investigated. Extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) did not bind to estrogen receptors and were shown to be devoid of estrogenic effects on mammary cancer cells in vitro and on mammary gland and uterine histology in ovariectomized rats. In addition in this rat model the special extract CR BNO 1055 inhibited the occurrence of hot flushes and development of osteoporosis. In postmenopausal women CR BNO 1055 reduced major climacteric complaints as effectively as conjugated estrogens and significantly more than placebo. Similar data were published for other European CR preparations whereas 2 US American preparations were ineffective. This was most likely due to the too high doses or due to the adulteration with Asian Cimicifuga preparations. In all European studies neither effects in the uterus nor in mammary glands were observed. The effective compounds in CR are most likely neurotransmitter-mimetic in nature: dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic effects were demonstrated and some have been structurally identified. We conclude that CR extracts at low doses are effective to ameliorate climacteric complaints but are devoid of adverse estrogenic effects. These finding strengthens the role of CR extracts as substitutes for HRT. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Special Issue on Phytoestrogens.

  18. An evaluation of the protective role of Ficus racemosa Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay D Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ficus racemosa (FR is one of the herbs mentioned in the scriptures of the Ayurveda as Udumbara with high medicinal value. The objective of this study was to estimate the protective effect of FR against streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic neuropathy with neurodegeneration (DNN. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats with STZ and were divided into six groups namely diabetic vehicle control, FR (four and glibenclamide (one treated rats; while one group was of normal control rats. After the 4th week of diabetes, induction treatment was started for further 28 days (5th to 8th week with FR aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg and ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Investigation of DNN was carried out through biochemical and behavioral parameter assessment in rats. Results: Study showed a significant fall in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and blood glucose level by the treatment of FR in diabetic rats. Antioxidant potential of FR showed a great rise in superoxide dismutase, catalase content and reduction observed in serum nitrite level; while significant fall in lipid peroxidation level and of C-reactive protein was observed in FR treated diabetic rats. Further FR treated diabetic rats also showed marked improvement in tail flick latency, pain threshold, the rise in locomotion and fall latency period. Conclusion: Treatment with FR shows protection in the multiple pathways of DNN by improving blood glucose, HbA1c, biochemical, and behavioral parameters, which suggest the protective role of FR in the reversal of DNN.

  19. Colonização por ácaros em genótipos de pimentas e pimentões em cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Milton Luiz da Paz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cento e um genótipos de pimentas e pimentões de quatro espécies de Capsicum foram avaliados quanto ao ataque de ácaros fitófagos. As avaliações consistiram em detectar sobre quais genótipos houve o estabelecimento de colônias de ácaros cuja infestação ocorreu sob condições naturais. Folhas foram observadas ao microscópio estereoscópio para detecção de colônias e preparadas lâminas com espécimes coletados para observação ao microscópio composto. Foram identificadas colônias de Polyphagotarsonemus latus e Tetranychus urticae. De todos os materiais testados, 7,5% dos genótipos de Capsicum annuum, 50% de C. frutescens, 57% de C. baccatum e 100% de C. chinensis, não apresentaram colônias de ácaros fitófagos.

  20. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  1. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum: aspectos botânicos, ecológicos, etnobotânicos e farmacológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.R. D'angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum é a única espécie representante brasileira deste gênero de Myrtaceae. Tem sido popularmente utilizada no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, assim como condimento e aromatizante de bebidas, por seu sabor muito similar ao cravo-da-índia. Em menor escala, é empregada em carpintaria e na arborização urbana. Diversos autores analisaram a composição química do óleo essencial da espécie em diferentes regiões do Brasil, encontrando eugenol, metileugenol, (E metilisoeugenol, chavibetol, geranial e neral como composto predominante nos espécimes estudados. Visando ressaltar a importância de P. pseudocaryophyllus como potencial fonte de recursos assim como subsidiar ações de manejo adequado esta revisão apresenta os principais aspectos botânicos, ecológicos, etnobotânicos e farmacológicos da espécie.

  2. Effects of Inula racemosa root and Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts in the regulation of corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholap, S; Kar, A

    2003-06-01

    The efficacy of Inula racemosa (root) and Gymnema sylvestre (leaf) extracts either alone or in combination was evaluated in the amelioration of corticosteroid-induced hyperglycaemia in mice. Simultaneously thyroid hormone levels were estimated by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in order to ascertain whether the effects are mediated through thyroid hormones or not. While the corticosteroid (dexamethasone) administration increased the serum glucose concentration, it decreased serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Administration of the two plant extracts either alone or in combination decreased the serum glucose concentration in dexamethasone induced hyperglycaemic animals. However, the administration of Inula racemosa and Gymnema sylvestre extracts in combination proved to be more effective than the individual extracts. These effects were comparable to a standard corticosteroid-inhibiting drug, ketoconazole. As no marked changes in thyroid hormone concentrations were observed by the administration of any of the plant extracts in dexamethasone treated animals, it is further suggested that these plant extracts may not prove to be effective in thyroid hormone mediated type II diabetes, but for steroid induced diabetes.

  3. 轮环藤中生物碱成分的研究%Study on the alkaloid constituents of Cyclea racemosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建忠; 廖静; 雷宇; 陈小瑞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究轮环藤根中的生物碱成分.方法 采用多种色谱手段分离纯化,并通过波谱技术及理化性质鉴定化合物结构.结果 从轮环藤根中分离得到8个生物碱成分,分别鉴定为异粒枝碱(Ⅰ)、轮环藤碱(Ⅱ)、海岛轮环藤碱(Ⅲ)、海岛轮环藤酚碱(Ⅳ)、racemosinine B(Ⅴ)、木兰碱(Ⅵ)、α-cyclanoline(Ⅶ)和steponine(Ⅷ).结论 化合物Ⅳ~Ⅷ均为首次从轮环藤中分离得到.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the Alkaloid constituents of Cyclea racemosa.METHODS The compounds were isolated by chromatography method,and their structrues were identified by NMR and MS analyses.RESULTS Eight compounds were isolated from the roots of Cyclea racemosa.Their structrues were identified as isochondodendrine(Ⅰ) ,cycleanine(Ⅱ) ,insularine(Ⅲ) ,insulan-oline (Ⅳ) , racemosinine B (Ⅴ) , magnoflorine (Ⅵ) ,α-cyclanoline (Ⅶ) and steponine(Ⅷ) .CONCLUSION The compounds Ⅳ-Ⅷ were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  4. Differential acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by volatile oils from two specimens of Marlierea racemosa (Myrtaceae) collected from different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amanda; Silva, Michelle C; Cardoso-Lopes, Elaine M; Cordeiro, Inês; Sobral, Marcos E G; Young, Maria Cláudia M; Moreno, Paulo R H

    2009-08-01

    The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia.

  5. Antidiabetic effect of Ficus racemosa Linn. stem bark in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapur, V P; Prabhakar, K R; Thippeswamy, B S; Bansal, Punit; Srinivasan, K K; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Ficus racemosa (FRE) on biochemical parameters in type 2-like diabetes, induced by a combination of standardised high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (25mgkg(-1), i.p.) in rats. To elucidate the mode of action of FRE, its effects on a battery of targets involved in glucose homeostasis was evaluated. FRE (200 and 400mgkg(-1), p.o.), in a dose-dependent manner, altered the biochemical parameters and significantly improved glucose tolerance and HDL-c levels. In different bioassays, FRE showed inhibition of PTP-1B (IC50 12.1μg/mL) and DPP-IV (42.5%). FRE exhibited 82.6% binding to PPAR-γ. Furthermore FRE exhibited stimulation of glucose uptake by skeletal muscles (hemi-diaphragm). Bergenin was quantified in bioactive-FRE by high-performance liquid chromatography (0.15%w/w). This is the first report demonstrating the effectiveness of F. racemosa stem bark in type 2 diabetes and targets involved in it.

  6. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo. Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic, assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients’ self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL, responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35 score points, P<0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39 score points, P=0.0003 for 6.5 mg. QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women.

  7. Supply chain and marketing of sea grapes, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta: Caulerpaceae) in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Bala, S; South, G R; Lako, J; Lober, M; Simos, T

    2014-01-01

    This report describes for the first time the supply chain of Caulerpa racemosa in three Pacific Island countries. The harvesting and marketing of C. racemosa are important subsistence activities for villagers in Fiji and Samoa, less so in Tonga. At least 150 harvesters are involved in Fiji, some 100 in Samoa and only a handful in Tonga. The annual combined crop is of some 123 t valued at around US$266,492. In Fiji, it is projected that supply does not meet local demand and there is a potential export market that is currently operating at a pilot project level. In Samoa, the supply is considered adequate for the current market. In Tonga, harvesting is carried out by a few families and supplies a niche market in that country. The possibilities of field cultivation of Caulerpa have been explored but, at present, with only limited success in Samoa. The supply chain is simple in all three countries, and only in Fiji are middlemen involved in the distribution process. The limitations for marketing include the fact that only a few sites supply most of the crop in all the three countries, that all sites need to be conserved through sustainable harvesting methods, the short shelf life of the crop and a lack of information on the carrying capacity of harvest sites. Caulerpa remains a crop that fulfils a niche market but has the potential to be scaled up for additional livelihood development in the future.

  8. Variabilidade e correlação espacial de micronutrientes e matéria orgânica do solo com a produtividade da pimenta-do-reino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivoney Gontijo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos que visem elucidar a variação espacial de atributos de solo associada à resposta de produção das lavouras podem contribuir para a aplicação racional de insumos, possibilitando ganhos econômicos e ambientais. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a variabilidade espacial dos micronutrientes Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn e da matéria orgânica, bem como sua correlação espacial com a produtividade de uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino cultivada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O estudo foi realizado em uma lavoura comercial de pimenta-do-reino da variedade Bragantina, em regime de irrigação por microaspersão, no município de São Mateus-ES. A área experimental possui dimensões de 100 x 120 m, onde se amostrou uma malha de 126 pontos com distância mínima de 5 m entre eles. Em cada ponto amostral foram coletadas três subamostras de solo na projeção da copa da pimenteira-do-reino, compondo uma amostra, na profundidade de 0-20 cm. A produtividade da lavoura foi estimada por meio da colheita das três plantas circunvizinhas a cada ponto amostral. Os atributos estudados apresentaram estrutura de dependência espacial forte e moderada, sendo o modelo esférico o que melhor se ajustou para todas as variáveis avaliadas. Verificou-se correlação espacial negativa para o teor de Fe e positiva para os teores de Zn, Mn e matéria orgânica do solo com a produtividade da pimenta-do-reino.

  9. Aspectos motivacionais da aprendizagem musical dos integrantes da bateria do bloco de carnaval Sargento Pimenta por meio do método O Passo : um estudo com base na teoria do fluxo

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Lizzie Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Rosane Cardoso de Araújo Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Artes, Comunicação e Design, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Música. Defesa: Curitiba, 23/02/2015 Inclui referências : f. 131-136 Resumo: A presente pesquisa trouxe como tema a aprendizagem musical e a motivação dos integrantes da bateria do Bloco de carnaval Sargento Pimenta. O objetivo geral foi investigar aspectos motivacionais da aprendizagem musical dos participantes...

  10. ESTUDO ANALÍTICO E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA DA MISTURA DOS ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS DAS FOLHAS DA Pimenta dioica Lindl E DOS GALHOS DE Aniba duckei Kostermans FRENTE AO MOQUISTO Aedes Aegypti (LINNAEUS, 1762)

    OpenAIRE

    ALDEMIR DA GUIA SCHALCHER PEREIRA

    2009-01-01

    Na procura pelo controle químico alternativo contra Aedes aegypti L., diversas pesquisas são desenvolvidas e estimuladas no intuito de se descobrirem novas substâncias inseticidas de origem vegetal e neste contexto os óleos essenciais têm se mostrado bastantes promissores. Extraiu-se os óleos essenciais das espécies Pimenta dioica Lindl (folhas) e da Aniba duckei Kostermans (galhos), pelo método de hidrodestilação, utilizando um sistema Clevenger e promoveu-se sua mistura em partes iguais. Ne...

  11. Sources of resistance against the Pepper yellow mosaic virus in chili pepper Fontes de resistência ao Mosaico Amarelo do Pimentão em pimentas

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    Cíntia dos S Bento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV naturally infects chili and sweet pepper, as well as tomato plants in Brazil, leading to severe losses. This work reports the reaction to the PepYMV of 127 Capsicum spp. accessions, aiming at identifying resistance sources useful in breeding programs. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with eight replications, in greenhouse conditions. Plants were protected with an insect-proof screen to avoid virus dissemination by aphids. Leaves of Nicotiana debneyi infected with the PepYMV were used as the inoculum source. Plants were inoculated with three to four fully expanded leaves. A second inoculation was done 48 hours later to avoid escapes. Only the youngest fully expanded leaf was inoculated. Two plants were inoculated only with buffer, as negative control. Symptoms were visually scored using a rating scale ranging from 1 (assymptomatic plants to 5 (severe mosaic and leaf area reduction. Nine accessions were found to be resistant based on visual evaluation. Their resistance was confirmed by ELISA. Two resistance accessions belong to the species C. baccatum var. pendulum, while the seven other were C. chinense. No resistant accessions were identified in C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, and C. frutescens.O Mosaico Amarelo do Pimentão é causado pelo Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV e tem ocorrência natural na maioria das regiões produtoras de pimenta, pimentão e tomate do Brasil, causando sérias perdas nas culturas de pimentão e pimenta. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 127 acessos de Capsicum spp. ao PepYMV, com o intuito de identificar fontes de resistência a serem utilizadas em programas de melhoramento. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições, em casa de vegetação, protegida com tela à prova de insetos, para evitar a disseminação do vírus por afídeos vetores. Folhas

  12. 'BRS Mari': nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça para processamento 'BRS Mari': new hot pepper cultivar for processing

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    Sabrina Isabel C de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Mari' é uma nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça desenvolvida para uso múltiplo, como produto in natura, processada na forma de molho líquido ou desidratada em flocos, moída junto com as sementes, para a produção de pimenta tipo 'calabresa'. A cv. 'BRS Mari' foi desenvolvida a partir da população 'CNPH 0039' por meio de seis ciclos de seleção massal com autofecundação controlada. A nova cultivar apresenta plantas de polinização aberta com hábito de crescimento intermediário, com aproximadamente 90 cm de altura e 1,25 m de largura, com resistência múltipla a doenças, com destaque para o virus Pepper Yellow Mosaic Virus (PepYMV e nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne javanica, resistência mediana ao oídio (Oidium sicula, mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas spp. e antracnose (Colletotrichum spp.. A colheita dos frutos tem início cerca de 70 dias após o transplante. Nas condições da região Centro-Oeste, 'BRS Mari' apresentou boa uniformidade de planta, ótima qualidade de fruto e grande potencial produtivo, alcançando 35 t ha-1 em seis meses, quando cultivada no espaçamento de 1 m entre plantas e 1,5 m entre linhas. Os frutos são alongados e pendentes, típicos do tipo dedo-de-moça, com passagem de coloração verde claro, amarelo com antocianina e laranja quando imaturos e vermelho intenso quando maduros, com aproximadamente 6,0 cm de comprimento, 1,4 cm de largura e cerca de 1,7 mm de espessura da parede. A principal característica da 'BRS Mari' é o elevado teor de capsaicina, aproximadamente 90.000 SHU (Unidades de Calor Scoville, mais elevado quando comparada com outras cultivares do mesmo grupo.'BRS Mari' is a new hot pepper cultivar suitable for processing as sauce or dehydrated flakes, ordinarily known in Brazil as 'calabresa' type, as well as for fresh market. Hot pepper cv. 'BRS Mari' was obtained from population 'CNPH 0039', through six cycles of mass selection with controlled selfing of selected plants. The

  13. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

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    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  14. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

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    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nove acessos de Capsicum chinense do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de pimentas do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram caracterizados e avaliados nas condições edafoclimáticas de Campinas (SP. O experimento foi realizado de janeiro a outubro de 2010, em blocos casualizados, com nove tratamentos, cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados altura da planta, hábito de crescimento da planta, antese da primeira flor, produtividade, massa fresca do fruto, comprimento do fruto, largura do fruto, conteúdo de capsaicina do fruto fresco, cor do fruto maduro, formato do fruto e superfície do fruto. Para a caracterização da planta e do fruto consideraram-se as quatro plantas centrais de cada parcela; para a extração da capsaicina, utilizaram-se três amostras de cinco frutos de cada acesso. A quantificação de capsaicina foi feita por meio de cromatografia líquida de ultra pressão. A altura das plantas variou de 1,13 a 0,85 m. Constatou-se hábito de crescimento compacto das plantas para a maioria dos acessos. Os acessos mais precoces para antese da primeira flor foram IAC 1644, IAC 1645 e IAC 1643, respectivamente. O acesso IAC 1646 apresentou alta produtividade e maiores largura e massa fresca do fruto e IAC 1641 apresentou os frutos mais longos. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' destacou-se com o maior conteúdo de capsaicina, superando IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' e IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', do tipo habanero. Observaram-se as cores amarela, laranja, salmão e vermelha para os frutos. Quanto ao formato do fruto, os acessos classificaram-se em alongados, redondos, triangulares campanulados e bloco. Quanto à superfície, caracterizaram-se os frutos como lisos, semi-rugosos e rugosos. Concluiu-se que, nas condições edafoclimáticas em que a pesquisa foi desenvolvida e considerando os acessos avaliados, existe alta variabilidade em pimenta de cheiro para características agronômicas e conteúdo de capsaicina. IAC 1552 destacou-se com o maior conte

  15. Síntese do piperonal a partir do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Synthesis of piperonal from essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Cremasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC é rico em safrol, tornando-o suscetível à reação de isomerização para a obtenção de cis, trans-isosafrol. O presente artigo apresenta a etapa de eletroxidação dos isômeros cis, trans-isosafrol advindos da isomerização direta do óleo essencial de pimenta longa, apresentando 99,7% de conversão em isosafrol glicol, o qual é sujeito à oxidação com conversão de 99% em piperonal, este apresentando 84,9% de pureza.The essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC is rich in safrole, then susceptible to isomerization reaction to obtain cis, trans-isosafrole. In this paper it is presented the eletroxidation of cis, trans-isosafrole from direct isomerization of essential oil of long-pepper, with 99,7% of convertion to isosafrole glicol, that it is react by oxidation to convert 99% into piperonal with 84,9% purity.

  16. Avanços na elucidação dos mecanismos de ação de Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. nos sintomas do climatério Advances on the elucidation of mechanisms of action of Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. in climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar os avanços ocorridos para a compreensão da atuação terapêutica de Cimicifuga racemosa, um fitoterápico utilizado no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres nas quais a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é contra-indicada. A revisão bibliográfica possibilitou concluir que existem quatro principais hipóteses para esclarecer a base mecanística de ação: indução de apoptose por meio da ativação de caspases, inibição do ciclo celular em G1 por alteração de proteínas reguladoras, efeito central em receptor 5HT e ação estrogênica evidenciada pela inibição seletiva dos receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina. Porém, é incipiente a produção científica abordando as bases moleculares que sustentem os referidos mecanismos de ação. Ainda há necessidade de elucidação quanto à possível existência de pelo menos mais um receptor estrogênico que possa ser o alvo de ligação para as substâncias ativas de C. racemosa, bem como avançar no conhecimento da atividade reguladora seletiva de receptores estrogênicos já evidenciada em estudos de farmacologia experimental.The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to

  17. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  18. Spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta along the Mediterranean Coast of the Murcia region (SE Spain

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    Ruiz, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to document the appearance and spread of the green alga Caulerpa racemosa along the coast of Murcia in south-eastern Spain. It was found for the first time in the area in 2005 and over the next two years the number of new sightings increased almost exponentially. In the period 2005-2007 the total surface area colonised by the alga in the region was estimated to be at least 265 ha. Benthic assemblages colonised by the alga were rocky bottoms with photophilic algae, dead P. oceanica rhizomes, infralittoral and circalittoral soft bottoms and maerl beds. No penetration of the alga was observed in P. oceanica meadows, except in one locality. Biometric analysis indicated high vegetative development in the established colonies in comparison to those described in other Mediterranean areas. Rapid spreading dynamics observed in the Murcia region is a potential threat for native benthic communities.

  19. In vitro xanthine oxidase and albumin denaturation inhibition assay of Barringtonia racemosa L. and total phenolic content analysis for potential anti-inflammatory use in gouty arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Nurul Izzati; Sidik, Norrizah Jaafar; Awal, Asmah; Adam, Nurul Athirah Mohamad; Rezali, Nur Inani

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. Methods: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0.1% (w/v) with 59.54 ± 0.001% inhibition followed by leaves (58.82 ± 0.001%), pericarps (57.99 ± 0.003%), and endosperms (57.20 ± 0.003%) extracts. Similarly in the albumin denaturation inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract had shown the greatest inhibition capacity with 70.58 ± 0.004% inhibition followed by endosperms (66.80 ± 0.024%), leaves (65.29 ± 0.006%), and pericarps extracts (43.33 ± 0.002%). Meanwhile, for TPC analysis, leaves extract was found to have the highest phenolic content (53.94 ± 0.000 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g DW) followed by infloresence axes (31.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), endosperms (22.63 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), and the least was found in pericarps (15.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW). Conclusion: The results indeed verified the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of B. racemosa and supported its potential to be used in alleviating gouty arthritis and XO-related diseases. PMID:27757263

  20. Contrasting Effects of Historical Sea Level Rise and Contemporary Ocean Currents on Regional Gene Flow of Rhizophora racemosa in Eastern Atlantic Mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Van der Stocken, Tom; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Koedam, Nico; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are seafaring taxa through their hydrochorous propagules that have the potential to disperse over long distances. Therefore, investigating their patterns of gene flow provides insights on the processes involved in the spatial genetic structuring of populations. The coastline of Cameroon has a particular geomorphological history and coastal hydrology with complex contemporary patterns of ocean currents, which we hypothesize to have effects on the spatial configuration and composition of present-day mangroves within its spans. A total of 982 trees were sampled from 33 transects (11 sites) in 4 estuaries. Using 11 polymorphic SSR markers, we investigated genetic diversity and structure of Rhizophora racemosa, a widespread species in the region. Genetic diversity was low to moderate and genetic differentiation between nearly all population pairs was significant. Bayesian clustering analysis, PCoA, estimates of contemporary migration rates and identification of barriers to gene flow were used and complemented with estimated dispersal trajectories of hourly released virtual propagules, using high-resolution surface current from a mesoscale and tide-resolving ocean simulation. These indicate that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is not a present-day barrier to gene flow. Rather, the Inter-Bioko-Cameroon (IBC) corridor, formed due to sea level rise, allows for connectivity between two mangrove areas that were isolated during glacial times by the CVL. Genetic data and numerical ocean simulations indicated that an oceanic convergence zone near the Cameroon Estuary complex (CEC) presents a strong barrier to gene flow, resulting in genetic discontinuities between the mangrove areas on either side. This convergence did not result in higher genetic diversity at the CEC as we had hypothesized. In conclusion, the genetic structure of Rhizophora racemosa is maintained by the contrasting effects of the contemporary oceanic convergence and historical climate change

  1. 飞蛾藤中的新C30甾体类化合物%A Novel C30 Sterol from Porana racemosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯刚; 陈斌; 王定勇; 叶其; 张国林

    2004-01-01

    从毛叶飞蛾藤(Porana racemosa Roxb.)全草的95%乙醇提取物中分离并鉴定了11个化合物,其中一新的C30甾体化合物鉴定为(22E,24ξ)-24-正丙基胆甾-7,22-二烯-3β-醇(飞蛾藤素,1).其余10个已知化合物分别为东莨菪素(2)、东莨菪苷(3)、伞形华内酯(4)、β-D-甲基吡喃果糖苷(5)、丁香脂素4-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(6)、斛皮素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(7)、斛皮素-3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖苷(8)、异泽兰黄素(9)、山奈素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(10)和(E)-N-2-(2,3-二羟基苯基)乙基肉桂酰胺(11).%A novel C30 sterol, (22E, 24ξ)-24-n-propylcholest-7, 22-dien-3β-ol (racemosol, 1), along with scopoletin (2), scopolin (3), umbelliferone (4), methyl βD-frucopyranoside (5), syringaresinol-4-O-βD-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), quercetin-3-O-o-L-rhamnopyranoside (8),eupatilin (9), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10) and (E)-V-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl cinnamamide(11), was isolated from the whole plants of Porana racemosa Roxb. Their structures were elucidated predominantly by spectral evidence.

  2. Polissacarídeos sulfatados isolados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides – extração, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante =Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes – extraction, fractionation and anticoagulant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de doenças cardiovasculares e os efeitos adversos da heparinoterapia têm motivado a busca por novos agentes terapêuticos e os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS de algas marinhas têm sido reportados como fontes alternativas para tal. Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial anticoagulante dos PS totais (PST isolados e fracionados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides. Inicialmente, os PST foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato desódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidos de fracionamento em coluna de troca iônica de DEAE-celulose com gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram analisadas por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5% e a atividade anticoagulante, mensurada pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e comparada a uma curva-padrão de heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se semelhantes perfiscromatográficos entre os PS de ambas as espécies, porém com padrões de mobilidades distintas quando as frações foram comparadas por eletroforese. Os PS modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades anticoagulantes foram de apenas 21,23 e 24,36 UI mg-1, quando eluídos com 0,75 M de sal para C. racemosa e C. cupressoides, respectivamente. Portanto, PS anticoagulantes isolados dasclorofíceas C. racemosa e C. cupressoides resultaram em efeitos anticoagulantes inferiores aos da heparina. Estudos comparativos dessas moléculas também são sugeridos como ferramentas auxiliares na identificação de algas do mesmo gênero.The incidence of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects from heparintherapy have led to a search for new therapeutic agents, and the sulfated polysaccharides (SP of seaweeds have been reported as alternative sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anticoagulant potential of total SP (TSP isolated and fractionated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes. Initially, the TSP were extracted with papain

  3. Vitamin C content in Habanero pepper accessions (Capsicum chinense Teor de vitamina C em acessos de pimenta (Capsicum chinense do grupo varietal Habanero

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    Ana Flávia P Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Capsicum species (peppers accumulate high amounts of ascorbic acid or vitamin C. C. chinense occurs in the Midwest and Northeast regions and the Amazon Basin (where its greatest genetic diversity is found. The objective of the present work was to quantify the vitamin C content in peppers of 22 accessions of C. chinense 'Habanero' from the Breeding Program of Embrapa Vegetable Crops. Vitamin C was extracted from mature fruits with TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride and its content determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Vitamin C content ranged from 54.1 to 129.8 mg/100 g. Accessions were divided into four heterogeneous groups of diversity. Vitamin C content of the first group varied between 116.2 and 129.8 mg/100 g; the second group ranged from 94.0 to 104.6 mg/100 g; the third group ranged from 76.7 to 87.5 mg/100 g; and the fourth group ranged from 54.1 to 66.6 mg/100 g. These results highlight the diversity of C. chinense collection in terms of vitamin C content.Os frutos de Capsicum possuem elevados teores de ácido ascórbico ou vitamina C. A pimenta (C. chinense ocorre nas regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste e na Bacia Amazônica (onde está localizada a sua maior diversidade genética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de vitamina C em 22 acessos de C. chinense do grupo varietal 'Habanero', procedentes do programa de melhoramento genético da Embrapa Hortaliças. A vitamina C foi extraída de frutos maduros com TCEP-HCl (tris 2-carboxyethyl-phosphine hydrocloride e os teores foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os teores de vitamina C variaram entre 54,1-129,8 mg/100g. Foram formados, com base no teor de vitamina C, quatro grupos heterogêneos de diversidade. Os teores do primeiro grupo variaram entre 116,2-129,8 mg/100 g; o segundo variou entre 94,0-104,6 mg/100 g; o terceiro entre 76,7-87,5 mg/100 g; e o quarto entre 54,1-66,6 mg/100 g. Esses

  4. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte

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    Tânia D.M.M. Bona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm; e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm. O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.

  5. Morphometric patterns and preferential uses of Capsicum peppers in the State of Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia Padrões morfométricos e usos preferenciais de pimentas Capsicum spp. em Roraima, Amazônia Brasileira

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    Reinaldo I Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to study distinctions in the morphology of the pepper fruits (Capsicum spp., Solanaceae used by indigenous (living in traditional villages and non-indigenous groups (originated from migration and colonization, with or without miscegenation, living on non-indigenous lands in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. In this sense, we used a database with 182 subsamples of Capsicum spp. Accessions were collected at 39 sites (14 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous, which were characterized additionally in relation to the predominant phytophysiognomy (savanna or forest and home zone (rural or urban. We found morphological differences in pepper fruits related to both phytophysiognomy and home zone of the collecting site, but not to ethnical origin. We believe those differences are more related to the inherent crop practices, which suffer strong environmental influence, than to user preference. Both indigenous and non-indigenous groups preferred morphotypes from C. chinense and C. frutescens, which have small and highly pungent fruits. Nevertheless, fruit color was not important. These morphotypes are used by both indigenous and non-indigenous users for preparing sauce and jiquitaia (pepper powder. We suggested 'cultural adherence' as the reason for the common preferred use of peppers by both ethnical groups analyzed in Roraima.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar distinções no padrão morfológico de frutos de pimentas do gênero Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae utilizados por grupos tradicionais indígenas (vivendo em aldeias e não-indígenas (derivado da migração/colonização, contendo ou não miscigenação, situados fora de áreas indígenas, em Roraima, norte da Amazônia brasileira. Para tanto foi utilizado um banco de dados com 182 subamostras de Capsicum spp. coletadas em 39 localidades daquele estado (14 indígenas e 25 não-indígenas. As localidades foram caracterizadas também por tipos fitofision

  6. Concentrações de citocinina e carvão ativado na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino Cytokynin concentrations and activated charcoal on black pepper micropropagation

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    Elisa Ferreira Moura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum tem grande importância para a economia do Norte do Brasil. A pimenta-do-reino é propagada principalmente por estaquia que, além de ser pouco eficiente, pode possibilitar a propagação da doença fusariose. Dessa forma, testes para verificar a eficiência da micropropagação são pertinentes. O objetivo do trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP - 6-benzilaminopurina (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 4,5mg L-1 e a adição de carvão ativado a 0,2% ao meio de cultura na micropropagação de pimenta-do-reino. O meio de cultura foi composto de sais e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog, 3% de sacarose e 8g L-1 de ágar. Foram utilizados como explantes ápices caulinares de plântulas da cultivar "Bragantina" germinadas in vitro. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em esquema fatorial 4x2, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 45 dias no estabelecimento, foi avaliado o número de brotos, mas não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, considerando-se os dois fatores e a interação entre eles. Após 45 dias no primeiro subcultivo, foram avaliados o número de brotos e de explantes (segmentos nodais. A interação entre BAP e carvão ativado teve efeito significativo para número de brotos e de explantes, sendo que o carvão influenciou o efeito das concentrações de BAP. A concentração de 0,5mg L-1 de BAP na ausência de carvão ativado gerou maior número de brotos e de explantes. O carvão ativado não é necessário na fase de proliferação de gemas de pimenta-do-reino da cultivar "Bragantina".Black pepper (Piper nigrum has great importance for the Northern Brazil’s economy. Black pepper is mainly propagated by mass propagation, which is not very efficient and may spread fusariosis. Thus, micropropagation efficiency tests are pertinent. The objective of this research paper was to test BAP - 6-benzilaminopurine concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg L-1 and activated charcoal at 0.2% addition to

  7. Determinação do coeficiente de cultura (Kc) e eficiência do uso de água do alecrim-pimenta irrigado Determination of crop coefficient (Kc) and water use efficiency for irrigated rosemary peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Otávio D.; Kobayashi,Mauro K.; Flávio G. Oliveira; Ivan C. A. Alvarenga; Ernane R Martins; Carlos E. Corsato

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de cultura (Kc), a eficiência do uso de água (EUA) do alecrim-pimenta contemplando a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido em lisímetro de drenagem, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, cujos tratamentos correspondiam a sete lâminas de água (0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,2; 1,4; 1,65 e 1,9 ETo), e...

  8. Efeitos da adubação química e da calagem na nutrição de melissa e hortelã-pimenta Effect of chemical fertilization and liming on lemon balm and peppermint nutrition

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    Arie F Blank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da adubação química e da calagem no crescimento e na nutrição da melissa (Melissa officinalis e hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, com a técnica da diagnose por subtração. Os tratamentos foram: Completo (adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe e Zn+ calagem; Completo calagem; Completo N; Completo P; Completo K; Completo S; Completo B; Completo Zn; Completo Fe e Testemunha (solo natural. Após 120 dias da semeadura a calagem e a adubação mostraram ser essenciais para o crescimento de melissa e hortelã-pimenta. No solo utilizado, a falta da calagem e dos nutrientes N e P causaram as maiores quedas ou ausência, no caso da falta de calagem em melissa, na produção de folhas, órgão usado na medicina popular e que contém os princípios ativos.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilization and liming on growth and nutrition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and peppermint (Mentha piperita, using the missing element technique. Treatments were: complete (fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe and Zn+ liming; complete - liming; complete -N; complete -P; complete -K; complete -S; complete -B; complete -Zn; complete -Fe and control (natural soil. The following results were obtained within 120 days after sowing: liming and fertilization are essential for lemon balm and peppermint growth. In the soil used in this experiment the nutrients which showed highest results on growth and nutrition of lemon balm and peppermint were N and P, besides liming.

  9. Morphologic characterization of spiked pepper's germplasm Caracterização morfológica de germoplasma de pimenta-de-macaco

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper is a plant species with properties that allow the development of natural agrochemicals and medicines, showing large potential of use by humanity. With aim to ascertain the phenotypical variability, 41 parentals were analyzed, sampled in the States of Pará and Amazonas. Principal Component analysis and Jolliffe's criterion were utilized for discarding of variables, subsidized by the Pearson's Correlation. It took seven components to explain 80% of the variation. The essential oil yield and number of leaves per branch were suggested to be discarded because they are the characteristics that have contributed least to the total variance. The 3D scatter diagram constituted a relatively homogeneous and continuous clustering, identifing a divergent pair: PA-020 (Marabá-PA and PA-035 (Santa Isabel-PA. The analyzed traits have variability potentially able to discriminate the parentals, whereas 83.3% of such traits can be used for this purpose. The divergent genotypes identified on 3D scatter diagram analysis can be used in breeding programs for the development of superior genotypes. A comparison with preexisting molecular data of some genotypes permited to conclude that there was one certain agreement degree between morphological and molecular characterizations and that molecular characterization presented higher discriminatory power, using a smaller number of genotypes, identifying dissimilar genotypes and clusters, although analyzed by different multivariate statistic methods.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie que possui propriedades que permitem o desenvolvimento de defensivos agrícolas naturais e medicamentos, apresentando, portanto, grande potencial de uso pela humanidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a variabilidade fenotípica, foram estudadas 41 matrizes amostradas nos Estados do Pará e Amazonas. Utilizou-se análises de componentes principais e critério de Jolliffe para descarte de variáveis, subsidiado pela correlação de

  10. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

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    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  11. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em linhagens avançadas de pimenta Meiosis and pollen viability in advanced lines of pepper

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    Marisa T Pozzobon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze linhagens de pimenta, incluindo exemplares do tipo Jalapeño (CNPH 2862, CNPH 2864, Dedo-de-Moça (CNPH 1397, CNPH 0039, CNPH 0053, Cambuci (CNPH 0283, Peixe-Boi (CNPH 0434, Falsa Cumari (CNPH 3761, Bode Vermelha (CNPH 3773, Biquinho Doce (CNPH 3870, Tabasco (CNPH 3000 e Malagueta (CNPH 2869 tiveram o comportamento meiótico e a estimativa da viabilidade do pólen analisados, com o objetivo de indicar materiais potencialmente férteis para o programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa. A análise convencional, por coloração, revelou um comportamento relativamente normal, durante a microsporogênese, para a maioria das linhagens, com índice meiótico (IM e percentual médio de viabilidade polínica acima de 90%. As principais anormalidades observadas foram aderências cromossômicas, cromossomos não orientados, retardatários, pontes, micronúcleos, micrócitos e citomixia. Três linhagens, CNPH 0283, CNPH 3000 e CNPH 3773 mostraram menor percentual de pólens viáveis, respectivamente 77, 66 e 58%. Somente para CNPH 0283 a baixa fertilidade do pólen esteve associada à maior frequência de irregularidades e, consequentemente, ao baixo IM (77%. Os resultados do presente trabalho confirmam a importância da análise citológica como ferramenta auxiliar na seleção de linhagens meioticamente estáveis e potencialmente férteis o que possibilita o planejamento de programas de produção de sementes das cultivares em vias de lançamento.Twelve lines of pepper, from different groups {Jalapeño (CNPH 2862, CNPH 2864, Dedo-de-Moça (CNPH 1397, CNPH 0039, CNPH 0053, Cambuci (CNPH 0283, Peixe-Boi (CNPH 0434, Falsa Cumari (CNPH 3761, Bode Vermelha (CNPH 3773, Biquinho Doce (CNPH 3870, Tabasco (CNPH 3000 and Malagueta (CNPH 2869 had their meiotic behavior and the estimation of pollen viability analyzed with the aim of indicating potentially fertile material for the Capsicum breeding program. Conventional analysis by staining revealed a

  12. Diversidade e similaridade genéticas em clones de pimenta-do-reino Genetic diversity and similarity in clones of black pepper

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    José M.D. Gaia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito clones de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. foram analisados por meio de eletroforese de isozimas para os sistemas ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH e FUM, para avaliar a diversidade por meio da porcentagem de locos polimórficos, número médio de alelos por locos e heterozigosidade média. A similaridade genética foi obtida por meio do coeficiente de semelhança simples e foi resumida num fenograma de média de grupo. Foram detectados 14 locos e 35 alelos. Os locos que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: G6pdh-1, Acp-1 e Skdh-1. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos variou de 3,57% a 64,29%; o número médio de alelos variou de 0,04 a 1,64; e a heterozigosidade média variou de 0,036 a 0,321. Os baixos valores observados no intervalo de variação da heterozigosidade média são consistentes com a estreita base genética dos genótipos e a amplitude deste intervalo pode estar relacionada com o grau de hibridação (artificial ou natural de cada clone. A similaridade genética variou de 65% a 100%, sendo que 70 clones estiveram contidos na faixa de 85% e 100%, o que ratifica o estreitamento da base genética da espécie e conseqüente homogeneidade dos genomas cultivados.Seventy eight black pepper clones (Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by means of isozyme electrophoresis for the systems ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH and FUM, in order to evaluate the diversity through the percentage of polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus and mean heterozigosity. Genetic similarity was calculated by simple matching coefficient and summarized in the group average phenogram. Fourteen loci and 35 alleles were detected. The loci that presented larger diversity were G6pdh-1, Acp-1 and Skdh-1. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 3.57% to 64.29%; the mean number of alleles ranged from 0.04 to 1.64 and; the mean heterozigosity varied from 0.036 to 0.321. The lower values observed in the interval of variation of the

  13. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant properties of extracts from three plants used for medical purpose in Cameroon:Acalypha racemosa, Garcinia lucida and Hymenocardia lyrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Djacbou D Sylvie; Pieme Constant Anatole; Biapa Prosper Cabral; Penlap Beng Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro antiradical and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of Garcinia lucida, Hymenocardia lyrata (H. lyrata) and Acalypha racemosa. Methods: We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content, and performed the phytochemical screening of the extracts from fruits, barks, leaves, roots and stems of these plants using standard procedures. Results:The results of the antioxidant properties showed that more than 60%of DPPH., NO. and HO. radicals were inhibited by the extracts. The radical scavenging activity, the total antioxidant capacity as well as the reducing power increased with the concentration of the extracts. The 50%inhibitory concentration (IC50) varied from 1.46 to 21.65 µg/mL depending of the type of extract and the antioxidant tests. The results indicated that all the extracts exhibited antioxidant properties and the roots of H. lyrata showed the best antioxidant activity [(217.17±9.45) mg Equivalent catechin/g of extract] while the highest total phenol content was found in its barks [(169.782±3.025) mg Eq cat/g of extract]. Conclusions:The methanol extract of H. lyrata possess the most antioxidant property among the three extracts.

  14. Production of the Anti-Inflammatory Compound 6-O-Palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol by Callus Cultures of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

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    Roberta Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lopezia racemosa Cav. is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to heal inflammatory diseases. From this plant we isolated the novel compound 6-O-palmitoyl- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcampesterol (1 and 6-O-palmitoyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (2, previously reported to have cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of 1 in vivo by mouse ear edema induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA and 57.14% inhibition was observed. The aim of our study was to obtain callus cultures derived from this plant species with the ability to produce the compounds of interest. Callus cultures were initiated on MS basal medium amended with variable amounts of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, combined or not with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP. Ten treatments with these growth regulators were carried out, using in vitro germinated seedlings as source of three different explants: hypocotyl, stem node, and leaf. Highest yield of 1 was observed on callus derived from leaf explants growing in medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP. Selected callus lines produced less 1 than wild plants but the in vitro cultured seedlings showed higher production. So we conclude that it could be attractive to further investigate their metabolic potential.

  15. Sulfated polysaccharide extracted of the green algae Caulerpa racemosa increase the enzymatic activity and paw edema induced by sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    Camila L. Pires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides derived from seaweed have shown great potential for use in the development of new drugs. In this study, we observed that a low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide from Caulerpa racemosa, termed CrSP, could interact with secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. When native sPLA2 (14 kDa was incubated with CrSP, they formed a molecular complex (sPLA2:CrSP with a molecular mass of 32 kDa, approximately. Size exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that CrSP formed a stable complex with sPLA2. We belived that sPLA2 and SPCr are involved an ionic interaction between negatively charged CrSP and the positively charged basic amino acid residues of sPLA2, because this interaction induced significant changes in sPLA2 enzymatic and pharmacological activities. CrSP caused a significant increase in sPLA2 enzymatic and bactericidal activity and increased its edematogenic effect. A pharmacological assay showed that the myotoxic activity of sPLA2:CrSP is unrelated to its enzymatic activity and that sPLA2:CrSP may have a practical application as a natural antibacterial agent for use in humans and commercially raised animals.

  16. Teor de óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta em função do horário de colheita Essential oil content of pepper-rosmarin as a function of harvest time

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    Marco Túlio Pinheiro de Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta é uma importante planta medicinal, nativa do nordeste brasileiro, que, devido ao seu óleo essencial, apresenta grande potencial antifúngico e antibacteriano. Um dos fatores que afetam o teor de metabólitos secundários das plantas é o horário de colheita, assim, o conhecimento desse fator subsidia as decisões agronômicas da espécie, favorecendo o aumento do teor de óleo essencial no momento da colheita. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do horário de colheita na produção de óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham.. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICA/UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos, definidos pelos horários de coleta das folhas (6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 e 18:00 e seis repetições, sendo esse o número de coletas em cada tratamento. As folhas foram obtidas de plantas matrizes do Horto Medicinal do ICA/UFMG. O óleo essencial foi obtido pelo método de hidrodestilação usando o aparelho de Clevenger. A análise de regressão apresentou um efeito cúbico para o teor de óleo essencial, sendo que o maior valor, 5,78% em relação à matéria seca, foi obtido às 9h59min. Portanto, recomenda-se a colheita das folhas de alecrim-pimenta próximo das 10h.The pepper-rosmarin is an important medicinal plant, native of Northeast of Brazil, that, because of its essential oil, presents great antifungal and antibacterial potential. One of the factors that affect the secondary metabolites content of plants is the harvest time, thus, the knowledge of this factor subsidizes the decisions agronomic species, favoring the increase of essential oil content at the harvest moment. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of harvest time on the essential oil production of pepper-rosmarin (Lippia

  17. Citocininas na multiplicação in vitro de hortelã-pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L. Cytokinins on in vitro multiplication of peppermint (Mentha x Piperita L.

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    S. A. Asmar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O hortelã-pimenta é um hibrido triplo, Mentha x piperita, utilizado de forma medicinal no tratamento de náuseas, cólicas gastrointestinais, flatulências, cálculos biliares, icterícia, ansiedade, expectoração e expulsão de vermes intestinais. Na micropropagação, o BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e KIN (cinetina têm sido as fontes de citocininas mais empregadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais na multiplicação in vitro de hortelã-pimenta. Explantes constituídos de segmentos nodais provenientes de plântulas já estabelecidas in vitro com aproximadamente 0,5 cm foram inoculados em meio MS, suplementado com diferentes associações de BAP e KIN, em adição de 30 g L-1 de sacarose. As concentrações de citocininas utilizadas foram 0,0; 1,0 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP e 0,0; 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1 de KIN. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com nove tratamentos consistindo de cinco frascos cada um, sendo que cada frasco continha quatro explantes. A utilização de 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP promove a multiplicação in vitro de hortelã-pimenta, porém, diminui o índice de sobrevivência. O uso de citocininas aumenta a massa fresca e seca dos explantes e a ausência destes reguladores propicia o alongamento nesta espécie.Peppermint is used for medical treatments of nausea, gastrointestinal cramps, flatulence, gallstones, jaundice, anxiety, sputum and expulsion of intestinal worms. In micropropagation, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and KIN (kinetin have been the most widely used sources of cytokinins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators in multiplication of peppermint. Explants consisting of nodal segments from seedlings already established in vitro with approximately 0,5 cm were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with different combinations of BAP and KIN and 30 g L-1 of sucrose. The concentrations of cytokinins used were 0,0; 1,0 and 2,0 mg L-1 of BAP and 0

  18. Utilização de agentes polinizadores na produção de sementes de cenoura e pimenta doce em cultivo protegido Influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper in a greenhouse

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    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A polinização constitui um processo fundamental para a perpetuação de várias espécies vegetais, e o desenvolvimento dos frutos e das sementes está diretamente relacionado com a polinização das flores. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de agentes polinizadores na produção e qualidade de sementes de cenoura e de pimenta doce em sistema de cultivo protegido. No ensaio de cenoura utilizaram-se, em telados, os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata, moscas (Musca domestica, polinização manual e livre (fora do telado. No ensaio de pimenta doce, utilizaram-se os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Marmelada (Frieseomellita varia, polinização manual e livre (auto fecundação. A utilização de abelhas Jataí e Tibuna apresentou grande potencial para a produção de sementes de cenoura em condições de cultivo protegido. Para a produção de sementes de pimenta doce não há necessidade de utilização de agentes polinizadores, no entanto a presença desses agentes aumenta o peso dos frutos. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes das duas espécies não foi influenciada pelos diferentes tipos de polinização.Pollination is a fundamental process for the perpetuation of various plant species, and the development of fruits and seeds is directly related to the pollination of flowers. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper under greenhouse conditions. In the carrot study, plants were grown in cages, and the following treatments were used: pollination with Arapuá (Trigona spinipes bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula bees, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees, flies (Musca domestica, hand pollination, and free pollination (outside

  19. Análise termogravimétrica do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC Thermogravimetric analysis of long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C.DC. essential oil

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    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. é um arbusto originário da região amazônica, cujo óleo essencial é rico em safrol. O óleo essencial da pimenta longa é comercializado in natura, o que faz o processamento para a obtenção do safrol elemento fundamental de investigação científica e tecnológica. Uma importante etapa para a obtenção do safrol é a definição da estratégia da sua separação do óleo essencial a partir, por exemplo, da destilação. Neste caso, torna-se essencial o conhecimento de parâmetros termodinâmicos, tais como energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização. Neste trabalho é utilizada a técnica termogravimétrica para a obtenção dos valores da energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização do óleo essencial de P. hispidinervium. O processo de evaporação do óleo essencial obedece à cinética de ordem zero, resultando para a energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização os valores 42,11 kJ.mol-1 e 43,73 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. is a shrub found in the Amazon region, which supplies an essential oil rich in safrole. Normally, long pepper essential oil is commercialized in natura, which makes its processing a fundamental step in scientific and technological investigation. An important step of safrole commercialization is the separation of essential oil by, for example, a distillation process. In such a case it is important to know some thermodynamics parameters, such as energy of activation and enthalpy of vaporization. The present study was aimed at applying the kinetic of zero order evaporation process for the essential oil of P. hispidinervum by thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis data were utilized to determine the energy of activation and enthalpy of vaporization, which resulted in the values 41.11 kJ.mol-1 and 43.73 kJ.mol-1, respectively.

  20. Isomerização do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC para a obtenção de isosafrol Isomerization of essential oil of (Piper hispidinervium C. DC to obtain isosafrole

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    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As piperáceas brasileiras apresentam propriedades para serem utilizadas, entre outras aplicações, como inseticidas e antifúngicos. Dentre as piperáceas, pode-se citar a Piper hispidinervum C. DC. De suas folhas e dos talos finos extrai-se um óleo essencial rico em safrol, que é utilizado pela indústria como matéria-prima na manufatura, por exemplo, do piperonal. A sequência natural do processo para a obtenção do piperonal é o de submeter o safrol obtido da concentração do óleo essencial à isomerização para seu correspondente isômero estável chamado isosafrol. Apresenta-se neste artigo, por sua vez, a síntese do isosafrol diretamente do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Este óleo essencial apresenta o safrol como constituinte majoritário, possibilitando a sua isomerização para a produção de isosafrol, que é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de fragrâncias. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de apresentar a obtenção do isosafrol sem a necessidade da etapa de separação do safrol do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de isomerização do óleo essencial, obtendo-se uma solução contendo 79,4 % da mistura cis, trans-isosafrol. Ressalte-se que o óleo essencial continha 86,4 % de safrol, resultando em alto rendimento na sua conversão a cis, trans-isosafrol de 97,1 %.The Brazilian peppers present proprieties that can be used in fragrance and pharmaceutical industries, for example. One these pepper is long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC., who its essential oil is rich in safrole. Safrole is an important compound with application in several industries, such as pharmaceutics, cosmetics. After its chemical conversion, for example, it is possible to obtain heliotropin, a fixative agent for fragrances. The sequence to obtain the heliotropin is by safrole isomerization, that, initially, produce isosafrole. In this work, however, presents the synthesis

  1. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

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    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  2. Nutritional changes in powdered red pepper upon in vitro infection of Aspergillus flavus Alterações nutricionais em pimenta vermelha em pó após infecção in vitro com Aspergillus flavus

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    Smita Tripathi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative losses in various biochemical constituents like capsaicin, carotenes, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, mineral matter, sugars (soluble and insoluble, protein and fat were estimated after the successful growth of Aspergillus flavus for 30 days on powdered red pepper. The fungal biomass was measured by ergosterol content and Aflatoxin B1 by HPLC. Amongst the various nutritional constituents evaluated for nutritional losses and changes the highest nutritional loss was reported in total carotenoids (88.55% followed by total sugars (85.5%. The protein content of the infected sample increased from 18.01% to 23%. The nutritional profile of chilli powder (Capsicum annum var. sannam L. shows highest share of total soluble sugars (32.89% and fiber content (21.05%, followed by protein (18.01% and fat (13.32% making it an ideal solid - substrate for mould growth. At the end of incubation the fungal biomass was 192. 25 mg / 100 gram powder, total plate count 17.5 X 10 4 CFU/g and Aflatoxin B1 content was 30.06 µg / kg.Foram avaliadas as perdas de vários constituintes bioquímicos como capsaicina, carotenos, acido ascórbico, polifenóis, matéria orgânica, açucares (solúveis e insolúveis, proteína e gordura em pimenta vermelha em pó após a multiplicação de Aspergillus flavus por 30 dias. A biomassa fúngica foi mensurada pelo conteúdo de ergosterol e aflatoxina por HPLC. Entre os vários constituintes avaliados, a maior perda foi a de carotenóides totais (88,55%, seguido de açucares totais (85,5%. O conteúdo protéico da amostra infectada aumentou de 18,01% para 23%. O perfil nutricional da pimenta em pó (Capsicum annum var. sannam L. indica alto teor de açucares totais (32,89% e fibras (21,05%, seguido de proteína (18,01% e gordura (13,32%, tornando-a um substrato ideal para crescimento de fungos. Ao final dos 30 dias, a biomassa fúngica foi 192,25 mg/100g, a contagem total em placas foi 17,5 x 10(4 CFU/g e o conteúdo de

  3. Invasion is a community affair: Clandestine followers in the bacterial community associated to green algae, Caulerpa racemosa, track the invasion source.

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    Tania Aires

    Full Text Available Biological invasions rank amongst the most deleterious components of global change inducing alterations from genes to ecosystems. The genetic characteristics of introduced pools of individuals greatly influence the capacity of introduced species to establish and expand. The recently demonstrated heritability of microbial communities associated to individual genotypes of primary producers makes them a potentially essential element of the evolution and adaptability of their hosts. Here, we characterized the bacterial communities associated to native and non-native populations of the marine green macroalga Caulerparacemosa through pyrosequencing, and explored their potential role on the strikingly invasive trajectory of their host in the Mediterranean. The similarity of endophytic bacterial communities from the native Australian range and several Mediterranean locations confirmed the origin of invasion and revealed distinct communities associated to a second Mediterranean variety of C. racemosa long reported in the Mediterranean. Comparative analysis of these two groups demonstrated the stability of the composition of bacterial communities through the successive steps of introduction and invasion and suggested the vertical transmission of some major bacterial OTUs. Indirect inferences on the taxonomic identity and associated metabolism of bacterial lineages showed a striking consistency with sediment upheaval conditions associated to the expansion of their invasive host and to the decline of native species. These results demonstrate that bacterial communities can be an effective tracer of the origin of invasion and support their potential role in their eukaryotic host's adaptation to new environments. They put forward the critical need to consider the 'meta-organism' encompassing both the host and associated micro-organisms, to unravel the origins, causes and mechanisms underlying biological invasions.

  4. Avaliação das espécies de plantas avicennia schaueriana, laguncularia racemosa e rhizophora mangle como bioindicadoras de poluição por metais pesados em ambientes de mangues Assessment of avicennia schaueriana, laguncularia racemosa e rhizophora mangle plant species as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in mangrove environments

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    Miriam Gonçalves Martins Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigou-se o nível de contaminação por Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn, nos ambientes de mangues próximos ao Rio Cubatão, utilizando como bioindicador as espécies de plantas A. schaueriana, L. racemosa e R. mangle. As amostras de folhas destas plantas foram coletadas em quatro pontos de amostragem situados fora da área povoada da cidade de Cubatão. O conteúdo de metais pesados nas folhas foi determinado utilizando a técnica de Espectrometria por Absorção Atômica (FAAS. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma contaminação por cádmio e cromo em diversas amostras analisadas neste trabalho. De uma forma geral, as três espécies de plantas apresentaram resultados muito similares tanto no teor como na ordem em que bioacumulam os metais estudados: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Desta forma, em princípio, qualquer uma delas poderia ser utilizada como bioindicador de poluição ambiental por metais pesados naquela região.In this work, the contamination level by Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in mangrove environments near the Cubatão River has been investigated using as bioindicator the plant species A. schaueriana, L. racemosa and R. mangle. Leave samples of these plants were collected in four locals situated out of the populated area of the Cubatão town. The heavy metals content in the leaves were determined by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS technique. The results obtained have shown some contamination by cadmium and cromium for several leave samples analysed in this work. In general, the three species of plants presented similar results concerning the content as well as the bioaccumulation order for the studied metals: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. In this way, any one of them could, in principle, be employed as bioindicator of heavy metal environmental pollution in that region.

  5. Resistência de pimentas a nematóides de galha e compatibilidade enxerto/porta-enxerto entre híbridos de pimentão e pimentas Hot peppers resistance to root-knot-nematodes and stump/rootstock compatibility among hot peppers and red pepper hybrids

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    Cristina Duda de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência à Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade de enxertia de treze porta-enxertos de pimenta (nove Capsicum chinense; três C. annuum e um C. frutescens quando enxertados com os híbridos de pimentão-vermelho Rubia R, Margarita e Maximos. O experimento foi conduzido em 2005 na UNESP-FCAV em Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram enxertadas por garfagem do tipo fenda simples e, 25 dias após foram avaliadas quanto à percentagem de "pegamento" e, posteriormente, juntamente com plantas sem enxertia, foram transplantadas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas, individualmente, com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. incognita. A avaliação da resistência dos porta-enxertos ao nematóide foi feita aos 181 dias após a inoculação, com base no fator de reprodução; a avaliação da compatibilidade enxerto/porta-enxerto foi realizada levando em consideração a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos obtidas em sete colheitas, realizadas entre 113 e 181 dias após o transplante das mudas. Aos 25 dias após a enxertia, para todos os tratamentos, em média, 99,69% das plantas enxertadas apresentavam-se com "pegamento". Os porta-enxertos C. annuum e C. frutescens, ao final do ciclo de cultivo, foram resistentes à M. incognita e proporcionaram nas plantas enxertadas, respectivamente, as maiores e menores produtividades e qualidades de frutos, sendo designados de compatíveis e incompatível para enxertia com os híbridos de pimentão-vermelho Rubia R, Margarita e Maximos. 'Maximos' e 'Margarita' quando enxertados apresentaram melhor produtividade e qualidade de frutos do que 'Rubia R'; quando sem enxertia não diferiram em produtividade, havendo destaque para 'Margarita' quanto à qualidade dos frutos.The resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and propagation compatibility of thirteen pepper rootstocks (nine Capsicum chinense; three C. annuum and one C. frutescens were evaluated under Rubia R, Margarita and Maximos red pepper

  6. Optimization of callus and cell suspension cultures of Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae family for lycopene production Otimização de culturas de suspensões de calos e células de Barringtonia racemosa (família Lecythidaceae para produção de licopeno

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    Mandana Behbahani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is present in a range of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in the leaves of Barringtonia racemosa. The traditional lycopene extraction from the plant is being employed instead of an easy propagation technique like cell culture process from the leaf explants. We intend to assess how lycopene could be extracted via tissue culture under light (illuminance: 8,200 lux under white fluorescent lamps, photoperiod 16 h per day at 25ºC and dark. Leaf explants of Barringtonia racemosa were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS, Woody Plant Medium (WPM and B5 media, supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Optimal conditions for callus induction and maintenance under both dark and light were investigated, and growth and lycopene accumulation were evaluated. Among media with different concentrations of 2,4-D, fast growing, friable callus initiated within three weeks after culturing on WPM basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 (weight per volume of 2,4-D, whereas callus induction in explants cultured on all other media started only after five weeks. Calli were subcultured once every fortnight. Pale yellow and green calli developed under conditions of dark and light respectively were then selected for evaluation of their lycopene contents. An improved reversed phase of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used for a selective chemical determination of the lycopene content. Light induced lycopene production; and likewise maximum lycopene level incubated in light was higher than those incubated in darkness. The best growth rates of callus and cell suspension were achieved in WPM and B5 media respectively. The production of lycopene was growth-dependent through analysis of growth and lycopene content of both callus and cell suspension cultures.O licopeno está presente numa série de frutas frescas e hortaliças principalmente na folhas de Barringtonia racemosa. A extra

  7. Polissacarídeos sulfatados isolados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides – extração, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5923 Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes – extraction, fractionation and anticoagulant activity - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5923

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    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de doenças cardiovasculares e os efeitos adversos da heparinoterapia têm motivado a busca por novos agentes terapêuticos e os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS de algas marinhas têm sido reportados como fontes alternativas para tal. Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial anticoagulante dos PS totais (PST isolados e fracionados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides. Inicialmente, os PST foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidos de fracionamento em coluna de troca iônica de DEAE-celulose com gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram analisadas por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5% e a atividade anticoagulante, mensurada pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e comparada a uma curva-padrão de heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se semelhantes perfis cromatográficos entre os PS de ambas as espécies, porém com padrões de mobilidades distintas quando as frações foram comparadas por eletroforese. Os PS modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades anticoagulantes foram de apenas 21,23 e 24,36 UI mg-1, quando eluídos com 0,75 M de sal para C. racemosa e C. cupressoides, respectivamente. Portanto, PS anticoagulantes isolados das clorofíceas C. racemosa e C. cupressoides resultaram em efeitos anticoagulantes inferiores aos da heparina. Estudos comparativos dessas moléculas também são sugeridos como ferramentas auxiliares na identificação de algas do mesmo gênero.The incidence of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects from heparintherapy have led to a search for new therapeutic agents, and the sulfated polysaccharides (SP of seaweeds have been reported as alternative sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anticoagulant potential of total SP (TSP isolated and fractionated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes. Initially, the TSP were extracted with

  8. Cimicifuga racemosa L., Trifolium pratense L. e Vitex agnus-castus L.: a correspondência das indicações contida nas bulas dos fitoterápicos e o respaldo científico

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    L. C. Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    É cada vez maior o número de mulheres que utilizam fitoterápicos como terapia alternativa para a menopausa, entretanto, na maioria das vezes esses produtos não possuem um mecanismo de ação conhecido, tão pouco eficácia clinica comprovada. O presente estudo objetiva avaliar a correspondência das indicações clínicas e os achados científicos de três produtos fitoterápicos de elevado índice de vendas na região de Piracicaba, destinados ao alívio dos sintomas da menopausa. Para isso foi realizado um levantamento dos fitoterápicos com maior venda numa farmácia pertencente a uma grande rede e listadas as plantas medicinais que compunham esses medicamentos. Posteriormente, verificou-se no Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas (DEF 2004/05 todos fitoterápicos que tinham em sua composição pelo menos uma das três plantas medicinais selecionadas (Cimicifuga racemosa L., Trifolium pratense L. e Vitex agnus-castus L. e feito um levantamento de como estavam registrados na ANVISA. Para análise da segurança do uso e eficácia dessas plantas medicinais fez-se uma busca em bases de dados científicos MEDLINE procurando trabalhos pré-clínicos de toxicidade e clínicos controlados randomizados que comprovassem a indicação terapêutica da planta. Dentre os resultados encontrados obteve-se que nenhum trabalho sobre toxicidade referia-se a segurança do uso da planta. Quanto a eficácia, das sete indicações propostas pelo fabricante do medicamento que contém a Cimicifuga racemosa L., somente uma das indicações se confirmava em estudo publicado; das nove indicações descritas na bula da Vitex agnus-castus L., duas se confirmavam através de pesquisas realizadas; e, das sete listadas para a Trifolium pratense L., uma foi comprovada. Palavras-chave: menopausa; medicamentos fitoterápicos; plantas medicinais

  9. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Klotzsch. Basil Ocimum basilicum L. Bay leaves Laurus nobilis L. Bay (myrcia oil) Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore. Bergamot (bergamot orange) Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia Wright et Arn. Bitter.... Turmeric Curcuma longa L. Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Andr. or Vanilla tahitensis J. W. Moore....

  10. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Klotzsch. Basil Ocimum basilicum L. Bay leaves Laurus nobilis L. Bay (myrcia oil) Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore. Bergamot (bergamot orange) Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia Wright et Arn. Bitter.... Moore. Violet flowers Viola odorata L. Violet leaves Do. Violet leaves absolute Do. Wild cherry...

  11. Qualidade de folhas e rendimento de óleo essencial em hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L. submetida ao processo de secagem em secador de leito fixo

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    P.P. Gasparin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais e seus derivados para o tratamento de doenças é uma prática antiga e se percebe, atualmente, uma crescente procura por produtos naturais, incluindo medicamentos, produtos alimentícios, e cosméticos. Hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L, além de ser uma planta medicinal, pode ser utilizada para obtenção de aromatizantes, infusões, e temperos. O processo de secagem se faz necessário para aumentar o tempo de conservação e a vida útil do produto facilitando seu transporte, manuseio, e armazenamento. Para que os produtos derivados da hortelã pimenta tenham qualidade é necessário estudos sobre o processo de pré e de pós-colheita. Objetivou-se neste estudo identificar a temperatura de secagem, em duas velocidades de ar circulante, que minimize a degradação da cor das folhas e permita obter maior rendimento de óleo essencial. Folhas da hortelã foram colhidas manualmente no horário entre 7:15 e 8:00, e submetidas a secagem em duas velocidades do ar (0,3 e 0,5 m.s-1 e em cinco temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 °C. O material seco foi analisado quanto à cor utilizando-se colorímetro com escala do sistema CIELab baseado em coloração dentro dos padrões da Norma DIN 6174 (1979. A quantificação do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação em aparelho Clevenger. Observou-se que temperaturas superiores a 50 °C reduzem o rendimento. A cor das folhas submetidas à secagem diferencia-se da cor das folhas frescas. De acordo com a Norma DIN 6174, a cor das folhas submetidas a secagem com temperatura até 40 °C são "Facilmente distinguíveis" e para as folhas submetidas à secagem a temperaturas superior a 50 °C, a diferenciação é "Muito grande". Conclui-se que para obter o máximo de rendimento do óleo essencial e o mínimo de degradação da cor, a secagem deve ser realizada a temperatura de até 50 ºC. A velocidade do ar de secagem, na faixa de 0,3 a 0,5 m.s-1, não afetou os par

  12. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  13. Estimative of Black Pepper leaf area with basis on the leaf blade linear dimension Estimativa da área foliar de pimenta do reino a partir de dimensões lineares do limbo foliar

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    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at establishing regression equations to estimate black pepper (Piper nigrum leaf area based on linear leaf measures. Different black pepper varieties where growth on the field, four different size leaves were collected per plant with a total of 52 leaves to establish the regression equation and 28 to validate the equation for each variety (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Leaf midrib length (LML, maximum leaf broad width (MLBW and leaf area (LA were measured. Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were determined between observed and predicted measures with the observed LA, besides estimating the linear regression equation for each variety. The equations best-fitted to estimate LA based on circumscript rectangle were: 1 LA = 2.2689 + 0.6900 x LML x MLBW; 2 LA = 1.6402 + 0.6816 x LML x MLBW; 3 LA = 1.4942 + 0.6215 x LML x MLBW and 4 LA = 0.7467 + 0.6735 x LML x MLBW, for Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina and Cingapura varieties respectively. For all equations predicted values had high correlation coefficient with observed values thus showing that these equations must be variety specific and that they are appropriate for black pepper leaf area estimative.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer equações de regressão para estimar a área foliar de diferentes variedades de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum cultivadas no campo, a partir de medidas lineares de folhas. Foram coletadas quatro folhas por planta, de tamanhos diferentes, totalizando 52 folhas, para estabelecer a equação de regressão e 28 para validar a equação para cada variedade (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Procederam-se às medições do comprimento da nervura central (LML, da maior largura do limbo foliar (MLBW e da área foliar (LA. Determinaram-se os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson entre as medidas mensuráveis e preditas com a LA observada, além de estimarem-se as equações de regressão linear para cada

  14. Determinação do coeficiente de cultura (Kc e eficiência do uso de água do alecrim-pimenta irrigado Determination of crop coefficient (Kc and water use efficiency for irrigated rosemary peppermint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio D. Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de cultura (Kc, a eficiência do uso de água (EUA do alecrim-pimenta contemplando a produção de biomassa e óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido em lisímetro de drenagem, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, cujos tratamentos correspondiam a sete lâminas de água (0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,2; 1,4; 1,65 e 1,9 ETo, e três repetições. A evapotranspiração potencial de referência utilizada no cálculo das lâminas de irrigação foi obtida pelo método de Penman-Monteith. Os tratamentos foram submetidos à análise de regressão. Os resultados indicam que o alecrim-pimenta apresenta resposta positiva ao aumento da lâmina d'água aplicada. O tratamento responsável pelo maior índice de eficiência do uso da água, foi o tratamento 6 (1,65 ETo, com 1,26 kg m-3 para a produção de matéria fresca em função da lâmina aplicada. A produtividade de óleo essencial foi de 59,12 kg ha-1 aos 120 dias após transplantio, para o tratamento 7 (1,9 ETo. Os coeficientes de cultura (Kc médios determinados em todo o ciclo da cultura, variaram de 0,98 na fase inicial, 1,20 no desenvolvimento vegetativo e 1,52 no florescimento.The aim of this study was to determine the crop coefficient (Kc, water use efficiency (WUE of the Lippia sidoides Cham. contemplating the production of biomass and essential oil and growth parameters. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeter at the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, at Montes Claros, MG. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with the treatments corresponding to seven water depths (0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.2; 1.4; 1.65 and 1.9 ETo, and three replications. The potential evapotranspiration of reference used in the calculation of the irrigation was obtained by the Penman Monteith

  15. Acúmulo de nutrientes e crescimento da pimenta-de-cheiro em função de doses de calcário = Nutrients accumulation and growth of habanero pepper in function of lime levels

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    Arnon Afonso de Souza Cardoso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A acidez dos solos tropicais pode afetar o desenvolvimento das espécies agronômicas, tornando necessária a prática da calagem. Entretanto, as culturas apresentam diferentes respostas à aplicação de calcário. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de calcário no crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea de pimenta-decheiro, Capsicum chinense Jacq. cultivada num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico típico, textura argilosa, em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0; 250; 500; 750; 1500 e 2000 kg ha-1 de calcário dolomítico e quatro repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída por 3 plantas por vaso. Aos 60 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas a altura, diâmetro do coleto, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca das raízes, o conteúdo e a eficiência nutricional de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe e Mn das plantas. Verificou-se que a adição de doses crescentes de calcário aumentou linearmente as características biológicas da pimenta-de-cheiro, principalmente a produção de massa seca. As concentrações dos nutrientes no tecido vegetal aumentaram de forma linear, com exceção do Fe. = The acidity of tropical soils can affect development of agronomic species, making necessary the liming, however, crops show different responses to lime application. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lime levels on growth and nutrients content in aerial part of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq., cultivated on a Yellow Latosol Dystrophic typic, clayey texture, in a greenhouse. The experimental design consisted of randomized design, with six doses of lime (0; 250; 500; 750; 1500; 2000 kg ha-1, four replications and three plants per pot in each plot. Up to sixty days after transplanting, were evaluated height, diameter, shoot dry matter, root dry matter, content and nutritional efficiency of N, P, K, Ca

  16. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia do óleo essencial do alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides no combate a varroase em Apis mellifera L.

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    S. B. L. C. Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, por meio de análise in vitro, o potencial acaricida do óleo essencial extraído de folhas da planta do alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides na mortalidade de Apis mellifera e do ácaro Varroa destructor, parasita destas abelhas. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada através o método de SOXHLET. Os ácaros foram retirados com auxílio de uma pinça de células de zangões infestadas, enquanto que as abelhas foram coletadas em recipientes de boca larga nos quadros do ninho das colmeias, ambos provenientes do apiário do IFRN. Os ácaros foram transferidos para uma placa de petri e as abelhas para gaiolas de observação, ambos contendo em seu interior uma esponja com área média de 1cm2 contendo os volumes T0 0μL, T1 100μL e T2 200μL de óleos essenciais, sendo cada volume um ensaio. As abelhas e os ácaros foram observados por seis horas para a quantificação da mortalidade em função dos tratamentos utilizados. As quantidades de volumes não influenciaram na mortalidade do hospedeiro e do parasita, mesmo assim apresentou uma morte gradual do ácaro, que variou de 5,69±2,21 a 19,90±3,10, correspondente ao T0 e T2, respectivamente. A A. mellifera apresentou uma variação de 0,00±0,00 a 2,03±1,41, correspondente ao T0 e T1. Ademais, ao colocarmos em confronto, mesmo não havendo relação à morte de ambos com os volumes (Chi² = 2,03; p = 0,329; gl = 2, podemos observar que o óleo essencial de alecrim pimenta pode ser uma viável estratégia no controle a disseminação do ectoparasita.In vitro evaluation of essential oil effectiveness of Alecrim Pimenta (Lippia sidoides in against varroase on Apis mellifera L. Abstract: The aim of this study was at evaluating the acaricide potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Rosemary Pepper   (Lippia sidoides  concerned to the mortality of the  bees Apis mellifera  and the mite Varroa destructor , parasite of such bees, through

  17. Efeito da pimenta rosa associada a diversas dosagens de antibióticos em frangos de corte Effect of Brazilian red pepper meal associated with different levels of antibiotics on broilers chickens

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    Fabiano Gomes Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de antibióticos associado ao farelo de pimenta rosa (FPR sobre a função hepática e desempenho de frangos de corte. Utilizou-se 528 pintos, machos, da linhagem Cobb de um dia de idade distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições com 22 aves cada: T1: Controle Negativo (CN: Dieta Basal; T2: Controle Positivo (CP: Dieta Basal com 1,2% FPR; T3: CP+11ppm bacitracina Zn e 17ppm salinomicina; T4: CP+22ppm bacitracina Zn e 34ppm salinomicina; T5: CP+33ppm bacitracina Zn e 51ppm salinomicina; T6: CP + 45ppm bacitracina Zn e 67ppm salinomicina. Por conter taninos, o uso de pimenta rosa na alimentação animal requer avaliação da função hepática, sendo a dosagem das enzimas ALT (alanina aminotransferase, AST (aspartato aminotransferase e GGT (gama glutamiltransferase ferramenta auxiliar no diagnóstico de lesões hepáticas. Portanto, aos 21 e 41 dias de idade, 10 animais por tratamento foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e coletadas amostras de sangue. Aos 21 dias de idade, verificou-se efeito significativo (P0,05 do CN aos 21 e 41 dias de idade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o peso das aves e do peso relativo do fígado aos 43 dias. A adição do farelo de pimenta rosa com ou sem promotor de produção melhorou a conversão alimentar aos 43 dias de idade. Concluiu-se que a adição de 1,2% FPR não comprometeu a função hepática e que a inclusão de doses mais altas de antibióticos, associado ao FPR na dieta, resultou em alteração das enzimas hepáticas.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the increase levels of antibiotics associated with the Brazilian red pepper meal (BRPM on liver function and performance of broilers. A total of 528 day-old male chicks, Cobb, distributed in a randomized design of six treatments and four replicates of 22 birds each: T1: Negative Control (NC: basal

  18. Green biochemistry approach for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Ficus racemosa latex and their pH-dependent binding study with different amino acids using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetgure, Sandesh R; Borse, Amulrao U; Sankapal, Babasaheb R; Garole, Vaman J; Garole, Dipak J

    2015-04-01

    Simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis approach was developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Ficus racemosa latex as reducing agent. The presence of sunlight is utilized with latex and achieved the nanoparticles whose average size was in the range of 50-120 nm for SNPs and 20-50 nm for GNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniques toget understand the obtained nanoparticles. The pH-dependent binding studies of SNPs and GNPs with four amino acids, namely L-lysine, L-arginine, L-glutamine and glycin have been reported.

  19. Chemical constituents from the oil of Rabdosia Racemosa and Rabdosia japonica (Burm.f) Hara var.galaucocalyx (Maxin) Hara%总序香茶菜和蓝萼香茶菜挥发油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兰; 王莱; 孙坤; 王汉卿

    2004-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对总序香茶菜(Rabdosia Racemosa(Hemsl) Hara)和蓝萼香茶菜(Rabdosia japonica(Burm.f)Hara var.galaucocalyx(Maxin)Hara)挥发油化学成分进行了研究,分别鉴定出46种和40种组分,所鉴定化合物的相对含量分别占其全油的84.77%和73.5%.用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为酯类、烷类等.

  20. Diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões da Embrapa Clima Temperado Genetic diversity in peppers and sweet peppers of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank

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    Miriam Valli Büttow

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os acessos de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. da Embrapa Clima Temperado constituem parte dos recursos genéticos de Capsicum. Contudo, é necessário conhecer o quanto esses genótipos são divergentes para que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e caracterizar a divergência genética entre os acessos de C. annuum do banco ativo de germoplasma de Capsicum da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 20 acessos com base em 36 descritores morfológicos multicategóricos. A diversidade genética foi avaliada por meio do método de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O método de Tocher formou três grupos de acessos. Pelos critérios utilizados, os dois métodos foram concordantes em agrupar isoladamente o acesso P77, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos particulares em relação aos demais. O estudo realizado evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética moderada entre os 20 acessos de C. annuum estudados e apresenta acessos com características ornamentais, os quais podem ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento.Accessions of peppers and sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank (Pelotas - RS integrate Capsicum genetic resources. However, it is necessary to know how much these genotypes are different, so they can be harnessed and used in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize genetic diversity among C. annuum accessions which belongs to Capsicum Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank. Twenty accessions were characterized through 36 multicategorical morphologic descriptors. Genetic diversity was assessed using Tocher grouping method and UPGMA. Three groups of accessions were formed by Tocher. Both methods were in agreement with the isolation of P77, due to its exclusive morphological traits. The study shows moderate genetic variability among 20 accessions of C. annuum studied and introduced accession with

  1. Produção de pimenta tabasco com aplicação de CO2, utilizando-se irrigação por gotejamento = Tabasco pepper production with CO2 application using drip irrigation

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    Fabiana Luiza Matielo de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação produz o rebaixamento do pH da solução do solo, causando variações na mobilidade dos nutrientes e consequentes efeitos na absorção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de doses de dióxido de carbono (CO2, aplicadas via irrigação por gotejamento, na produção da pimenta Tabasco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de CO2: 0 (T1, 451,95 (T2; 677,93 (T3 e 903,92 (T4 kg ha-1. Os frutos foram pesados e contados; o comprimento e o diâmetro de frutos foram obtidos com a média de 20 frutos por planta. Ocorreu efeito quadrático (p Application of CO2 through water reduces the soil solution pH, causing variations in nutrient mobility and consequent effects on the absorption. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of carbon dioxide rates supplied by drip irrigation in the production of Capsicum frutescens L. crop. A randomized block design with four treatments and eight replications was used. The treatments were four rates of CO2: 0 (T1, 451.95 (T2; 677.93 (T3 and 903.92 (T4 kg ha-1. The fruits were counted and weighed; the length and the diameter were obtained from an average of 20 fruits per plant, randomly taken, from each treatment in the plot. The quadratic effect (p < 0.01 occurred for CO2 on the yield and there was quadratic effect (p < 0.05 of the rates on the number of fruits. There were no effects of CO2 rates on the green matter, dry matter and fruit length and diameter. The T2 treatment provided greater yield and higher number of fruits per plant with an increase of 16 and 26%, respectively in relation to T1 (without CO2. CO2 application favored the increase in the yield because of the greater number of fruits per plant in the Tabasco pepper crop.

  2. 具混合繁殖策略的草本植物异果舞花姜的居群遗传结构%GENETIC AND CLONAL DIVERSITY OF GLOBBA RACEMOSA, A HERB WITH A MIXED REPRODUCTIVE MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周会平; 陈进; 张寿洲

    2008-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to understand the relative effects of reproductive mode, geographic distance and other potential factors on within- and among-population genetic and clonal diversity in Globba racemosa, a species that can reproduce sexually (via seeds) and asexually (via bulbils). Methods We investigated reproduction variation in the seven natural G. racemosa populations in Yuannan Province, China by measuring the number of sexually produced fruits and asexually produced bulbils. Genetic data were collected using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. We evaluated the distribution of genetic variance and levels of population genetic diversity and assessed the relationship between genetic diversity and reproduction variation. Important findings Globba racemosa has a relatively high genetic diversity at the species level (PPB=71.19%), and most genetic variances resided among populations (GST = 0.590 7). A high clonal diversity was found in this species (G/N = 0.88). No significant difference was detected between reproductive mode and genetic diversity or clonal diversity, which suggested that the mode of reproduction was not necessarily a determinant of population genetic diversity. There was a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.68, p < 0.05), which indicated that genetic differentiation between populations was likely attributed to the effect of isolation by distance. Other factors (e.g., small sexual recruitment, somatic mutation and founder effect, etc.) could also play important roles in maintaining genetic and clonal diversity in G. racemosa.%居群遗传结构的形成受到各种因素的影响.其中,繁殖方式可能对居群内遗传变异有极其重要的意义,而距离隔离也是居群间变异产生的主要原因之一.异果舞花姜(Globba racemosa)具有混合繁殖策略(以种子进行有性繁殖和以珠芽进行无性克隆繁殖).调查分布于云南的7个异果舞花姜居群间有性与

  3. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As diversidades de clima e de manejo interferem no desenvolvimento e na produtividade vegetal, uma vez que essas características estão diretamente correlacionadas ao genótipo e ao ambiente de cultivo. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi estimar os efeitos do tipo de manejo sob o desempenho agronômico de 12 linhas endogâmicas recombinadas (F7 de pimenta (Capsicum annuum L., originadas do cruzamento entre um acesso de pimentão suscetível à mancha-bacteriana (UENF 1421 e um acesso de pimenta resistente (UENF 1381. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo um deles em condições de campo, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ e o outro em sistema orgânico e cultivo protegido, em Seropédica, RJ. Foram avaliados o número total de frutos (NTF, peso total de frutos (PTF, peso médio dos frutos (PMF, comprimento dos frutos (CF, diâmetro dos frutos (DF, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto (CF/DF e a presença de capsaicina (CAPS. Foram realizadas a análise conjunta e o estudo da decomposição da interação genótipo x ambiente (G x A. Estimaram-se os componentes quadráticos genotípico e da interação G x A, o coeficiente de determinação genotípico e de variação genético e do índice de variação. A interação G x A foi significativa para o número, o peso total e médio de frutos, além do diâmetro do fruto e da relação comprimento/diâmetro. Com exceção do comprimento do fruto, o cultivo protegido e orgânico propiciou melhores médias para todas as características estudadas. Os parâmetros estudados mostraram que as causas de variação foram devidas às diferenças genéticas existentes entre as linhas e que o peso total de frutos foi a característica mais influenciada pelo manejo empregado. Entre as linhas pungentes, no cultivo em campo, a linha 2 mostrou alta capacidade produtiva e, para o cultivo protegido, a linha 8 obteve o maior número de frutos. Entre as não-pungentes, a linha 1 foi superior em ambos os ambientes

  4. Irrigation depth in production components of ‘Yellow Lantern’ and ‘ Lady’s Finger’ peppers = Lâminas de irrigação nos componentes de produção das pimentas ‘De cheiro’ e ‘Dedo-de-Moça’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vasconcelos Barroca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pepper is an important vegetable in Brazilian agriculture, with many culinary uses. For satisfactory crop development, suitable irrigation management is necessary. Based on the importance of this crop, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of irrigation depths on the production components of two species of pepper of the genus Capsicum. The experiment was carried out under field conditions on a farm of CEUNES/ UFES in São Mateus, in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil (ES. The experimental design was completely randomised into blocks of split lots, having five lots, two sub-lots and four replications. The lots comprised the irrigation depths of 40%, 70%, 100%, 130% and 160% of the Penman Monteith reference evapotranspiration (ETo (FAO 56. In the sub-lots, two species of pepper were evaluated (the Lady’s Finger variety of Capsicum baccatum, and the Yellow Lantern variety of Capsicum chinense employing drip irrigation. Under evaluation were productivity, average weight, average diameter and fruit length. Irrigation depth affected productivity and average fruit weight only. For the soil and climate conditions of São Mateus, ES, the production components of the Yellow Lantern pepper were higher than those of the Lady’s Finger. = A pimenta é uma olerícola importante na agricultura brasileira, tendo em vista o seu vasto uso culinário. Para que a cultura estudada se desenvolva satisfatoriamente é necessário o manejo adequado da irrigação. Com base na importância dessa cultura, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de lâminas de irrigação nos componentes de produção de duas espécies de pimenta do gênero Capsicum. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de campo, na fazenda do CEUNES/UFES, em São Mateus, no Espírito Santo, Brasil. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em parcela subdividida, com quatro repetições. As parcelas consistiram de cinco lâminas de

  5. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

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    Wânia dos Santos Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, mostarda (Brassica campestris e alho (Allium sativum sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris, de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados

  6. Algoritmo de Gower na estimativa da divergência genética em germoplasma de pimenta The Grower's algorithm on the estimate of genetic diversity in chili pepper germoplasm

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    Maria da Cruz CL Moura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da variabilidade genética existente em um banco de germoplasma é importante não só para a conservação dos recursos genéticos, mas também para sua utilização no melhoramento de plantas. Os acessos de um banco são estudados com base em descritores quantitativos e qualitativos. Porém, nem sempre esses dados são analisados simultaneamente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a divergência genética entre 56 acessos de Capsicum chinense procedentes da Coleção de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, com base em 44 descritores morfoagronômicos, 37 qualitativos e sete quantitativos, utilizando-se a análise conjunta baseada no algoritmo de Gower. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições e três plantas por parcela. As plantas estudadas cresceram em vasos de 5 L. Houve variabilidade fenotípica entre os acessos de pimenta estudados, principalmente nos frutos, que mostraram diferenças acentuadas em tamanho, formato, coloração, teores de sólidos solúveis totais e vitamina C. O método aglomerativo utilizado foi UPGMA por ter maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (r = 0,82. Os acessos estudados dividiram-se em seis grupos. O agrupamento com base na distância de Gower revelou maior eficiência na disjunção dos genótipos quando foram utilizadas as variáveis qualitativas em comparação às quantitativas, indicando uma maior contribuição daquelas na explicação dos agrupamentos. A análise conjunta dos dados quantitativos e qualitativos resultou em maior eficiência na determinação da divergência genética entre os acessos avaliados, sendo uma alternativa viável e uma ferramenta importante para o conhecimento da variabilidade em bancos de germoplasma.The estimation of genetic variability in germplasm collections is important not only for the conservation of genetic resources, but also for plant breeding purposes. Accessions in a

  7. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

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    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three

  8. Biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint essential oil using different organic fertilizer sources Produção de biomassa, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta usando diferentes fontes de adubação orgânica

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    Andressa Giovannini Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentha x piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species belonging to the family Lamiaceae that is popularly known as peppermint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizer sources on the biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. essential oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD with a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, two sources of manure (cattle and poultry, five doses (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-2 and four replicates. Different doses of cattle and poultry manure significantly affected plant biomass production and the responses of other variables, including leaf area, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, root:shoot ratio, yield and chemical composition. Organic fertilizer doses of 9.0 kg m-2 cattle manure and 8.3 kg m-2 poultry manure to obtain the maximum total dry biomass. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by applying 11.8 kg m-2 poultry manure. Differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil were observed for only three components (menthone, pulegone and menthyl acetate without significant changes in the menthol content.Mentha x piperita L. é uma planta aromática e medicinal pertencente à família Lamiaceae, popularmente conhecida como hortelã-pimenta. No trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito das fontes de adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa, no rendimento e na composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L.. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com duas fontes de esterco, bovino e avícola, e cinco doses (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 kg m-2, com quatro repetições cada. As diferentes doses de estercos bovino e avícola influenciaram significativamente de forma benéfica a produção de biomassa das plantas e também outras variáveis de crescimento como área foliar, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar, relação raiz:parte aérea, rendimento e

  9. Características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento na produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulated matriz of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. synthetic seed production

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    Rodrigo da Silva Guedes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é um arbusto da família Piperaceae, nativa da região amazônica, que vem despertando o interesse das indústrias de cosméticos e bioinseticidas pelo alto teor de safrol, óleo essencial extraído das folhas e talos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento durante a produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa. Sementes germinadas de pimenta-longa foram utilizadas como material de encapsulamento. Em ambos os experimentos, a influência da constituição (água ou meio Murashige e Skoog e consistência da cápsula (alginato de sódio 1% ou 2% e do tempo de complexação (10, 20 e 30 min em CaCl2, na abertura das cápsulas, foi avaliada. Depois de encapsulados, os materiais foram transferidos para frascos com meio de MS e mantidos em sala de crescimento, onde, quinzenalmente, foi avaliada a taxa de emergência e crescimento das plântulas encapsuladas. Verificou-se que o emprego de um endosperma artificial composto por 1% de alginato de sódio em meio de MS foi o tratamento que promoveu os melhores resultados para a emergência e posterior crescimento de plântulas oriundas de sementes sintéticas aos 30 dias da semeadura em meio MS sólido, independentemente do tempo de complexação utilizado.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is a shrub of the Piperaceae family, native of the Amazonian region, with special interest of cosmetics and bio-insecticide industries due to its high concentration of safrol, an essential oil extracted from the leaves and stems. This work aimed to evaluate the physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulation matrix during the production of synthetic seeds of long pepper. Germinated long pepper seeds were used as vegetative material for encapsulation. For both experiments, the influence of capsule composition (water or MS and consistency (sodium alginate at 1% or 2

  10. Germination and vigor of long-pepper seeds (Piper hispidinervum as a function of temperature and light Germinação e vigor de sementes de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum em função da temperatura e da luz

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    Francisco Pacheco Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long pepper is considered a promising species because of offering the prospect of making Brazil self-sufficient in the production of safrole, an important essential oil used as a fixative for fragrances and having therapeutic properties. In establishing areas intended for the cultivation of this species, it is necessary to evaluate the physiological quality of the seeds used in the production of seedlings. The objective was to determine the conditions of temperature and luminosity for the test of germination and vigor in seeds of the long-pepper. Seeds from four different lots were used to make the following measurements: moisture content (105 ± 3 ºC for 24 hours, germination (20; 25; 30 and 35 ºC with photoperiods of 12 and 24 hours, and alternating between 20-30 ºC and 20-35 ºC with 12 hours of light at the higher temperature, speed of germination index, speed of germination, seedling dry matter, seedling emergence, emergence rate index and relative frequency of germination. The experimental design was completely randomized with averages being compared by the Tukey test (PA pimenta longa é considerada uma espécie promissora por apresentar a perspectiva de tornar o Brasil autosuficiente na produção de safrol, importante óleo essencial usado como fixador de fragrâncias e com propriedades terapêuticas. Na implantação de áreas destinadas à cultura dessa espécie é necessário avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes utilizadas na formação de mudas. O objetivo foi determinar as condições de temperatura e luminosidade para o teste de germinação e vigor em sementes de pimenta longa. Foram utilizadas sementes de quatro lotes para as seguintes determinações: teor de água (105 ± 3 ºC por 24 horas, germinação (20; 25; 30 e 35 ºC com fotoperíodo de 12 e 24 horas, e alternadas de 20-30 ºC e 20-35 ºC, com 12 horas de luz na temperatura mais alta, índice de velocidade de germinação, velocidade de germina

  11. Variabilidade espacial de cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, potássio no solo e produtividade da pimenta-do-reino Spatial variability of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium in soil and yield of black pepper

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    Eduardo O. de J. Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino é uma importante fonte de renda para o produtor rural, razão por que é uma espécie predominantemente cultivada por pequenos produtores porém ainda é pouco conhecida a relação da variação espacial dos nutrientes e da produtividade da cultura. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, descrever a variabilidade espacial do Ca, Mg, K, P no solo e a produtividade de uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, cultivada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, no município de São Mateus, ES, plantada no espaçamento 3,0 x 1,8 m. O projeto foi instalado em uma malha retangular de 100 x 120 m. Em cada ponto amostral foram coletadas amostras de solo, na profundidade de 0-0,20 m e determinada a produtividade, totalizando 126 pontos, com distância mínima de 5 m. Os dados foram submetidos à análise geoestatística. Observou-se estrutura de dependência espacial moderada e forte para os atributos químicos estudados. O estudo da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo mostrou-se como ferramenta relevante na compreensão do comportamento dos nutrientes no solo podendo ser fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão que vise à maior produtividade da lavoura.The black pepper (Piper nigrum L. has a social importance and it is mainly cultivated by small farmers, however the relationship between the spatial variability of nutrients in soil and yield of black pepper is little known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyse the spatial variability of Ca, Mg, K, P in soil and black pepper yield, cultivated in a distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The study was carried out in a black pepper plantation, in São Mateus, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A 3 x 1,8 m spacing in a mesh of 100 x 120 m (total area 12.000 m2, with 126 sampling points was used. Soil samples at depth of 0-0.2 m were collected at each point of the grid, in order to evaluate the soil

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ...

  13. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. sobre lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Insecticidal Activity of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa Piper hispidinervum, e avaliação de seu efeito no comportamento e/ou mortalidade da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por CG-EM e CG. Foram realizados testes de ingestão e contato tópico em lagartas de 1º e 3º ínstar. Os resultados constataram que o óleo essencial de pimenta-longa possui atividade inseticida sobre S. frugiperda, causando redução alimentar e mortalidade, sendo o safrol (82% seu constituinte majoritário. Verificou-se mortalidade no teste de ingestão em lagartas de 1º ínstar com CL50 = 16,2 mg/mL e para lagartas de 3º ínstar a CL50 = 9,4 mg/mL com redução alimentar CD50 = 0,72 mg/mL; e de toxicidade aguda no teste de contato tópico com DL50 = 277,91 μg/lagarta, após o intervalo de tempo de 96 horas, sendo também observados sintomas de neurotoxicidade, como o efeito knock-down.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil from the long-pepper leaves (Piper hispidinervum and its effect on the comportment and/or mortality of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using the modified Clevenger apparatus, the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC. Tests of ingestion and topical application in fall armyworm of 1 st and 3 rd ínstar were made. The results showed that the long-pepper essential oil has insecticide activity on S. frugiperda, causing mortality and food reduction, and safrole (82% as its majority constituent. Mortality was found in the ingestion test in larvae of 1 st ínstar LC50 = 16.2 mg/mL for larvae of 3 rd ínstar LC50 = 9.4 mg/mL, with reduced food CD50 = 0.72 mg/mL; and

  14. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

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    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  15. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The mi

  16. Host tree influences on longicorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) attack in subtropical Corymbia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrung, Helen F; Smith, Timothy E; Wiegand, Aaron N; Lawson, Simon A; Debuse, Valerie J

    2014-02-01

    Phoracantha longicorn beetles are endemic to Australia, and some species have become significant pests of eucalypts worldwide, yet little is known about their host plant interactions and factors influencing tree susceptibility in Australia. Here, we investigate the host relationships of Phoracantha solida (Blackburn, 1894) on four eucalypt taxa (one pure species and three hybrid families), examining feeding site physical characteristics including phloem thickness, density, and moisture content, and host tree factors such as diameter, height, growth, taper, and survival. We also determine the cardinal and vertical (within-tree) and horizontal (between-tree) spatial distribution of borers. Fewer than 10% of P. solida attacks were recorded from the pure species (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegate (Hook)), and this taxon also showed the highest survival, phloem thickness, relative growth rate, and bark:wood area. For the two most susceptible taxa, borer severity was negatively correlated with moisture content, and positively related to phloem density. Borers were nonrandomly and nonuniformly distributed within trees, and were statistically aggregated in 32% of plots. More attacks were situated on the northern side of the tree than the other aspects, and most larvae fed within the lower 50 cm of the bole, with attack height positively correlated with severity. Trees with borers had more dead neighbors, and more bored neighbors, than trees without borers, while within plots, borer incidence and severity were positively correlated. Because the more susceptible taxa overlapped with less susceptible taxa for several physical tree factors, the role of primary and secondary chemistries in determining host suitability needs to be investigated. Nevertheless, taxon, moisture content, phloem density, tree size, and mortality of neighboring trees appeared the most important physical characteristics influencing host suitability for P. solida at this site.

  17. Notes on Pemphis acidula J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Myrtales: Lythraceae from Andaman Islands, India

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    M.P. Goutham-Bharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemphis acidula Forst. (Lythraceae has been reported herein with locality data after a lapse of 91 years from Andaman Islands. This re-discovery is significant as P. acidula has not been added to the mangrove flora of India in many important national and international status reports. This species is characterized by its narrowly elliptic to lanceolate leaves that are densely covered with silky hairs on both surfaces, crumpled white petals, capsule with circumscissile dehiscence and winged seeds. Further, new morphological discoveries viz., tetramerous and pentamerous flowers were reported in the present study in contrast to the perfect hexamerous flowers reported elsewhere. Since P. acidula is sparsely distributed, location-specific conservation strategies should be adapted in order to prevent its local extinction from the Islands. In addition, exploratory surveys are imperative particularly in calcareous rocky habitats for authenticating the wider distribution of such rare species. 

  18. Notes on Pemphis acidula J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Myrtales: Lythraceae from Andaman Islands, India

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    M.P. Goutham-Bharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemphis acidula Forst. (Lythraceae has been reported herein with locality data after a lapse of 91 years from Andaman Islands. This re-discovery is significant as P. acidula has not been added to the mangrove flora of India in many important national and international status reports. This species is characterized by its narrowly elliptic to lanceolate leaves that are densely covered with silky hairs on both surfaces, crumpled white petals, capsule with circumscissile dehiscence and winged seeds. Further, new morphological discoveries viz., tetramerous and pentamerous flowers were reported in the present study in contrast to the perfect hexamerous flowers reported elsewhere. Since P. acidula is sparsely distributed, location-specific conservation strategies should be adapted in order to prevent its local extinction from the Islands. In addition, exploratory surveys are imperative particularly in calcareous rocky habitats for authenticating the wider distribution of such rare species. 

  19. Spiked pepper: selection of clones toward cropping on the edaphoclimatic conditions from Belém, Brazil Pimenta-de-macaco: seleção de clones para plantio nas condições edafoclimáticas de Belém

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper presents a high yield of essential oil with useful biological properties for human health and agriculture. In order to evaluate the morphoagronomic variability and, afterwards, to select genotypes for plant breeding and cultivation, thirteen clones were propagated. Thus, spiked pepper cuttings were rooted under greenhouse, transferred to a nursery and, afterwards, planted at the experimental area. The evaluations were carried out in two harvest seasons. The evaluated morphoagronomic traits were number of leaves per branch, leaf length, leaf width, diameter of the oldest branch, plant height, number of orthotropic branches, number of plagiotropic branches, internode length, fresh and dry matter, yield of essential oil and dillapiole content. The analysis of variance and the Scott-Knott test were utilized for data analysis and comparisons among clones and parentals were carried out through genetic and experimental variation coefficients. Fresh matter (first season, number of orthotropic branches and diameter of the the oldest branch (second season presented variability. The Scott-Knott test detected variability for fresh matter, dillapiole content (first season, diameter of the oldest branch and number of orthotropic branches (second season. The yield of essential oil and the dillapiole content were higher for the clones than for the parentals. In conclusion, the clones showed adaptability to the soil and climate conditions of Belém, Pará State, Brazil; the harvest time influenced the oil yield and the dillapiole content; the variance analysis evidenced uniformity and productivity for the evaluated clones, suggesting they can be recommended for cultivation on small-scale production systems in this location.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie com elevado teor de óleo essencial em que se constatam propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variabilidade morfoagronômica e

  20. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora.

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  2. Controle da fusariose em plantas de pimenta-do-reino com bactérias endofíticas: sobrevivência e respostas morfofisiológicas Fusariosis control in black pepper plants with bacterial endophytes: survival and morphophysiological responses

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    RUTH LINDA BENCHIMOL

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Oito bactérias endofíticas de plântulas de pimenta-do-reino foram testadas em casa de vegetação, objetivando controlar Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis e avaliar respostas morfofisiológicas das plantas tratadas com os agentes de controle. Plantas com quatro meses de idade tiveram o sistema radicular tratado com as suspensões bacterianas (10(9 ufc mL-1 por 10 minutos, e foram plantadas em vasos com solo natural infestado artificialmente com o patógeno (0,25%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições para avaliar o comportamento fotossintético, a produção e a alocação de biomassa, e cinco repetições para avaliar a mortalidade das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas 120 dias após a instalação do ensaio. O isolado B0 (Methylobacterium radiotolerans controlou F. solani f. sp. piperis, provocando redução significativa do número de plantas mortas. Na ausência do patógeno, M. radiotolerans funcionou ainda como promotor de crescimento. Os demais isolados testados não apresentaram efeito na diminuição da mortalidade das plantas. A aplicação das bactérias endofíticas não afetou a taxa fotossintética instantânea das plantas, à exceção de B6, que teve efeito negativo. As plantas tratadas com M. radiotolerans priorizaram a alocação de carbono para a parte aérea.Eight endophytic bacteria from black pepper seedlings were tested under greenhouse conditions aiming to control Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis and to evaluate some morphophysiological responses in plants treated with the biocontrol agents. Four-month old plants had their roots treated with the bacterial suspensions (10(9 cfu mL-1 for 10 minutes and were planted in pots containing soil artificially infested with the pathogen (0.25%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications to evaluate photosynthetic behavior, and biomass production and allocation, and five replications to evaluate plant

  3. Analysis of volatiles from Laguncularia racemosa in Beihai, Guangxi by ATD-GC/MS andevaluation on safe property of the tree%广西北海拉关木挥发物的 ATD-GC/MS 分析及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚贻烈; 郑华; 陆小峰; 李坤; 钟景春; 宋国彬; 陈大亮

    2016-01-01

    Laguncularia racemosa is a fast growing mangrove plant with excellent properties of anti-salt and waste pre-vention. But its safety to the environment and human beings need to evaluate when it absorbs polluted materials from the sea water, especially the safety on sense of smell of those volatile compositions released from the tree. For these con-cerns, volatiles from both the juvenile and adult branches without flowers or fruits were collected. And for the latter, it was also sampled branches with flowers and fruits. These samples were all obtained from the cultivation base for man-groves in Beihai, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Reigion, China, which was a suitable afforestation farm for this mangrove plant with relatively high stability. Such volatiles mentioned above were captured in situ, i.e. from the living and undam-aged tree, by dynamic head-space adsorption within a close and air circular system, using a set of portable apparatus which was easily available to experimental operation in the fields. Then, their chemical compositions were analyzed using auto thermal-desorption gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/ MS). The results showed that terpines, ke-tones, acids and other substances were detected in the tree volatiles, among which the highest content parts were terpines. In all samples, over 3/ 4 of the total volatile percentage was α-pinene, which shared the most preponderance of those compositions. Terpenes such as β-phellandrene and β-pinene were also with relatively high content, the former ranging nearly 10%-15% and the latter over 5%. It was concord with investigations on the constituents of those extrac-ted chemicals from this tree and other mangrove plants such as Aegiceras comiculatum, as terpines were found in all of them. The other less compounds also contributed to the total smell at some point, providing fragrances as pine wood, holly tree, orange, eucalyptus and other vegetations, although they were various in aroma strong value of

  4. Insecticidal evaluation of essential oils of Citrus sinensis L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is one of the most common insects, associated with vectoring of various etiological agents. In order to search for effective control agent, the essential oil of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] was evaluated for its insecticidal activity against the larvae and pupae of housefly using contact toxicity and fumigation bioassays. In the contact toxicity assay, lethal concentration, LC(50) of C. sinensis essential oil against housefly larvae, varied between 3.93 and 0.71 μl/cm(2) for different observation days, while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 5.8 to 2.3 days. Mortality of larvae were significant with different concentrations (F = 2.79, df = 4, P housefly larvae, LC(50) of 71.2 and 52.6 μl/l was obtained in 24 and 48 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of oil treated larvae revealed extreme dehydration and surface distortion while control larvae were free from any of the above symptoms and presented smooth surface, conforming effect of essential oil on housefly larvae. Percentage inhibition rate of oil against housefly pupae was 27.3-72.7% for contact toxicity and 46.4-100% for fumigation assay. Compositional analysis of C. sinensis essential oil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed D: -limonene (73.24%), α-pinene (5.86%) and myrcene (4.45%) as major components whereas its vapour profile (solid-phase micro extraction-GC/MS) was dominated by D: -limonene at 92.57%. Significant activity of C. sinensis essential oil against larvae and pupae of housefly, pave the way for its use as eco-friendly housefly control measure.

  5. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, essential oil production and nutrient uptake in peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Inoculação com fungos micorrízicos e adubação fosfatada no crescimento, produção de óleo essencial e absorção de nutrientes em hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L.

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    M.C. Arango

    2012-01-01

    Ca na parte aérea sendo superiores em 40 mg P kg-1 de solo. As plantas cultivadas com 40 mg P kg-1 de solo aumentaram a produção de óleo essencial por planta cerca de 40-50% em relação às cultivadas com 10 mg de P kg-1, independentemente da micorrização. Dentre as espécies fúngicas estudadas, a inoculação com G. Intraradices A4 e com um elevado nível de P, aumentou significativamente o crescimento e rendimento de óleos essenciais em comparação com outras espécies de fungos micorrízicos estudados. Em conclusão, a inoculação dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de hortelã é uma alternativa viável para aumentar a produção de óleos essenciais e reduzir o uso de fertilizantes necessários para a produção econômica de hortelã-pimenta com deficiência de fósforo no solo.

  6. NaCl处理下两种引进红树的光合及抗氧化防御能力%Antioxidant defense and photosynthesis for non-indigenous mangrove species Sonneratia apetala and Laguncularia racemosa under NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 李妮亚; 刘强; 钟才荣; 黄敏; 曾佳

    2013-01-01

    在长期盐胁迫(28天,NaC1浓度从100 mmol·L-1升至400 mmol.L-1)下,比较研究了引进的无瓣海桑(Sonneratia apetala)和拉关木(Laguncularia racemosa)幼苗叶片的气体交换、叶绿素含量、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、O2-.产生速率以及抗氧化酶的活性,探讨了两种红树幼苗光合、抗氧化防御能力的差异与耐盐性的关系.结果显示:NaC1处理没有明显地影响两种红树幼苗的生长,表明盐生植物对盐环境的适应性,但两种红树的生理反应对NaC1处理存在较大的差异.在实验的第28天(苗木的NaC1累计处理浓度递增到400 mmol.L-1)时,与对照相比,无瓣海桑叶片的净光合速率、水分利用效率增加,气孔导度、蒸腾速率和胞间CO2浓度/大气CO2浓度(Ci/Ga)相应降低;然而,拉关木叶的净光合速率、蒸腾速率和水分利用效率均回落到对照的水平,而气孔导度和Ci/Ca均增加,表明同样的NaCl浓度处理对拉关木叶的净光合速率影响大于无瓣海桑.在NaC1处理期间,无瓣海桑Fv/Fm一直保持在0.8以上,而拉关木的Fv/Fm为0.75以下,说明无瓣海桑具有高于拉关木的潜在最大光合能力.在实验的第7天(NaCl浓度为100 mmol.L-1)和14天(苗木的NaC1累计处理浓度递增到200 mmol·L-1)时,两种红树O2-产生速率迅速增加,在实验的第28天(苗木的NaC1累计处理浓度递增到400 mmol.L-1)时,无瓣海桑O2-产生速率是对照的5.3倍,差异极显著,此时,拉关木叶中O2-.产生速率已降低到低于对照的水平.盐处理诱导了两种红树叶中抗氧化酶(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APx)、谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)、过氧化物酶(POD))活性增加,但拉关木增加的幅度大于无瓣海桑,表明拉关木能响应盐胁迫并上调抗氧化酶活性,降低盐诱导的膜脂过氧化,提高耐盐的能力,无瓣海桑通过提高水分利用效率来保持体内的水分,同时,保持PSII的

  7. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L. cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alencar Maciel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11 Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum apresentam compostos metabólitos secundários como safrol e dilapiol de interesse comercial em seus óleos essenciais. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos anatômicos, relacionados a respostas fisiológicas das folhas de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Secções paradérmicas e transversais da lâmina foliar do cultivo in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo, feitas à mão-livre foram realizadas para a medição das estruturas anatômicas em microscópio de luz. A espessura da epiderme e hipoderme de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum sofrem alterações na transição de cultivo in vitro para o ex vitro. Os tecidos do mesofilo e a abertura do poro estomático de ambas as espécies são influenciados pelo ambiente in vitro. Diferentes ambientes de cultivo promovem a plasticidade das estruturas celulares da lâmina foliar e fundamentam o sucesso da micropropagação de ambas as espécies.

  8. Estudo da adaptação da espécie Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (pimenta longa à região do Vale do Itajaí - SC, através da composição química do óleo essencial obtido por hidrodestilação por micro-ondas e convencional Adaptation studies of Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (long pepper species in Itajaí Valley - SC, by the chemical composition of essential oil obtained by microwave and traditional hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilamara Riva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a espécie Piper hispidinervum (pimenta longa, endêmica do estado do Acre, foi cultivada na região do Vale do Itajaí - SC, e sua adaptação foi avaliada em relação à composição química do óleo essencial obtido pelos processos de hidrodestilação convencional e por micro-ondas. O safrol foi identificado como o constituinte majoritário do óleo essencial desta espécie, o qual foi empregado como parâmetro de avaliação da capacidade de adaptação desta planta à região sul do Brasil, já que a proposta abrange avaliar a utilização desta espécie como fonte alternativa de safrol, em substituição a Canela Sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera, espécie muito explorada até a década de 90 nesta região. As amostras da planta foram obtidas de diferentes regiões do Acre e foram cultivadas na estação experimental da EPAGRI - Itajaí-SC. O óleo essencial das folhas forneceu um teor médio de safrol entre 76,6% e 89,9%. A análise por CG-DIC e CG-EM do óleo com maior concentração de safrol, apresentou os seguintes constituintes: safrol (89,93%, α-terpineno (0,35%, (E-β-ocimeno (0,54%, terpinoleno (3,10%, valenceno (0,21%, (Z-β-bisaboleno (1,70% e guaiol (0,29%.In this work a Piper hispidinervum specie (long pepper, endemic from the Acre state, was grown in Itajaí Valley in Santa Catarina State, and its adaptation was evaluated in relation to chemical composition of essential oil obtained by traditional hydrodistillation and microwave hydrodistillation. The safrole was identified as the major constituent of the essential oil of this specie, which was used as a measure of evaluation of the adaptation capacity of this plant in the southern Brazil, as the proposal includes the evaluation of the usage of this specie as an alternative source of safrole, replacing Sassafras Cinnamon (Ocotea odorifera, widely explored specie in this region until the 90's decade. The plant samples were obtained from different regions of the

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

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    Yu-Rim Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.

  11. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  12. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales:Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia has culminated in the release of the gall forming midge Lophodiplosis trifida Gagné (Cecidomyiidae). Populations of the introduced ...

  13. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  14. MATURAÇÃO FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE PIMENTA ‘BODE VERMELHA’

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    VANESSA DAMASCENO GONÇALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. var. Bode Vermelha seeds, obtained from fruits at different ripening stages. The fruits of C. Chinese were separated according to the ripening stages, based on pericarp color (green fruits – stage 1, orange fruits – stage 2, light red fruits – stage 3, red fruits – stage 4, and carmine-red fruits – stage 5. To evaluate the ripeness and the physiological quality of the seeds were determined the biometric characteristics of the fruits and seeds, mass of thousand seeds, seeds water content, electrical conductivity, standard germinations test, speed of germination index, percentage of normal seedlings, speed of seedlings formation, accelerated aging, and seedling length. The characters length, diameter, weight, and number of seeds of the fruits and length, width, thickness, and mass of the seeds were analyzed by the estimated parameters using descriptive statistics. For the other variables was used the completely randomized design. The results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The ripeness stage affects the physiological quality of C. chinense Jacq. var. Bode Red seeds, being the seeds from red (stage 4 to carmine-red (stage 5 fruits those with the best performance thus, they are physiologically ripe, being the most indicated to seeds obtaining.

  15. Nutrientes afetando as mudas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e seus artrópodes Nutrients affecting "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides Cham. seedlings and their arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da omissão de nutrientes nas mudas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae e seu possível efeito sobre os seus artrópodes, sendo os tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 completo 1 adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, e Zn + calagem (C1; 3 completo 2: C1 sem calagem + Ca e Mg como sulfato (C2; 4 C1 sem calagem; 5 C1 sem N; 6 C1 sem P; 7 C1 sem K; 8 C1 sem S; 9 C1 sem B; 10 C1 sem Cu; 11 C1 sem Zn; 12 C2 sem Ca e 13 C2 sem Mg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. O Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae atacou mais os tratamentos 3, 6, 9 e 13 e os maiores danos nos tratamentos 6 e 13. A maior população de Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae foi encontrada nos tratamentos 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13, colonizando preferencialmente o tratamento 4. O Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae foi encontrado em maior número nos tratamentos 4 e 9 e Insignorthezia insignis (Browne (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae em 13. Foram mais notados adultos de Bemisa tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae nos tratamentos 5, 7, 8 e 13 e ninfas nos três últimos tratamentos. Em geral, os tratamentos 1, 5 e 10 são os menos atacados por artrópodes. Dirigir a pulverização, quando necessário, sempre para a face inferior da folha.The aim of this work was to evaluate nutrient omission effect on Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea seedlings, as well as its possible effect on their arthropods. Treatments were: 1 control; 2 complete 1: fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, and Zn + lime (C1; 3 complete 2: C1 without lime + Ca and Mg as sulphate (C2; 4 C1 without lime; 5 C1 without N; 6 C1 without P; 7 C1 without K; 8 C1 without S; 9 C1 without B; 10 C1 without Cu; 11 C1 without Zn; 12 C2 without Ca; and 13 C2 without Mg. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae predominantly attacked treatments 3, 6, 9 and 13, and the greatest damages were detected in treatments 6 and 13. The largest population of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae was observed in treatments 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 and 13, preferentially colonizing treatment 4. Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was predominant in treatments 4 and 9, and Insignorthezia insignis (Browne (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae, in treatment 13. Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae adults were mostly detected in treatments 5, 7, 8 and 13, whereas nymphs, in the last three treatments. In general, treatments 1, 5 and 10 are the least attacked by arthropods. When needed, pulverization must always be directed to the leaf lower surface.

  16. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  17. Reproductive biology of a bromeligenous frog endemic to the Atlantic Forest: Aparasphenodon arapapa Pimenta, Napoli and Haddad, 2009 (Anura: Hylidae

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    AMANDA S.F. LANTYER-SILVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aparasphenodon is restricted to South America and comprises five poorly studied species which present a straight relationship with bromeliads. Herein we present the reproductive biology of the species Aparasphenodon arapapa. Our observations indicate that A. arapapa is a prolonged breeder, reproducing throughout the year using bromeliads as a calling and breeding site. The tadpoles complete their development inside those plants. Males, females and juveniles may also use the bromeliads as a shelter. We also describe the courtship behavior and the parental care of the species with an evidence of temporary fidelity between male and female and propose a new reproductive mode.

  18. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae. Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some

  19. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.

  20. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  1. Which Bay Leaf is in Your Spice Rack? - A Quality Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijayasankar; Bussmann, Rainer W; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    The accurate identification of bay leaf in natural products commerce may often be confusing as the name is applied to several different species of aromatic plants. The true "bay leaf", also known as "bay laurel" or "sweet bay", is sourced from the tree Laurus nobilis, a native of the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, the leaves of several other species including Cinnamomum tamala, Litsea glaucescens, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum, and Umbellularia californica are commonly substituted or mistaken for true bay leaves due to their similarity in the leaf morphology, aroma, and flavor. Substitute species are, however, often sold as "bay leaves". As such, the name "bay leaf" in literature and herbal commerce may refer to any of these botanicals. The odor and flavor of these leaves are, however, not the same as the true bay leaf, and for that reason they should not be used in cooking as a substitute for L. nobilis. Some of the bay leaf substitutes can also cause potential health problems. Therefore, the correct identification of the true bay leaf is important. The present work provides a detailed comparative study of the leaf morphological and anatomical features of L. nobilis and its common surrogates to allow for correct identification.

  2. A reversed-phase compatible thin-layer chromatography autography for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; García, Paula; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2015-11-01

    A dual readout autographic assay to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrices adsorbed on reversed-phase or normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates is described. Enzyme gel entrapment with an amphiphilic copolymer was used for assay development. The effects of substrate and enzyme concentrations, pH, incubation time, and incubation temperature on the sensitivity and the detection limit of the assay were evaluated. Experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize conditions with a minimum number of experiments. The assay allowed the detection of 0.01% w/w of physostigmine in both a spiked Sonchus oleraceus L. extract chromatographed on normal phase and a spiked Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J.W. Moore leaf essential oil chromatographed on reversed phase. Finally, the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography assay was applied to reveal the presence of an inhibitor in the Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf essential oil. The developed assay is able to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrixes that were chromatographed in normal phase or reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. The detection limit for physostigmine on both normal and reversed phase was of 1×10(-4) μg. The results can be read by a change in color and/or a change in fluorescence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina; Ressonancia magnetica de paciente com cisticercose racemosa da cauda equina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lemos, Sandro Pedroso [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-12-01

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  5. Métodos de agrupamento em estudo de divergência genética de pimentas Clustering methods in a study of genetic diversity of peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila N Faria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três métodos para determinação do número de grupos em estudos com aplicação de métodos hierárquicos de agrupamentos, baseando-se em dados obtidos a partir da caracterização de acessos de Capsicum, de modo a identificar aquele com maior poder de discriminação. Os métodos de Mojena, de Tocher e o método RMSSTD foram aplicados com a finalidade de determinar o número ideal de grupos formados na fase final do procedimento de agrupamento com o método UPGMA. Foram analisados 49 acessos da espécie Capsicum chinense do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em relação a dez características morfológicas com o intuito de identificar e agrupar os acessos mais similares, tornando possível a seleção de genótipos superiores, ou seja, com as características comerciais de interesse. Os resultados mostraram que o método RMSSTD permitiu concluir sobre a existência de sete grupos, evidenciando um maior poder de discriminação para este método, em relação ao método de otimização de Tocher e ao método de Mojena, que formaram respectivamente, quatro e três grupos.The objective of this study was to compare three methods to determine number of groups in studies with hierarquical cluster analysis, based at data from characterization of Capsicum accessions, in order to identify those with the greatest power of discrimination. Mojena method, Tocher method and RMSSTD method were applied to determine the optimal number of groups formed in final stage of the UPGMA method. Forty nine Capsicum chinense accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa were analyzed, in relation to ten morphological characters for identifying the most similar accessions group, making possible the selection of superior genotypes, i.e., of commercial interest. The RMSSTD method allowed to conclude on the existence of seven groups, with a greater power of discrimination for this method, compared to the Tocher optimization method and the Mojena method, which formed, respectively, four and three groups.

  6. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre esporos de Bacillus cereus inoculados em pimenta-do-reino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela; Axeredo, Raquel M.C.; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 10{sup 4} UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 10{sup 5} the 1,9 x 10{sup 8} UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 10{sup 6} UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 10{sup 6} UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 10{sup 6} UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 10{sup 4} UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D{sub 10}) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy.

  7. REPARAÇÃO DE FERIDAS CUTÂNEAS DE CAMUNGONGOS TRATADAS COM ÓLEO DE PIMENTA LONGA, Piper hispidinervum C.DC

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    Iara Moreira JARDIM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pepper long species Piper hispidinervum is a piperácea of the Brazilian flora, found in it is worth him/it of Rio Acre. Of the essential oil of this pepper the safrol prevails with income of this constituent one in to 5,5% and tenors among 80% to the 97% in relation to the weight of the foliage dies. Recognized it insecticide and synergistic action checks to the oil of this long pepper loud commercial value. Treatments of venereal diseases, intestinal disorders,genito-urinary evils and cure of rheumatism were also registered through popular reports. The objective of this work was to discover the tissue’s answer promoted by the activity of the oil of the Piper hipidinervum, happened in cutaneouswounds of mice of the species Swiss albinus after daily applications of ointment transmitted to the essential oil, in the concentrations of this composed in 1,25%, 2,5% and 5%, during the periods of four, eight and twelve days. The essential oil used in this experiment, it was acquired through rural producer, municipal district of Rio Branco of Acre, obtained by extraction of long pepper, species Piper hispidinervum, being the improvement accomplished through itdrags of steam, standard process of EMBRAPA/AC, that guides the production in the area. During the treatment the wounds were observed for macroscopic analysis, considering the basic events of the repair process in fabric animal “alive in.” The analysis material, object of that study, after surgical procedure, it was conditioned in formol solution to 10%, the pieces were split up obliquely, dehydrated in alcohool diafanized in xylol and included in paraffin under the form of blocks, submitted the microtomy and obtained cuts of five micras of thickness, being colored by hematoxilineosin(HE solution. The histological analysis based on the answers teciduais: espessamento of the crust, infiltratedinflammatory mononuclear and polimorfocoreus, reepitelizement, vasodilatation and hiperemia, edema and fibrosament, in intensity degrees: it is absent, discreet, moderate and intense, compared to the group controls, being those evaluated qualitatively. The reached results, tissue´s answer of cutaneous wounds of mice revealed that the proliferation epitelial was superior to the group it controls being ended that the material is apparently capable of accelerating the process of tissue´s repairing in mice, although the time was not enough for an evaluation of the tissue´s repairing completes. Of the 8th and, more strongly in the 12nd day the results revealed regression characteristics as for the repair of the wounds.

  8. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  9. Avaliação in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico (EHA de alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos de nematódeos gastrointestinais (Trichostrongylidae In vitro evaluation of "alecrim pimenta" (Lippia sidoides Cham. hydroalcoholic extract (HAE on the development of gastrointestinal nematode (Trichostrongylidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M.A. Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente a fito medicina vem sendo usada no controle de diversas doenças parasitárias particularmente as parasitoses gastrointestinais. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico (EHA de Lippia sidoides Cham sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos de nematódeos gastrointestinais. O efeito ovicida foi determinado através de análise probabilística, modelo logístico, utilizados os softwares R versão 2.2.1 e EPI6. Foram obtidos ovos embrionados em fezes de cabras naturalmente infectadas com nematóides Trichostrongylidae e o número de ovos fecais foi determinado usando-se a técnica modificada de McMaster. Cinquenta μL da suspensão contendo 40 ovos foram transferidas a placas de poliestireno e incubadas com 12 concentrações diferentes do EHA sendo avaliada durante 72 horas a temperatura ambiente. Os resultados demonstraram diferentes eficácias para o fito medicamento com menor taxa de desenvolvimento de ovos na concentração de 500 mg mL-1 . Conclui-se que o EHA pode ter papel importante sobre o desenvolvimento in vitro de ovos de nematóides gastrintestinais, revelando atividade ovicida.Phytomedicine has been currently used in the control of several parasitic diseases, particularly gastrointestinal ones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract (HAE from Lippia sidoides Cham. on the development of gastrointestinal nematode eggs. The ovicidal effect was determined through probabilistic analysis, logistic model, by using the programs R version 2.2.1 and Epi InfoTM 6. Embryonated eggs were obtained from feces of goats naturally infected with Trichostrongylidae nematodes and the fecal egg count was determined by using the modified McMaster technique. Fifty microliters of the suspension containing 40 eggs were transferred to polystyrene plates and incubated with 12 different HAE concentrations, and evaluations were performed during 72h at room temperature. The results demonstrated different efficacy of extracts, with lower egg development rate at 500 mg mL-1. In conclusion, HAE may play an important role on the in vitro development of gastrointestinal nematode eggs, indicating ovicidal activity.

  10. Quadro clínico do lobo orbitário com crises cerebelares: Cisticercose racemosa do ângulo ponto-cerebelar

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    Aníbal Silveira

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available O paciente fôra apresentado duas vêzes em reuniões clínicas, para diagnóstico diferencial entre alterações neuropsíquicas orgânicas e pitiatismo. Da primeira, aos 2 meses de internação, releva notar os seguintes dados: trabalho mental lento, porém sem distúrbios intelectuais intrínsecos; atenção pouco fixável; expressão verbal sem transtornos intrínsecos, mas escassa; carência global de iniciativa; indiferença para com a própria situação; atitudes por vezes teatrais, em aparência pitiáticas; hipertonia muscular variável, aparentemente despertada pelo exame; marcha em pequenos passos, com incerteza variável; queda lenta, em direção inconstante; camptocormia, que se exagera quando desamparado; crises tônicas, de tipo da descerebração; condições somáticas precárias; exame neuro-oftalmológico só possível quanto a fundos oculares, sem anormalidade; exames de líquor incompletos, com alterações discretas; reações negativas para sífilis no líquor e no sangue. Diagnóstico provisório: Psicose por lesão cerebral, com provável comprometimento orgânico da região frontal orbitaria ou da via fronto-ponto-cerebelar. Ao ser apresentado da segunda vez, decorridos três meses, estavam mais acentuados o desligamento para com o ambiente, a carência de iniciativa, a total incapacidade para cuidar de si, com espurcícia; agravou-se a perturbação da marcha com completa astasia-abasia e com ataxia do tronco; tornaram-se mais freqüentes as crises tônicas de tipo cerebelar; repetidos os exames de líquor, ainda incompletos, denotaram alterações do mesmo tipo anterior; o exame de fundos oculares foi novamente negativo; não fôra ainda possível a pneumencefalografia. A evolução dos distúrbios, com alterações de origem orgânica evidente e com outras aparentemente pitiáticas, permitiu precisar o aspecto localizatório: Síndrome frontal orbitaria por alterações cerebelares prováveis. Sòmente cinco meses após a primeira discussão clínica do quadro, quando obtido o exame completo do líquor, o diagnóstico etiológico pôde ser aventado. O exame neuro-oftalmológico foi ainda negativo. A evolução dos sintomas levou o doente à obnubilação e ao embotamento intelectuais, à espurcícia; e, pelo lado neurológico, à impossibilidade de locomoção, à ataxia do tronco, ao relaxamento dos esfincteres. Diagnóstico: quadro neuropsiquiátrico orbitario, como repercussão de alterações ponto-cerebelares; cisticercose provável. O paciente faleceu 11 meses após a internação. A necropsia revelou, quanto ao sistema nervoso central, um cacho de vesículas de cisticerco racemoso ao nível do ângulo ponto-cerebelar direito (fig. 1 e espessamento das leptomeninges na base do encéfalo até a dos lobos temporais. Nenhuma alteração histológica do córtex cerebral ou das vias intra-hemisféricas (Nissl e Weil. Quanto ao aspecto patogênico, o quadro orbitario descrito por Kleist era representado pela falência na manutenção do esfôrço e da atividade em geral (Ausdauer, na regência instintiva dos atos (gesinnungsmässige Handlungen, bem como pelo distúrbio teatral, tipo pitiático, do caráter (Gesin-nung. Os transtornos neurológicos e mesmo neurovegetativos correspondiam, na opinião dos autores, à falência paleocerebelar.

  11. Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq. inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew

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    Blat Sally Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pepper species C. chinense has been considered one of the most important resistance sources to powdery mildew Capsicum spp. However, the inheritance in this species was unknown. The purpose of this work was to study its reaction inheritance. Two powdery mildew resistant parents, 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1 and PI 152225 and two moderately susceptible ones, 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 and 'Pimenta Índio', were used to obtain three F1 and their respective F2 generations: 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225 and 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 PI 152225. The powdery mildew epidemy was natural using inoculum from a highly-sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruiting stage using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: gene action, heritability coefficient and expected selection gain in the F3 generation. The transgressive segregation in F2 indicated oligogenic inheritance. Results show the presence of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene action. The dominant and epistatic effects detected in crosses presented negative values, tending towards susceptibility. The heritability and selection gain estimates were moderate, with values of 35.5% and 1.7% for 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, from 50.4% to 3.5% for 'Pimenta Índio' PI 152225, and 49% and 2.7% for the 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 PI 152225 crosses, respectively. These gene action results are favorable for breeding programs and exploration of hybrids.

  12. Genetic divergence in pepper genotypes from southwest Goiás Divergência genética entre genótipos de pimenta coletados no sudoeste goiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cristina Alvares

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic diversity in genebanks is important for germplasm conservation and use in breeding programs, where it can reduce time and costs of breeding of new genotypes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among 137 genotypes of Capsicum chinense Jacq. by morphological descriptors and multivariate techniques, with a view to the identification of groups for promising crosses for breeding programs. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, where each plot consisted of a pot with one plant. The 20 descriptors recommended by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute - IPGRI were considered for the morphological characterization. By analysis of variance, significant differences between genotypes were detected for the studied descriptors. Clustering by the Tocher optimization method formed five groups, and by the hierarchical clustering method UPGMA, 11 groups. Based on larger distances intergroup, crosses are recommended among genotypes of the groups II x V, II x IV, and I x V for the Tocher method, and by UPGMA among genotypes of the groups VI x XI, II x XI, IV x XI,. The cophenetic correlation coefficient for the hierarchical clustering method UPGMA was 0.797 (p O conhecimento da divergência genética em coleções de germoplasma é importante para fins de conservação e uso em programas de melhoramento genético, reduzindo tempo e custo na obtenção de novos genótipos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a divergência genética entre 137 genótipos de Capsicum chinense Jacq., por meio de descritores morfológicos, empregando-se técnicas multivariadas, para a identificação de grupos de intercruzamentos com potencial uso em programas de melhoramento. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sendo os genótipos dispostos no delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cada parcela constituída de um vaso com uma planta. Para a caracterização morfológica foram considerados vinte descritores entre os recomendados pelo International Plant Genetic Resources Institute - IPGRI. Pela análise de variância, evidenciaram-se diferenças significativas entre os genótipos para os descritores estudados. O método de otimização de Tocher detectou a formação de cinco grupos e, o método de agrupamento hierárquico UPGMA, a formação de 11 grupos. Com base nas maiores distâncias intergrupos, recomenda-se cruzamentos, pelo método de otimização de Tocher, entre genótipos dos grupos II com V, II com IV, I com V, e, pelo método hierárquico UPGMA, entre genótipos dos grupos VI com XI, II com XI, IV com XI. O coeficiente de correlação cofenético para o agrupamento hierárquico UPGMA foi de 0,797 (p<0,01. Os descritores que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética total foram número de dias para florescimento e altura de plantas.

  13. Reação de acessos de pimentão e pimentas ao oídio (Oidiopsis taurica Reaction of sweet and hot pepper accesses to powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica

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    Sally F. Blat

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio causado pelo fungo Oidiopsis taurica é uma das principais doenças no gênero Capsicum spp. Seus danos podem causar desfolha de até 75% e perdas de até 40% em produção. Seu controle através de fungicidas tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. Poucas fontes de resistência já foram identificadas em Capsicum annuum. Neste trabalho avaliou-se os acessos da coleção de Capsicum spp. do banco de germoplasma da USP/ESALQ quanto às suas reações ao oídio e identificar novas fontes de resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em condições severas de ocorrência do patógeno. Durante a fase de frutificação foi feita a avaliação das reações, através de uma escala de notas, de 1 (resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Dos 156 acessos testados, 53 foram considerados resistentes, sendo representados por 5 acessos em C. annuum, 31 em C. baccatum e 17 em C. chinense. Dentre os acessos resistentes em C. annuum, a variedade dihaploide HV-12 mostrou-se como a mais resistente. Duas novas fontes de resistência se destacaram em C. annuum, #124 e Chilli. Esses acessos mostraram um mecanismo diferenciado de resistência, apresentando uma reação de hipersensibilidade ao patógeno. Os híbridos comerciais Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R e Magda foram classificados como suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis. Grande parte dos acessos resistentes de C. baccatum e C. chinense apresentaram desfolha em conseqüência do mecanismo de hipersensibilidade.Powdery mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica is one of the major diseases of Capsicum spp., causing damage due to defoliation of up to 75% and yield losses of up to 40%. Disease control with fungicide is inefficient, genetic resistance being the best way of control. Few resistant sources have been identified in Capsicum annuum. Capsicum spp. collection accesses of USP/ESALQ germplasm bank were screened in their reaction and identification of new resistance sources. The screening was carried out in a greenhouse under high inoculum pressure. Disease was assessed during fruit production using a severity scale varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. From 156 accesses evaluated 53 were resistant, represented by five accesses in C. annuum, 31 in C. baccatum and 17 in C. chinense. The hv-12 was the most resistant among the C. annuum accesses. Two new resistant sources were found in C. annuum, # 124 and chilli. These accesses showed different resistance mechanisms through hypersensitive host reaction. The commercial hybrids Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R and Magda were susceptible or highly susceptible. Most of C. baccatum and C. chinense resistant accesses showed defoliation as a consequence of hypersensitive mechanism.

  14. Collecting and evaluation of germplasm of spiked pepper from Brazilian Amazon Pimenta-de-macaco: coleta e avaliação de germoplasma na Amazônia Brasileira

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. is an aromatic plant species with high essential oil production. It is a species that occurs abundantly in the Brazilian Amazon. Its essential oil has exploitable biological properties in the human health and agriculture. Aiming to study its germplasm toward future use in genetic breeding programs, collecting was carried out (inflorescences, cuttings, leaves and thin branches in ten provenances from the Brazilian Amazon. Twelve morphoagronomic traits were determined to take the data: number of leaves by branch, length of leaf, width of the leaf, circumference of the older branch, height of the plant, number of orthotropic branches, number of plageotropic branches, length of the internodes, number of spikes per branches, yielding of oil, content and production of dillapiole, as well as data on the environment and populations of spiked pepper. The inflorescences and cuttings were encoded and sent for the Federal Rural University from Pará State (UFRA, Brazil, for propagation. The leaves and thin branches were sent for the Emílio Goeldi Museum, from Pará State (MPEG for extraction of essential oil (hydrodistillation. Estimators of amplitude of variation, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were utilized to study the phenotypical variability. The morphoagronomic traits of largest variability were number of orthotropic branches, number of spikes per branch, circumference of the older branch and the content and production of dillapiole. This species has adapted to many different environments of vegetation, soil, climate, relief and drainage becomming easy the domestication and cropping. There is morphoagronomic variability pleasing the selection and genetic breeding.Piper aduncum L. é uma planta que ocorre na Amazônia Brasileira com elevado teor de óleo essencial e que apresenta propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar germoplasma visando ao melhoramento genético e cultivo econômico, realizaram-se coletas (inflorescências, estacas, folhas e ramos finos em dez municípios da Amazônia Brasileira (Manaus, Marabá, Goianésia, Moju, Belém, Santa Izabel, Americano, Bonito, Santarém Novo e Aveiro. Tomaram-se dados do ambiente, populações e de doze caracteres morfoagronômicos (número de folhas por ramo, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, circunferência do ramo mais velho, altura da planta, número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, comprimento do entrenó, número de espigas por ramo, rendimento de óleo, teor e produção de dilapiol. As inflorescências e estacas foram identificadas e encaminhadas para a UFRA em Belém-PA e, as folhas e ramos finos, para o Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi-MPEG, para extração do óleo essencial (hidrodestilação. Utilizaram-se estimadores de média, desvio padrão, coeficiente de variação e amplitude total para estudo da variabilidade fenotípica. As matrizes prevalenceram em ambientes antropizados, solos argilosos, condições de drenagem variáveis, terrenos planos e clima Ami, como também predominaram populações definíveis pela agregação dos indivíduos, em terra alta e a pleno sol, serrapilheira, tamanho das populações e presença de plântulas no chão muito variáveis. Os caracteres de maior variabilidade foram número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de espigas por ramo, circunferência do ramo mais velho (morfológicos, teor e produção de dilapiol (agronômicos. Concluiu-se que a espécie apresenta adaptação a diferentes ambientes com relação à vegetação, solo, clima, relevo e drenagem, facilitando o cultivo e domesticação. Há variabilidade morfoagronômica favorecendo a seleção e fitomelhoramento.

  15. Determinação espectrofotométrica indireta de capsaicinoides em pimentas Capsicum a partir da reação com o complexo de Co(II com 4-(2-piridilazo resorcinol

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    Patrícia Tonon de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAPS are substances responsible for pungency in Capsicum. It is important to quantify these types of compounds owing to their broad application in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical weapons. In this work, we developed an indirect spectrophotometric method based on the colorimetric reaction between CAPS, Co(II 3.10×10-5 mol L-1 and 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol (PAR 6.23×10-5 and, in cachaça:water 92:8v/v solutions, for quantification of total CAPS in Capsicum peppers. The product of the reaction is CoPAR2CAPS2 and its absorption in aquo-ethanolic solution at 510 nm is proportional to the total CAPS concentration from 0.60 to 17.94 mg L-1. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0004 and 0.001 mg of CAPS/g of pepper, respectively, with 4% relative standard deviation. The developed method yielded similar results to those obtained from high performance liquid chromatography, with 95% of confidence.

  16. Caracterização e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos brutos e frações de Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. (alecrim), Origanum vulgare Linn. (orégano) e Capsicum chinense Jacq. (pimenta habanero)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, o interesse por produtos derivados de plantas medicinais que apresentem atividade antimicrobiana tem sido intensificado. O presente estudo buscou caracterizar drogas e extratos vegetais, determinar o teor de polifenóis, taninos, flavonoides, quantificar o marcador escolhido e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos etanólicos brutos e frações de Rosmarinus officinalis Linn., Origanum vulgare Linn., e Capsicum chinense Jack frente a diferentes micro-organismos (bactéri...

  17. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant activity and the color were influenced by irradiation during storage. Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella not were detected in irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage. In the dose of 6.00 kGy there was reduction of the initial count of yeasts and molds of the 5 logarithmic cycles, while other doses decreased by 2 and 3 logarithmic cycles. However, 21 days after the irradiation, the contamination by yeasts and molds increased in all treatments. In pepper Dedo-de-moca fresh, the irradiation doses studied not contributed to preserving the fruit during storage. In the pulp pepper, doses of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy, associated with 5% NaCl proved promising to increase shelf-life without affecting the bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes during storage at 25 °C. (author)

  18. Ethnomedicine of menstruation in rural Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Katherine E; Quinlan, Marsha B

    2014-05-14

    In Dominica, women offer dysmenorrhea, delayed menses, and menorrhagia as prevalent menstrual troubles. Dominican humoral theory considers menstruation to be "hot" such that menstrual problems are caused by the introduction of too much "cold" in the body. These conditions can be painful and may require herbal medicine. Our method finds the most culturally salient plants for these conditions-those which are of common knowledge across the population. We hypothesize that cultural agreement on ethnobotanical treatments (1) reflects their perceived ethnophysiological efficacy, and that (2) salient plants contain bioactive compounds appropriate for the menstrual conditions for which Dominicans employ the plants. Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of menstrual conditions were collected using participant-observation, focus groups, and informal key informant interviews. Quantitative ethnobotanical data come from freelist (or "free-list") tasks, conducted with 54 adults. Mean salience values calculated from freelisted data reveal that the same four plants, Cinnamomum verum (synonym Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (Lauraceae), Mentha suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Pimenta racemosa (Myrtaceae) and Sphagneticola trilobata (synonym Wedelia trilobata) (Asteraceae) are used to treat dysmenorrhea and delayed menses. The only remedy reported for menorrhagia, Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae), is also a treatment for dysmenorrhea and delayed menses. The Dominican humoral system views menstruation as a "hot" condition, yet these "bush medicines" are also "hot." Dominicans do not view menstruation as a problem, rather, they reckon that excess "cold" in a woman׳s menstruating body impedes menstrual function to cause problems thus requiring "hot" plants to alleviate their symptoms. A literature review revealed that all four plants contain analgesic, anti-nociceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, Mentha suaveolens is muscle-relaxing and anti

  19. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  20. Physiological host range of a mutualistic pair: Fergusonina turneri and its obligate nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae, potential biological control agents of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Australia, galls develop on Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) as a result of the mutualistic association between the fly Fergusonina turneri Taylor (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and its obligate nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae Davies & Giblin-Davis (Tylenchida: Sphaer...

  1. Exochorda racemosa extract's antioxidant evaluation and its flavonoids components analysis%白鹃梅提取物的体外抗氧化活性及黄酮类化学成分的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玲; 张广文; 郑树秀; 邱瑞霞

    2016-01-01

    文中对白鹃梅不同溶剂萃取物进行体外抗氧化活性实验;在此基础上利用薄层层析、柱层析、高效液相色谱仪进行黄酮类物质的分离、纯化;质谱仪、核磁共振对所分离的化合物进行结构鉴定.实验结果显示:乙酸乙酯相萃取物的体外抗氧化活性相比其他相萃取物的活性大;从乙酸乙酯相萃取物中分离出3种黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为——芹菜素(apigenin,化合物1)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,化合物2)、芦丁(rutin,化合物3).

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE SUBSTITUTES USED IN AYURVEDA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SUBSTITUTES FOR PUSHKARAMULA (INULA RACEMOSA HOOK.F. VIZ., KUSHTA (SAUSSUREA LAPPA DECNE. AND ERANDAMULA (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.: A CLINICAL STUDY

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    J. L. N. Sastry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic literature introduced several substitutes for the herbs which are either not available or which are not accessible for various reasons. On review of more than 35 texts and their commentaries it is found that there are more than 350 substitutes in the Ayurvedic texts from ancient to modern times. Kustha is known to therapeutics since Vedic period (2000 BC. Puskaramula and Erandamula were introduced to Ayurvedic Materia Medica by Agnivesa (500 BC. While mentioning the substitutes of Pushkaramula, Yogaratnakara quoted Kushta and Erandamula as the substitutes. Earlier author studied the pharmacognostical similarities between the three plants. Therefore, in the present study it iss decided to conduct a comparative study using the root powders of these three herbs in subjects (n=90 suffering with Tamaka Swasa (Bronchial Asthma divided into three groups. The results are suggestive that all the trial herbs have comparable therapeutic benefits in the subjects of Tamaka Swasa. While Kustha and Puskaramula have chemical as well as therapeutic similarity, Erandamula and pushkaramula shared only therapeutic similarity though chemically dissimilar. Thiss paper emphasizes the need for the identification of cost effective substitutes basing on the text in place of endangered or extinct medicinal plants.

  3. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Maria Passador; Edson Luiz Furtado; Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão), é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne) e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero), que após a forma...

  4. Variáveis multicategóricas na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de pimenta e pimentão Multicategoric variables for determining the genetic divergence among sweet and chilli peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P Sudré

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção de acessos de Capsicum em bancos de germoplasma tem crescido em importância para preservação da diversidade e uso em programas de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho visou avaliar a divergência genética entre acessos de Capsicum spp. e verificar a eficiência da utilização de medidas de dissimilaridade e da discriminação de genótipos em espécies, baseando-se em 13 variáveis multicategóricas. O experimento foi realizado em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, em blocos ao acaso com três repetições utilizando 59 acessos com dez plantas por parcela, entre novembro/2001 e julho/2002. Os descritores considerados foram: cor do caule, da antera e da corola; número de flores por axila; posição da flor; hábito de crescimento; cor do fruto imaturo e maduro; forma e epiderme do fruto; cor da semente e da folha cotiledonar; número de lóculos; constrição anular do cálice e do fruto. Os dados foram obtidos pela moda de cada descritor seguindo-se os critérios do IPGRI. As análises realizadas foram: agrupamento pelo método de Tocher e Hierárquico do Vizinho Mais Próximo; Projeção das Distâncias no Plano e Análise Discriminante de Anderson. O método de Tocher diferenciou as espécies de C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, C. chinense e C. pubescens, confirmando que os descritores qualitativos essenciais para a caracterização de Capsicum spp. devem ser utilizados no manejo de bancos de germoplasma. Os métodos de Tocher, Hierárquico do Vizinho Mais Próximo e Projeção das Distâncias no Plano foram concordantes e eficazes em agrupar acessos com pequena distância genética entre si. As funções discriminantes de Anderson identificaram 100% das espécies e variedades botânicas estudadas.Accessions of Capsicum maintained in germplasm banks are important not only for diversity preservation but also for plant breeding purposes. In this work the genetic divergence among Capsicum spp. accessions, were studied to verify the efficiency of dissimilarity measures and to discriminate genotypes in species, based on 13 multicategoric variables. The experiment was conducted in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, in randomized blocks with three replications testing 59 accessions, ten plants per plot, from November, 2001 to July, 2002. The following descriptors were considered: cotyledoneus leaf color; stem color, anther color; corolla color; number of flowers per axil; flower position; plant growth habit; fruit color at intermediate stage; fruit color at mature stage; fruit shape; fruit surface; seed color; number of locules; calyx annular constriction, and neck at base of fruit. The data were collected using mode of each descriptor following the IPGRI (1995 criteria. The data were analyzed according to Tocher optimization method, Nearest Neighbor, distance plotted in plain and discriminant analysis. Qualitative traits analyzed by Tocher's method were efficient to differentiate among the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, C. chinense, and C. pubescens. This result confirms that qualitative descriptors considered essential for morphological and agronomic characterization must be used in germplasm bank management. Tocher's method and Nearest Neighbor methods and distance plotted in plain showed resemblance and were efficient in clustering accessions with small genetic distance among them. Using functions of Anderson's discriminant analysis it was possible to identify 100% of species and botanic variety used in this study.

  5. Potencial fungitóxico do óleo essencial de Piper hispidinervum (pimenta longa sobre os fungos fitopatogênicos Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Fungitoxic potential of the essential oil the Piper hispidinervum (long-pepper against phytopathogenic fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiany Mendonça Zacaroni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade fungicida in vitro do óleo essencial das folhas de Piper hispidinervum sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Para os ensaios biológicos, empregou-se o teste bioanalítico in vitro utilizando as concentrações de 100, 200, 500, 1000, 1500 e 2000 µg.mL-1 do óleo essencial. Estas foram incorporadas no meio de cultura BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar para avaliação do crescimento ou inibição micelial. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Na concentração de 200 µg.mL-1, observou-se uma inibição total do fitopatógeno Bipolaris sorokiniana enquanto que, para o Fusarium oxysporum e o Colletotrichum gloeosporioides esta ocorreu na concentração de 1000 µg.mL-1.The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oil of the leaves of Piper hispidinervum against Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the biological tests, using the bioanalitic test in vitro the concentrations of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 µg.mL-1 the essential oil. This were incorporated into PDA (potato dextrose agar medium in order to evaluate fungal mycelial growth or inhibition. The statistic design used was completely randomized, with four replicates. In the concentration of 200 µg.mL-1, observed inhibited complete the phytopathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana while the Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides this is occurred in the concentration of 1000 µg.mL-1.

  6. Propagação vegetativa de espécies silvestres do gênero Piper, com potencial para uso como porta enxertos em pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrun Vegetative propagation of wild species of the genus Piper, with potential for use as rootstocks in black pepper (Piper nigrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Magevski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de espécies usadas como porta-enxerto, importantes na olericultura, podem ser multiplicadas por meio da estaquia com auxílio de fitorreguladores. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência do AIB no estabelecimento de espécies nativas do gênero Piper com potencial de uso como porta-enxerto de Piper nigrum. Estacas de P. Arboreum, P. amplum e P. sp foram submetidas a diferentes dosagens de AIB (0, 2000, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg.L-1 e mantidas em estufa agrícola com irrigação intermitente com temperatura e umidade controlados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x5 (3 espécies de Piper x 5 dosagens de AIB e composto por 3 repetições por tratamento, sendo cada parcela composta por 10 estacas. A avaliação foi realizada aos 45 dias de transplantio e as variáveis analisadas foram: índice de sobrevivência, número médio de folhas, número médio de brotos e comprimento médio do maior broto. A espécie Piper arboreum apresentou bons resultados referentes ao crescimento da parte aérea independentemente da concentração de AIB empregada.The establishment of species used as rootstock, which are important in horticulture crop scan may be multiplied, with the aid of growth regulators, by cutting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of IBA on the establishment of native species of the genus Piper with potential use as rootstock of Piper nigrum. Cuttings of P. arboreum, P. amplum and P. sp were treated with different concentrations of IBA (0 ,2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000mg.L-1 and maintained in a greenhouse with intermittent irrigation, with the temperature and humidity controlled. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 3x5 plan (3 Piper species x5 doses of IBA and comprising of three repetitions per treatment, each plot consisting of 10 cuttings. The evaluation was performed at 45 days of transplanting and the analyzed variables were: survival rate, the number of leaves, the number of shoots and the length of the largest shoot. The Piper arboretum species showed the best growth results for the aerial part independent of the IBA concentration used.

  7. Determinação de aflatoxina B1 em pimenta (Piper nigrum L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L. por cromatografia em camada delgada e densitometria Determination of aflatoxin B1 (Piper nigrum L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study based on extraction with methanol-water, immunoaffinity cleanup and separation, identification and quantification of aflatoxin B1 by thin-layer chromatography,in ground black and white pepper and oregano was carried out. Validation of the applied methodology was done through accuracy and precision studies. Recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and relative standard deviations, from spice samples spiked at levels from 4.86 to 97.70 µg/kg, were, respectively, higher than 72% and lower than 20%. Application to spice samples available in Minas Gerais state, purchased at popular markets, showed no contamination with aflatoxin B1.

  8. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILM{sup TM} plates; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento pos-irradiacao da pimenta preta (Piper nigrum L.) na contagem de microorganismos indicadores de higiene usando metodos de analise convencionais e placas PETRIFILM{sup TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} cfu/g, of coliforms from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/g to 10-10{sup 2} cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10{sup 6} to 2,4x10{sup 4} cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10{sup 4} to 5,0x10{sup 3} cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10{sup 5} to 1,5x10{sup 4} cfu/g and from 9,1x10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g in those irradiated with 3 kGy. Similarly, the MASC decreased from 2,8x10{sup 4} to 5,6x10{sup 3} cfu/g in samples irradiated with 3 kGy and from 1,2x10{sup 4} to 6,6,x10{sup 2} cfu/g in samples irradiated with 6 kGy. (author)

  9. Biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint essential oil using different organic fertilizer sources Produção de biomassa, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta usando diferentes fontes de adubação orgânica

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa Giovannini Costa; Suzan Kelly Vilela Bertolucci; Jorge Henrique Chagas; Elza Oliveira Ferraz; José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Mentha x piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species belonging to the family Lamiaceae that is popularly known as peppermint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizer sources on the biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) with a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, two sources of manure (cattle and poultry), five doses (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 k...

  10. Marcadores RAPD e caracteres morfoagronômicos na determinação da diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões RAPD markers and morphoagronomic traits in determining genetic diversity among chili peppers and sweet peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Rabelo da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade genética existente em coleções e bancos de germoplasma pode ser estimada por meio de diversos métodos, sendo que a escolha destes depende da disponibilidade dos recursos e da precisão desejada pelo pesquisador. Neste trabalho, marcadores RAPD e caracteres morfoagronômicos foram usados para estimar a divergência genética entre 52 acessos de Capsicum spp. Um total de 57 variáveis binárias geradas pela caracterização morfoagronômica e 84 bandas polimórficas obtidas a partir da análise por RAPD foram analisadas separadamente e em conjunto, permitindo a construção de três dendrogramas. Observou-se a formação de dois grupos principais, tanto na análise morfoagronômica e molecular separadamente, quanto na análise conjunta dos dados. O agrupamento dos acessos pela análise conjunta seguiu o mesmo padrão verificado para a análise molecular, que se constituiu em um grupo formado por acessos de C. baccatum e outro grupo formado pelos acessos de C. chinense, C. frutescens e C. annuum. Esse agrupamento segue a proposta vigente para a classificação de Capsicum spp. em complexos gênicos. A associação dos métodos permitiu uma melhor distinção entre os acessos, o agrupamento desses em nível de espécie e a conclusão de que não há duplicatas na coleção, demonstrando a importância do uso de diferentes técnicas na caracterização de um banco de germoplasma.The genetic diversity within collections and banks of germplasm can be estimated by different methods and their choice is dependent of the available resources and the desired precision from the researcher. In the present work, RAPD markers and morph-agronomic traits were used to estimate the genetic divergence among 52 Capsicum spp. accessions. Fifty-seven binary variables from morph-agronomic characterization and 84 polymorphic markers from RAPD analysis were both separately and jointly evaluated and three dendrograms were generated. Two major groups were formed in all analyses. The clusters from the joint analysis were similar to the ones from molecular analysis. One group was formed with only C. baccatum accessions and the other one with C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. annuum accessions. These results were in agreement with the gene pool complexes proposal. The association of these methods allowed a better distinction among the accessions, a cluster formation at species level and a conclusion that there is no duplicates in the collection, showing how important is the use of different methods to characterize a germplasm bank.

  11. Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    of the north atolls. Male' atoll was totally devoid of mangroves due to their large scale reclamation mainly for urbanisation and tourism. Mangrove flora comprised of 12 species and was dominated by Bruguiera cylindrica followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Ceriops...

  12. Vijayapandi et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and epilepsy (Nishizaki et al., 1999; ... Targeting histamine, either prevention of its release from mast cell or use .... Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

  13. Fungal infection in the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and in other crustaceans from the Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S.

    more serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica. In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. were also recorded besides S. parasitica. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more...

  14. Biological Survey of Marine Communities around Triangular Island (Shoalwater Bay, Queensland),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Blainville Udotea argentea Zanardini Udotes orlentalls Gepp & Gepp 19 ORDER CAULERPALES FAMILY CAULERPACEAE Caulerpa lentillifera 3. Agardh Caulerpa ...racemosa var. .aetevirens (Montagne) Weber-van Bosse Caulerpa sertularloides (Gmelin) Howe ORDER SIPHONOCLADALES FAMILY VALONIACEAE Dictyosphaeria

  15. Physical-chemistry characterization of chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de frutos de pimentas (Capsicum frutescens L.), oriundos de diferentes progênies, por meio da caracterização físico-química. Foram colhidos frutos de onze progênies de pimentas cultivadas no Município de São Benedito, CE e avaliados quanto: sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável, SS/AT, vitamina C e carotenoides totais. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com onze tratamentos e três repetições. Os...

  16. Differential responses of photosystems I and II to seasonal drought in two Ficus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shubin; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jiaolin; Cao, Kunfang

    2016-05-01

    Hemiepiphytic Ficus species exhibit more conservative water use strategy and are more drought-tolerant compared with their non-hemiepiphytic congeners, but a difference in the response of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to drought stress has not been documented to date. The enhancement of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) have been identified as important mechanisms that protect the photosystems under drought conditions. Using the hemiepiphytic Ficus tinctoria and the non-hemiepiphytic Ficus racemosa, we studied the water status and the electron fluxes through PSI and PSII under seasonal water stress. Our results clearly indicated that the decline in the leaf predawn water potential (ψpd), the maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) and the predawn maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were more pronounced in F. racemosa than in F. tinctoria at peak drought. The Fv/Fm of F. racemosa was reduced to 0.69, indicating net photoinhibition of PSII. Concomitantly, the maximal photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) decreased significantly in F. racemosa but remained stable in F. tinctoria. The fraction of non-photochemical quenching [Y(NPQ)] and the ratio of effective quantum yield of PSI to PSII [Y(I)/Y(II)] increased for both Ficus species at peak drought, with a stronger increase in F. racemosa. These results indicated that the enhancement of NPQ and the activation of CEF contributed to the photoprotection of PSI and PSII for both Ficus species under seasonal drought, particularly for F. racemosa.

  17. Cimicifuga racemosa for treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients with early endometrial cancer after operation%早期子宫内膜癌患者术后应用黑升麻制剂治疗绝经相关症状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 孙宁霞; 陈旭; 郎涤飞; 金志军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨黑升麻制剂(莉芙敏片)用于治疗早期子宫内膜癌患者术后绝经相关症状的安全性和有效性.方法 60例因子宫内膜癌Ⅰ期术后出现绝经相关症状的患者,根据用药意愿分为莉芙敏研究组及不用药对照组,每组各30例.莉芙敏组口服莉芙敏片20 mg,每日2次,共24周;对照组不服药.随访12个月,比较2组的Kupperman绝经指数(KMI)总分、骨密度、肝肾功能、血常规等实验室检查项目及肿瘤复发率、死亡率.结果 莉芙敏组治疗前KMI总分为26±7,治疗24周后为9±4,较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05);对照组KMI总分治疗前、后分别为25±8和21±5,差异无统计学意义.莉芙敏组骨密度值在治疗前、后分别为(0.790±0.17)和(0.891±0.21) g/cm2,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对照组骨密度值治疗前、后分别为(0.808±0.19)和(0.816±0.15) g/cm2,差异无统计学意义.莉芙敏组服药期间无不良事件发生.随访1年对照组有1例肿瘤复发,莉芙敏组和对照组各有1例死亡.结论 黑升麻制剂可用于改善早期子宫内膜癌患者术后的绝经相关症状,且不增加肿瘤的复发率.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of black cohosh (cimicifuga racemaosa, Remifemin) for treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients with early endometrial cancer after operation. Methods Sixty patients with early endometrial cancer, who suffered menopausal symptoms after operation, were evenly divided into experimental group and control group. Patients in the experimental group took Remifemin tablet (20 mg) twice a day for 24 weeks. Patients in the control group took no drugs. All the patients were followed up for 12 months. The Kupperman menopause index (KMI), bone mineral density (BMD), cancer recurrence rate, death rate, and hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups. Results The KMI score of the experimental group was significantly decreased 24 weeks after treatment with Remifemin (9±4 vs 26±7, P0. 05). The BMD in the experimental group was significantly increased 24 h after treatment with Remifemin ([0. 891±0. 21] g/cm2vs [0. 790± 0.17] g/cm2, P0.05). No adverse effects were observed in the experimental group. During 1-year follow-up, one patient died in the experimental group; one had recurrence and one died in the control group. Conclusion Black cohosh can improve the menopausal symptoms in patients with early endometrial cancer after operation, without increasing the risk of tumor recurrence.

  18. Map of Portuguese 'Reconquista'; Map of Danish conquest in the Baltic; Map of the maritime routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Tre kort til artikel "Military orders between territorialization and periphery from the 12th to the 16th century" af Paula Pinto Costa, Luís Adão da Fonseca, Kurt Villads Jensen & Cristina Pimenta, udgivet i 'Scandinavian Journal of History' 41:2 (Routledge, 2016), s. 141-159 (fig. 1-3, s. 145-147)....

  19. Environ: E00722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00722 Pimento berry oil Allspice oil Essential oil Eugenol [CPD:C10453], Eugenol [...CPD:C10453], trans-beta-Ocimene, Eugenol methyl ether [CPD:C10454], Eugenol methyl ether [CPD:C10454], Limon...e (myrtle family) Pimenta dioca dried fruits Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Eugen

  20. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  1. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, essential oil production and nutrient uptake in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) Inoculação com fungos micorrízicos e adubação fosfatada no crescimento, produção de óleo essencial e absorção de nutrientes em hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Arango; M.F. Ruscitti; Ronco,M.G.; Beltrano, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices A4 and Glomus intraradices B1 and two phosphorus levels (10 and 40 mg kg-1) on root colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake and essential oil content in Mentha piperita L. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in 4x2 factorial arrangement, in completely randomized design. At sixty days after transplanting, the mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher fresh...

  2. Phylogenetic placement of Cynomorium in Rosales inferred from sequences of the inverted repeat region of the chloroplast genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong ZHANG; Chun-Qi LI; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Cynomorium is a herbaceous holoparasite that has been placed in Santalales, Saxifragales, Myrtales, or Sapindales. The inverted repeat (IR) region of the chloroplast genome region is slow evolving and, unlike mitochondrial genes, the chloroplast genome experiences few horizontal gene transfers between the host and parasite. Thus, in the present study, we used sequences of the IR region to test the phylogenetic placements of Cynomorium. Phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast IR sequences generated largely congruent ordinal relationships with those from previous studies of angiosperm phylogeny based on single or multiple genes. Santalales was closely related to Caryophyllales and asterids. Saxifragales formed a clade where Peridiscus was sister to the remainder of the order, whereas Paeonia was sister to the woody clade of Saxifragales. Cynomorium is not closely related to Santalales, Saxifragales, Myrtales, or Sapindales; instead, it is included in Rosales and sister to Rosaceae. The various placements of the holoparasite on the basis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome may indicate the heterogeneous nature of the genome in the parasite. However, it is unlikely that the placement of Cynomorium in Rosales is the result of chloroplast gene transfer because Cynomorium does not parasitize on rosaceous plants and there is no chloroplast gene transfer between Cynomorium and Nitraria, a confirmed host of Cynomorium and a member of Sapindales.

  3. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of the NAC domain protein family in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Steven G; Saïdi, Mohammed N; Hefer, Charles A; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    NAC domain transcription factors regulate many developmental processes and stress responses in plants and vary widely in number and family structure. We analysed the characteristics and evolution of the NAC gene family of Eucalyptus grandis, a fast-growing forest tree in the rosid order Myrtales. NAC domain genes identified in the E. grandis genome were subjected to amino acid sequence, phylogenetic and motif analyses. Transcript abundance in developing tissues and abiotic stress conditions in E. grandis and E. globulus was quantified using RNA-seq and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). One hundred and eighty-nine E. grandis NAC (EgrNAC) proteins, arranged into 22 subfamilies, are extensively duplicated in subfamilies associated with stress response. Most EgrNAC genes form tandem duplicate arrays that frequently carry signatures of purifying selection. Sixteen amino acid motifs were identified in EgrNAC proteins, eight of which are enriched in, or unique to, Eucalyptus. New candidates for the regulation of normal and tension wood development and cold responses were identified. This first description of a Myrtales NAC domain family reveals an unique history of tandem duplication in stress-related subfamilies that has likely contributed to the adaptation of eucalypts to the challenging Australian environment. Several new candidates for the regulation of stress, wood formation and tree-specific development are reported.

  4. Sneddon syndrome associated with Protein S deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Refah; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Tombul, Temel

    2012-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome (SS) is rare, arterio-occlusive disorder characterized by generalized livedo racemosa of the skin and various central nervous symptoms due to occlusion of medium-sized arteries of unknown. Seizure, cognitive impairment, hypertension, and history of repetitive miscarriages are the other symptoms seen in this disease. Livedo racemosa involves persisting irreversible skin lesions red or blue in color with irregular margins. Usually, SS occurs in women of childbearing age. Protein S deficiency is an inherited or acquired disorder associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We present a 33-year-old woman with SS with diffuse livedo racemosa, recurrent cerebrovascular diseases, migraine-type headache, sinus vein thrombosis, and protein S deficiency. Protein S deficiency and with Sneddon syndrome rarely encountered in the literature.

  5. Sneddon Syndrome with Factor V Leiden, Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase and FMF Gene Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Terzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sneddon syndrome (SNS, characterized by livedo racemosa and stroke, is a rare disease, especially in young adults. Livedo racemosa are large lesions, widespread on the extremities and the body, that are violet-colored and have a good appearance and ambiguous limits. A 33-years-old female presented to our clinic for headache. She had a two-year history of blue-purple skin marks on her body and legs. The skin lesions were consistent with livedo racemosa. She had experienced right hemiparesis according to her medical history. Factor V Leiden (G1691A mutation was heterozygote-positive. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and FMF gene (MEFV V726A mutations were determined. SNS is the cause of stroke, rarely seen in young adults. We considered this case to be of value since it is the first SNS case having factor V Leiden, MTHFR and MEFV mutations concomitantly.

  6. Sneddon syndrome associated with Protein S deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refah Sayin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sneddon syndrome (SS is rare, arterio-occlusive disorder characterized by generalized livedo racemosa of the skin and various central nervous symptoms due to occlusion of medium-sized arteries of unknown. Seizure, cognitive impairment, hypertension, and history of repetitive miscarriages are the other symptoms seen in this disease. Livedo racemosa involves persisting irreversible skin lesions red or blue in color with irregular margins. Usually, SS occurs in women of childbearing age. Protein S deficiency is an inherited or acquired disorder associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We present a 33-year-old woman with SS with diffuse livedo racemosa, recurrent cerebrovascular diseases, migraine-type headache, sinus vein thrombosis, and protein S deficiency. Protein S deficiency and with Sneddon syndrome rarely encountered in the literature.

  7. Sneddon syndrome presenting with unilateral third cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gallo, David; Albarrán-Planelles, Cristina; Linares-Barrios, Mario; González-Fernández, Julio A; Espinosa-Rosso, Raúl; Báez-Perea, José M

    2014-03-01

    Sneddon syndrome is a rare systemic vasculopathy affecting the skin as livedo racemosa and the central nervous system as stroke. A 31-year-old man with a history of livedo racemosa presented with a partial left third nerve palsy. Skin biopsy showed signs of endotheliitis with obliteration of dermal blood vessels due to intimal proliferation and fibrin thrombi consistent with Sneddon syndrome. The patient was treated with platelet antiaggregant therapy with complete resolution of his third nerve palsy. Clinicians should be aware of Sneddon syndrome because prompt diagnosis and treatment may prevent potential morbidity and mortality.

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DEL MANGLAR EN EL ESTERO PALO VERDE, LAGUNA DE CUYUTLÁN, COLIMA

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    Citlalli P. Téllez-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Estero Palo Verde, ubicado en el vaso IV de la Laguna de Cuyutlán, estado de Colima, se establecieron 48 unidades de muestreo (UM en tres rodales de mangle: 10 UM en rodal monoespecífico de Laguncularia racemosa, 25 UM en rodal monoespecífico de Rhizophora mangle y 13 UM en rodal mixto de L. racemosa-R. mangle. Se registró altura del dosel, diámetro del tronco, densidad de adultos y de repoblación, también se calculó área basal y volumen de madera. Los resultados indicaron que la densidad, área basal y volumen, para la categoría diamétrica (CD de 5 cm fueron significativamente diferentes (P < 0.05 entre los rodales monoespecíficos de R. mangle (2,500 árboles•ha-1, 4.2 m2•ha-1 y 22 m3•ha-1, respectivamente y L. racemosa (700 árboles•ha-1, 1.9 m2•ha-1 y 10 m3•ha-1, respectivamente. En las CD de 20 a 30 cm, el área basal fue significativamente mayor (P < 0.05 en el rodal monoespecífico de L. racemosa (1.6 - 3.8 m2•ha-1 que en el mixto de L. racemosa-R. mangle (0.5 - 2.5 m2•ha-1. La repoblación natural fue más abundante en el rodal de R. mangle (138 a 270 individuos•ha-1 que en el de L. racemosa (70 a 80 individuos•ha-1. Los valores estructurales mayores se alcanzaron para altura del dosel (10 m en el rodal de L. racemosa; para diámetro (40 cm y área basal (14.1 m2•ha-1 en el rodal de L. racemosa-R. mangle; y para repoblación natural (624 individuos•ha-1 en el rodal de R. mangle.

  9. Severe hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh: a report of two cases and an advice for caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Sophie; Coche, Jean-Charles; Lanthier, Philippe; Dekoninck, Xavier; Lanthier, Nicolas; Rahier, Jacques; Geubel, André P

    2009-08-01

    In spite of the fact that severe side effects have been reported, black cohosh [Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimifuga racemosa)] is likely to be one of the most popular herbs used in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and menstrual dysfunction. We report the cases of two patients, one with submassive liver necrosis and the other with chronic hepatitis most likely related to the use of two different preparations containing black cohosh. This represents another advice for caution concerning this popular preparation of inconsistent therapeutic value.

  10. Morphologic characterization and genetic diversity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. accessions along the upper Rio Negro - Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Malveira Fonseca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 38 accessions of the genus Capsicum from the upper Rio Negro in the Amazon regionwas characterized by 51 morphologic descriptors. The similarity of the accessions was calculated based on 17 essentialdescriptors and on the general similarity coefficient of Gower. Grouping analyses and a dispersion diagram of the accessionswere established based on the similarity coefficients using, respectively, the UPGMA method and the principal coordinateanalysis (PCO as criterion of grouping and dispersion. A great variation of classes were identified in the fruit traits: ninecolors, four shapes and a great range of variation in fruit size and weight. Only three accessions were not pungent, since thisstudy focused on the pungent accessions of the genebank. The following pepper morphotypes were identified: three olho-depeixetypes, three pimenta-de-passarinho, four dedo-de-moça, four curabiá, nine murupi and 15 pimenta-de cheiro.

  11. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas Report of Fusariom solani f. sp. piperis in Piper nigrum in the state of Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba; Márcio Félix Sobral; Edna Peixoto da Rocha Amorim; Izael Oliveira Silva

    2007-01-01

    A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L.) é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e...

  12. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Carnaúba,Juliana Paiva; Sobral,Márcio Félix; Amorim,Edna Peixoto da Rocha; Silva,Izael Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L.) é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e...

  13. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, M. A.; Nogueira, N. A. P.; Bastos,G.M.; S.G.C. Fonseca; T.L.G. Lemos; Matos,F.J.A.; D. Montenegro; J. Heukelbach; Rao, V S; G.A.C. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commerc...

  15. Mitochondrial matR sequences help to resolve deep phylogenetic relationships in rosids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilcher David L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosids are a major clade in the angiosperms containing 13 orders and about one-third of angiosperm species. Recent molecular analyses recognized two major groups (i.e., fabids with seven orders and malvids with three orders. However, phylogenetic relationships within the two groups and among fabids, malvids, and potentially basal rosids including Geraniales, Myrtales, and Crossosomatales remain to be resolved with more data and a broader taxon sampling. In this study, we obtained DNA sequences of the mitochondrial matR gene from 174 species representing 72 families of putative rosids and examined phylogenetic relationships and phylogenetic utility of matR in rosids. We also inferred phylogenetic relationships within the "rosid clade" based on a combined data set of 91 taxa and four genes including matR, two plastid genes (rbcL, atpB, and one nuclear gene (18S rDNA. Results Comparison of mitochondrial matR and two plastid genes (rbcL and atpB showed that the synonymous substitution rate in matR was approximately four times slower than those of rbcL and atpB; however, the nonsynonymous substitution rate in matR was relatively high, close to its synonymous substitution rate, indicating that the matR has experienced a relaxed evolutionary history. Analyses of our matR sequences supported the monophyly of malvids and most orders of the rosids. However, fabids did not form a clade; instead, the COM clade of fabids (Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales, and Huaceae was sister to malvids. Analyses of the four-gene data set suggested that Geraniales and Myrtales were successively sister to other rosids, and that Crossosomatales were sister to malvids. Conclusion Compared to plastid genes such as rbcL and atpB, slowly evolving matR produced less homoplasious but not less informative substitutions. Thus, matR appears useful in higher-level angiosperm phylogenetics. Analysis of matR alone identified a novel deep relationship within

  16. Estudo da atividade antibacteriana de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e corantes naturais

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    Maria Teresa Freitas Bara

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de recursos naturais como mecanismo auxiliar no tratamento de distintas patologias tem ressurgido, com ênfase, nos útimos tempos. Tendo em vista esta situação, este estudo teve por finalidade investigar a atividade antimicrobiana de algumas plantas medicinais e aromáticas bastantes comuns na cultura brasileira. Foi constatado que, de modo particular, o alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides levou a uma considerável inibição do crescimento bacteriano. Tambêm plantas como alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis, cravo (Sysygium aromaticum, noz-moscada (Myristica fragrans, pimenta-da-jamaica (Pimenta dioica e sálvia (Salvia officinalis demonstraram constituir fontes eficientes de compostos bioativos antibacterianos.Medicinal plants, natural colour and spices were examined in vitro for antibacterial effects on the growth of Escherichia coli (EPEC serotype O:125, Salmonella thyphimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610. The most effective medicinal plant was Lippia sidoides at concentration of 3 percent (w/v, that added to Trypticase Soya Broth completely inhibited the growth of S. thyphimurium, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. Among the spices, the cloves (Sysygium aromaticum extract had the strongest inhibitory activity on the growth of E. coli, S. thyphimurium e Y. enterocolitica demonstred through the agar difussion technique. Sage (Salvia officinalis and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extracts inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The nutmeg (Myristica fragrans extract also prevented the development of L. monocytogenes.

  17. Modeling belowground biomass of black cohosh, a medicinal forest product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine Small; Simon Bonner; Elizabeth Hiebert

    2014-01-01

    Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of menopausal conditions. Sustainable management of this and other wild-harvested non-timber forest products requires the ability to effectively and reliably inventory marketable plant...

  18. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

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    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk. Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Br. Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag. Kutz (S. marginatum, Sargassum wightii Grev, Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds. Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin P.C. Silva against Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439 (E. faecalis and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E. faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results: The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1 000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis.

  19. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected w

  20. Screening selected Vietnamese plants used to treat diabetes for PTP1B inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Staerk, D; Jäger, A K

    2016-01-01

    -scale HPLC, and this showed that ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of R. mucronata and K. candel contained high levels of tannins, and were therefore not investigated further. Ethyl acetate extracts of N. mirabilis, P. amarus, P. urinaria, L. octavalvis, E. hirta, S. cumini, F. racemosa, P. ducle, C...

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected marine macro algae against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manivachagam Chandrasekaran; Venugopalan Venkatesalu; Gnanaprakasam Adaikala Raj

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different extracts of Caulerpa chemnitzia (Epser) J.V. Lamououx, Caulerpa racemosa (Frosk.) Weber-van-Bosse (C. racemosa), Caulerpascalpelliformis Forsk, Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kutz (S. marginatum), Sargassum wightii Grev,Gracilaria verrucosa (R.Br.) Weber-van-Bosse, Ulva lactuca Lin, Ulva fasciata Dellie, Ulva reticulata Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439) (E. faecalis) and one clinical isolate of vancomycin resistant E.faecalis. Methods: The selected marine macro algae were extracted with different solvents viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial assay was carried out by using disc diffusion method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration.Results:(Huds.) Papenfuss and Gracilaria edulis (S.G. Gemelin) P.C. Silva against marginatum and C. racemosa than the other extracts. The mean zone of inhibition produced by the extracts in agar diffusion assays against the tested bacterial strains ranged from 7.1 to 14.5 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 250 and 500 µg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration was from 500 to 1000 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extracts of the seaweeds showed the presence of strong terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds compared with the other solvent extracts.Conclusions:The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded in the ethyl acetate extracts of S. racemosa can be used as an antibacterial substance for the treatment of infection caused by E. faecalis. These findings suggest that ethyl acetate extracts of S. marginatum and C.

  2. Chemical Characteristics Combined with Bioactivity for Comprehensive Evaluation of Tumuxiang Based on HPLC-DAD and Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dried roots of Inula helenium L. (IH and Inula racemosa Hook f. (IR are used commonly as folk medicine under the name of “tumuxiang (TMX”. Phenolic acid compounds and their derivatives, as main active constituents in IH and IR, exhibit prominent anti-inflammation effect.

  3. Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; W. Fernandez; F. Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Element uptake from substrate and resorption capacity of nutrients before leaf shedding are frequently species-specific and difficult to determine in natural settings. We sampled populations of Rhizophora mangle (salt-excluding species) and Laguncularia racemosa (salt-secreting species) in a coastal lagoon in the upper section of the Maracaibo strait in western...

  4. A review of the genus Rhizophora with special reference to the Pacific species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1960-01-01

    The species of the Atlantic Rhizophora have formerly been considered as belonging to one species, R. mangle L. In 1818 G. F. W. Meyer (11) described a second species, R. racemosa, from British Guiana. On working up the Rhizophoras of British Guiana Leechman (10) added a third species, R. harrisonii

  5. Caulerpa section Sedoideae (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) from the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The Caulerpa's with spherical, clavate, turbinate or peltate branchlets collected by the authors along the Kenyan coast from 1985 to 1988 are described and illustrated. They include Caulerpa lentillifera as well as several "varieties" of C. racemosa: var. clavifera, var. laetevirens, var. lamourouxii, var. occidentalis, var. peltata, var. turbinata. Their variability is discussed and an identification key is provided.

  6. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  7. On the Asiatic species of Neuropeltis Wall. (Convolvulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1942-01-01

    In my first paper on Malaysian Convolvulaceae in Blumea III, 1938, p. 62—94, I pointed out (p. 83) that Neuropeltis racemosa Wall, has often been confounded both in literature and in herbaria with another species from the Malay Peninsula, N. Maingayi Peter. Moreover, on p. 85, I expressed my doubt w

  8. Differential bioaccumulation and translocation patterns in three mangrove plants experimentally exposed to iron. Consequences for environmental sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants

  9. Survey of Mymarommatidae and their occurrence in agricultural systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado; Valente, Fabrício Iglesias; Lenzi, Jessica Cristina; Carvalho, Simão

    2014-01-29

    Mymarommatidae surveys were carried out through the use of yellow pan traps in crops of green dwarf coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), citrus, Citrus spp. L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), in the northern Espirito Santo State, Brazil. 146 specimens of mymarommatids were collected, of which 71, 55, 16, and 4 exemplars were obtained in the area cultivated with guava, papaya, citrus, and coconut, respectively. The mean numbers of mymarommatids collected in the period from April to June 2011 were significantly higher than those obtained in the other nine months. Two genera, Mymaromma and Mymaromella, were identified The most abundant genus was Mymaromma, comprising 93.8% of the total collection; however, the genus Mymaromella was encountered in all crops. This is the first record of the presence of mymarommatids in these agricultural systems.

  10. Pb, Nd, Sr and Os isotopic systematics of Brazilian cretaceous potassic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ana Lucia Novaes; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Laboratorio de Geologia Marinha (LAGEMAR)]. E-mail: alna@zaz.com.br; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Costa, Vicente Sergio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Carlson, Richard Walter [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC (United States). DTM; Teixeira, Noevaldo Araujo [NTX Consultoria, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2001-12-01

    Mafic potassic rocks of the Alto Paranaiba (Minas Gerais), Juina (Mato Grosso), and Pimenta BUeno (Mato Grosso) belong to a large lineament of rocks that crosses from western to southeastern Brazil and have been associated to a hot spot track by several authors. These provinces intruded the Neoproterozoic Brasilia and Paraguay fold belts (Alto Paranaiba, Paranatinga), and the Mesoproterozoic Rio Negro-Jurema belt (Juina, Pimenta Vueno). Pb isotopic compositions of the studied provinces show a wide variation. {sup 206} Pb/{sup 204} Pb of kimberlites (18.47-19.23) and kamafugities (17.79-18.71) from the Alto Paranaiba Province are close to the Tristaan/Walvis Ridge composition. The {sup 206} Pb/{sup 204} Pb of the paranatinga (19.38-19.87) and Pimenta Bueno (19.78-21.00) provinces are similar to the South African Group I Kimberlite compositional fields, while Juina is displaced to higher Pb isotopic ratios (21.38.22.26), close to those shown ny HIMU ocean island +(OIB).Although the Pb isotopic composition of the more northern alkalic provinces ranges towards the values seen for HIMU OIB, the Sr andNd isotopic composition of these samples is not like HIMU, nor in combination with Pb, like any other ocean island basalt. With the exception of the limberlites from the Alto Paranaiba, which range to quite unradiogenic compositions, most of the samples have {sup 187} Os/{sup 188} Os between 0.13 and 0.15. The Nd model ages of Juina kimberlites vary from 1.70-1.73 Ga, and could be indicating a prior accretion period into the mobile belt. Nd model ages for paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.56 and 0.64 Ga and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.72 to 1.05 Ga. Minimum Re depletion model ages for Paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.74 and 0.93 and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.9 to 1.3 Ga, indicating that the Nd isotopic signartures could have been affected by metasomatic overprint in Neoroterozoic. (author)

  11. Stability evaluation of selected polyphenols and triterpene glycosides in black cohosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Lyles, James T; Reynertson, Kurt A; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-10-22

    Black cohosh ( Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) is rich in both triterpene glycosides and polyphenols, which have various biological activities that may be important to its medical use. To evaluate the stability of the polyphenolic constituents and triterpene glycosides of black cohosh, experiments were conducted using three sample types: plant material, extracts of black cohosh, and encapsulated commercial extract. The samples were stored at various temperatures and humidity conditions. Three triterpene glycosides and six major polyphenols in black cohosh were quantitatively measured with an HPLC-PDA method at 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The triterpene glycosides were stable at the tested conditions, whereas the polyphenols were stable only at room temperature and low humidity and not stable at higher temperature and/or humidity due to hydrolysis and/or oxidation. The rate of compound decomposition depended upon the chemical structure of the individual polyphenols. Polyphenols in the extracts decomposed more readily than those in plant material.

  12. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  13. Records of alien marine species in the shallow coastal waters of Chios Island (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The shallow coastline of Chios Island was surveyed for the presence of any alien marine benthic species, during August 2009. Fourteen randomly selected sites were surveyed by snorkeling during standardized one-hour transects at depths between 0 and 10 m, and the presence of all identified alien benthic species was recorded. Six alien species were identified: Asparagopsis taxiformis, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Stypopodium schimperi, Halophila stipulacea, Percnon gibbesi, and Siganus luridus. The green alga C. racemosa var. cylindracea was found in high densities in all the surveyed sites and was characterized as invasive in the island. The brown alga S. schimperi, the crab P. gibbesi, and the fish S. luridussustain established populations in the area. For three of the recorded marine alien species (S. schimperi, P. gibbesi, and S. luridus,Chios Island seems to be the northernmost margin of their geographical range in the Aegean Sea.

  14. Coffee seed physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, DA; Castro, de, JFM; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such as C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. racemosa have some interesting genetic characteristics, including resistance to pests and diseases and are used in breeding programs. To satisfy the demand for co...

  15. Cardiac valve degeneration in a patient with Sneddon syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosteanu, Raluca; Schuler, Gerhard; Müller, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Sneddon syndrome--a rare cause of aortic and mitral valve stenosis. Sneddon syndrome is a rare disorder that leads to repeated occurrence of cerebrovascular disease and skin manifestation, defined as livedo racemosa generalisata. The authors report the occurrence of multiple valve degenerations in a 49-year-old patient with Sneddon syndrome, which seemed to have been asymptomatic through a long period of time and was diagnosed as it needed a complex surgical intervention.

  16. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  17. Ficus palaeoracemosa sp. nov. – A new fossil leaf from the Kasauli Formation of Himachal Pradesh and its palaeoclimatic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Srivastava; Rashmi Srivastava; R C Mehrotra

    2011-04-01

    A new fossil leaf impression is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kasauli–Kalka road section, Himachal Pradesh. The characteristic leaf venation pattern suggests that it has a close affinity with Ficus L., particularly with F. racemosa L. (= F. glomerata Roxb.). Its presence indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of sediments, in contrast to the present day cooler and less humid climate.

  18. [Livedoid vasculopathy with heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation and sticky platelet syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, V; Burchardt, T; Büchau, A; Ruzicka, T; Megahed, M

    2004-04-01

    A 64-year-old male patient presented with painful ulcerations and livedo racemosa of both lower limbs. He had a history of cerebral and myocardial infarctions. Dermatohistologic findings and laboratory tests of the patient's coagulation system revealed the diagnosis of livedoid vasculopathy with heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation and sticky platelet syndrome type II. Systemic treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and heparin as well as topical therapy with disinfectant and granulation-inducing agents resulted in improvement of the skin lesions.

  19. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal mangroves against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeysinghe P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark of mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, A. officinalis, Bruguiera sexangula, Exoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, and Rhizophora apiculata was evaluated against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus sp. Soxhlet extracts of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water were prepared and evaluated the antibacterial activity using agar diffusion method. Most of the plant extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against both bacterial species. However, higher antibacterial activity was observed for Staphylococcus aureus than Proteus sp. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by ethyl acetate of mature leaf extracts of E. agallocha for Staphylococcus aureus. All ethyl acetate extracts showed higher inhibition against S. aureus while some extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol gave inhibition against Proteus sp. None of the petroleum ether and aqueous extracts showed inhibition against Proteus sp. All fresh plant materials did also show more antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains than did dried plant extracts. Antibacterial activity of fresh and dried plant materials reduced for both bacterial strains with time after extraction. Since L. racemosa and A. marina gave the best inhibition for bacterial species, they were used for further investigations. Charcoal treated plant extracts of L. racemosa and A. marina were able to inhibit both bacterial strains more than those of untreated plant extracts. Phytochemical screening of mature leaf, bark of L. racemosa and leaf extracts of A. marina has been carried out and revealed that leaf and bark contained alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids and flavonoids. None of the above extracts indicate the presence of saponins and cardiac glycosides. Separated bands of extracts by TLC analysis showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

  20. Mosquito larvicidal and silver nanoparticles synthesis potential of plant latex

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Borase; C.D. Patil; R.B. Salunkhe; C.P. Narkhede; R.K. Suryawanshi; Salunke, B. K.; PATIL S. V

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the latex of the medicinally important plants Euphorbia milii, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus racemosa and Jatropha curcas. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential analysis. Potency of latex and latex-synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larv...

  1. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  2. Predicting future mangrove forest migration in the Everglades under rising sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide valued habitat for fish and shorebirds. Mangrove forests are universally composed of relatively few tree species and a single overstory strata. Three species of true mangroves are common to intertidal zones of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Coast, namely, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangrove forests occupy intertidal settings of the coastal margin of the Everglades along the southwest tip of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1).

  3. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Gel Formulation for Wound Healing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Suchit S. Bharad; Subhash V. Deshmane; Kailash R. Biyani

    2016-01-01

    The plant Azadirachta indica belonging to family Meliaceae traditionally used in Ayurvedic system as insect repellant, antibacterial, anti-microbial effect, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and also strengthens the body’s overall immune responses Symplocos racemosa Roxb belonging to family Styraceae posses Antioxidant activity. Vitex Negundo Linn posses’ Antimicrobial activity, Antibacterial activity, Tinospora Cordifolia belonging to family Menispermaceae curative of dermatosis, Cu...

  4. The discovery of polyandry in Curculigo (Hypoxidaceae): implications for androecium evolution of asparagoid monocotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyan, A

    2007-08-01

    Individual flowers of the monocot Curculigo racemosa (Hypoxidaceae, Asparagales) are regularly polyandrous. To evaluate the significance of this almost unique character among Asparagales for flower evolution of asparagoid monocots, flowers of C. racemosa were studied comparatively. Anthetic flowers as well as early floral developmental stages were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Despite the polyandry, floral development is similar to that of other Asparagales with a developmental gradient from adaxial to abaxial. Stamens initiate simultaneously and the diameter of staminal primordia is about half of that in species with six anthers. The number of stamens is not fixed (12-26) and varies within the same inflorescence. Surprisingly, the gynoecium can be four- or six-locular, besides the normal trimerous state. The discovery of a polyandrous Curculigo reveals plasticity of stamen number at the base of Asparagales. Orchidaceae - sister to all other Asparagales - has a reduced stamen number (three, two or one), whereas in Hypoxidaceae - part of the next diverging clade - either the normal monocot stamen number (six), polyandry (this study) or the loss of three anthers (Pauridia) occurs. However, at present it is impossible to decide whether the flexibility in stamen number is autapomorphic for each group or whether it is a synapomorphy. The small size of stamen primordia of Curculigo is conspicuous. It allows more space for additional androecial primordia. Stamens are initiated as independent organs, and filaments are not in bundles, hence C. racemosa is not secondarily polyandrous as may be the case in the distantly related Gethyllis of asparagoid Amaryllidaceae. The increase in carpel number is a rare phenomenon in angiosperms. A possible explanation for the polyandry of C. racemosa is that it is a natural SUPERMAN-deficient mutant, which shows an increase of stamens, or ULTRAPETALA or CARPEL FACTORY mutants, which are polyandrous and changed in

  5. Caulerpa (Chlorophyta, Caulerpales) from the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Beeckman, T.

    1990-01-01

    In view of preparing a Flora of the Seaweeds from Kenya, material is collected yearly by the authors since 1985. Twelve species of Caulerpa have been collected so far, some including several varieties: C. brachypus, C. cupressoides, C. elongata, C. fastigiata, C. lentillifera, C. mexicana, C. racemosa (with several var.), C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia, C. verticillata. An identification key is provided, the different species are described and illustrated (e...

  6. Marine algae of Papua New Guinea (Madang Prov.) 2. A revised and completed list of Caulerpa (Chlorophyta—Caulerpales)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.

    1992-01-01

    The study of marine macroalgae collected in N Papua New Guinea in 1980, 1986, 1988 and 1990 resulted in 14 species (29 entities) of Caulerpa: C. biserrulata, C. cupressoides (5 ecads), c. elongata (2 ecads), C. filicoides var. andamanensis, C. lentillifera, C. manorensis, C. microphysa, C. opposita, C. racemosa (8 ecads), C. serrulata (3 ecads), C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia (2 ecads), C. verticillata, and C. webbiana ecad disticha. An identification key is added.

  7. Seaweeds of the Snellius-II Expedition (E. Indonesia): the genus Caulerpa (Chlorophyta-Caulerpales)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The representatives of the genus Caulerpa, collected during the Snellius-II Expedition (1984) in the Banda, Sawu and Flores Seas (Indonesia) are described and illustrated. Twelve species have been individualized, some including several growth forms (resulting in 26 entities): C. brachypus (2 ecads), C. cupressoides (6 ecads), C. elongata, C. fergusonii, C. lentillifera, C. lessonii, C. microphysa, C. racemosa (7ecads), C. serrulata (2 ecads), C. sertularioides, C. taxifolia (2 ecads), C. vert...

  8. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  9. Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Veeranna Sajjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Livedo reticularis (LR is a cutaneous physical sign characterized by transient or persistent, blotchy, reddish-blue to purple, net-like cyanotic pattern. LR is a benign disorder affecting mainly middle-aged females, whereas livedo racemosa (LRC is pathologic, commonly associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This article aims to review the causes of LR and LRC along with the evaluation and management.

  10. Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W.; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-ping; Yu, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few...

  11. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huilian [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Sun, Jianghao [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); McCoy, Joe-Ann [The North Carolina Arboretum Germplasm Repository, UNC Affiliate Campus, Asheville, NC (United States); Zhong, Haiyan [College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Fletcher, Edward J. [Strategic Sourcing, Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604 (United States); Harnly, James, E-mail: harnly.james@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Chen, Pei, E-mail: pei.chen@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals.

  12. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento f...

  13. Estado nutricional e produção da pimenteira com uso de biofertilizantes líquidos

    OpenAIRE

    José R Oliveira; Gomes,Regina L. F.; Ademir S.F. Araújo; Marini,Fillipe S.; Lopes,João B.; Araújo,Raul M.

    2014-01-01

    Os biofertilizantes podem melhorar a sanidade das plantas e incrementar a produtividade das culturas, com baixo custo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o estado nutricional e características relacionadas à produtividade do fruto de pimenteira em resposta à aplicação de biofertilizantes líquidos na variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum L.). O trabalho foi realizado em campo, no município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, no período de dezembro de 2010 a setembro ...

  14. Especificidade de Puccinia pampeana a cultivares de Capsicum spp. e outras solanáceas Specificity of Puccinia pampeana to Capsicum spp. cultivars and other solanaceous plants. Summa Phytopathologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Maria Passador

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem de espécies de Capsicum spp. (pimenta e pimentão, é causada pelo fungo Puccinia pampeana, pode causar perdas totais em plantios de diversas espécies de Capsicum, onde preodminam temperaturas ao redor de 21ºC. Esta ferrugem, mesmo sendo específica do gênero Capsicum, e mesmo muitas espécies dentro deste gênero sendo suscetíveis, algumas apresentam reação de hipersensibilidade. Foi o caso de Capsicum annuum (pimenta cv. Cayenne e C. chinense (pimenta cv. Habañero, que após a formação dos espermogônios (11 dias, apresentou manchas necróticas na região periférica aos espermogônios, aos 15 dias após a inoculação, não havendo evolução da infecção. Também foi observada reação de hipersensibilidade, de forma mais moderada em folhas C. annuum (pimenta serrano e C. baccatum (chapéu-de-frade. Com relação às outras solanáceas inoculadas (jiló e berinjela não foram observados os sintomas e sinais da infecção.The Capsicum spp. (pepper and green pepper rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia pampeana. This is an important disease in these crops which may cause complete losses in crops of several species of Capsicum. Although specific to the genus Capsicum, and despite the fact that many species within this genus are susceptible to rust, some of them have shown a hypersensitivity reaction. That was the case with Capsicum annuum (Cayenne pepper and C. chinense (datil pepper, which, after spermogonia formation (11 days, showed necrotic spots in the peripheral region of the spermogonia 15 days after inoculation, without evolution of the infection. A milder hypersensitivity reaction was also observed only in leaves of C. annuum (chili pepper and C. baccatum ("chapéu-de-frade". With regard to other solanaceous plants inoculated ("jiló" and eggplant, no symptoms or signs of infection were observed.

  15. Manejo da murcha de escler?cio (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc) em piment?o e sele??o de acessos de Capsicum Sp. Resistentes

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Jo?o Vitor Camargo

    2013-01-01

    A murcha de escler?cio, causada pelo fungo Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. ? uma doen?a de dif?cil controle, ocasionando elevadas perdas em cultivos de pimentas e piment?o no Estado do Amazonas, sendo fundamental o conhecimento do pat?geno, visando o estabelecimento de estrat?gias de manejo da doen?a e fornecer subs?dios para estudos de resist?ncia. Este trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar a resist?ncia de 20 gen?tipos de Capsicum sp ao isolado, sendo realizado um pr? teste de agressividade com dez iso...

  16. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Molanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  17. First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Unknown, Unknown

    1986-01-01

    First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN, following the country's membership. Photo taken on January 22 (or 23), 1986. From left to right: António Costa Lobo (Portugal's ambassador to the UN in Geneva), Gaspar Barreira, Karin Wall (José Mariano Gago's wife), José Mariano Gago (Portugal's JNICT president), Catarina Wall Gago (José Mariano Gago's daughter), João Varela, Herwig Schopper (CERN's Director-General), Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira (Portugal's Secretary of State for Science), , Margarida Nesbitt Rebelo, , Mário Pimenta, , Gustavo Castelo Branco, João Seixas, Sérgio Ramos, and Peter Sonderegger.

  18. Óleos essenciais como substituintes de antibióticos promotores de crescimento em frangos de corte: perfil de soroproteínas e peroxidação lipídica Essential oils as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in broilers: soroproteins profile and lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Kist Traesel; Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes; Patricia Wolkmer; Candice Schmidt; Janio Morais Santurio; Sydney Hartz Alves

    2011-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais são alternativas ao uso de promotores de crescimento antibióticos na avicultura, devido à sua ação antimicrobiana, além de possuírem propriedades antioxidante e imunomoduladora. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética de três doses de óleos essenciais (OLES) de orégano (Origanum vulgare L.), sálvia (Salvia officinalis L.), alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) e extrato de pimenta (Capsicum frutescens L.) em frangos de corte, p...

  19. Aging Mechanisms and Control. Symposium Part A - Developments in Computational Aero- and Hydro-Acoustics. Symposium Part B - Monitoring and Management of Gas Turbine Fleets for Extended Life and Reduced Costs (Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle) (Symposium Partie A - Developpements dans le domaine de l’aeroacoustique et I’hydroacoustique numeriques) (Symposium Partie B - Le suivi et la gestion des turbomoteurs en vue du prolongement de l

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    forensic aspects. Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine 1999; 70 (3, Suppl): A145-51. 5. Canas J, Martinho Pimenta AJF, Castelo Branco NAA, ERP...E, Castelo Branco NAA. Performance assurance computerized test – PACT. Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Militar 1993; 41 (1-4): 21-27. 16. Rodriguez E...Portuguesa de Medicina Militar 1992: 40(1-4): 41-45. 17. GIMOGMA. Epilepsia sintomática de etiologia vascular, manifestação da síndrome das vibrações

  20. The diagnostic challenge of Divry van Bogaert and Sneddon Syndrome: Report of three cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Morbin, Michela; Ciceri, Elisa; Bedini, Gloria; Berlit, Peter; Herold, Michele; Saccucci, Stefania; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Nordmeyer, Hannes; Faragò, Giuseppe; Savoiardo, Mario; Taroni, Franco; Carriero, MariaRita; Boncoraglio Giorgio, Battista; Perucca, Laura; Caputi, Luigi; Parati Eugenio, Agostino; Kraemer, Markus

    2016-05-15

    Divry van Bogaert Syndrome (DBS) is a familial juvenile-onset disorder characterized by livedo racemosa, white matter disease, dementia, epilepsy and angiographic finding of "cerebral angiomatosis". A similar syndrome including livedo racemosa and cerebrovascular disease, often associated with anticardiolipin antibodies, has been described as Sneddon Syndrome (SS) highlighting the question whether these two conditions have to be considered different entities or indeed different features of a unique syndrome. Herein, we report the clinical, neuroradiological, histopathological findings and follow up of three cases diagnosed as Divry-van Bogaert Syndrome, including an updated review of literature of both DBS and SS cases. Our findings support the assumption that DBS and SS are different disease entities. DBS is characterized by the typical angiographic feature of angiomatosis, a hereditary trait and a juvenile onset of cognitive impairment and leukoaraiosis, whereas SS has less severe manifestations of cerebrovascular disease associated with livedo racemosa but without the characteristic cerebral angiography. The report of our cases and the literature review underline the necessity of a detailed work-up and the collection of larger series to better clarify the DBS and SS phenotype and course.

  1. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected medicinal plants against human pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renisheya Joy Jeba Malar T; Johnson M; Mary Uthith M; Arthy A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of five medicinally important plants namely, Curcuma mangga (C. mangga) Valeton & Van Zijp, Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa) Roxb., Vitexnegundo (V. negundo) L., Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) L., and Etlingera elatior (E. elatior) K. Schum. against the human bacterial pathogens. Methods: The Klebsiella pneumonia (K.pneumonia ), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) (MTCC 733), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples. The bacteria were identified and confirmed by conventional microbiology procedure. Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method against the pathogens by using the crude ethanolic extracts. Results: The results of the present study showed the presence of wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against all the above bacterial pathogens studied. The maximum zone of inhibition observed for each bacterium was as follows: S. typhi (12 mm), K. pneumonia (13 mm), P. vulgaris (20 mm), P. aeruginosa (16 mm) and S. aureus (12 mm).Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that the C. mangga, F. racemosa, V. negundo, O. basilicum, and E. elatior are potentially good sources of antibacterial agents against the pathogensviz., K. pneumonia, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa.

  2. Macroalgal assemblages of disturbed coastal detritic bottoms subject to invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Judith C.; Verlaque, Marc

    2009-04-01

    Characteristic flora and fauna that are highly sensitive to disturbances colonize coastal detritic bottoms in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, a comparison of the assemblage composition and colonization by invasive macroalgae was made between two coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages, one dominated by rhodoliths (free-living non-geniculate Corallinales) and the other dominated by fleshy algae, in an area that has been exposed to important levels of anthropogenic disturbance, mainly pollution (including changed sedimentation regimes) in the recent past (bay of Marseilles, France). In comparison with less strongly impacted Mediterranean regions, the macrophyte assemblages in the bay of Marseilles were characteristic in terms of species identity and richness of coastal detritic macrophyte assemblages. However, extremely low species abundance (cover) was observed. As far as invasive species were concerned, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea was only abundant in the rhodolith assemblage whereas the two invasive Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and Womersleyella setacea were mainly found in the fleshy algae assemblage. The seasonality observed in the Rhodolith assemblage seemed to be related to the development of C. racemosa var. cylindracea and did not follow the typical pattern of other Mediterranean assemblages. This study represents the first study of coastal detritic assemblages invaded by C. racemosa var. cylindracea.

  3. Assessing variation in bacterial composition between the rhizospheres of two mangrove tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine to what extent roots from the common mangrove tree species Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa are able to impose a selective force on the composition of sediment bacterial communities in mangrove intertidal sediments using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4 hyper-variable region). The novel results showed that root systems of A. schaueriana and L. racemosa are associated with increased bacterial dominance, lower richness and compositional shifts of sediment bacterial communities. The proportion of OTUs (operational taxonomc units) belonging to the orders Rhizobiales and Vibrionales were enriched in rhizosphere samples from both plant species and sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the order Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were enriched in the rhizosphere of A. schaueriana. In addition, Clostridium and Vibrio populations were more abundant in different mangrove rhizospheres. A. schaueriana and L. racemosa roots appear to be able to impose a selective force on the composition of mangrove sediment bacterial communities and this phenomenon appears to be plant species specific. Our findings provide new insights into the potential ecological roles of bacterial guilds in plant-microbe interactions and may aid rhizoengineering approaches for replanting impacted mangrove areas.

  4. Mediterranean species of Caulerpa are polyploid with smaller genomes in the invasive ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Varela-Álvarez

    Full Text Available Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies.

  5. Consumer depletion alters seagrass resistance to an invasive macroalga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Sarah; Calabretti, Chiara; Delaria, Maria Anna; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Navone, Augusto; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Panzalis, Pieraugusto; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Few field studies have investigated how changes at one trophic level can affect the invasibility of other trophic levels. We examined the hypothesis that the spread of an introduced alga in disturbed seagrass beds with degraded canopies depends on the depletion of large consumers. We mimicked the degradation of seagrass canopies by clipping shoot density and reducing leaf length, simulating natural and anthropogenic stressors such as fish overgrazing and water quality. Caulerpa racemosa was transplanted into each plot and large consumers were excluded from half of them using cages. Potential cage artifacts were assessed by measuring irradiance, scouring by leaf movement, water flow, and sedimentation. Algal invasion of the seagrass bed differed based on the size of consumers. The alga had higher cover and size under the cages, where the seagrass was characterized by reduced shoot density and canopy height. Furthermore, canopy height had a significant effect depending on canopy density. The alteration of seagrass canopies increased the spread of C. racemosa only when large consumers were absent. Our results suggest that protecting declining habitats and/or restoring fish populations will limit the expansion of C. racemosa. Because MPAs also enhance the abundance and size of fish consuming seagrass they can indirectly promote algal invasion. The effects of MPAs on invasive species are context dependent and require balancing opposing forces, such as the conservation of seagrass canopy structure and the protection of fish grazing the seagrass.

  6. Decomposition of mangrove leaves in the estuary of Paraíba do Sul RiverRio de Janeiro, Brazil Descomposición de hojas de mangle en el estuario del Río Paraíba do SulRio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Barroso-Matos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition rate of senescent leaves of Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle in their respective areas of dominance were analyzed in the estuary mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, by the method of litter bags. Results indicated that the rate of decomposition of leaves of L. racemosa (3.2 x 10-3 did not differ significantly from A. germinans and R. mangle (P > 0.05, but that A. germinans (5.1 x 10-3 exhibits a higher decomposition rate than R. mangle (2.7 x 10-3 (P La tasa de descomposición de las hojas senescentes de Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle en sus respectivas áreas de dominio se analizaron en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, por el método de bolsas de resíduos. Los resultados indicaron que la tasa de descomposición de las hojas de L. racemosa (3,2 x 10-3 no difirió significativamente de A. germinans y R. mangle (P > 0,05, pero A. germinans (5,1 x 10-3 presentó una mayor tasa de descomposición que R. mangle (2,7 x 10-3 (P < 0,05. Según la literatura, estas diferencias se deben a las distintas características foliares de las especies (por ejemplo, el contenido de agua, ó la concentración de taninos y nitrógeno. La vida media calculada fue 138 días, 216 y 257 de A. germinans, L. racemosa y R. mangle, respectivamente. Considerando que A. germinans tiene la mayor prevalencia y abundancia en relación con R. mangle, y su cinética de descomposición fue más rápida, se sugiere que esta especie representa la principal fuente de materia orgánica originada en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, así como a las cadenas alimentarias en la región.

  7. El género Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini en América, con la descripción de tres nuevas especies

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    Pérez Hidalgo, N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the specimens of genus Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 from the collection générale d’aphides del Muséum national d’Historie naturelle, Paris (France and the Colección de Aphididae de México at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México has allowed to establish 3 species: I. chiriquense n. sp. (with the description of the apterous and alate females from Panama, I. holmani n. sp. (with the description of the apterous and alate females and males and I. oaxacense n. sp. (with the description of the apterae from México. The viviparous alate females of I. americanum are described and knowledge of the apterous females of this species is improved. The generic position of the American species of Impatientinum is discussed. An identification key for the apterous females of the American species of Impatientinum is presented; this key can substitute the key by Blackman and Eastop for the World’s aphids on Cuphea P.Browne (Myrtales, Lythraceae.El estudio de los ejemplares del género Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 de la collection générale d’aphides del Muséum national d’Historie naturelle de París (Francia y de la Colección de Aphididae de México en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México ha permitido establecer 3 especies: I. chiriquense n. sp. (con la descripción de hembras ápteras y aladas de Panamá, I. holmani n. sp. (con la descripción de hembras ápteras, aladas y de machos e I. oaxacense n. sp. (con la descripción de ápteras de México. Se describen también las vivíparas aladas y se mejora el conocimiento de las vivíparas ápteras de I. americanum. Se discute la ubicación genérica de las especies del género presentes en América. Se facilita la clave para la identificación de las hembras vivíparas ápteras de las especies americanas del género, que puede sustituir a la clave de Blackman & Eastop para las especies de pulgones que viven sobre plantas del género Cuphea P.Browne (Myrtales

  8. Estado nutricional e produção da pimenteira com uso de biofertilizantes líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os biofertilizantes podem melhorar a sanidade das plantas e incrementar a produtividade das culturas, com baixo custo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o estado nutricional e características relacionadas à produtividade do fruto de pimenteira em resposta à aplicação de biofertilizantes líquidos na variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum L.. O trabalho foi realizado em campo, no município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, no período de dezembro de 2010 a setembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os biofertilizantes "supermagro", "fermentado biológico" e "P + K", com aplicações via foliar e no solo, adubação NPK, conforme recomendação para a cultura do pimentão, e a testemunha absoluta, sem adubação. A variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça respondeu positivamente ao uso de biofertilizantes líquidos, com aplicação foliar e no solo. O biofertilizante fermentado biológico promoveu maior massa de fruto.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  10. Potencial toxicológico frente Artemia Salina em plantas condimentares comercializadas no município de Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moreira Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do potencial toxicológico das plantas é um fator primordial para estipular o limite consumível. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o potencial toxicológico de plantas condimentares frente Artemia salina, expostas às concentrações dos extratos das plantas erva-doce (Pimpinella anisum L., pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, endro (Anethum graveolens L. e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos - LEA pertencente ao Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-PB. A erva doce apresentou uma baixa toxicidade, atingindo uma DL50 de 428ppm do extrato. Já a pimenta malagueta exibiu um comportamento similar, atingindo o seu potencial toxicológico máximo na terceira diluição com DL50 716,1ppm. Para o endro, observou-se uma baixa taxa de mortalidade, consequentemente foi considerada não toxica, apresentando a DL50, com 2.624,5ppm. O alecrim apresentou baixos percentuais de mortalidade em náuplios de Artemia, sendo a DL50 com 3.720,6ppm, sendo considerado não toxico. No entanto necessita-se de estudos mais aprofundados para caracterizar a composição química das plantas estudadas e um teste in vivo para as que apresentaram baixa toxicidade.

  11. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  12. Repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal properties of essential oils and their formulations against the housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Mishra, S; Malik, A; Satya, S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of six plant species [peppermint, Mentha piperita, and bergamot mint, Mentha citrata (both, Lamiales: Lamiaceae); blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus, and khus grass, Vetiver zizanoides (both, Poales: Poaceae), and turmeric, Curcuma longa (Ziniberales: Zingiberaceae)] were screened for repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Subsequently, emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations of the two most effective oils were prepared and tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. In repellency bioassays, M. piperita (RC(84) , 61.0 µg/cm(2) ) was found to be most effective, followed by E. globulus (RC(84) , 214.5 µg/cm(2) ) and C. citratus (RC(84) , 289.2 µg/cm(2) ). Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus showed RC(84) values of 1.6 µg/cm(2) and 4.1 µg/cm(2) , respectively. Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus achieved larval mortality (LC(50) ) in 72 h at 5.12 µg/cm(2) and 6.09 µg/cm(2) , respectively. In pupicidal bioassays, crude oils of M. piperita and E. globulus suppressed the emergence of adult flies by 100%. Field experiments with the M. piperita formulation showed reductions in fly density (number of flies/h) of 96% on treated cattle and 98% on treated plots. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of EC formulations of selected essential oils in reducing housefly populations in field conditions.

  13. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit.

  14. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J; Soltis, Pamela S; Bell, Charles D; Brockington, Samuel F; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-03-10

    The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of <15 million years, and perhaps in as little as 4 to 5 million years. The timing of the inferred rapid radiation of rosids [108 to 91 million years ago (Mya) and 107-83 Mya for Fabidae and Malvidae, respectively] corresponds with the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests and the concomitant diversification of other clades that inhabit these forests, including amphibians, ants, placental mammals, and ferns.

  15. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  16. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: A New Threat for Crapemyrtles, a Popular Landscape Plant in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae, is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae, one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest’s biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control. Parasitoids and predators have been reared from A. lagerstroemiae in the U.S. and China. However, new surveys of natural enemies should be conducted in China, and studies on the host range and impacts of natural enemies on A. lagerstroemiae may help determine the potential for classical biological control. The life history, preying efficiency and rearing methods are important for coccinellid predators found in the U.S. including Chilocorus cacti L. and Hyperaspis spp. To enhance natural enemy performance, it is important to evaluate a sustainable insecticide program that considers efficacy, timing, rate and impact on pollinator health. Finally, an integrated management program of A. lagerstroemiae is discussed including planting resistant cultivars, using host specific natural enemies, and prudent use of insecticides.

  17. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

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    Michael Engel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subg. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini. The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith, C. atratiforme (Meade-Waldo comb. n., C. memecylonae Engel sp. n., C. odontophorum Engel sp. n., and C. apoicola Engel sp. n. Chalicodoma (Callomegachile atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C. fulvipenne (Smith. Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales and Fabaceae (Fabales. The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon.

  18. Caracterização anatômica de folhas de cafeeiros resistentes e suscetíveis ao bicho-mineiro Anatomical characterization of leaves from coffee plants resistant and susceptible to leaf miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Ramiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O bicho-mineiro, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Lepidoptera :Lyonetiidae, é a principal praga da cultura cafeeira, chegando a causar prejuízos superiores a 50% na produção, em virtude da queda prematura das folhas e redução da área fotossintética. O programa de melhoramento genético do cafeeiro do Instituto Agronômico (IAC utiliza a espécie Coffea racemosa como doadora de genes de resistência a L. coffeella para C. arabica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma caracterização comparativa do tecido foliar e relacioná-la ao ataque de L. coffeella nas espécies genitoras C. arabica e C. racemosa, e em plantas híbridas oriundas desse cruzamento, com diferentes níveis de resistência, visando fornecer ferramentas para futura identificação dos genes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro. Cortes transversais de folhas foram usados em estudos anatômicos para obter medidas individuais da espessura das cutículas, epidermes, parênquima paliçádico, parênquima lacunoso, espessura total da folha e porcentagem do mesofilo representada pelo parênquima paliçádico. As lesões provocadas pelo inseto foram medidas após um e quatro dias da eclosão das lagartas, em cada um dos tratamentos. Existem diferenças na espessura dos tecidos foliares entre as espécies C. arabica e C. racemosa, porém não houve diferenças entre plantas híbridas resistentes e suscetíveis, sugerindo que as características avaliadas não estão relacionadas ao mecanismo de resistência a L. coffeella. Nas avaliações das lesões, observou-se o crescimento reduzido dos insetos em plantas resistentes, sugerindo que a resistência das plantas se deve à presença de substâncias químicas no parênquima paliçádico.The leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae is the major pest of coffee culture, being responsible for significant production losses as result of premature leaf fall, and consequent

  19. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

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    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  20. Genetic characterization of an elite coffee germplasm assessed by gSSR and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missio, R F; Caixeta, E T; Zambolim, E M; Pena, G F; Zambolim, L; Dias, L A S; Sakiyama, N S

    2011-10-06

    Coffee is one of the main agrifood commodities traded worldwide. In 2009, coffee accounted for 6.1% of the value of Brazilian agricultural production, generating a revenue of US$6 billion. Despite the importance of coffee production in Brazil, it is supported by a narrow genetic base, with few accessions. Molecular differentiation and diversity of a coffee breeding program were assessed with gSSR and EST-SSR markers. The study comprised 24 coffee accessions according to their genetic origin: arabica accessions (six traditional genotypes of C. arabica), resistant arabica (six leaf rust-resistant C. arabica genotypes with introgression of Híbrido de Timor), robusta (five C. canephora genotypes), Híbrido de Timor (three C. arabica x C. canephora), triploids (three C. arabica x C. racemosa), and racemosa (one C. racemosa). Allele and polymorphism analysis, AMOVA, the Student t-test, Jaccard's dissimilarity coefficient, cluster analysis, correlation of genetic distances, and discriminant analysis, were performed. EST-SSR markers gave 25 exclusive alleles per genetic group, while gSSR showed 47, which will be useful for differentiating accessions and for fingerprinting varieties. The gSSR markers detected a higher percentage of polymorphism among (35% higher on average) and within (42.9% higher on average) the genetic groups, compared to EST-SSR markers. The highest percentage of polymorphism within the genetic groups was found with gSSR markers for robusta (89.2%) and for resistant arabica (39.5%). It was possible to differentiate all genotypes including the arabica-related accessions. Nevertheless, combined use of gSSR and EST-SSR markers is recommended for coffee molecular characterization, because EST-SSRs can provide complementary information.

  1. Pyridine salvage and nicotinic acid conjugate synthesis in leaves of mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Deng, Wei-Wei; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic fate of [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide was surveyed in leaf disks of seven mangrove species, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora stylosa, Kandeliaobovata, Sonneratia alba, Pemphis acidula, Lumnitzera racemosa and Avicennia marina, with and without 250 mM NaCl. Uptake of [14C]nicotinamide by leaf disks was stimulated by 250 mM NaCl in K. candel, R. stylosa, A. marina and L. racemosa. [Carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide was converted to nicotinic acid and was utilised for the synthesis of nucleotides and nicotinic acid conjugates. Formation of nicotinic acid by the deaminase reaction was rapid; there was little accumulation of nicotinamide in the disks 3h after administration. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide was incorporated into pyridine nucleotides (mainly NAD and NADP) in all mangrove leaves, and the rates varied from 2% (in L. racemosa) to 15% (S. alba) of the total radioactivity taken up. NaCl generally reduced nicotinic acid salvage for NAD and NADP. In all mangrove leaf disks, the most heavily labelled compounds (up to 70% of total radioactivity) were trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) and/or nicotinic acid N-glucoside. Trigonelline was formed in all mangrove plants, but N-glucoside synthesis was found only in leaves of A. marina and K. obovata. In A. marina, incorporation of radioactivity into N-glucoside (51%) was much greater than incorporation into trigonelline (2%). In general, NaCl stimulates the synthesis of these pyridine conjugates. The rate of decarboxylation of nicotinic acid in roots of A. marina seedlings was much greater than for the corresponding reaction observed in leaves.

  2. Natural infection of several Coffea species and hybrids and Psilanthus ebracteolatus by the coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee ringspot is a minor coffee disease caused by the nuclear type of Brevipalpus mite-transmitted virus, Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV. Recently outbreaks of the disease in some growing regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were registered with qualitative and quantitative yield losses. Coffea arabica was the only species registered as natural host. A survey was made on a germplasm collection of Coffea and related species kept at the Centro de Café "Alcides Carvalho", Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, state of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, to assess natural susceptibility of Coffee species, other than C. arabica and some interspecific hybrids of Coffea as well as other non-Coffea plant species to the Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV. The following plants were found with ringspot symptoms on their leaves and/or fruits besides C. arabica L.: C. kapakata (IAC 4511, C. dewevrei cv. Excelsa, C. canephora cv. Robusta, hybrid derivative of the C. arabica × C. racemosa (IAC1195-5-6-2, C. arabica × C. dewerei (Piatã IAC 387, Híbrido de Timor CIFC 832/1 (derivative from a natural crossing between C. arabica × C. canephora and C. racemosa. Also Psilanthus ebracteolatus, a species close to the genus Coffee was also found with ringspot lesions on their leaves. All these plants were also found infested by Brevipalpus mites identified as B. phoenicis. Infection of these plants by CoRSV was confirmed by the observation of characteristic cytopathic effects in the tissues of the lesion and by RT-PCR using a pair of primer specific for CoRSV. Only with C. racemosa RT-PCR failed to amplify the CoRSV genome. The susceptibility of P. ebracteolatus to CoRSV adds new dimension regarding its controversial taxonomic position.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Anisoddin Kazi

    Full Text Available The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters.

  5. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas Report of Fusariom solani f. sp. piperis in Piper nigrum in the state of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e teve sua patogenicidade confirmada em mudas deste hospedeiro. Os macroconídios apresentaram-se falcados, hialinos com três a cinco septos, com dimensões de 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm, enquanto os microconídios apresentaram-se hialinos, unicelulares, elípticos ou alantóides medindo 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. Os clamidósporos foram abundantes em meio batata-dextrose-ágar. O isolado foi identificado como Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis Alb. tratando-se do primeiro relato deste patógeno em pimenta-do-reino no estado de Alagoas.The pepper-of the-kingdom (Piper nigrum L. it is a climbing plant, pertaining plant to the Piperaceae family. It is originary the southeastern Asian, being most common and important of the spices. Seedling death, also known for rottenness of the foot and rottenness of the root is the main illness of the culture, restricted occurrence to Brazil. Isolated of Fusarium sp., found contamined plants of bragantina pepper-do-kingdom cv. in the city of União dos Palmares in Alagoas, was characterized morphologycament and had its pathogenicity confirmed in changes of this host. The macroconidia slightly curved, typically canoe-shaped, hyaline with three the five septate, measuring 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm. Microconidia hyaline, unicellulars, ellipticals or allantoises measuring 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. The chlamydospores had been abundant in half potato-dextrose-agar. The isolated one was identified as to Fusarium

  6. [Sneddon syndrome: a rare cause of vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernhe, S; Richard, A; Varvat, J; Garnier, P; Dirson, S; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2013-02-01

    Few vascular dementias are diagnosed in memory clinic consultations. One type, a rare etiology, Sneddon syndrome, can lead patients to consult for an isolated memory complaint. We report the cases of two patients, aged 63 and 66 years, who presented frontocortical cognitive profile and behavior disorders. Seronegative Sneddon syndrome, complicated with dementia, was diagnosed in each case by noticing an association between, on MRI, an atrophy and several ischemic cerebrovascular accident aftermaths, and a livedo racemosa. Management of vascular risks factors improves the prognosis.

  7. Improvement of neurological symptoms and memory and emotional status in a case of seronegative Sneddon syndrome with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peter M; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Strutt, Adriana M; York, Michele K; Kass, Joseph S

    2010-07-01

    Sneddon syndrome (SS) is characterized by livedo racemosa, recurrent ischemic strokes, and often progressive vascular dementia. Treatment options for SS center on either anticoagulation or immunosuppression to prevent strokes and to dissipate the skin findings, with these modalities based historically on the presence or absence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) respectively. However, few effective treatments have been reported to reverse the cognitive decline in SS. We report a case of a woman with seronegative SS (absence of APA) with cognitive decline who demonstrated objective and subjective improvements in her memory and emotional functioning after treatment with cyclophosphamide.

  8. Perfil sazonal da atividade de antioxidante in vitro de algas da famÃlia Caulerpaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Larangeira Lima

    2015-01-01

    As macroalgas sÃo fontes de molÃculas bioativas com propriedades antioxidantes, muitas das quais apresentam variaÃÃes ao longo do ano. Cinco algas verdes do gÃnero Caulerpa (C. cupressoides, C. mexicana, C. prolifera, C. racemosa e C. sertularioides) foram coletadas mensalmente na Praia do Pacheco, de janeiro a dezembro de 2006. ApÃs as coletas, elas foram transportadas para o laboratÃrio, lavadas com Ãgua corrente para retirada de impurezas e epÃfitas e liofilizadas. Os extratos algÃceos for...

  9. ATUNA RAFIN. versus CYCLANDROPHORA HASSK. (Rosaceae— Chrysobalanoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Atuna Rafinesque (Sylva Tellur. 153. 1838 with a single speciesAtuna ra-cemosa Rafin. has priority over Cyclandrophora Hasskarl (inFlora 25(2, Beibl. 1: 47. 1842 and as it has been described properly ithas precedence over Cyclandrophora.I formerly (in Candollea 20: 118. 1965 preferred to reinstate Cyclan-drophora as there is a generic name Atunus [Rumph.] Lamarck 1797, asynonym of Heritiera Dryander (Sterculiaceae. After sounding out someexperts in this matter, it has become evident, that the chances to conserveCyclandrophora against Atuna are slight and hence I give here the newcombinations of the species of this genus.

  10. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  11. Metabolic Engineering of the Moss Physcomitrella patens as a Green Cell Factory to Produce Terpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Xin

    )-β-santalol in P. patens, five different well-characterized cytochromes P450 from GenBank, CYP71A5 (geraniol-10-hydroxylase) from Nepeta racemosa, CYP76B6 (geraniol-8-oxidase) from Catharanthus roseus, CYP76C4 (geraniol 8-, 9-hydroxylase) from Arabidopsis thaliana, CYP71D20 (5-epi-aristolochene-1, 3-dihydroxylase......) from Nicotiana tabacum and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) from Lactuca sativa, were also tested, but they showed no catalytic activity towards β-santalene based on the preliminary HS-SPME-GCMS analysis and further investigations such as liquid extraction by ethyl acetate are needed to draw a solid...

  12. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  13. Kinetics studies on triacontanyl palmitate: a urease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2007-07-10

    The mechanism of inhibition of jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases was investigated by triacontanyl palmitate (1) which is a long-chain fatty ester and has been isolated from Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Lineweaver-Burk, Dixon plots, and their secondary replots showed that 1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of these enzymes. K(i) values were found to be 60.03 +/- 1.72 and 88.23 +/- 0.31 microM against jack bean and B. pasteurii ureases, respectively.

  14. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

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    Barth Ortrud M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ? 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at 2500 years B.P., the water level lowered to its actual size, allowing the installation of this mangrove.

  15. Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-de-Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seasonal relationships (dry vs. rainy between reflectance (400–1000 nm and leaf pigment contents (chlorophyll-a (chl-a, chlorophyll-b (chl-b, total carotenoids (tcar, chlorophyll a/b ratio in three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa (L. racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle (R. mangle according to their condition (stressed vs. healthy. Based on a sample of 360 leaves taken from a semi-arid forest of the Mexican Pacific, it was determined that during the dry season, the stressed A. germinans and R. mangle show the highest maximum correlations at the green (550 nm and red-edge (710 nm wavelengths (r = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively for both chl-a and chl-b and that much lower values (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively were recorded during the rainy season. Moreover, it was found that the tcar correlation pattern across the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from that of the chl-a, the chl-b, and chl a/b ratio but that their maximum correlations were also located at the same two wavelength ranges for both seasons. The stressed L. racemosa was the only sample to exhibit minimal correlation with chl-a and chl-b for either season. In addition, the healthy A. germinans and R. mangle depicted similar patterns of chl-a and chl-b, but the tcar varied depending on the species. The healthy L. racemosa recorded higher correlations with chl-b and tcar at the green and red-edge wavelengths during the dry season, and higher correlation with chl-a during the rainy season. Finally, the vegetation index Red Edge Inflection Point Index (REIP was found to be the optimal index for chl-a estimation for both stressed and healthy classes. For chl-b, both the REIP and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (Vog1 index were found to be best at prediction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is suggested that caution be taken as mangrove leaf pigment contents from spectroscopy data

  16. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF POLYHERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION JATYADI TAILA - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljinder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatyadi taila is a Polyherbo-mineral ayurvedic preparation which is used for topical application on the burns and scalds. In ayurveda Jatyadi taila is an extremely useful as wound healer as it possesses antimicrobial activity. It is also useful in various skin afflictions. This formulation chiefly contains the plants Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Symplocos racemosa, Jasminum auriculatum, Sesame indicum, Copper which individually have been successfully shown antimicrobial activity scientifically. This review explains the antimicrobial potential of each ingredient present in this polyherbo-mineral ayurvedic formulation and needs a scientific exploration so as to document its therapeutic effectiveness.

  18. Características geológicas, hidrológicas y del manglar en la planicie costera de Nayarit, México

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    Guadalupe de la Lanza

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The different geoforms of the coastal zone are consecuence of environmental changes (hydrology, climate, marine hydrodynamic and organic growth. The coastal plain of Nayarit is an example of the confluence of these factors which result in saltmarshes, lagoons, deltas, meanders, channels, swamps, all of which are bordered by high mangrove density. These characteristics coastal plain structures are exploited for human activities. In this paper the geologic, and hydrologic evolution, as well as the mangrove vegetation distribution was analized, using a LANDSAT image, which covers 108 113 ha, with heterogeneus species distribution and predominance of Laguncularia racemosa followed by Rhizophora mangle.

  19. Fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro, Perileucoptera coffeella, em Coffea spp. Sources of resistance to leaf miner, Perileucoptera coffeella, in Coffea spp.

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    Oliveiro Guerreiro Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se determinar, em nível de laboratório, por meio de infestações artificiais uniformes, fontes de resistência ao bicho-mineiro Perileucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842, entre as espécies Coffea stenophyila, C. salvatríx, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevípes, C. congensis e C, canephora e os cultivares Catuaí Vermelho e Mundo Novo de C. arábica. Utilizaram-se testes de livre escolha e de confinamento, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: oviposição, número de discos lesionados por parcela, nota visual, área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta. De acordo com os parâmetros analisados, pode-se, com relação ao número de pontos atribuídos na avaliação visual e quanto à porcentagem de discos lesionados, agrupar as espécies C. stenophyila, C. brevipes, C. liberíca e C. salvatrix, como altamente resistentes; C. racemosa, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei e C. eugenioides, como moderadamente resistentes, e C. congensis, C. canephora e C. arabica, como suscetíveis. Considerando os parâmetros área foliar danificada por parcela e área foliar danificada por lagarta, C. arabica pode ser classificada como altamente suscetível, mantendo-se C. congensis e C. canephora como suscetíveis.The species C. stenophyila, C. salvatrix, C. racemosa, C. liberíca, C. eugenioides, C. kapakata, C. dewevrei, C. brevipes, C. congensis and C. canephora and cvs Catuaí Vermelho and Mundo Novo of C. arabica were evaluated for resistance to leaf miner (Períleucoptera coffeeila (Guérin-Mèneville, 1842 under lab conditions with artificial infestations of leaf discs. There was no preference of P. coffeella for oviposition on any of the afore mentioned species. According to subjective visual ratings, number of discs with lesions, damaged foliar area and caterpillar consumption, C. stenophylla, C. salvatrix, C. Ilberica and C. brevipescan be considered as highly

  20. EFECTOS DE LA EXTRACCIÓN NO CONTROLADA DE MADERA SOBRE LA COMUNIDAD Y ESTRUCTURA DE TAMAÑOS DE LOS MANGLARES DE ALVARADO, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizó el efecto de la extracción no controlada de madera sobre la comunidad y estructura de tamaños de los manglares de Alvarado. Para realizar ésto se muestrearon 15 sitios de los cuales se obtuvo la composición florística, altura y área basal. Los efectos sobre la estructura de tamaños se evaluaron con un análisis de la distribución de individuos por categoría de tallas. Se documentó la presencia de Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle. Los par...

  1. Identifying, Developing and Releasing Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    lurida X X Cortaderia selloana + + Cyperus haspan X X Dactylis glomerata X X Danthonia spicata X O Distichlis spicata X X Elymus virginicus X X...Muhlenbergia racemosa X X Oryza sativa + X Panicum virgatum X X Phalaris arundinacea + + Pontederia cordata X X Saccharum officinarum X...introduced grasses (R2adj=0.22, F1,34=10.79, P=0.0024, Figure 6), but not with the native P. australis cover (R2adj=0.06, F1,54=3.53, P=0.0656, data not

  2. Mangrove plant diversity in Sepanjang Island, East Java

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    SUHARDJONO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Inventarisasi flora mangrove di Pulau Sepanjnag telah dilakukan. Tercatat 36 jenis tumbuhan mangrove tersebar di 8 lokasi (Pajang Barat, Segentong, Dermaga Sepanjang, Turunan Ceremeh, Calung dan Tarungguk.. Sekitar 23 jenis diantaranya telah ditetapkan oleh IUCN (1997 sebagai tumbuhan langka dengan status kelangkaan terkikis (LR sampai kritis (CR. Rhizophora apiculata, Ceriops tagal, C. decandra, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha, Xylocarpus moluccensis, X. granatum dan Lumnitzera racemosa, merupakan jenis-jenis yang dijumpai hampir di seluruh lokasi. Sedangkan beberapa jenis hanya ditemukan di lokasi tertentu seperti Calophyllum inophyllum dijumpai di Pajan Barat, Caesalpinia bundoc, Scaevola taccada dan Wedelia biflora di Tanjung Perak, dan Bruguiera sexangula hanya ditemukan di Tanjung Kiaok.

  3. Produção de biomassa, óleo essencial e características fisiiológicas anatômicas foliares de Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter em função da adubação orgânica, malhas coloridas e idade das plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosal,Louise Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    A espécie Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter é uma planta herbácea, perene, ramificada, muito aromática, conhecida também como boldo pequeno, boldo cheiroso, boldo rasteiro ou boldo gambá. Possui folhas pequenas quase triangulares, dispostas compactamente, pouco amargas, de odor forte e inflorescência racemosa de coloração violeta. Suas folhas são utilizadas para o tratamento de insuficiência hepática, dispepsia e dores no estômago. O objetivo na presente pesquisa foi avaliar a produção de bio...

  4. Medicinal plants used in British Columbia, Canada for reproductive health in pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.

  5. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  6. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

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    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  7. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Maria da Conceição Sampaio; Medeiros Filho,Sebastião; Innecco,Renato; Torres,Salvador Barros

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas...

  8. Análise dialélica e pungência dos frutos em Capsicum chinense

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Giselda Maria

    2007-01-01

    A produção de pimentas no Brasil tem crescido consideravelmente nos últimos anos sendo as regiões sudeste e centro-oeste as principais produtoras. O melhoramento das espécies de Capsicum visa principalmente à obtenção de frutos com características importantes para o consumo in natura e industrialização, além da obtenção de genótipos produtivos e resistentes as principais doenças que afetam a cultura. Dentre as características dos frutos, a pungência é a que mais chama a atenção dos consumidor...

  9. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

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    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  10. DIGITAL TEACHING MATERIAL: A NEW WAY FOR DEAF STUDENTS TO “READ” AND “INTERACT” WITH EDUCATIONAL CONTENT?

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    Dayse Garcia Miranda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the elaboration of teaching materials accessible and/or adapted for deaf students, what is supported by the concept of the contemporary educational context as diverse and flexible and by the need to meet the different demands at linguistic, cultural, social and regional levels. In this sense, in order to consider the school as a “space for all”, we must apply the idea that inclusive educational actions are mainly based on socializing regardless of the differences, learning as a relational experience, and interacting as a meaning production mechanism, since this interaction contemplates students’ subjectivity. Thus, the intention of this work is to think about educational actions and material production for deaf students that are named didactic-pedagogical resources, what is theoretically based on the works of Batista (2009, Bunzen; Rojo (2005, Coscarelli (1996, Costa; Paes de Barros (2012, Lacerda; Lodi (2009, Natividade; Pimenta (2009 and Skliar (1999 and others.

  11. General Characteristics, Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy of Lippia sidoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de L Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva, Maria Laura M; Reis, Paula Campos J; Costa, Maria Tereza R; Alves, Livia L

    2015-11-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham. is a plant that belongs to the family Verbenaceac and is commonly known as "alecrim-pimenta". It was first found in northeastern Brazil, where it is extensively used in traditional medicine. Many studies have been made with the essential oil of L. sidoides, which has a high content of the isomeric compounds thymol and carvacrol. L. sidoides extracts, and particularly the essential oil extracted from its aerial parts, have shown many biological activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal. Given the great biological potentialities of L. sidoides and the amount of recent studies about this plant, the present study aimed to make a survey of its general attributes, cultivation methods, chemical characterization of its extracts and essential oil, as well as its different biological activities.

  12. New species records of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for the state of Rondônia in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis Paulo Costa; Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges are small insects that are proven vectors of pathogens that cause disease in animals and humans. There are 1,368 species of Culicoides in the world, including 149 species in Brazil and 122 species in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. This study documents specimens that were collected between 2013 and 2015 in the municipalities of Alvorada d'Oeste, Buritis, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Espigão d'Oeste, Guajará-Mirim, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho and São Francisco Guaporé. Collections were performed using HP light traps in forest, pasture and peridomicilie environments. Species newly recorded in Rondônia State include Culicoides carpenteri Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. dasyophrus Macfie, 1940; C. eublepharus Macfie, 1948; C. galindoi Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. heliconiae Fox & Hoffman, 1944; and C. ignacioi Forattini, 1957. This is the first record in Brazil of C. darlingtonae Wirth & Blanton, 1971.

  13. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

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    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  14. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

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    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  15. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage O efeito da redução de sódio e o uso de ervas e especiarias sobre a qualidade e segurança de mortadela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ivone Carraro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a substituição de 50% de NaCl por KCl em mortadela com adição de misturas de ervas e especiarias (coentro, cebola, pimenta branca, cardamomo e pimenta Jamaica. As formulações testadas apresentaram redução significativa nos teores de sódio, sem alterações importantes na estabilidade de emulsão, textura e características microbiológicas. A utilização de 50% de KCl causou uma redução na qualidade sensorial com significativa diminuição na percentagem de intenção de compra dos consumidores. As formulações com adição de ervas e especiarias apresentaram melhores resultados para avaliação sensorial, evidenciando que essa estratégia é capaz de reduzir os efeitos negativos resultantes da utilização de KCl.

  16. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA M. DE SOUSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  17. Effect of pollution by particulate iron on the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and bioaccumulation of three mangrove plant species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara da Costa; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Conti, Melina Moreira; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias

    2015-05-01

    In Brazil, some mangrove areas are subjected to air pollution by particulate iron from mining activities. However, the effect of this pollutant on mangrove plants is not well known. This study aimed to comparatively analyze the morphoanatomy, histochemistry, and iron accumulation in leaves of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Samples were collected from five mangrove sites of Espírito Santo state, each of which is exposed to different levels of particulate iron pollution. The amount of particulate material settled on the leaf surface was greater in A. schaueriana and L. racemosa, which contain salt glands. High iron concentrations were found in leaves of this species, collected from mangrove areas with high particulate iron pollution, which suggests the foliar absorption of this element. None of the samples from any of the sites showed morphological or structural damage on the leaves. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to X-ray diffraction rendered a good method for evaluating iron on leaves surfaces. A histochemical test using Prussian blue showed to be an appropriate method to detect iron in plant tissue, however, proved to be an unsuitable method for the assessment of the iron bioaccumulation in leaves of A. schaueriana and R. mangle. So far, this study demonstrates the need of evaluating the pathway used by plants exposed to contaminated particulate matter to uptake atmospheric pollutants.

  18. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  19. Anti-fertility effect of various plants at Dayak Tribe to Swiss Webster Mice

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    Agus Haryono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb,and Fagraea racemosa Jackwere used as traditional anti-fertilty of Dayak people in Central Kalimantan. These study are to find out the potential plant as anti-fertility on Swiss Webster (SW mice. Extracts of Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb andFagraea racemosa Jack were administered by gavage at the dose level of 0.26 mg/kg body weight (bw to female of SW mice for 8 days to examined of estrous cycle.To determine of anti-fertility were administered by gavage of 0.26 mg/kg bw of plant extract to female SW mice and mated with normal male of SW mice. Estrous cycle were analyses every day for 9 days and reproduction display were examined at 15 days after fertilization. The result showed, that estrous cycle are inhibited on estrus and metestrus phase for all of extract traditional plant. Reproduction display showed decrease in the number of live fetuses, number of corpus luteum and body weight of the dam mice treated. The decrease in the corpus luteum further and fetuses attributes antifertilty effect of extract to inhibited foliculogenesis. Out of four extracts tested, Blumea balsamifera D.C extract seems to be more potent in anti-fertility activities compared with other extract of traditional plant.

  20. CARIOTIPOS Y ESTUDIOS MEIOTICOS EN VARIAS ESPECIES DE PIRIQUETA (TURNERACEAE

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    Graciela Inés Lavia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Los cariotipos de seis especies del género Piriqueta se describen por primera vez. El número cromosómico básico es x = 7. Cuatro especies son diploides, P.cistoides ssp. cistoides y P.racemosa con 2n = 2x = 14 = 14 m; P.australis 2n = 2x = 14 = 12m + 2sm; P.duarteana, 2n = 2x = 14 = 12m + 2st; P.rosea, con dos citotipos, diploide (14m y tetraploide (28 m y P.taubatensis, una especie poliploide, con 2n = 6x = 42 = 38m + 4sm. La especie diploide, P.cistoides, P.racemosa, P.australis, P.ochroleuca y P.sidifolia var. multiflora, presentan meiosis regular, con 7 II, mientras que el emparejamiento en P.taubatensis muestra multivalentes, lo que sugiere que esta especie es una allohexaploide segmentaria.
    Los cariotipos son diferentes en los niveles de ploidía, la simetría, el número de metacéntricos, submetacéntricos y subtelocentricos, y número y posición de constricciones secundarias. En algunas de las especies hay diferencia de intensidad de la tinción de los bivalentes.

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Four Nepeta Species and Hybrids against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Abbas Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of four ornamental species and hybrids of Nepeta: N. racemosa Lam. hybrid ‘Select’, N. sibirica L., N. subsessilis Maxim, and N.×faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn ‘Dropmore were studied for their chemical composition, larvicidal and biting deterrent activity. Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Nepeta species were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nepeta racemosa hybrid ‘Select’ and N. ×faassenii ‘Dropmore’ essential oils were rich in 1,8-cineole whereas N. sibirica and N. subsessilis essential oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes: (Z- b -farnesene, b -bisabolene, d -cadinene or b -caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Many Nepeta species essential oils are reported to be rich in nepetalactone isomers, but essential oils from these species contained either very low or no nepetalactone content. In biting deterrent bioassays, essential oils of these Nepeta species and hybrids at 100 µg/cm 2 showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm 2 against Aedes aegypti, whereas this activity at the concentration of 10 µg/cm 2 was lower than DEET. All the essential oils showed weak larvicidal activity and mortalities were observed only at highest dose of 125 ppm against Ae. aegypti.

  2. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

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    P. J. Weisser

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  3. Comparative study of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa spp. (Chlorophyceae. Biotechnological tool for species identification? - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8976

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    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on macromolecules isolated from marine algae suggested sulfated polysaccharides (SPs as possible molecular markers for species. We evaluated isolated and fractionated SPs from the green marine algae Caulerpa cupressoides, C. prolifera and C. racemosa collected at Pacheco Beach, as possible taxonomic molecular indicators. Total SPs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (both 5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were analyzed by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Anticoagulant assays employing normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1 by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test were also performed as comparison parameters. Low yields, and similar chromatographic profiles were found among species’ SPs, but electrophoresis revealed distinct SPs resolution patterns. The changes in APTT of SP fractions were dependent on charge density as showed by electrophoresis profiles. Activities were 17.37 (C. cupressoides, 22.17 (C. racemosa and 25.64 (C. prolifera IU mg-1, respectively, similar to a previous study using the first and second species. The results suggest that comparative studies of SPs isolated from seaweeds may be an important tool for the identification of Caulerpaceae.  

  4. Adaptaciones fisiológicas en algunas especies de mangles Adaptaciones fisiológicas en algunas especies de mangles

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    Polanía Jaime

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The role of manitol and proline on the osmotic balance of Aegiceras corniculatum, Aegialitis annul ata and Laguncularia racemosa were studied. Mangrove plants were grown in hydroponic cultures for several years before using them for the experiments described here. The plants grown in different salt concentrations and "shock" treatments were divided in their parts and the ion concentrations of the low molecular weight compounds of each part were analysed. High concentrations of osmotic compounds were found in all plant parts. The role of mannitol, as an overall osmotic compound, is discussed.

    Se estudia el papel del manitol, as! como de la prolina en el equilibria osmótico de Aegiceras corniculatum, Aegialitis annulata y Laguncularia racemosa , tres especies de mangles. Las plantas crecieron en cultivo hidropónico por varios años, antes de ser sometidas a los experimentos aquí reseñados. Plantas sometidas a tratamientos de diferentes salinidades, así como de "choque", fueron divididas en sus partes y en ellas se analizaron las concentraciones de los principales iones y de los compuestos de bajo peso molecular. Concentraciones altas de metabolitos fueron detectadas en todas las partes de las plantas bajo estudio. Se discute el papel del manitol como compuesto osmótico global.

  5. Ampelomyces hyperparasites – occurrence and effect on the development of ascomata of Erysiphales species under conditions of anthropopressure

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    Ewa Sucharzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Ampelomyces are the major antagonists of Erysiphales fungi being a significant group of phytopathogens. The hyperparasites attack various developmental stages of powdery mildews. As a result the infested ascomata do not reach the stage of maturity, do not form appendages nor ascospores, which is linked with a reduction of the source of primary infections. Studies conducted so far have mainly been devoted to Ampelomyces fungi application in the biological control of powdery mildews on crops, whilst a few only have been focused on the ecology of these mycoparasites on Erysiphales fungi infecting plants, especially in the urban environment. The present study addresses the natural occurrence and effect of Ampelomyces fungi on the development of ascomata of powdery mildews species. The material was collected in 2005–2009 in several cities of the northeastern Poland. First time ever Ampelomyces spores are reported in mature ascomata of Erysiphales with fully developed appendages. This phenomenon has been observed in the case of two species, viz.: Erysiphe flexuosa on Aesculus spp. and E. vanbruntiana var. sambuci-racemosae on Sambucus racemosa and is presumably linked with improved implementation, propagation and probably better survival during winter months.

  6. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

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    Thanyawan Pluemsamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

  7. Distribución y conservación de especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y Andes tropicales Distribution and conservation of endangered species in Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes

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    María Cecilia Londoño-Murcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se modeló el nicho ecológico proyectado como distribución potencial de 313 especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y los Andes tropicales, según las listas de la UICN. De estas especies, 285 fueron plantas y 28 fueron vertebrados terrestres. La superposición de las distribuciones de las especies amenazadas cubrió prácticamente toda la región. Ecuador mostró cerca del 30% de su área con 50 especies. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panamá mostraron > 50, aunque en 50% de su área. El Salvador y Honduras, de 11 a 20 en > 50% de su área y México de 1 a 5 especies en > 50% de su área. La distribución de estas especies en áreas transformadas (agricultura y áreas urbanas varió del 11al 30%; El Salvador, Panamá y Guatemala mostraron > 50% de la distribución; Colombia, Honduras y México This study modeled ecological niches projected as potential distributions for 313 endangered species listed in the IUCN for Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes, of which 285 were plants, and 28 terrestrial vertebrates. Overlapping of endangered species distributions covered most of the region. Ecuador showed close to 30% of its area with 50 endangered species. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panama showed more than 50 endangered species in 50% of its area with endangered species (21 to 50 species were Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Panama. El Salvador and Honduras showed > 50% of its area with 11 to 20 endangered species; Mexico showed 50% of endangered species in transformed areas; Colombia, Honduras and Mexico showed < 40%, and Belize and Ecuador showed < 25% of endangered species in transformed areas, respectively. El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Mexico showed a high proportion of endangered species in transformed areas for the Classes Amphibia, Liliopsida, Polipodiopsida, and the Orders Asterales, Fabales, Laurales, Myrtales, Scrophulariales and Rubiales. Less than 35% of endangered

  8. Variation in the outcomes of an ant-plant system: fire and leaf fungus infection reduce benefits to plants with extrafloral nectaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, L P; Del-Claro, K

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between species are evolutionary malleable and may suffer changes in small timescales. Environmental disturbances, such as fire, can deeply affect species interactions, but how they influence the outcome of a mutualistic interaction has yet to be studied. In order to test the hypothesis that an environmental disturbance, in this case fire, may produce differences in the outcome of the association of ants with the extrafloral-nectaries-bearing plant Qualea multiflora Mart. (Myrtales: Vochysiaceae), a previous study was replicated, but this time after fire incidence, at the same study site and with the same plant species. Eight ant species visited Q. multiflora, and the most abundant genera were Crematogaster, Cephalotes, and Camponotus. Herbivores were found in branches with and without ants with no statistical difference, but foliar herbivory was always higher in branchs where ants were absent. Leaves were infested by fungi, and fungi spots were higher in branches where ants were present. Compared to the previous study, it was clearly observed that ant benefits to Q. multiflora varied over time. The most common ant species still protected leaves against chewing herbivores, but a new kind of leaf damage appeared, namely fungi spots. Data also support that ants may be acting as vectors of fungi spores on plants, as ant visited branches had higher fungus incidence than non-visited branches. Fire is a major source of disturbance in tropical savannas, and we suggest that it can cause strong variation in the outcomes of interactions between ants and plants with extrafloral nectaries in the Brazilian tropical savanna. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  9. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  10. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control.

  11. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study.

  12. A Preliminary Study on Vegetation Structure and Mangrove Diversity in Irakkandy Lagoon, Trincomalee

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    K. Krishnanantham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the period from May to July 2014 to assess the vegetation pattern and to estimate biomass of the mangroves in Irakkandy Lagoon, Trincomalee. Five belt-transects of 10 m in width were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. Data were collected on tree diameter at breast height (dbh and tree height from each sub-plot (100 m2 in belt transects using standard methods. Above ground biomass, basal area and relative density of the mangroves were also estimated. Diversity and evenness of each sub-plot was calculated using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou’s evenness index respectively. Results revealed that the study site is composed of 5 true mangrove species and highest density was recorded for Avicennia marina (414 trees/ha, 700 saplings/ha, 2354 seedlings/ha, followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Excoecaria agallocha, Rhizophora apiculata and Heritiera littoralis. The greatest mangrove diversity (1.28 was observed in subplot 1 of transect 2. The least mangrove diversity (0 was found in transect 5. There is a significant difference among transects concerning the diversity and evenness (P<0.05. The results showed that Avicennia marina was the dominant species with Height (H and dbh of 3.65±1.43 m and 5.06±1.07 cm respectively, followed by Lumnitzera racemosa (3.36±1.19 m and 5.81±1.06 cm, Excoecaria agallocha (4.92±2.45 m and 5.31±1.93 cm, Rhizophora apiculata (4.56±1.70 m and 4.89±0.96 cm and Heritiera littoralis (8.80±0.849 m and 26.50±4.95 cm. The above ground biomass of Lumnitzera racemosa was recorded as 8334.89 kg/ha and Avicennia marina was recorded as 1361.13 kg/ha. Species diversity (H’ of whole mangrove area studied was 0.86 and evenness (E was 0.54. It reveals that Irakkandy Lagoon consists of fairly high biological diversity (Diversity index=0.86 of mangroves and extremely valuable for stability of the ecosystem.

  13. Plant-plant interactions in a subtropical mangrove-to-marsh transition zone: effects of environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Day, Richard H.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Questions Does the presence of herbaceous vegetation affect the establishment success of mangrove tree species in the transition zone between subtropical coastal mangrove forests and marshes? How do plant–plant interactions in this transition zone respond to variation in two primary coastal environmental drivers? Location Subtropical coastal region of the southern United States. Methods We conducted a greenhouse study to better understand how abiotic factors affect plant species interactions in the mangrove-to-marsh transition zone, or ecotone. We manipulated salinity (fresh, brackish or salt water) and hydrologic conditions (continuously saturated or 20-cm tidal range) to simulate ecotonal environments. Propagules of the mangroves Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were introduced to mesocosms containing an established marsh community. Both mangrove species were also introduced to containers lacking other vegetation. We monitored mangrove establishment success and survival over 22 mo. Mangrove growth was measured as stem height and above-ground biomass. Stem height, stem density and above-ground biomass of the dominant marsh species were documented. Results Establishment success of A. germinans was reduced under saturated saltwater conditions, but establishment of L. racemosa was not affected by experimental treatments. There was complete mortality of A. germinans in mesocosms under freshwater conditions, and very low survival of L. racemosa. In contrast, survival of both species in monoculture under freshwater conditions exceeded 62%. The marsh species Distichlis spicata and Eleocharis cellulosa suppressed growth of both mangroves throughout the experiment, whereas the mangroves did not affect herbaceous species growth. The magnitude of growth suppression by marsh species varied with environmental conditions; suppression was often higher in saturated compared to tidal conditions, and higher in fresh and salt water compared to

  14. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  15. CAMBIOS EN LA FLORA BÉNTICA DE ARRECIFE HORNOS (VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

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    José Luis Godínez-Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Arrecife Hornos pertenece al Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano y por su accesibilidad a la costa ha sufrido el impacto antropogénico directo causando cambios en su biodiversidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la composición y estructura florística, además de verificar los posibles cambios florísticos que han ocurrido en el área desde el último estudio en 1962. Los muestreos fueron realizados en las épocas de secas y lluvias (abril, 2008 y junio, 2008, respectivamente. La atribución de flora presente para 5 formas de vida (pastos marinos + epífitas, calcificadas/costrosas, filamentosas, tubulares/ laminares, racemosas/carnosas fue realizada con base en el análisis de la cobertura vegetal muestreada en 50 m2. Al comparar las especies del presente estudio con las especies reportadas en la literatura previamente se observó que de las 58 especies, 25 son nuevos reportes para Arrecife Hornos. La flora en 2008 fue pobre en comparación con las reportadas en 1962 (27 especies comparadas con las 58 especies. La flora de 1962 tenía un índice de Cheney de 3.5 que indica una flora mixta con elementos tropicales y subtropicales, sin embargo, para el presente estudio observamos un índice de 25 lo cual indica una flora tropical sin elementos subtropicales. Diversas especies de Sargassum hystrix var. buxifolium y S. polyceratium, comunes en 1962 han desparecido de Arrecife Hornos y especies con afinidad a aguas tropicales como Caulerpa racemosa y C. sertularioides están ahora presentes. Los valores de cobertura nos demuestran que Arrecife Hornos está cubierto en su mayoría por Thalassia testudinum y algas calcificadas (Lithophyllum aff. congestum y en menor proporción algas filamentosas, laminares y racemosas. El presente estudio sugiere la existencia de cambios en la composición y cobertura fitobentónica de Arrecife Hornos.

  16. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O registro de cultivares permite a produção e comercialização de sementes no país. É um processo importante para os programas de melhoramento, pois assegura a identidade genética e a qualidade varietal das cultivares. Adicionalmente, a proteção de cultivares, que garante os direitos intelectuais aos obtentores, possibilita que empresas públicas e privadas de pesquisa possam ser beneficiadas com o ingresso de recursos decorrentes dos direitos sobre as cultivares que desenvolvem dando sustentabilidade parcial ou total à continuidade de programas de melhoramento e o subseqüente lançamento de novas cultivares de interesse para o agronegócio brasileiro. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças e o resultado dos processos de registro e proteção de cultivares de pimentas do grupo jalapeño, denominadas BRS Sarakura e BRS Garça. Foram utilizados 48 descritores, sendo que quatro apresentaram potencial discriminatório para diferenciar as duas cultivares: altura e largura das plantas, intensidade da coloração verde dos frutos antes da maturação e espessura do pedúnculo. Ambas cultivares apresentam uniformidade de plantas, alta produtividade, alto teores de capsaicina, estabilidade quanto aos descritores avaliados durante os dois ciclos, bem como se mostraram distintas de outras cultivares de pimentas do gênero Capsicum. Para a obtenção do registro e proteção das cultivares de pimenta foram relevantes a experiência na caracterização morfológica do banco de germoplasma e aplicação dos descritores, o conhecimento da morfologia da planta, o auxílio de um profissional na área de botânica para identificar as diversas espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum e o conhecimento e cumprimento das exigências burocráticas para efetivação dos processos.The process of registration of new cultivars in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply is an

  17. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise financeira e a simulação de risco de investimento em sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs implantados em 1987, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Rondônia, localizado no município de Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. A análise financeira foi realizada mediante os métodos de avaliação de projetos florestais, e para a análise de risco utilizou-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, mediante o programa @RISK. Entre os arranjos testados, o SAF T1 Castanha-do-brasil-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu apresentou o melhor desempenho financeiro em relação aos SAFs T2 Freijó-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu e T3 Pupunha-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu . Os custos com tratos culturais e colheita representaram mais de 70% da composição dos custos totais, e a participação da mão-de-obra foi superior a 50% nas fases de preparo da área e de manutenção (tratos culturais dos SAFs. A simulação da análise de risco indicou que as variáveis que afetaram o Valor Presente Líquido no Horizonte Infinito (VPL*, de acordo com a ordem de importância (R, foram: taxa de desconto, preço do fruto de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, custo de colheita, preço da madeira de castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa e o custo de tratos culturais. Apesar do alto custo de implantação e manutenção, o SAF T1 apresentou uma probabilidade de 15% de os valores do Valor Presente Líquido (VPL se concentrarem em torno de R$35.000 ha-1.ano-1.The objective of this study was to carry out the financial analysis and the risk of investment simulation in agroforestry systems (AFSs established in 1987 in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Rondônia, located in the County of Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. Financial analysis was made through the evaluation of results from the forestry enterprise evaluation methods, and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. Among the arrangements

  18. Natural products to agro-ecological pest management and their natural enemies of cotton plant intercropped with maize, cowpea and sesame = Produtos naturais no manejo agroecológico de pragas e seus inimigos naturais do algodoeiro consorciado com milho, feijão-caupi e gergelim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Pereira de Araujo

    2015-06-01

    . Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os inseticidas naturais: extrato aquoso da pimenta malagueta, caulim, Azamax®, Rotenat® e Pironat® no manejo agroecológico das principais pragas e seus inimigos naturais do algodoeiro consorciado com as culturas do milho, feijão-caupi e gergelim. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no campo experimental da Embrapa Algodão em Barbalha, Ceará, onde instalou-se o experimento para avaliação dos produtos naturais, com o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso e com quatro repetições, representado por seis tratamentos: T1-Testemunha (sem aplicação, T2-Pimenta malagueta, T3-Caulim, T4-Azamax®, T5-Rotenat® e T6-Pironat®. Os produtos foram aplicados a cada sete dias, seguidos de avaliações também semanais, considerando-se o efeito dos tratamentos sobre a ocorrência dos insetos pragas do algodoeiro e seus inimigos naturais. O Caulim é o produto natural mais eficiente no controle do bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis . A pimenta malagueta não é eficiente no controle das principais pragas do algodoeiro. Os produtos naturais aplicados a cada 7 dias em pulverizações nas folhas do algodoeiro não interferem na presença de inimigos naturais.

  19. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

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    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  20. Sneddon syndrome: rare disease or under diagnosed clinical entity? Review of the literature related to a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orac, Amalia; Artenie, Anca; Toader, Mihaela Paula; Harnagea, Raluca; Dinu-Mitrofan, Diana; Grigorovici, Mirela; Ungureanu, G

    2014-01-01

    Sneddon syndrome is defined by the association of livedo racemosa and recurrent cerebrovascular ischemic lesions. The annual incidence is 4/1,000,000. This syndrome particularly affects young women, some reports suggesting a family predisposition. It is a chronic, progressive, arterio-occlusive disease of unknown etiology that involves small and medium-sized arteries. It is usually associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a female patient with Sneddon syndrome with significant family history, personal history of stroke, epilepsy, migraine, cardiovascular involvement, three miscarriages, cognitive decline, noncompliant to therapy, in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies. This paper aims to analyze the main characteristic features and management of Sneddon syndrome by conducting a literature review related to a clinical case.

  1. Función de Batis maritima en la regeneración del manglar en Riohacha Guajira, Caribe Colombiano

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    Lowy Cerón Petter David

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de la dinámica sucesional de un bosque de manglar en Riohacha, Guajira (Colombia. Se usó un análisis de fotografías aéreas para determinar avances y retroceso de las formaciones vegetales y el estudio de datos sobre el crecimiento de plantas Batis maritima y Laguncularia racemosa, así como los factores del suelo que afectan cada fase. Se propone un modelo en el cual B. maritima ejerce efectos positivos en la regeneración de bosques de manglar a través de la modificación del hábitat y la facilitación mediante la determinación de cinco fases sucesionales.

  2. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA LINN. BARK

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    Jagtap Supriya G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ficus glomerata Linn. (Moraceae, commonly known as Ficus racemosa. A large deciduous tree distributed all over India and Ceylon, found throughout the year, grows in evergreen forest, moist localities, along the sides of ravines and banks of streams. Gular (Ficus glomerata Linn. is well known, commonly used plant in various disorders. It has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic condition, as an antitussive and anti-inflammatory. Successive soxhlet extractions of dried powdered bark were carried out using petroleum ether and methanol as a solvent. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were tested in vitro against two different bacterial species Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by cup plate diffusion method were used in this investigation. The results of antimicrobial activity revealed that methanolic extract showed good activity as compared to petroleum ether extract. Methanolic extract is more potent towards gram - positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.

  4. Mapping mangrove leaf area index at the species level using IKONOS and LAI-2000 sensors for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, John M.; Wang, Jinfei; Flores-Verdugo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Using both IKONOS and in situ LAI-2000 sensor data, a map of estimated LAI, based on NDVI, was created for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific. The LAI values were then aggregated according to four classes; red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle), healthy white mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa), poor condition white mangrove and dead mangrove. Of the live mangrove, calculated at approximately 85% of the forest, mean LAI values of 2.49, 1.74 and 0.85 were determined for the red, healthy white and poor condition white mangrove, respectively. Excluding the dead areas, an overall estimated mangrove LAI value of 1.81 was ascertained for the 71 km 2 of mapped mangrove forest. Although the results do suggest the technique as a very rapid and effective method for monitoring the condition of mangroves at the species level, potential limitations are also discussed.

  5. Comparative study of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa spp. (Chlorophyceae. Biotechnological tool for species identification?=Estudo comparativo dos polissacarídeos sulfatados de clorofíceas Caulerpa spp. (Chlorophyceae. Ferramenta biotecnológica na identificação de espécies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Oliveira Coura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on macromolecules isolated from marine algae suggested sulfated polysaccharides (SPs as possible molecular markers for species. We evaluated isolated and fractionated SPs from the green marine algae Caulerpa cupressoides, C. prolifera and C. racemosa collected at Pacheco Beach, as possible taxonomic molecular indicators. Total SPs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (both 5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were analyzed by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Anticoagulant assays employing normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1 by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test were also performed as comparison parameters. Low yields, and similar chromatographic profiles were found among species’ SPs, but electrophoresis revealed distinct SPs resolution patterns. The changes in APTT of SP fractions were dependent on charge density as showed by electrophoresis profiles. Activities were 17.37 (C. cupressoides, 22.17 (C. racemosa and 25.64 (C. prolifera IU mg-1, respectively, similar to a previous study using the first and second species. The results suggest that comparative studies of SPs isolated from seaweeds may be an important tool for the identification of Caulerpaceae.A utilização de macromoléculas isoladas de organismos marinhos sugere correlacionar características em estudos taxonômicos e a investigação comparativa de polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs de algas despertam seu interesse como marcadores moleculares. Objetivou-se avaliar PSs isolados e fracionados das algas marinhas verdes Caulerpa cupressoides, C. prolifera e C. racemosa, coletadas na Praia do Pacheco, Estado do Ceará, como possíveis indicadores moleculares taxonômicos. Os PSs totais foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (ambos 5 mM, seguido por

  6. Manifestações cutâneas das trombofilias Cutaneous manifestations of thrombophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O escopo deste artigo é revisar os estados de hipercoagulabilidade sangüínea (trombofilias mais provavelmente encontrados por dermatologista. Seus sinais cutâneos incluem o livedo reticular, necrose cutânea, ulcerações e isquemia digital, púrpura retiforme, além de úlceras nas pernas. Revisamos seu tratamento adequado, bem como ressaltamos as manifestações cutâneas que impõem pesquisa laboratorial de trombofilias e os exames indicados nessas situações.The aim of this article is to review the hypercoagulable states (thrombophilia most probably found by dermatologists; their cutaneous signs including livedo racemosa, skin necrosis, digital ischemia and ulcerations, retiform purpura and leg ulcers; their appropriate treatment; to describe the skin manifestations that require laboratory tests for thrombophilias and the tests indicated in these clinical conditions.

  7. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa

  8. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  9. [Water fungi occurence in the River Supraśl-bath Jurowce near Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Kozłowska, Mariola; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńvska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of aquatic fungi in the bathing sites of the Supraśl River in Jurowce village were collected in years 2000-2003. Hydrochemical analysis was performed using standard methods. Bait method was used to isolate the fungi. In the Supraśl River at Jurowce village 36 fungi species were identified, among them fish pathogens Achlya orion, Aphanomyces laevis, Dictyuchus monosporus, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia monoica, S. parasitica, human pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Lagenidium humanum, Penicillium mycetomagenum, Rhizophydium keratinophilum and Trichosporon cutaneum, phytopathogens Achlya racemosa, Phytophthora gonapodoides, Pythium butleri, P. myriotylum and P. debaryanum. Physicochemical parameters of waters in Supraśl River-bathing sites had no important effect on the occurrence of fungi.

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  11. Reproducción vegetativa de dos especies arbóreas en un manglar de la costa norte del Pacífico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Benítez Pardo; Francisco Flores Verdugo; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Con el propósito de generar tecnología propia para el manejo agronómico en especies arbóreas de manglar, se inició un estudio que incluye la reproducción asexual de Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus a través de acodos aéreos, usando como sustrato estopa de coco molida y aserrín, además de esquejes de dos edades ontogénicas (madera “blanda” y “semidura”). En el experimento se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar. Entre los resultados destaca que el verano es la mejor época del año par...

  12. Efficacy of Indigenous Herbal Preparation on Altered Milk pH, Somatic Cell Count and Electrolyte Profile in Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Kolte

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of three different locally prepared indigenous herbal paste were evaluated in subclinical 24 mastitic cows with reference to restoring altered milk pH, somatic cell count and milk electrolyte profile. The study revealed that all the treatment were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased in the milk production. T3 (oots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, Asparagus reacemosus (Shatavari, Curcuma-amada (Ambe Haldi and fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi in equal quantities was found more effective than T5 ( T3 and T4 in combination in equal quantities and T4 (fresh roots of Glycerrhiza glabra (Jeshathamadh, Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi, leaves of Riccinus communis (Yerand, bark of Ficus racemosa (Umber and rhizome of Curcuma longa (Haldi in equal quantities [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 239-240

  13. Trend in coral-algal phase shift in the Mandapam group of islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machendiranathan, M.; Senthilnathan, L.; Ranith, R.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhry, S. B.; Sasamal, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae ( Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata and Calurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52 mg cm-2d-1 with persisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant ( r = -0.774, n = 100, P < 0.0005). The proliferation of the various macro-algae C. scalpellifrmis, T. ornata, C. racemosa, T. conaides, U. reticulata, S. wightii, K. alvarezii, P. gymnosphora and C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  14. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the

  15. Miocene-Pliocene speciation, introgression, and migration of Patis and Ptilagrostis (Poaceae: Stipeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaschenko, Konstantin; Garcia-Jacas, Nuria; Peterson, Paul M; Soreng, Robert J; Vilatersana, Roser; Susanna, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Genetic interchange between American and Eurasian species is fundamental to our understanding of the biogeographical patterns, and we make a first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary events in East Asia that lead to the origin and dispersal of two genera, Patis and Ptilagrostis. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of 78 species in the tribe Stipeae using four plastid DNA sequences (ndhF, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK, and rps16 intron) and two nuclear DNA sequences (ITS and At103). We use single copy nDNA gene At103 for the first time in the grasses to elucidate the evolutionary history among members of the Stipeae. Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, and Stipa are found to be of multiple origins. Our phylograms reveal conflicting positions for Ptilagrostis alpina and Pt. porteri that form a clade with Patis coreana, P. obtusa, and P. racemosa in the combined plastid tree but are aligned with other members of Ptilagrostis in the ITS tree. We hypothesize that Ptilagrostis still retains the nucleotype of an extinct genus which transited the Bering land bridge from American origins in the late Miocene (minimum 7.35-6.37 mya) followed by hybridization and two plastid capture events with a Trikeraia-like taxon (7.96 mya) and para-Patis (between 5.32 and 3.76 mya). Ptilagrostis porteri and Patis racemosa then migrated to continental North America 1.7-2.9 mya and 4.3-5.3 mya, respectively. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Trend in Coral-Algal Phase Shift in the Mandapam Group of Islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Machendiranathan; L Senthilnathan; R Ranith; A Saravanakumar; T Thangaradjou; S B Choudhry; S K Sasamal

    2016-01-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae (Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata andCalurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52mgcm−2d−1 with per-sisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant (r=−0.774,n=100,P<0.0005). The proliferation of the various macro-algaeC. scalpel-lifrmis, T.ornata, C. racemosa,T. conaides,U. reticulata, S. wightii, K. alvarezii,P. gymnosphoraand C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  17. The Effect of Drought on Stomatal Conductance in the Biosphere 2 Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J. D.; Van Haren, J. L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is a major climate change concern for the Earth's rainforests; however little is currently known about how these forests and individual plants will respond to water stress. At the individual level, the ability of plants to regulate their stomatal conductance is an important preservation mechanism that helps to cool leaves, regulate water loss, and uptake carbon dioxide. At the ecosystem level, transpiration in rainforests is a major contributor to the positive feedback loop that returns moisture to the atmosphere for continued precipitation cycles. Nearly 60% of atmospheric moisture in the Amazon rain forests has been traced back to origins of transpiration from its plants. In relation to current climatic conditions, stomatal conductance rates are highly variable across rainforest species and environmental conditions. It is still unknown to what extent these rates will decrease at leaf and forest level in response to periods of drought. The University of Arizona's Biosphere 2 (B2) served as the study site for a simulated 4-week long drought because of its ability to mimic the micrometeorology of an Amazonian rainforest. Three species of plants were chosen at various levels in the canopy: Clitoria racemosa, Cissus sicyoides, and Hibiscus elatus. These plants were selected based on their relative abundance and distribution in the B2 forest. It was revealed that two out of the three species exhibited decreases in H20 efflux at each elevation, while one species (C. racemosa) proved much more resistant, at each elevation, to H20 loss. These results may be useful for future integrative modeling of how individual leaf level responses extend to entire ecosystem scales. It will be important to better understand how rainforests conserve, recycle, and lose water to gauge their response to warming climate, and increased periods of drought in the tropics.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against Haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Chan-Pérez, J A

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of Haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (PSC), on these AH effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. An egg hatch assay (EHA) was used to determine the AH effect. Acetone-water (70:30) extracts from different foliages (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Laguncularia racemosa, Rizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans) and plant by-products (Theobroma cacao seed husk and pulp, and percolated Coffea arabica) were obtained. Fresh H. contortus eggs were incubated in PBS with increasing concentrations of each extract (0, 600, 1200, 2400 and 3600 μg/ml PBS). A general linear model was used to determine the dose effect of each extract. A mild ovicidal activity was only recorded for T. cacao extracts (seed husk and pulp). The main anthelmintic (AH) effect for all the extracts, except for C. arabica, was to block the eclosion of larvated eggs. The use of PVPP at 3600 μg/ml PBS showed that tannins of the L. racemosa extract were responsible for blocking eclosion of larvated eggs. Extracts of L. latisiliquum, A. germinans, T. cacao seed husk and pulp also blocked eclosion of larvated eggs but the addition of PVPP indicated that tannins were not responsible for that activity. In contrast, it suggested unfavorable interactions between polyphenols and other PSC contained in those extracts, limiting the AH effect on the egg hatching process. The present results suggest that the interactions between tannins and other PSC are complex and may reduce the AH effects against H. contortus eggs.

  19. The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Caulerpin, a Bisindole Alkaloid Isolated from Seaweeds of the Genus Caulerpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Éverton Tenório; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; da Silva, Diogo José Costa; de Aquino, Anansa Bezerra; Campessato Mella, Eliane A.; Lorenzo, Vitor Prates; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Célia; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of caulerpin was investigated. This bisindole alkaloid was isolated from the lipoid extract of Caulerpa racemosa and its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods, including IR and NMR techniques. The pharmacological assays used were the writhing and the hot plate tests, the formalin-induced pain, the capsaicin-induced ear edema and the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Caulerpin was given orally at a concentration of 100 μmol/kg. In the abdominal constriction test caulerpin showed reduction in the acetic acid-induced nociception at 0.0945 μmol (0.0103–1.0984) and for dypirone it was 0.0426 μmol (0.0092–0.1972). In the hot plate test in vivo the inhibition of nociception by caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was also favorable. This result suggests that this compound exhibits a central activity, without changing the motor activity (seen in the rotarod test). Caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) reduced the formalin effects in both phases by 35.4% and 45.6%, respectively. The possible anti-inflammatory activity observed in the second phase in the formalin test of caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was confirmed on the capsaicin-induced ear edema model, where an inhibition of 55.8% was presented. Indeed, it was also observed in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis that caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, reducing significantly the number of recruit cells by 48.3%. Pharmacological studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa. PMID:20098607

  20. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  1. Chemomodulatory Potential of Bartogenic Acid Against DMBA/Croton Oil Induced Two-Step Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandragouda R.; Sonara, Bhavin M.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Kalpesh R.; Patil, Dipak D.; Jadhav, Ramchandra B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa fruits are believed to be useful in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. In present study, bartogenic acid (BA), a triterpenoid constituent of Barringtonia fruits was evaluated for its cytotoxicity property using the human skin carcinoma cell line (SCC-13) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The chemopreventive efficacy of BA was evaluated against the DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.BA was orally administered at the doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day or applied topically every day for 12 weeks following DMBA application. The in vitro data from cell lines revealed that BA induces cytotoxicity against the SCC-13 cells (IC50=7.5 µM). It was found 4.05 times more selective to exert cytotoxicity against SCC-13 as compared to the PBMC (IC50=30.4 µM). The in vivo datacollected from mice model of DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis revealed that BA administered orally or applied topically, both reduced the precancerous skin lesions andthe incidence of tumor bearing. The oral doses of BA (2 and 4 mg/kg) and topical treatment significantly reduced the incidence and number of skin papillomas. At these doses, BA also increased the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and induced an increase in glutathionecontent and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the skin. These findings reveal the chemopreventive efficacy of BA and also demonstrate that it contributes to the cytotoxic and antioxidative effects of Barringtonia racemosa fruits. The study also validates the traditional claims of Barringtonia fruits and provides a scientific basis of its chemopreventive property. PMID:27877231

  2. Litterfall production of mangroves in the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon system, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cárdenas, Francisco; Hurtado-Oliva, Miguel Ángel; Doyle, Thomas W.; Nieves-Sotol, Mario; Díaz-Castro, Sara; Manzano-Sarabia, Marlenne

    2017-01-01

    The ecological legacy of the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon system has long been known as a trophically rich and productive ecosystem that supported artisanal fisheries of local and regional importance; however, a decline in fisheries' yields has been observed in recent decades. Mangroves are a fundamental component of this ecosystem, though data records and field studies are lacking in describing their structure and seasonal characteristics. Mangrove litterfall production was monitored during 2012–13 and described for the dominant species, Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn. Forest surveys and monthly litter collections were obtained along a latitudinal gradient within the larger lagoon system to characterize the forest structure, leaf biomass, and related biological indicators (chlorophyll a concentration and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI] estimated on leaf tissues). Results showed that structural characteristics (diameter at breast height, basal area, height, and crown diameter) were greater in Huizache, corresponding to patches with a dominance of A. germinans, while higher stem density was recorded for L. racemosa in Caimanero, comparatively similar to other mangrove habitat in NW Mexico. Litterfall was highest from May to October for both species. Litterfall production was also higher overall in 2012 in comparison to 2013, possibly corresponding with meteorological differences, most notably wind conditions. Annual litterfall production was similar by species across northern and southern Sinaloa. A contrast of the NDVI by site and species showed a wide interval, including low values for A. germinans, suggesting stress conditions for this species.

  3. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface Allelopathy of plant volatile extracts on seed germination and radicle length of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Sampaio Alves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação e comprimento das raízes de plântulas de alface, efeitos que variaram de acordo com a concentração do óleo. O extrato volátil de óleo de jaborandi estimula o crescimento da radícula e não provoca inibição da germinação de sementes de alface, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico.The objective of this work was to identify allelopathic effects of volatile extracts of essential oils on germination and radicle length of lettuce seedlings. Five concentrations were utilized for each oil (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%, v/v arranged into a completely randomized design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The volatile extracts of essential oils of cinnamon, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela and alfavaca-cravo revealed allelopathic potentialities on lettuce seed germination and radicle growth, effect which varied according to the oil concentration. The volatile extract of Jaborandi essential oil stimulates radicle growth and does not inhibit lettuce seeds germination, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect.

  4. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  5. Effect of the natural and artificial drying of leaf biomass Piper hispidinervum on the chemical composition of the essential oilEfeito da secagem natural e artificial da biomassa foliar de Piper hispidinervum na composição química do óleo essencial

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    Marília Pereira Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum C.DC. is a plant native to the Amazon region, produces an essential oil rich in safrole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of drying biomass in chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum cultivated in Morretes (PR. The treatments were: fresh leaves; natural drying for 6 and 12 days; oven drying at 40°C for 6 and 12 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from samples of 50 g of each treatment in triplicate. The chemical composition of essential oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replication and four plants per plot. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. The type and drying time changes the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum. The dried at 40°C for 12 days reduce the amount of essential oil components, but with increasing content of safrole. Piper hispidinervum C.DC. é uma planta nativa da Amazônia, produtora de óleo essencial rico em safrol. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de secagem da biomassa folia de pimenta longa (P. hispidinervum, cultivada em Morretes (PR, na composição química do óleo essencial. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: folhas frescas; secagem natural por 6 e 12 dias; secagem em estufa à 40°C por 6 e 12 dias. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação a partir de amostras de 50 g de cada tratamento em triplicata. A determinação da composição química do óleo essencial foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa (GC/MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância. O tipo e tempo de secagem alteram a constituição química do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. A secagem em

  6. Reguladores de crescimento vegetal no cultivo in vitro de Mentha x Piperita L.

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    T.P. Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação é uma técnica muitas vezes indicada para a multiplicação em larga escala de plantas com propriedades medicinais. Dentre elas, destaca-se a hortelã-pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L., cujo óleo essencial é utilizado no tratamento de transtornos digestivos e respiratórios. Para otimizar o protocolo de micropropagação dessa espécie são necessários estudos, principalmente quanto à suplementação do meio de cultura para garantir a produção massal in vitro e posterior extração do óleo essencial. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de concentrações e combinações de reguladores de crescimento vegetal na morfogênese in vitro de hortelã-pimenta. Segmentos nodais provenientes de plântulas estabelecidas in vitro foram utilizados como fonte de explante e inoculados em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina, 0; 0,5 e 1,5 mg L-1 de ANA (ácido naftaleno-acético e 0; 0,5 e 1,0 mg L-1 de GA3 (ácido giberélico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3x3x3 com oito repetições. Concluiu-se que o BAP favoreceu a sobrevivência de segmentos nodais de M. x Piperita inoculados in vitro e, quando combinado ao GA3, promoveu a brotação dos explantes. Essas características, no entanto, não foram estimuladas pela adição de ANA ao meio de cultura. Conclui-se que após a multiplicação dos brotos in vitro estes devem ser transferidos para meio sem reguladores para seu desenvolvimento. Apesar dos efeitos benéficos do BAP na organogênese de M. x Piperita, elevadas concentrações deste regulador de crescimento vegetal promoveram a formação de calos.

  7. Caracterização de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, produção de fitotoxina e incidência da fusariose no norte de Minas Gerais

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    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A podridão das raízes causada por Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis é uma das principais doenças da pimenteira-do-reino no norte de Minas Gerais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar a incidência da doença nas principais áreas produtoras do norte do estado de Minas Gerais, identificar o agente causal da fusariose, testar a patogenicidade dos isolados e avaliar a ação de filtrados de F. solani f. sp. piperis sobre folhas destacadas de pimenteira-do-reino e sobre Trichoderma asperellum. Avaliou-se a incidência da fusariose em 1.000 ou 500 plantas de forma arbitrária, em percurso em zigue-zague. A reação de pimenta-do-reino ‘Cingapura’ foi avaliada em relação a dois filtrados fúngicos (FPC1 e FPB2, e o isolado FPB2 foi empregado para avaliar a reação das cultivares Cingapura e Guajarina. Outro experimento foi realizado para estudar a influência das diluições do filtrado FPB2 em folhas da cultivar Cingapura. Para avaliar o efeito de toxinas dos filtrados sobre o Índice de Velocidade de Crescimento Micelial (IVCM de T. asperellum foi implantado um ensaio com diferentes concentrações e dois filtrados. A incidência da doença nas áreas amostradas foi de 31,5 e 100% nos municípios de Bocaiúva e Montes Claros, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados do teste de compatibilidade sexual foi possível identificar os isolados como F. solani f. sp. piperis. Nove isolados foram patogênicos quando inoculados em mudas de pimenta-do-reino com quatro meses de desenvolvimento. O filtrado FPB2 produziu maior severidade de infecção (média de 93,6% de área foliar necrosada, comparado ao isolado FPC1 (5,8%. A cultivar Cingapura foi mais sensível à ação do filtrado. A diluição do filtrado FPB2 proporcionou redução na porcentagem de área foliar lesionada. Observou-se, ainda, que o aumento das concentrações do filtrado do isolado FPC1 proporcionou o aumento do IVCM de T. asperellum, enquanto o filtrado de

  8. Caracterização morfocultural e infecção cruzada de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agente causal da antracnose de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita / Morfocultural characterization and cross infection Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose in fruits and vegetables post-harvested

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    Lucimar Pereira Bonett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecta uma grande variedade de plantas em regiões tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas ocasionando consideráveis perdas econômicas em doenças pré e pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a morfologia e a infecção cruzada de isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtidos de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita. Os isolados foram obtidos de lesões de frutos com sintomas de antracnose e cultivados em meio de cultivo BDA, sendo a avaliação do crescimento micelial realizada por meio de duas leituras diárias do diâmetro das colônias pelo período de quatorze dias e a caracterização morfológica das colônias realizada no final deste período. Para a realização do experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado com três repetições por tratamento. Para o experimento da infecção cruzada foram realizados dois ferimentos em frutos sadios nos quais foram depositados blocos de meio de cultura com 6 mm2 contendo os isolados. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial de 8 x 8, com quatro repetições. As médias de ambos os experimentos foram analisadas por meio do teste de Scott-Knott com 5% de probabilidade. A maioria dos isolados de C. gloeosporioides possuem grande potencial de infecção cruzada, já que foram capazes de causar lesões em frutos de mamão, manga, abacate, chuchu, jiló, pimentão verde e pimenta. Os isolados de frutos de mamão e abacate apresentaram o maior índice de crescimento micelial e os isolados provenientes do chuchu apresentaram o menor. Quanto ao desenvolvimento de lesões, o mamão apresentou-se mais suscetível, com lesões maiores, enquanto que a pimenta cambuci demonstrou-se a mais resistente, apresentando as menores lesões.

  9. A lobotomia e a leucotomia nos manicômios brasileiros Lobotomy and leucotomy in Brazilian mental hospitals

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    André Luis Masiero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A lobotomia e leucotomia foram utilizadas em pacientes de instituições asilares brasileiras, entre 1936 e 1956. Também chamadas de psicocirurgias, eram intervenções que consistiam em desligar os lobos frontais direito e esquerdo de todo o encéfalo, visando modificar comportamentos ou curar doenças mentais. A técnica, idealizada pelo neurologista português Egas Moniz em 1935 e aperfeiçoada pelo americano Walter Freeman, chegou ao Brasil por intermédio de Aloysio Mattos Pimenta, neurocirurgião do Hospital Psiquiátrico do Juquery, em São Paulo, logo seguido por outros médicos. Esta medida foi aplicada em mais de mil pacientes internados não só para fins curativos, mas também para aprimorar tecnicamente a cirurgia, uma vez que os experimentos preliminares com animais eram escassos. No Brasil, a técnica foi adotada até 1956, passando a ferir o Código de Nuremberg, de 1947, concebido para regulamentar e conter os abusos da experimentação médica em seres humanos ocorridos durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.Lobotomy and leucotomy were used in Brazilian mental institutions from 1936 to 1956. Also called psycho-surgeries, they were operations that separated the right and left frontal lobes and pre-frontal lobes from the rest of the brains, aiming at modifying behavior or curing mental diseases. The technique, created by the Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz in 1935 and developed by Walter Freeman from the United States, arrived in Brazil through the hands of Aloysio Mattos Pimenta, neurologist from Hospital Psiquiátrico Juquery in São Paulo. Soon, many doctors followed suit. These procedures were used on more than a thousand in-patients aiming at not only healing results, but also the technical improvement of the surgical technique, since preliminary experiments with animals were quite rare at the time. In Brazil, the technique was used until 1956, when it was considered as going against the 1947 Nuremberg Code, whose objective was

  10. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  11. Antispasmodic effect of Mentha piperita essential oil on tracheal smooth muscle of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Albertina Antonielly Sydney; Soares, Pedro Marcos Gomes; de Almeida, Arisa Nara Saldanha; Maia, Alana Rufino; de Souza, Emmanuel Prata; Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio

    2010-07-20

    Mentha piperita is a plant popularly known in Brazil as "hortelã-pimenta" whose essential oil is used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant actions and anti-congestive. Here, it was investigated the effect of Mentha piperita essential oil (peppermint oil) in rat tracheal rings along with its mechanism of action. Tracheal tissue from male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used. Peppermint oil was added in cumulative concentrations [1-300 microg/ml] to the tissue basal tonus or pre-contracted by carbachol [10 microM] at 10 min intervals, incubated or not with indomethacin [10 microM], L-N-metyl-nitro-arginine [100 microM], hexamethonium [500 microM], or tetraethylammonium [5 mM]. Peppermint oil [100 and 300 microg/ml] inhibited the contractions induced by carbachol, which was reversed by indomethacin, L-N-metyl-nitro-arginine and hexamethonium, but not by tetraethylammonium. These data suggest the participation of prostaglandin E(2), nitric oxide and autonomic ganglions in the peppermint oil relaxant effect and may be correlated with its popular use in respiratory diseases. Peppermint oil exhibited antispasmodic activity on rat trachea involving prostaglandins and nitric oxide synthase. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta-Oliveira, Andreza; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Dias, Adriano; Gonçalves, Roberto C

    2011-12-04

    The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI) on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT), was assessed in IVP (n = 80) and AI (n = 20) groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves. © 2011 Pimenta-Oliveira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Hannaella pagnoccae sp. nov., a tremellaceous yeast species isolated from plants and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Brandão, Luciana R; Barbosa, Anne C; Ramos, Jesus P; Safar, Silvana V B; Gomes, Fatima C O; Sousa, Francisca M P; Morais, Paula B; Broetto, Leonardo; Leoncini, Orílio; Ribeiro, José Roberto; Fungsin, Bundit; Takashima, Masako; Nakase, Takashi; Lee, Ching-Fu; Vainstein, Marilene H; Fell, Jack W; Scorzetti, Gloria; Vishniac, Helen S; Rosa, Carlos A; Valente, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Several independent surveys of yeasts associated with different plant materials and soil led to the proposal of a novel yeast species belonging to the Tremellales clade (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains and internal transcribed spacer region of the large subunit of the rRNA gene suggested affinity to a phylogenetic lineage that includes Hannaella coprosmaensis, Hannaella oryzae and Hannaella sinensis. Thirty-two isolates were obtained from different sources, including bromeliads, nectar of Heliconia psittacorum (Heliconiaceae), flowers of Pimenta dioica (Myrtaceae), roots and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) in Brazil, leaves of Cratoxylum maingayi, Arundinaria pusilla and Vitis vinifera in Thailand, soil samples in Taiwan, and prairie soil in the USA. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that the novel species differs from Hannaella coprosmaensis and Hannaella oryzae by 36 and 46 nt substitutions, respectively. A novel species is suggested to accommodate these isolates, for which the name Hannaella pagnoccae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BI118(T) ( = CBS 11142(T) = ATCC MYA-4530(T)).

  14. Impact of olmesartan on blood pressure, endothelial function, and cardiovascular outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The vascular endothelium, the largest “organ” in the body, synthesizes and releases a wide spectrum of vasoactive substances into the circulation. Endothelial dysfunction links hypertension and other cardiovascular (CV risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerotic plaque, CV disease, and fatal and nonfatal CV events. Blood pressure (BP reduction is the most effective way to reduce CV risk in patients with hypertension, but it is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of hypertension. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers improve endothelial function and have favorable vascular, metabolic, cardiac, and renoprotective effects that are independent of BP reduction. Olmesartan effectively reduces BP and also has vasoprotective properties, including reductions in endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, prevention of microalbuminuria, and reversal of vascular remodeling. Large-scale, long-term studies are needed to confirm that olmesartan has vasoprotective effects that are independent of BP control and to determine whether these pleiotropic effects translate into improved CV disease outcomes.Keywords: hypertension, endothelial function, cardiovascular outcomes, olmesartan

  15. Diferentes condimentos vegetais: avaliação sensorial e de atividade antibacteriana em preparação alimentar com frango cozido Different spice plants: sensorial evaluation and antibacterial activity in chicken broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da atividade antibacteriana in vitro, predeterminada em doze plantas com indicativo etnográfico condimentar, testou-se este atributo in loco no modelo caldo com frango cozido. Primeiramente, procedeu-se ao treinamento de 10 avaliadores, segundo a legislação vigente quanto ao Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, oportunizando conhecimentos prévios sobre as plantas salsa (Petroselinum sativum, manjerona branca (Origanum X aplii, manjerona preta (Origanum majorana, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, sálvia (Salvia officinalis, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris, anis verde (Ocimum selloi, alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum, alho nirá (Allium tuberosum, alho poró (Allium porrum, cúrcuma (Curcuma longa e pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum. Realizou-se, através da adição individualizada desses condimentos ao caldo com frango cozido, um Teste de Aceitação tipo escala hedônica, selecionando, dentre os doze condimentos, quatro deles que se destacaram sensorialmente, a pimenta dedo-de-moça, o alho nirá, o alho poró e o tomilho. Foi feito, então, um Teste de Aceitação de concentrações denominadas pequena, média e grande destes quatro condimentos, para determinação da intensidade sensorialmente melhor aceita. As quantidades eleitas (0,5 g de pimenta dedo-de-moça, 15 g de alho nirá, 15 g de alho poró e 5 g de tomilho foram acrescidas ao caldo com frango cozido, sendo estes desafiados frente a Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 em concentração final de 10 UFC mL-1, limite tolerado pela legislação, tendo como grupo-controle o caldo com frango cozido sem condimentos. O crescimento bacteriano foi aferido a cada duas horas após a inoculação, até completar 24 horas de confronto, utilizando-se meio seletivo para coliformes termo-resistentes e incubação constante a 25ºC em DBO, sendo atribuídos valores arbitrários às variações logarítmicas de crescimento. Comparados ao controle, todos os tratamentos condimentados apresentaram

  16. Antitumour efficacy of Piper tuberculatum and piplartine based on the hollow fiber assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Daniel P; Ferreira, Paulo Michel P; Machado, Camila Maria L; de Aquino, Nayara C; Silveira, Edilberto R; Chammas, Roger; Pessoa, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Piper tuberculatum, popularly known in Brazil as "jaborandi falso" and "pimenta darta", is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. In this study, the in vivo hollow fiber assay was used to investigate the antitumour efficacy of the crude extract and piplartine obtained from P. tuberculatum roots. Human glioblastoma (SF-295) and colon carcinoma (HCT-8) cell lines were used. In vitro cytotoxicity was assayed by the MTT assay. In the hollow fiber assay, nude mice implanted with tumour cells in hollow fibers were treated for four consecutive days via the intraperitoneal route, and tumour cell populations were assessed by the MTT assay. Both the crude extract and piplartine displayed cytotoxicity. In the hollow fiber assay, tumour growth inhibition rates were 24.6-54.8 % for the crude extract and 33.7-62.2 % for piplartine. No signal of toxicity was noticed. In conclusion, the crude extract and piplartine obtained from P. tuberculatum roots displayed in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy.

  17. A dimensão democrática da elaboração do projeto político-pedagógico na Educação Infantil: relações e especificidades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janara Cunha Ferreira

    2013-01-01

      THE SIZE OF DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN TEACHING EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: SPECIFIC AND RELATIONS   The decentralization of school management translated into participatory planning and / or democratic has been, since the last educational reform, the subject of discussions about its legitimacy and applicability. In early childhood institutions, recently recognized as an integral part of the considered basic education, this issue involves questions of even the most sensitive points of view of organization and curriculum, given the historical context of the constitution and the lack of unanimity in the debates about the goals of this level of schooling. The article presents a brief history of the emergence of the Political-Pedagogical Project and its purpose, substantiated by  Pimenta, Luce and Medeiros, Gandin, Vasconselos, Silva, Rigotto e Souza, and Fusari. It keeps proposing some thoughts on important aspects that differentiate the levels of other early childhood education, focusing on the direct implications of these factors  in construction of a participatory Political-Pedagogical Project. Keywords: Political-Pedagogical Project, Democratic Management, Early Childhood Education.

  18. Fixed combinations in the management of hypertension: patient perspectives and rationale for development and utility of the olmesartan – amlodipine combination

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    Eduardo Pimenta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Department of Hypertension and Nephrology, Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAbstract: Although the awareness and control of hypertension has increased, only 37% of hypertensive patients in the US achieve the conservative goal of <140/90 mmHg. Achieving optimal blood pressure (BP control is the most important single issue in the management of hypertension, and in most hypertensive patients, it is difficult or impossible to control BP with one drug. Blocking two or more BP regulatory systems provides a more effective and more physiologic reduction in BP, and current guidelines have recommended the use of combination therapy as first-line treatment, or early in the management of hypertension. Fixed combination therapy is an efficacious, relatively safe, and may be cost-effective method of decreasing BP in most patients with essential hypertension. Similar to other combinations, fixed-dose combination tablets containing the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan bring together two distinct and complementary mechanisms of action, resulting in improved BP control and potential for improved target organ protection relative to either class of agent alone.Keywords: olmesartan – amlodipine, hyptertension, combination therapy

  19. Fatores econômicos relacionados à intervenção na vegetação para a implantação de linhas de transmissã o no estado de Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Abreu Ribeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was made on an electric energy transmission line between the cities of Ji-Paraná and Pimenta Bueno, in the State of Rondônia. The objective was to quantify the economic factors related to the suppression of vegetation by traditional and selective methods. The selective method cost was estimated according to the number of individuals per hectare, the area of intervention and the cost of felled trees. The total cost of the traditional method was determined by the area of intervention and by the cost of deforested hectares. The transposal of a fragment with the use of seven 55m towers, with no intervention in the vegetation, generates an increase of only 2,8% on the total cost, if compared to the cost of employing seven 35m towers plus the costs of a selective intervention in the vegetation. In the selective method, the number of individuals per hectare is the most important variable because it indicates directly the value to be wasted with the felling of trees. The traditional method will grow out of use because it does not offer big advantages in tecnicals envairomentals and economics terms.

  20. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

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    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Center and Clinical Center of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAbstract: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is an important mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons and is a major contributor to hypertension-related target organ damage. The concept of renin inhibition for managing hypertension by blocking the RAAS pathway at its point of activation is very attractive since the renin-angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II. Aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs, is approved for the treatment of hypertension. It is effective in reducing BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and in special patient groups such as obese persons, and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has renoprotective, cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects in animal models that appear to be independent of BP lowering. It reduces proteinuria in diabetic patients and has favorable neurohumoral effects in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in the therapeutic armamentarium.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  1. Effect of a novel essential oil mouthrinse without alcohol on gingivitis: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

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    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta"-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05 between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation.

  2. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  3. Impactos do Índice Dow Jones, Commodities e Câmbio sobre o Ibovespa: uma Análise do Efeito Contágio

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    Pedro Raffy Vartanian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the existence of contagion effects of the Dow Jones index, commodity prices and exchange rate on the trajectory of the Bovespa index in the period 1999-2010, and analyze the longterm relationships between the variables. The theoretical framework is based on contagion effect, which occurs in the spread of market disturbances from one country to another country as discussed by Dornbusch, Park and Claessens (2000, Pericoli and Sbracia (2003, and Forbes and Rigobon (2002, as well as in empirical studies such as Lamounier and Nogueira (2007, Tabak e Lima (2003, Groppo (2006 and Pimenta (2004, among others, complete with research of the impact on commodity prices in the stock market, as can be seen in Barr and Kantor (2002. For this purpose, a cointegration test from the procedure suggested by Johansen (1991 was applied, and a vector autoregression model (VAR, initially proposed by Sims (1980 and Sims (1986, with the causality/exogeneity Granger test, was utilized. The results of Johansen cointegration test did not indicate the existence of long-term relationships between the variables. As to short-term effects, the impulse response functions showed that the Brazilian stock market index reacts positively to shocks in commodity prices and the U.S. stock market, and it demonstrates a positive reaction to currency depreciation, which suggests presence of the contagion effect.

  4. Hundreds of fridges to cool the heart of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The detectors used in the LHC experiments are packed with electronics that will register thousands of particles produced in the collisions. All this hard work will generate a lot of heat, but there are systems in place to help the electronics to cool down, not shut down. Members of the DC section team in USA15 of the ATLAS cavern, standing behind four of the compressors used in the cooling system. The inlet and outlet pipes that carry the refrigerant to the experimental hall can be seen on the left. Left to right: M. Battistin, P. Bonneau, C. Houd, P. Feraudet, F. Corbaz, J. Lethinen, P. Guglielmini, M. Ciclet, P. Tropea, S. Berry (M. Pimenta absent).An unconfirmed member of the DC section :-) in charge of a part of the perfluoropropane distribution network for the ATLAS evaporative cooling system. The next time your desktop computer crashes from overheating, spare a thought for Pierre Feraudet, a member of the Detector Cooling section (TS/CV/DC). He is in charge of constructing the cooling systems for the d...

  5. Nanotechnology in Phytotherapy: Antiinflammatory Effect of a Nanostructured Thymol Gel from Lippia sidoides in Acute Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco A; Barros, Gisele; Queiroz, Dinalva B; Carvalho, Celso Felício; Gouvea, Julia; Patrus, Lia; Bannet, Mariane; Patrus, Danile; Rego, Amália; Silva, Ivaldo; Campus, Guglielmo; Araújo-Filho, Irami

    2016-01-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae) is largely distributed in the northeastern region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'Alecrim-pimenta'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lippia have interesting pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanostructured thymol gel (TG) 1.2 mg/g on acute phase of ligature-induced periodontitis model [acute periodontal disease (APD)] in rats. APD was induced in 24 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars in maxillae. Animals were treated with TG, immediately after APD induction. Saline-based gel was utilized as negative control and diethylammonium diclofenac gel 10 mg/g was used as positive control. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The periodontium and the surrounding gingiva were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity levels by ELISA method. TG treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity production in gingival tissue when compared with the saline gel control group (p < 0.05). The TG gel was able to provide a significant myeloperoxidase decreasing in gingiva tissue confirming to be effective in reducing gingival inflammation in this model.

  6. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

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    Juliane Dornellas Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e 1,32 µm em P. aduncum. Pelos descritores citogenéticos obtidos não há diferença entre as duas espécies.The aim of this work was to detect differences between two species of long pepper by karyotypic analysis. Five acessions of Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae, belonging to germplasm collection of Embrapa Acre, were analysed using squashing technique and Feulgen staining. The chromosome number observed for both species was 2n = 24 and karyotype presented small metacentric chromossomes, with average length of 1.38 µm in P. hispidinervum and 1.32 µm in P. aduncum. Karyotypic descriptions pointed out that the species are not different.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%.

  8. [Lobotomy and leucotomy in Brazilian mental hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, André Luis

    2003-01-01

    Lobotomy and leucotomy were used in Brazilian mental institutions from 1936 to 1956. Also called psycho-surgeries, they were operations that separated the right and left frontal lobes and pre-frontal lobes from the rest of the brains, aiming at modifying behavior or curing mental diseases. The technique, created by the Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz in 1935 and developed by Walter Freeman from the United States, arrived in Brazil through the hands of Aloysio Mattos Pimenta, neurologist from Hospital PsiquiátricoJuquely in São Paulo. Soon, many doctors followed suit. These procedures were used on more than a thousand in-patients aiming at not only healing results, but also the technical improvement of the surgical technique, since preliminary experiments with animals were quite rare at the time. In Brazil, the technique was used until 1956, when it was considered as going against the 1947 Nuremberg Code, whose objective was to detain and regulate the medical experiments with human beings made during the Second World War.

  9. The new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate in Brazil: The expansion of snowball Earth events to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio Henrique Garcia; Sans-Jofre, Pierre; Bandeira, José Cavalcante da Silva; Oliveira, José Guilherme Ferreira de; Sial, Alcides Nóbrega

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate deposits exposed in the border of the Pimenta Bueno and Colorado grabens, western part of Parecis Basin, southwestern Amazon Craton, Brazil, have been previously considered as Paleozoic record. These deposits lying unconformably on Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, the basement of the grabens, and consist predominantly by pinkish dolomite overlying glacial diamictites, with average negative values of δ13C of -3,10‰VPDB. The contact between the dolostone and diamictites is sharp and deformed similarly with others Neoproterozoic cap carbonates occurrences in the Amazon Craton, also related to the Marinoan Glaciation (635 Ma). This new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate is composed by two facies associations. Facies Association 1 consists of pinkish peloidal dolostone with even parallel and quasi-planar laminations, wavy and megarriple bedding, macropeloid lenses associated with low-angle truncations, interpreted as fairwhether- and storm-influenced shallow platform deposits. Facies association 2 consists in dolostone rhythmically interbedded with shale underlaid by 5 m-thick laminated siltstones, interpreted as moderately deep platform deposits. This retrogradational succession is overlaid in angular unconformity by Early Paleozoic diamictites and locally by Mesozoic volcanic rocks. This cap carbonate precedes the Paleozoic deposits of Parecis Basin and represents a post-glacial event linked to the Marinoan glaciation, extending to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton the phenomena of the Snowball Earth hypothesis.

  10. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  11. Detecção de capsaicina em extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires de Souza RODRIGUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum L. é uma espécie utilizada no mundo inteiro pelo seu sabor picante e por possuir inúmeras atividades medicinais. Essas atividades farmacológicas são proporcionadas por um grupo de substâncias presentes, os capsaicinoides, além de taninos, flavonoides, vitamina C, entre outros. Dos capsaicinoides presentes, a capsaicina possui especial importância. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença da capsaicina nos extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica. Os extratos foram preparados com acetona. A cromatografia foi realizada com placas de sílica gel G4, eluída com hexano:acetato de etila (60:40 e reveladas com reagente de Dragendorff. A capsaicina pode ser detectada somente no estágio imaturo (verde dos frutos de Capsicum baccatum L. pela metodologia de cromatografia em camada delgada e pelo teste histoquímico.

  12. Study for the energization of isolated community in the Amazon - Canaa Micro Hydropower Project; Estudo para a energizacao de comunidade isolada na Amazonia - Projeto Microcentral Canaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Lemos, Helmo; Nogueira, Fabio Jose Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Centro Nacional de Referencias em PCH' s], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, helmo@unifei.edu.br, fabioh@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The initiatives for electrification of remote communities have proven, so far, to difficult economic sustainability, with high rates of discontinuation of service and low quality of electricity provided. Another important aspect of these initiatives is great difficulty for the energy supply in these communities. The program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All), launched by federal government in 2002, is an alternative that aims to universalize the service of electricity in all throughout the country, mainly of small isolated communities by giving them access to development due to the arrival of energy. One of these communities who will benefit from the program is the Community settlement of Nova Canaa, located in Pimenta Bueno in the State of Rondonia in the Amazon region. It will be met 55 families who never had access to a power quality and continuous supply. The relevance of this project is expressed by the possibility of replication of its management model for other communities in the country, contributing to the improvement of quality of life, poverty reduction and rural exodus. (author)

  13. Literatura e Transdisciplinaridade: uma proposta de ensino a partir do romance Terra Papagalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Meissner Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available É inegável que a Educação, de um modo geral, enfrenta uma crise na contemporaneidade. E, naturalmente, as aulas de Língua Portuguesa e Literatura são afetadas por esse cenário. Devido a isso, muitos caminhos têm sido discutidos para a superação dos problemas vigentes e, sem dúvida, a transdisciplinaridade emerge como uma possibilidade instigante. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste artigo é oferecer uma unidade didática transdisciplinar de ensino de Literatura para alunos do Ensino Médio. Para tanto, foi escolhido o romance contemporâneo Terra Papagalli, dos autores José Roberto Torero e Marcus Aurelius Pimenta, como corpus para a concretização de tal proposta. As sugestões aqui contidas foram embasadas,