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Sample records for pimenta racemosa myrtales

  1. Improvement of Fermented Fish Flour Quality Using Essential Oil Extracted From Fresh Leaves of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Dègnon, René G; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the introduction of a step of essential oil adjunction during the process. Three different essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μL g -1 ) were investigated. Physicochemical, microbiological and nutritional analyzes were performed in order to evaluate the quality of the fermented fish flour produced. Results obtained revealed that the essential oil of Pimenta racemosa investigated has a chemical composition characterized by the presence of myrcene (25.1%), chavicol (7.5%) and eugenol (51.1%). Fermented fish flour produced have a good nutritional potential. However, on the microbiological level, only samples produced by adjunction of essential oil have a low level of microbial contamination, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms.

  2. Aceites volátiles de hojas y frutos de Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae) de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Chaverri; José F. Cicció

    2015-01-01

    Pimenta es un género de plantas perteneciente a la familia Myrtaceae que contiene cerca de 15 especies, la mayoría ubicadas en las regiones del Caribe del Continente Americano, donde es utilizado con propósitos culinarios y medicinales. Las especies comerciales mejor conocidas son “pimienta de Jamaica” (P. dioica o P. officinalis) y “bay-rum” (P. racemosa) y existe muy poca información científica acerca de la especie P. guatemalensis. Cuando las hojas y frutos son triturados, desprenden un ar...

  3. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications...

  4. Antibacterial phenolics from the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.; PrabhaDevi

    -(4- hydroxyphenyl)-propyl-3′-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)- propionate1. This communication relates to the identification of antibacterial principle in L. racemosa which is associated with polyphenolic constituents. The efficacy of this mangrove has been studied... be necessary for a full evaluation of their practical usefulness in the field of modern medicine. Acknowledgements The authors thank Dr. S. R. Shetye, Director, NIO for his keen interest in the work. Financial support by Ministry of Earth Sciences under...

  5. Potencial ornamental de acessos de pimenta

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    Leane Fialho de Melo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial ornamental de dez acessos de pimenta Capsicum spp. procedentes da Coleção de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Piauí, Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Fitotecnia, do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, no município de Teresina, Piauí, obedecendo ao delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Na caracterização morfoagronômica dos acessos, conforme orientação do Bioversity International, utilizaram-se os seguintes descritores qualitativos e quantitativos para o gênero Capsicum: forma da folha, hábito de crescimento da planta, antocianina no nó da planta, posição da flor, cor da corola, cor do fruto no estado intermediário e maduro, forma do fruto, forma do ápice do fruto, textura da epiderme do fruto, comprimento do fruto, comprimento do pedicelo, persistência do fruto maduro e altura da planta. Dentre os dez acessos avaliados, sete foram considerados com potencial ornamental: CGC-06 (C. chinense, CGC-07 (C. chinense, CGC-11 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-23 (C. chinense, CGC-36 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-59 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum e CGC-67 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum. O CGC 11 apresentou estética mais harmoniosa, com flores eretas, as quais são de fácil percepção; frutos eretos e vistosos e folhas de formato lanceolado.

  6. Aceites volátiles de hojas y frutos de Pimenta guatemalensis (Myrtaceae de Costa Rica

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    Carlos Chaverri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta es un género de plantas perteneciente a la familia Myrtaceae que contiene cerca de 15 especies, la mayoría ubicadas en las regiones del Caribe del Continente Americano, donde es utilizado con propósitos culinarios y medicinales. Las especies comerciales mejor conocidas son “pimienta de Jamaica” (P. dioica o P. officinalis y “bay-rum” (P. racemosa y existe muy poca información científica acerca de la especie P. guatemalensis. Cuando las hojas y frutos son triturados, desprenden un aroma de composición desconocida. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la composición química de los aceites esenciales de las hojas y frutos de P. guatemalensis. La extracción de los aceites esenciales de P. guatemalensis, una especie arbórea silvestre en Costa Rica, se efectuó mediante el método de hidrodestilación a presión atmosférica, empleando un aparato de vidrio de tipo Clevenger. Se analizó la composición química de los aceites esenciales mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de flama (GC/FID y cromatografía de gases acoplada a un detector de masas (GC/MS y, utilizando índices de retención en una columna cromatográfica capilar tipo DB-5. En los aceites de hojas se identificaron 103 y en los de frutos 63 compuestos, correspondiendo a 96.8% y 86.1%, respectivamente, de los constituyentes totales. El aceite de las hojas está constituido principalmente por compuestos de naturaleza fenilpropanoide (72.9% y de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos (18.2%. Los componentes mayoritarios del aceite de las hojas se identificaron como eugenol (72.8%, β-cariofileno (8.2% y terpinoleno (3.0%. El aceite de los frutos está constituido principalmente por eugenol (74.7%, monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados (7.3% principalmente óxido de cariofileno (3.3%. Este es el primer informe acerca de la composición química de aceites esenciales obtenidos a partir de esta especie vegetal.

  7. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae) of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    OpenAIRE

    Wadt, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; Ehringhaus, Christiane; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected w...

  8. Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed S A; Moharram, Fatma A; Mohamed, Mona A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Aboutabl, Elsayed A

    2007-01-01

    Two galloylglucosides, 6-hydroxy-eugenol 4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol-2-O-(2',6'-di-O-galloyl)-beta-D -4C1-glucopyranoside (7), and two C-glycosidic tannins, vascalaginone (10) and grandininol (14), together with fourteen known metabolites, gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), nilocitin (3), 1-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (5), 4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (6), 3,4,6-valoneoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (8), pedunculagin (9), casuariin (11), castalagin (12), vascalagin (13), casuarinin (15), grandinin (16), methyl-flavogallonate (17) and ellagic acid (18), were identified from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (Merr.) L. (Myrtaceae) on the basis of their chemical and physicochemical analysis (UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 9 is the most cytotoxic compound against solid tumour cancer cells, the most potent scavenger against the artificial radical DPPH and physiological radicals including ROO*, OH*, and O2-*, and strongly inhibited the NO generation and induced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. On the other hand, 3 was the strongest NO inhibitor and 16 the highest stimulator for the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, while 10 was the most active inducer of macrophage proliferation.

  9. THE CRITICAL FACE OF THE POET IN ‘INDULGÊNCIA PLENÁRIA’, ALBERTO PIMENTA

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    Ana Cristina Joaquim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an essay whose motto focuses on the junction between criticism and poetry, between ethics and aesthetics, in the long poem named Indul­gência plenária of Alberto Pimenta. For present purposes it is important to consider criticism in a double sense: first of all, a way of explanation of some of the procedure language, so that poetic writing is presented as a procedure that folds over their own means, which allows reflection and valorization on the writing evidence; and, in another possible approach, criticism towards a detailed examination followed by evaluation about the motivating fact on which this long poem was wrote (violence - followed by death - suffered by the transsexual Gisberta Salce in Porto/Portugal –, at this moment of the analyses, the conjunction of ethics and aesthetics will be relevant. Alberto Pimenta also wrote critical essays, which matter consider this third meaning of criticism: a characteristic literary genre that will be the basis of some of the reflections raised by the poem. We intend to think how the criticism and the poetry are confluents achievements in Alberto Pimenta activity.

  10. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  11. Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups T1T2, T3, T4, and T5 and were given 0.5 ml normal saline, aqueous extract in the dose rate of100mg/kg body weight, 200mg/kg body weight, alcoholic extract @100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered Paracetamol at a dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight orally. After 24hrs, the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that aqueous extract in the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight and alcoholic extract (100mg/kg & 200mg/kg body weight could produce antiulcer activity. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 217-218

  12. Determination of caffeic acid in root and rhizome of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt.

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    Zapala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifuga racemosa, is a plant with a diverse and long history of medicinal use. Caffeic acid, bioactive compound, which often occurs with other polyphenols can influence the biological activity of this plant. The aim of our work was quantitative analysis of caffeic acid in roots and rhizomes of two varieties of C. racemosa. Analysis was performed by HPLC method. The extracts were separated on C18 reversed-phase column using mixture of methanol, water and formic acid (25:75:0.5 v/v/v as a mobile phase. The flow rate of eluent was 1.0 ml·min-1. The obtained validation parameters such as linearity, linear regression equation and precision expressed as a relative standard deviation were adequate for quantitative determination. Caffeic acid was found in all tested extracts. The highest total amount of caffeic acid was determined in C. racemosa var. racemosa (255.3 μg·g-1 while its concentration in C. racemosa var. cordifolia was significantly lower (213.0 μg·g-1.

  13. In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-02-01

    Medicinal plants have been reported to play an important role in modulating glycemic responses and have preventive and therapeutic implications. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the antidiabetic effect of medicinal plants such as inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, manipulation of glucose transporters, beta-cell regeneration and enhancing insulin-releasing activity. The present investigation evaluated the possible mechanism of action through which Ficus racemosa stem bark (Moraceae) exerts its hypoglycemic effect using suitable in vitro techniques. Ficus racemosa bark (FRB) exhibited significantly higher (P FRB, as reflected by a significantly lower (P system containing FRB compared to the control and acarbose. Furthermore, FRB significantly increased (P < or = 0.01) the rate of glucose transport across the yeast cell membrane and also in isolated rat hemi-diaphragm. The findings indicate F. racemosa bark to possess strong hypoglycemic effect and hence can be utilized as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hellismar W. da; Costa, Lílian M.; Resende, Osvaldo; Oliveira, Daniel E. C. de; Soares, Renato S.; Vale, Luís S. R.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.), variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw) determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados expe...

  15. A comprehensive analysis on Symplocos racemosa Roxb.: Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Niyati; Acharya, Sanjeev; Shah, Unnati; Shah, Ripal; Hingorani, Lal

    2016-04-02

    Symplocos racemosa Roxb. belongs to a unigeneric family Symplocaceae, known as lodhra in Sanskrit; is a small evergreen tree, found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Ethnobotanical literature indicates use of S. racemosa in treatment of eye disease, skin diseases, ear diseases, liver and bowel complaints, tumors, uterine disorders, spongy and bleeding gums, asthma, fever, snake-bite, gonorrhea and arthritis. The main aim of this review is to provide detailed phytopharmacological profile on S. racemosa in support with the traditional practices and ethnomedicinal uses. All relevant worldwide accepted databases have been searched for the name "S. racemosa" along with other literature from Indian Classical texts and Pharmacopoeias. The accessible literatures available on S. racemosa, were collected through electronic search on Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and traditional reports. S. racemosa is important Indian traditional drug used in many Ayurvedic and herbal formulations for treatment of liver as well as uterine disorders and leucorrhea. Majority of phytopharmacological reports are on stem bark of the plant which include anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-androgenic effect, anti-inflammatory, wound healing activity and anti-diabetic effects. Phytochemical studies indicated presence of many phenolic glycosides like symplocoside, triterpenoids like betulinic acid, acetyloleanolic acid and oleanolic acid and flavonoids like quercetin which might have contributed to the observed protective effects. Many ethnobotanical claims have been confirmed through systematic in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies on different extracts of stem bark and isolated constituents. However, systematic studies on the bio-markers are desirable to establish mode of action and to validate the traditional claim in clinical practice after proper safety assessment. The conservation data of genus Symplocos showed risk of extinction due to restricted

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bauhinia racemosa L. stem bark

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    Kumar R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR (Caesalpiniaceae stem bark in various systems. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg MEBR inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 62.43, 67.21, 71.04, and 76.83%, respectively. Similarly, the effect of MEBR on reducing power increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assays the IC50 value of the extract was 152.29 µg/ml. MEBR inhibited the nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside with an IC50 of 78.34 µg/ml, as opposed to 20.4 µg/ml for curcumin. Moreover, MEBR scavenged the superoxide generated by the PMS/NADH-NBT system. MEBR also inhibited the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton's reaction, with an IC50 value of more than 1000 µg/ml, as compared to 5 µg/ml for catechin. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined and 64.7 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in MEBR (1 mg. The antimicrobial activities of MEBR were determined by disc diffusion with five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative and four fungal species. MEBR showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The results obtained in the present study indicate that MEBR can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  17. Phytochemical Studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb

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    G. K. Sharanabasappa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical studies on Bauhinia racemosa Lam., Bauhinia purpurea Linn. and Hardwickia binata Roxb. The phytochemical study of three plants involve preliminary phytochemical studies, physico-chemical studies, quantitative estimation of primary and secondary metabolites, TLC study and HPLC fingerprint study of ethanolic extract of leaves of three plants. In HPLC fingerprint study, the three peaks at a retention time of 15 min, 17 min and 19 min were identical in B. racemosa and B. purpurea which was confirmed by overlaid spectra. The generated data may be useful in suggesting chemotaxonomical interrelation between three plants.

  18. EFEK EKSTRAK METANOL DAUN ENGKUDUK TALUN (FAGRAEA RACEMOSA PADA PEROKSIDASI LIPID SECARA IN VIVO

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    Ika Fikriah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Engkuduk talun plant (Fagraea racemosa grows in East Kalimantan forest. Stages Extraction research of petroleum eter-cloroform-metanol from leaves, root skin, root, stem skin and Fagraea racemosa’s stem toward radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH is proven that the extract of methanol leaves have the strongest scavenger effect, this can be interpreted that the leaves have the strongest antioxidant potency from all plant parts that have been examined.  The given single dose 1 gram/kg b.w of the methanol extract from Fagraea racemosa leaves do not caused the death at the female Wistar rats. On the inhibitor test of forming MDA of rat’s liver the very high of absorbance value has accurred on control by CCl4 ( 0.508 ± 0.039 , significant if compared to CCl4 added with the vitamin E ( 0.224 ± 0.006 and CCl4 added with three doses of methanol extract from the Fagraea racemosa’s leaves ( p=0.000   Keywords: Fagreae racemosa, lipid peroxidation, CCl4,  vitamin E   ABSTRAK Tumbuhan engkuduk talun (Fagraea racemosa banyak terdapat di hutan Kalimantan Timur. Penelitian ekstraksi bertingkat petroleum eter-kloroform-metanol dari daun, kulit akar, akar, kulit batang dan batang Fagraea racemosa terhadap pereaksi radikal 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH terbukti pada ekstrak metanol daun mempunyai efek peredaman paling kuat, ini dapat diartikan daun mempunyai potensi antioksidan yang paling kuat dari semua bagian tumbuhan yang diamati. Pemberian dosis tunggal 1 gram/kgBB ekstrak metanol daun Fagraea racemosa tidak menunjukkan kematian pada hewan coba tikus Wistar betina. Pada uji hambatan  pembentukan MDA hepar tikus terjadi peningkatan nilai absorbansi yang sangat tinggi pada kontrol dengan CCl4 (0.508 ± 0,039, berbeda bermakna jika dibandingkan CCl4 yang ditambah dengan vitamin E (0.224 ± 0,006 dan CCl4  yang ditambah dengan tiga dosis ekstrak metanol daun Fagraea racemosa (p=0.000.   Kata Kunci: Fagraea racemosa

  19. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

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    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected was high (96.97%, but the marker frequencies for each species showed polymorphism levels of 79.4% for Piper hispidinervum and 5.3% for P. aduncum. The genetic similarity clustering analysis resulted in three distinct groups corresponding to Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum. Four and nine characteristic RAPD markers were identified for P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum, respectively, supporting the existence of two separate species. However, six genotypes collected in Tarauacá county formed a distinct subgroup within the P. hispidinervum group and may be considered as an ecotype of this species or an intermediate between the P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum groups. More extensive sampling of both P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum populations throughout the region are needed to further establish their relation and its implication for breeding efforts.

  20. Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Enhanced by Fe/Pimenta dioica L. Merrill Particles

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    Teresa Torres-Blancas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metallic particles has become an economic way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating dyes. The synthesis of metal particles is gaining more importance due to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of particles, and environmentally friendly. The present work aims to report a novel and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of iron particles using deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk as support. The indigo carmine removal efficiency by ozonation and catalyzed ozonation is also presented. Synthesized materials were characterized by N2 physisorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. By UV-Vis spectrophotometry the removal efficiency of indigo carmine was found to be nearly 100% after only 20 minutes of treatment under pH 3 and with a catalyst loading of 1000 mgL−1. Analytical techniques such as determination of the total organic carbon content (TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that iron particles supported on deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk can be efficiently employed to degrade indigo carmine and achieved a partial mineralization (conversion to CO2 and H2O of the molecule. From the results can be inferred that the prepared biocomposite increases the hydroxyl radicals generation.

  1. Efeito de óleos essenciais como alternativa no controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, em pimenta

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    Rosa Maria Souto de Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungos do gênero Colletotrichum causam doenças conhecidas como antracnose. Métodos alternativos que sejam eficientes e menos agressivos vêm sendo amplamente testados. Dentre estes, surge o interesse pela utilização de óleos essenciais extraídos de vegetais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de óleos essenciais de eucalipto, copaíba, andiroba, babaçu, coco, neem, semente de uva, amêndoa, hortelã e pau rosa, em diferentes concentrações sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in vitro e em frutos de pimenta em pós colheita. O experimento in vitro foi realizado utilizando-se cinco concentrações (0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% dos dez óleos misturados ao meio de cultura BDA. As variáveis analisadas foram a taxa de crescimento micelial e o índice de velocidade de crescimento micelial (IVCM. O ensaio em pós-colheita foi feito com imersão dos frutos de pimenta por 5 minutos, nos mesmos óleos utilizados no experimento anterior, usando-se a maior concentração. O fungo C. gloeosporioides foi inoculado, através de ferimento, logo após a imersão dos frutos. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente através de medição do diâmetro das colônias e das lesões, tomando-se duas medições em sentidos diametralmente opostos. Pode-se observar que no experimento in vitro todos os óleos, com exceção dos óleos de babaçu, semente de uva e amêndoa, tiveram excelentes resultados inibindo o crescimento do fungo. No resultado obtido em pós-colheita foi observado que apenas o óleo de babaçu não foi eficiente em reduzir o desenvolvimento da lesão de antracnose. Dados relevantes foram observados para os óleos de semente de uva e amêndoa, que não apresentaram efeito direto sobre o fungo in vitro, porém no tratamento pós-colheita apresentaram bons resultados, reduzindo a lesão causada por C. gloeosporioides, sugerindo assim que estes óleos possam ser utilizados como indutores de resistência em frutos

  2. Potential of the Essential Oil from Pimenta Pseudocaryophyllus as an Antimicrobial Agent

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    Suzuki Érika Yoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis. The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6 %. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL-1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  3. Quantification of catechin in the spray-dried extract of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus

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    Leonardo C. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the quantification of catechin in the spray-dried extract of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum, Myrtaceae, citral chemotype using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method employs a RP-18 column with acetonitrile:water-orthophosphoric acid 0.05% (gradient system and UV detection at 210 nm. The method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The response was linear over a range of 5–200 µg/ml (r > 0.999. The range of recoveries was 92.27–102.54%. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision studies were 4.30 and 3.78%, respectively. This assay can be readily utilized as quality control method for catechin in the dried extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus.

  4. Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae

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    P.A. Shabir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.

  5. Inversostyly: a new stylar polymorphism in an oil-secreting plant, Hemimeris racemosa (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Anton

    2005-11-01

    A new kind of stylar polymorphism, provisionally called inversostyly, is described. The polymorphism occurs in Hemimeris racemosa (Scrophulariaceae), a common annual herb of the Cape region of South Africa. Most populations are dimorphic for style orientation: the style alternates with the two stamens and is deflected either upwards or downwards. Thus, there is reciprocal placement of the style and stamens in a vertical plane in zygomorphic flowers. The flowers are symmetrical, and the floral parts do not vary in length. All flowers on a given plant are of the same stylar orientation. Pollination is by specialized oil-collecting bees (Rediviva spp.), which carry the pollen of the two morphs separately in discrete anterior or posterior locations on the underside of the body. Most inversostylous populations have a slightly higher proportion of the style-down morph, and this bias increases with decreasing pollinator abundance. In contrast with inversostylous populations, all individuals in homostylous populations of H. racemosa have the style and the stamens clustered together in the down position and high levels of autogamous seed set. Homostylous populations of H. racemosa, as well as the homostylous species Hemimeris sabulosa, occur where oil-collecting bees are less abundant.

  6. Dual function of active constituents from bark of Ficus racemosa L in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopage, Nisansala Swarnamali; Kamal Bandara Gunaherath, G M; Jayawardena, Kithsiri Hector; Wijeyaratne, Sushila Chandrani; Abeysekera, Ajita Mahendra; Somaratne, Seneviratne

    2018-01-25

    Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method. Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa were evaluated using scratch wound assay (SWA) on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay on common bacteria and fungi for cell migration enhancing ability and antimicrobial activity respectively. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts which showed cell migration enhancement activity on SWA were subjected to bioactivity directed fractionation using column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography to identify the compounds responsible for the cell migration enhancement activity. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts showed cell migration enhancement activity on both cell lines, while EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus species and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces spp. and Candida albicans. Lupeol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated as the potential wound healing active compounds which exhibited significant cell migration enhancement activity on BHK 21 and MDCK cell lines (> 80%) in par with the positive control, asiaticoside at a concentration of 25 μM. The optimum concentration of each compound required for the maximum wound healing has been determined as 30 μM and 35 μM for 1 and 2 respectively on both cell lines. It is also established that lupeol acetate (3) isolated from the hexanes extract act as a pro-drug by undergoing hydrolysis into lupeol in the vicinity of cells. Different

  7. Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Symplocos racemosa Roxb. from Western Ghats, India

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    Sofia Banu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats (WG in India is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots which have high proportion of endemic species and the medicinally important tree species. Due to medicinal importance and being found on the forest fringes, Symplocos racemosa Roxb. is highly susceptible to anthropogenic activities. The present study was undertaken to systematically analyze the effects of anthropogenic activities on the genetic diversity and population structure of S. racemosa and to generate preliminary data for conservation purposes. We analyzed the variation in intergenic sequences of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from seven sites of S. racemosa sampled from protected, semiprotected, and disturbed areas of WG. Total diversity was high although within-sites diversity was low. The protected sites were highly diverse, while the disturbed areas possessed less genetic diversity indicating the effect of anthropogenic activities.

  8. Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

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    Eva Rachmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Kemampuan hati mengatasi stres oksidatif dapat ditingkatkan dengan konsumsi antioksidan eksogen yang berasal dari alam. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mempelajari kemampuan hepatoprotektif dari ekstrak metanol  daun  Fagraea racemosa, dengan menggunakan CCL4 sebagai model sumber radikal bebas. Metode: Tiga kelompok perlakuan tikus Wistar  (enam ekor per  kelompok, masing-masing diberi dosis ekstrak berturut-turut 50, 100, 200 mg/kg bb per oral, sekali perhari selama 30 hari. CCl4 diinjeksikan intraperitoneal kepada ketiga kelompok , dua kali per minggu (1,5 ml/kg bb.  Sebagai pembanding, digunakan dua kelompok kontrol, yaitu kontrol normal dan kontrol CCl4.  Pada hari ke-30, tikus dibunuh dan hati diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin. Perubahan histopatologi ditentukan berdasar derajat steatosis, degenerasi hidropik, dan inflamasi. Data dianalisis dengan Anova dan uji post hoc LSD (p≤0.05 menggunakan SPSS versi 13.0 Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan perbaikan derajat degenerasi hidropik dan inflamasi (p≤0,05 pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan bila dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol CCl4. Tetapi, derajat steatosis meningkat pada kelompok perlakuan dosis  50 dan 100 mg/kg bb, dan kemudian menurun secara bermakna pada perlakuan 200 mg/kg bb. Kesimpulan : Ekstrak methanol daun Fagraea racemosa  mampu melindungi hati dari radikal bebas yang dihasilkan dari CCl4. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa Fagraea racemosa menjanjikan untuk dikembangkan sebagai suplemen antioksidan. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:46-51   Abstract Background: The ability of the liver in dealing with oxidative stress can be enhanced by consumption of exogenous antioxidants derived from nature. This study aimed to explore the hepatoprotective ability of Fagraea racemosa leaves methanolic extract against CCl4 exposure as a model of free radicals source. Methods: Three different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg bw were administered orally to three treatment groups of Wistar rats

  9. Phytochemical analysis and differential in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of root extracts of Inula racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar

    2017-05-01

    The root of Inula racemosa is known for its antifungal, hypolipdemic and antimicrobial properties in traditional Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine. The biological efficacy of Inula species is mainly due to the presence sesquiterpene lactone (Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone), which are reported to be inducers of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. The investigation of properties and efficacy of root extracts of I. racemosa and their comparison was done with a view to find most efficacious extract for use at cellular level (both normal and transformed). In the present study different extracts of root of I. racemosa (aqueous, ethanolic, and 50% aqueous-ethanolic) were prepared and compared for their antioxidant potential, reducing capacity, polyphenol content and flavonoid content. Our investigations suggested that the aqueous extract possess highest antioxidant capacity and reducing potential. The polyphenol content was found to be highest in aqueous extract in comparison with other two extracts. However, all the three extracts showed less flavonoid content. Further, the preliminary phytochemical screening of all the extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, phytosterols and glycosides. The TLC profile of ethanolic and 50% aqueous-ethanolic extracts showed the presence of alantolactone while aqueous extracts did not exhibit its strong presence. This warrants the need of more stringent techniques for characterization of aqueous extract in future. The in vitro cell based toxicity assays revealed that the aqueous extract was less toxic to kidneys cells while ethanolic extract was toxic to cells even at low concentrations. Hence, the current investigations showed better efficacy of the aqueous extract with respect to other extracts and found to be promising for its future application at in vitro levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and characterisation of three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites from Symplocos racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umar; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Ali, Mumtaz; Khan, Saleha Suleman

    2016-01-01

    Three new anthraquinone secondary metabolites were isolated from Symplocos racemosa, a small tree of family symplocaceae. The structures of compounds (1-3) were elucidated to be 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)-8-propylanthracene-9,10-dione (1), 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-butylanthracene-9,10-dione (2) and 1,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-8-propyl anthracene-9,10-dione (3) using their spectral data, i.e. through IR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and correlation spectroscopy.

  11. Germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de alface submetidas ao extrato de pimentas

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    PALOMA RAYANE PINHEIRO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A família Piperaceae inclui cerca de 12 gêneros e mais de 1400 espécies  de pimentas distribuídas em todas as regiões subtropicais e tropicais. Algumas espécies do gênero Piper podem apresentar efeito fungicida, inseticida ou mesmo alopático sobre as sementes de outras espécies. Diante disso, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos extratos alcóolicos de três diferentes espécies de pimentas na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de alface. As sementes foram umedecidas com extratos alcoólicos das três espécies de pimentas: Piper callosum, Piper médium, Piper aduncum, em diferentes concentrações: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70%. As avaliações foram diárias até o sétimo dia após a semeadura, e ao final foi determinada a porcentagem de germinação (G%, primeira contagem de germinação (PCG, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e comprimento de plântula (CP. Os dados foram submetidos às analise de variância e de regressão. Para a primeira contagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação, o extrato da Piper medium se destacou em relação as outras duas pimentas, para o comprimento de plântulas, a Piper callosum e a  Piper aduncum prejudicaram esta característica. Para o fator concentração houve a redução da germinação com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos. Para primeira contagem de germinação, observou-se que elevadas concentrações dos extratos alcóolicos prejudicaram o desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas. A utilização dos diferentes tipos de extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as sementes de alface foi prejudicial a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial das mesmas.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO PARA PRODUÇÃO DE GELEIADA

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    Inayara Beatriz Araújo Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense vem sendo muito utilizada para consumo in natura e na forma processada. Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de extrato de pimenta-biquinho para produção de geleiada. Foi utilizado um extrato armazenado por 90 dias, com as seguintes características físico-químicas: umidade (80%, extrato seco (19%, oBrix (12, acidez (0,320%, coloração vermelha a amarela e teores de vitamina C e de carotenoides totais consideráveis e estáveis. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,00 a 4,06 Log UFC/g, de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,34 Log UFC/g, bactérias láticas <1,0 Log UFC/g, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes <3 NMP/g e ausência de Salmonella sp/25g.  Foram elaboradas as seguintes formulações de geleiada: 1 50% de extrato: 50% de açúcar; 2 25% de extrato: 25% de abacaxi: 50% de açúcar e; 3 25% de extrato: 25% de maça: 50% de açúcar. O emprego de extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma alternativa viável para a produção de geleiadas e agregação de valor à produção de pimenta. A adição do abacaxi na formulação contribuiu para aumento da aceitabilidade do produto. Assim, deve-se considerar o tipo de fruta adicionada na geleiada com fins de saborização para aumento da aceitabilidade e, em consequência, da intenção de compra.

  13. Desenvolvimento de espécies de pimentas sobre efeito de doses urina de vaca

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    L. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente demanda do mercado de pimentas tem impulsionado o aumento da área cultivada no Brasil anualmente, no Nordeste brasileiro esse cultivo vem sendo feito não apenas em hortas caseiras para o consumo doméstico, como também em áreas comerciais que abastecem o mercado local e externo. Diante disso objetivou-se verificar os efeitos da utilização da adubação orgânica no cultivo de espécies de pimenta no intuito de possibilitar aos agricultores desenvolverem sua produção utilizando-se de práticas onde produtos alternativos e de baixo custo econômico e ambiental disponíveis em suas propriedades como é o caso da urina de vaca que pode ser utilizados como fertilizante além de possuir outras propriedades favoráveis a este cultivo. Foram usadas as espécies Cambuci, Dedo-de-moça, Bode Amarela e as proporções de urina de vaca utilizadas nas pulverizações foram de 1 a 5%. As variáveis analisadas foram à altura, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca do caule das plantas após a semeadura. A dosagem de urina nas concentrações a partir de 2%, 4% e 5% obtiveram médias maiores de alturas que nas demais concentrações exercendo maior influência sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas. No diâmetro do caule verificou-se um desenvolvimento maior nas aplicações com concentração de urina aplicada a 4%, 5%. E na matéria seca os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas plantas que receberam adubação com urina a 3 a 5% na maioria das amostras indicando que os melhores efeitos foram atingidos nas maiores concentrações. Development of pepper species on effect of doses of cow urineAbstract: The growing demand of the peppers market has driven the increase of cultivated area in Brazil annually, in the Brazilian Northeast this cultivation has been done not only in home gardens for domestic consumption, as well as in commercial gardens that supply the local and foreign markets. Therefore, it was decided to observe the effects of the use of

  14. Mosquito Larvicidal Constituents from the Ethanol Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. Roots against Aedes albopictus

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    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Compositae roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, 11,13-dihydroisoalantolactone (1, macrophyllilactone E (2, 5α-epoxyalantolactone (3, and epoxyisoalantolactone (4 were isolated and identified as the active constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 21.86 μg/mL and 18.65 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC50 value of 25.23 μg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of 29.37 μg/mL and 35.13 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. racemosa and the four isolated constituents have potential for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  15. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

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    V. P. Veerapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract (FRE and water extract (FRW of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•-, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79. Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01 when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  16. Differentiated Evaluation of Extract-Specific Evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa's Efficacy and Safety for Climacteric Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A-M; Neff, A

    2013-01-01

    Past reviews on Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) without differentiation between extracts, quality, and indication altogether led to inconsistent data. Therefore, for the first time, we meet the requirements of the system's logic of evidence-based phytotherapy by taking into consideration extracts, pharmaceutical quality (reflected in a regulatory status as medicinal product), and indication. A literature search for clinical studies examining CR's efficacy and safety for menopausal complaints was conducted. The results were sorted by type of extract, regulatory status, and indication. Accordingly, Oxford Levels of Evidence (LOE) and Grades of Recommendation (GR) were determined. CR extracts demonstrated a good to very good safety in general, on estrogen-sensitive organs and the liver. However, only registered CR medicinal products were able to prove their efficacy. Best evidence was provided by the isopropanolic CR extract (iCR): the multitude of studies including more than 11,000 patients demonstrated consistent confirmatory evidence of LOE 1b (LOE 1a for safety) leading to GR A. The studies on the ethanolic extract BNO 1055 including more than 500 patients showed exploratory evidence of LOE 2b resulting in GR B. A positive benefit-risk profile is stated and limited to Cimicifuga racemosa products holding a marketing authorisation for treating climacteric complaints.

  17. Crescimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta cultivada sob malhas

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    Andressa Giovannini Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e o teor, o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta (Mentha piperita cultivada sob diferentes malhas, no Município de Lavras, MG. As mudas de hortelã‑pimenta foram cultivadas em cinco ambientes: pleno sol, malha preta, malha aluminizada, malha azul e malha vermelha, todas com 50% de irradiância. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: crescimento vegetativo, teor, rendimento e análise química do óleo essencial. Plantas de hortelã‑pimenta cultivadas em pleno sol e sob malhas preta e vermelha produziram maior biomassa seca de folhas e maiores teores e rendimentos do óleo essencial. Entretanto, a pleno sol, o óleo essencial das plantas apresentou maior teor de mentol e, sob as malhas preta e azul, de mentofurano. Portanto, é possível manipular o crescimento das plantas e a produção e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta mediante o cultivo sob malhas ou pleno sol.

  18. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  19. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. High levels of intra- and inter-individual polymorphism in the rDNA ITS1 of Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fama, P; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Procaccini, G

    2000-01-01

    The coenocytic green alga Caulerpa racemosa colonized the Mediterranean some time after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. For most of the past century it has remained confined to the southeastern Mediterranean, but over the past several years the species has been reported in abundance along the

  1. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  2. Modeling below-ground biomass to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal forest product

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine J. Small; Simon J. Bonner; Elizabeth B. Hiebert

    2013-01-01

    Non-timber forest products, particularly herbaceous understory plants, support a multi-billion dollar industry and are extracted from forests worldwide for their therapeutic value. Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of...

  3. Comportamento higroscópico de partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de L. O. C. e Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isotermas de dessorção de pimenta-de-macaco foram determinadas pelo método gravimétrico estático nas temperaturas de 35, 45 e 55 ºC, com umidade relativa variando de 5,5-81%. Três modelos matemáticos foram aplicados para analisar os dados experimentais. O modelo de GAB modificado apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais. O calor isostérico e a entropia diferencial foram determinados pela aplicação das equações de Clausius-Clapeyron e Gibbs-Helmholtz, respectivamente. O calor isostérico e a entropia da isoterma de dessorção apresentaram comportamento similar. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas indicando que o mecanismo de dessorção de umidade das partes aéreas de pimenta-de-macaco é controlado pela entalpia.

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit Extracts in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Norliyana; Rani, Anis Najwa Abdul; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2016-01-01

    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and its antioxidant activities. Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC50] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL) and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%). B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g) and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g) compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively). In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL) compared to H. sabdariffa. The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds were present in B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol extractsB. racemosa methanol

  5. A validated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivali, Garg; Praful, Lahorkar; Vijay, Gadgil

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a technique widely used for detection and quantification of various chemical moieties. This paper describes the use of the FT-IR spectroscopy technique for the quantification of total lactones present in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata. To validate the FT-IR spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Dried and powdered I. racemosa roots and A. paniculata plant were extracted with ethanol and dried to remove ethanol completely. The ethanol extract was analysed in a KBr pellet by FT-IR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectroscopy method was validated and compared with a known spectrophotometric method for quantification of lactones in A. paniculata. By FT-IR spectroscopy, the amount of total lactones was found to be 2.12 ± 0.47% (n = 3) in I. racemosa and 8.65 ± 0.51% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. The method showed comparable results with a known spectrophotometric method used for quantification of such lactones: 8.42 ± 0.36% (n = 3) in A. paniculata. Limits of detection and quantification for isoallantolactone were 1 µg and 10 µg respectively; for andrographolide they were 1.5 µg and 15 µg respectively. Recoveries were over 98%, with good intra- and interday repeatability: RSD ≤ 2%. The FT-IR spectroscopy method proved linear, accurate, precise and specific, with low limits of detection and quantification, for estimation of total lactones, and is less tedious than the UV spectrophotometric method for the compounds tested. This validated FT-IR spectroscopy method is readily applicable for the quality control of I. racemosa and A. paniculata. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Influência do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides em leito com umidade controlada Influence of indolebutyric acid on "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides rooting bed under controlled humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae é conhecida no Brasil como alecrim-pimenta, um arbusto típico da vegetação do nordeste brasileiro. Este trabalho foi realizado no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, em Montes Claros, Brasil, com a finalidade de estudar a propagação vegetativa do alecrim-pimenta em leito de enraizamento com umidade controlada. Estacas da planta foram submetidas às seguintes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 mg L-1 durante 24 horas. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições, sendo dez estacas por repetição. Após 45 dias de implantação foram avaliados o número de raízes, o número de brotações, o comprimento da maior raiz, o índice de enraizamento e a porcentagem de enraizamento. Observou-se que as variáveis comprimento de raiz, número de raízes e índice de enraizamento apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as diversas concentrações de IBA. No entanto, a porcentagem de enraizamento não foi afetada significativamente, provavelmente pelo controle da umidade relativa e pela manutenção das folhas das estacas.The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae is known in Brazil as "alecrim-pimenta", a typical shrub from the Northeastern Brazil vegetation. This work was carried out in the Agronomical Sciences Institute from Minas Gerais State University (UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in order to study the vegetative propagation of this species in rooting bed under controlled humidity. Herbaceous cuttings were treated with the following concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg L-1 for 24 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five replicates of 10 cuttings each. After 45 days, root and sprout numbers, the highest root length, and rooting index and percentage were evaluated. Root length and number and rooting index had

  7. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Cuscuta racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena O. Ferraz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta racemosa Mart. is a parasitic plant of the Convolvulaceae family, used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory and a diuretic, for stomach and hepatic disorders, and for treating fresh wounds. This plant is popularly known as "cipó-chumbo" and "fios-de-ovos". In this study, it was chemically investigated and tested for its antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The flavonoid and tannin content of the dried plant were 2.79% and 2.01%, respectively. Furthermore, the 4'-methoxyquercetin flavanoid compound was isolated from the ethanolic fraction. The minimum inhibiting concentration in the antimicrobial test was 2.0 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, and a DL50 of 0.231 mg/mL was obtained in the cytotoxicity experiment. The fraction directed to alkaloids was able to eliminate 100% of the brine shrimp used for the test.

  8. Destruction of the Phoenix/Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities at Richards Bay, Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the Phoenix!Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities described by Venter in 1972 on the southern shores of Richards Bay is reported. The cause was the artificial openingof a new mouth about 5,5 km south of the original mouth, which increased tidal range and salinity. These swamp communities occupied a narrow band about 6 ha in area behind the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Community. An estimated 95 % of the communities was affected and only on the landward border were some isolated remnants of species such as Acrostichum aureum, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Phoenix reclinata detected .Young stands of  Phragmites australis, seedlings of  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Avicennia marina and epipelic algae are recoIonizing the affected area.

  9. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Cuscuta racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena O. Ferraz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta racemosa Mart. is a parasitic plant of the Convolvulaceae family, used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory and a diuretic, for stomach and hepatic disorders, and for treating fresh wounds. This plant is popularly known as "cipó-chumbo" and "fios-de-ovos". In this study, it was chemically investigated and tested for its antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The flavonoid and tannin content of the dried plant were 2.79% and 2.01%, respectively. Furthermore, the 4'-methoxyquercetin flavanoid compound was isolated from the ethanolic fraction. The minimum inhibiting concentration in the antimicrobial test was 2.0 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, and a DL50 of 0.231 mg/mL was obtained in the cytotoxicity experiment. The fraction directed to alkaloids was able to eliminate 100% of the brine shrimp used for the test.

  10. Allelopathic action essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenesAção alelopática de óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capimsanto na germinação de aquênios de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alecrim-pimenta and the lemongrass produce secondary compounds that can be used in alternative management of weed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of the essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenes. It was used mature leaves of both species, and extracted the essential oil by distillation method of drag by water vapor. The bioassay was performed using achenes of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer and arranged in factorial scheme 5 x 2, being five concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% and two species of medicinal plants. It was used four replicates of 50 achenes. The oil of lemongrass was more detrimental to the germination of lettuce achenes when compared with the oil of alecrim-pimenta, being this effect dependent of the concentration. Germination of lettuce achenes treated with lemongrass oil declined by 34%, 12% and 75% for concentrations of 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.0%, respectively when compared with alecrim-pimenta oil. The germination speed index, the length and dry weight of hypocotyl and radicle of lettuce seedlings was compromised by the contact of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass oils. Although there were lettuce achenes germination treated with alecrim-pimenta oil, the percentage of abnormal seedlings was high, which compromises their survival in field.O alecrim-pimenta e o capim-santo produzem compostos secundários que podem ser utilizados no manejo alternativo de plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar o efeito alelopático dos óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capim-santo na geminação de aquênios de alface. Foram utilizadas folhas maduras de ambas as espécies, e extraído o óleo essencial pelo método de destilação de arraste por vapor de água. O bioensaio foi realizado utilizando aquênios de alface da cultivar crespa de verão e arranjado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco concentrações 0, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 e 1,0 % e duas

  11. Estabelecimento de alecrim-pimenta in vitro In vitro establishment of Lippia sidoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa S da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. é um arbusto nativo da região do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, cujo óleo essencial possui elevado valor comercial devido aos seus constituintes majoritários, o timol e o carvacrol, de potente propriedade antimicrobiana e anti-séptica. Avaliou-se os efeitos de concentrações e tempos de imersão em hipoclorito de sódio, de meios de cultivo e da utilização de antibiótico e antioxidantes no estabelecimento in vitro de alecrim-pimenta. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio e 8; 12; 16 e 20 minutos de imersão, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4; as concentrações 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mg L-1 do antibiótico cefatoxima sódica; os meios-de-cultura MS, B5 e WPM; e o efeito de antioxidantes (PVP: 0,5 e 2 g L-1; e carvão ativado: 3 e 12 g L-1. A concentração de 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio proporcionou um número significativamente maior (pLippia sidoides Cham. is a native shrub from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Its essential oil has high commercial value, due to the major compounds thymol and carvacrol, which have strong antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. The effect of concentrations and immersion time in sodium hypochlorite, culture media, the use of antibiotic and antioxidants on in vitro establishment of L. sidoides were evaluated. The assays were conducted in a completely randomized design. We evaluated the concentrations 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite and 8; 12; 16 and 20 minutes of immersion, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme; the concentrations 0; 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg L-1 of cefotaxime sodium; the medium cultures MS, B5 and WPM; and the effect of antioxidants (PVP: 0.5 and 2 g L-1; and activated charcoal: 3 and 12 g L-1. The concentration of 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.01 number of leaves per shoot: 1

  12. Similaridade genética de populações naturais de pimenta-de-macaco por análise RAPD Genetic similarity of natural populations of pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. obtained throug RAPD analysis

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    José Maria D. Gaia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie conhecida como pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. possui grande potencial para exploração econômica em função da comprovada utilidade do seu óleo essencial na agricultura e saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de populações naturais dessa planta. Um total de dezoito acessos da planta, provenientes de quatro procedências da Amazônia Brasileira, foi examinado por meio de locos de DNA, gerados por análise RAPD (polimorfismo de DNA amplificado ao acaso. O estudo evidenciou a existência de real diversidade entre as populações examinadas, sendo provável que dentro das localidades investigadas, os padrões da diversidade genética acompanhem os padrões de distribuição geográfica.The species known as pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. has great economic explotation potential based on the proved usefulness of the essential oil in agriculture and human health. The genetic diversity of their natural populations was characterized. A total of eighteen accessions of the plant, obtained from four different origins in the Brazilian Amazon, was examined by means of DNA loci, generated by RAPD analysis. Real genetic diversity was observed between the analyzed populations and it appear that the patterns of the genetic diversity follow the patterns of the geographical distribution.

  13. Bromatologia da pimenta malagueta in natura e processada em conserva Bromatology of fresh and processed chili pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiyoko NH Rebouças

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sendo uma das especiarias mais consumidas no mundo, a pimenta malagueta está presente na culinária brasileira há mais de 500 anos. A crescente procura do mercado interno e externo pelas pimentas provocou a expansão da área cultivada em vários estados brasileiros. Seus teores de vitamina C são superiores aos encontrados no pimentão e demais olerícolas. Obteve-se a caracterização físico-química da pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens in natura e processadas em conserva e, definiu-se, se após o processamento, a hortaliça apresentou perda na qualidade nutricional, para fornecer subsídios ao desenvolvimento da pesquisa tecnológica e divulgar a espécie. O estudo foi realizado no período de dezembro de 2010 a março de 2011, na UESB. Para a determinação das propriedades físico-químicas da matéria-prima foram avaliados o pH, acidez titulável e atividade de água (Aw. Da composição química foram determinados a umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteína bruta e vitamina C. Foram escolhidas pimentas in natura e processadas em conservas em estádio de maturação fisiológica completa (maduras, adquiridas dos produtores do Município de Barra do Choça-BA. As análises foram realizadas com três repetições. Foi realizada análise estatística dos dados que foram expressos como média e desvio padrão. Os resultados obtidos para amostras de pimenta in natura e processada para análise de atividade de água, pH e acidez foram (0,9893; 0,9832; (5,48; 3,76 e (0,0353%, 0,2046% respectivamente. Para umidade, lipídios, proteínas e cinzas foram (29,4%, 15,3%;(0,636%; 0,620%; (4,8%; 4,76% e (0,039%; 0,043% respectivamente e para a vitamina C 121,5 mg/100 g para a in natura e 14,5 mg/100 g para a processada. Conclui-se que, após o processamento, ocorreu perda considerável na qualidade nutricional da pimenta malagueta.Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens, which is one of the most widely consumed spices in the world, has been present in

  14. Purification and characterization of cinnamyl alcohol-NADPH-dehydrogenase from the leaf tissues of a basin mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, K; Arunkumar, N S; Mohankumar, C

    2004-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol-NADPH-dehydrogenase (CAD), the marker enzyme of lignin biosynthesis was purified from the leaf tissues of a basin mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by anion-exchange, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the CAD enzyme was determined as 89 kDa, by size elution chromatography. SDS-PAGE of CAD revealed two closely associated bands of 45 kDa and 42 kDa as heterogenous subunits. The optimum pH of CAD was found to be 4.0. Km for the substrates cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde was determined. Cinnamaldehyde showed higher Km value than sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde. The correlation of activity of CAD with the amount of lignin was found less significant in L. racemosa, compared to plant species of other habitats viz., mesophytes, xerophytes and hydrophytes, suggesting that CAD possibly exhibits physiological suppression due to the saline habitat of the plant.

  15. Uso de água residuária de origem doméstica no cultivo da pimenta malagueta na Chapada do Apodi-RN

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Ian Crisóstomo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    O aproveitamento agrícola das águas residuárias domésticas tratadas é uma alternativa diante da escassez hídrica no semiárido. A pesquisa objetivou analisar os efeitos da aplicação de água residuária de origem doméstica no sistema produtivo da pimenta malagueta. Para isso, uma área experimental de 744 m2 foi montada no assentamento Milagres em Apodi-RN, constituída por um decanto-digestor e um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento automatizado. A pimenta malagueta foi plantada em Cambissolo no...

  16. Produtividade de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha cultivadas em sucessão a mucuna preta e feijão de porco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso de adubos verdes e/ou de plantas de cobertura é uma técnica que vem sendo difundida para o cultivo de espécies medicinais, por garantir a sustentabilidade do solo agrícola, ser flexível em seu uso e por melhorar a atividade biológica do solo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o uso de culturas de cobertura para incrementar a produção de massa de plantas de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas tropicais (mucuna preta e feijão de porco como cobertura do solo e uma testemunha (sem cultura de cobertura e três espécies medicinais (vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. O experimento foi arranjado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as coberturas vegetais e nas subparcelas, as plantas medicinais. As plantas para a cobertura vegetal foram propagadas por semeadura direta no local de cultivo, enquanto as medicinais foram transplantadas diretamente entre a palhada da cobertura vegetal. A produção da mucuna preta foi de 8,37 t ha-1 de massa seca e do feijão de porco, de 14,37 t ha-1 de massa seca. O uso das culturas de cobertura contribuiu para uma maior biomassa microbiana do solo. As produções de massas frescas de folhas, caules e frutos de vinagreira e de frutos da pimenta rosa foram maiores quando cultivadas em sucessão às coberturas vegetais do solo, independente da espécie. As produções da carobinha foram semelhantes quando cultivadas em áreas com ou sem a cobertura. Visando à maior produtividade da vinagreira e pimenta rosa, são indicadas as culturas antecessoras feijão de porco e mucuna preta.

  17. A new pentacyclic phenol and other constituents from the root bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Renuka; Yadav, Namita; Bhagchandani, Teena; Jain, Satish C

    2013-10-01

    This work reported the isolation of one unknown (1) and 10 known compounds (2-11) from the root bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. (family: Caesalpiniaceae). Racemosolone (1) was characterised as a pentacyclic phenolic compound possessing an unusual skeleton with a cycloheptane ring and a rare furopyran moiety. The structure elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, infrared (IR), HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and finally confirmed by the single crystal X-ray analysis. The known compounds were characterised as n-tetracosane, β-sitosteryl stearate, eicosanoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, racemosol, octacosyl ferulate, de-O-methyl racemosol, lupeol and 1,7,8,12b-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-2H-benzo[6,7]cyclohepta [1,2,3-de] [1] benzopyran-5,10,11 triol on the basis of spectroscopic data comparison with the literature value. Compounds with skeleton similar to 1 have never been reported from any natural or other source.

  18. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  19. Removal of malachite green by using an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekci, Zehra; Seki, Yoldas; Cavas, Levent

    2009-01-01

    The biosorption of a cationic dye, malachite green oxalate (MG) from aqueous solution onto an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (CRC) was investigated at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318 K). The dye adsorption onto CRC was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. All of the isotherm parameters were calculated. The Freundlich model gave a better conformity than Langmuir equation. The mean free energy values (E) from DR isotherm were also estimated. In order to clarify the sorption kinetic, the fit of pseudo-first-order kinetic model, second-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model were investigated. It was obtained that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From thermodynamic studies the free energy changes were found to be -7.078, -9.848 and -10.864 kJ mol -1 for 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively. This implied the spontaneous nature of biosorption and the type of adsorption as physisorption. Activation energy value for MG sorption (E a ) was found to be 37.14 kJ mol -1 . It could be also derived that this result supported physisorption as a type of adsorption

  20. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V R; Janardhanan, K

    1994-12-01

    Two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. viz., Ayyanarkoil Forest and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude proteins, crude lipids, ash and nitrogen free extractives constituted 19.84%, 9.52%, 3.31% and 60.65%, respectively in Ayyanarkoil Forest germplasm; whereas, in Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary germplasm they constituted 19.31%, 8.94%, 3.81% and 61.30%, respectively. The caloric values were found to be 407.64 KCal (Ayyanarkoil Forest) and 402.90 KCal (Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary) germplasms. Essential amino acids like isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and lysine were found to be high in the seed proteins of both the germplasms. The fatty acids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, were found to be relatively higher in the seed lipids of both the germplasms. Both the germplasms seemed to be a rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and iron. Antinutritional substances like total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated.

  1. Fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cássio Alves Linhares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas são todas as espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum com frutos geralmente menores que os pimentões, com diferentes formatos, frequentemente de paladar pungente, embora existam pimentas doces. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho analisar a fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo no setor de agroecologia da UEPB, no município de Catolé do Rocha- PB, no ano de 2012. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, sendo estudados os efeitos de 5 fontes de matéria orgânica e foram testados 4 tipos de biofertilizantes. Avaliaram-se as seguintes variáveis: Fitomassa Seca da Folha (FSF, Fitomassa Seca do Caule (FSC e Fitomassa Seca da Raiz (FSR. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos estudados sobre a massa seca de plantas de pimenta doce italiana. As fontes de matéria orgânica se comportaram de maneira semelhante em relação à fitomassa seca do caule de pimenteira doce-italiana. O biofertilizante à base de esterco bovino enriquecido com farinha de rocha + cinza de madeira (T4, desempenhou um maior acúmulo de massa seca da pimenta.  Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  2. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta cumari de distribuição natural para fins de melhoramento genético

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    Marco Antônio Pereira Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta cumari (Capsicum baccatum var. baccatum, Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum é uma espécie considerada semi-domesticada. As pesquisas no melhoramento genético e obtenção de plantas mais produtivas de pimenta cumari são de grande importância, uma vez que a cultura  é  pouco  difundida,  sendo  que  não  se  encontra  nenhuma  linhagem  comercial disponível. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo coletar, caracterizar materiais de pimenta cumari de distribuição natural e identificar materiais promissores a utilização em programas de melhoramento genético. Para isso, o trabalho foi divido em três etapas, sendo elas: coleta e identificação de materiais, análise da germinação e caracterização morfoagronômica. Na primeira fase foram realizadas visitas em propriedades de ocorrência de pimenta cumari, onde foram coletados frutos de nove plantas em regiões distintas para retirada de sementes, levantando as características das plantas e do local de ocorrência. Foram selecionados quatro materiais dos nove encontrados para implantação do ensaio, nomeadas de CH5, BI3, MA2 e CH2. A segunda etapa consistiu na avaliação da germinação das sementes com a adoção de algumas técnicas para quebra de dormência das sementes. Na última etapa foram realizadas avaliações para caracterização da planta de pimenta e dos seus frutos. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, onde não obteve diferenças significativas para as características avaliadas.  Logo, pode-se observar que qualquer um dos materiais coletados apresenta potencial para utilização em programa de melhoramento genético.

  3. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

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    Fabio Firenzuoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European Medicines Agency (EMEA and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107 and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107 to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  4. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

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    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Two Chemotypes of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae

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    Joelma Abadia Marciano de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations from Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum (Myrtaceae have been widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extracts, fractions, semipurified substances, and essential oils obtained from leaves of two chemotypes of P. pseudocaryophyllus and to perform the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory screening. The ethanol extracts were purified by column chromatography and main compounds were spectrally characterised (1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR. The essential oils constituents were identified by GC/MS. The broth microdilution method was used for testing the antimicrobial activity. The abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid and the ear oedema induced by croton oil were used for screening of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The phytochemical analysis resulted in the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes, flavonoids, and phenol acids. The oleanolic acid showed the best profile of antibacterial activity for Gram-positive bacteria (31.2–125 μg mL−1, followed by the essential oil of the citral chemotype (62.5–250 μg mL−1. Among the semipurified substances, Ppm5, which contained gallic acid, was the most active for Candida spp. (31.2 μg mL−1 and Cryptococcus spp. (3.9–15.6 μg mL−1. The crude ethanol extract and fractions from citral chemotype showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Os cinco sentidos, tradução de Nelson Pimenta: reflexões sobre poesia surda no Youtube

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    Carla Cristina Gaia dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As Comunidades Surdas encontram nas tecnologias comunicacionais atuais grandes aliados para divulgação e perpetuação de sua literatura, desconstruindo fronteiras geográficas e sociais que, muitas vezes, os isolavam uns dos outros. Se desde o advento da impressa a escrita tem assumido o papel central de transmissão e construção do conhecimento nas mais diversas áreas do saber, a época da comunicação virtual chega para nos lembrar de outras formas nem tão privilegiadas de significar e de comunicar. Através da internet os Surdos partilham suas histórias, poesias, piadas e muito mais. Baseando-nos em pesquisadores como Lévy (2015, Kress (2003 e Lemke (2010, o presente artigo objetiva refletir sobre a poesia Cinco Sentidos, tradução de Nelson Pimenta para a língua brasileira de sinais de Five Senses, do poeta briânico Paul Scott, disponível no ambiente virtual YouTube.

  7. Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. A new 5-HT(7) bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new two-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by (1)H NMR using a structure-based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. A new CA was characterised. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT(7) ligand, N(omega)-methylserotonin. This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Main extracts and hypolipidemic effects of the Bauhinia racemosa Lam. leaf extract in HFD-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Srivastava, Anuj; Puri, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The lipid lowering effects of ethanolic extract (BR) obtained from leaves of Bauhinia racemosa on hyperlipidemic hamsters were examined. BR showed significant lowering of lipid profile at a dose of 250 mg kg(-1) body-wt of hamster. Chloroform fraction (F2) obtained from BR showed pronounced activity at lower dose of 100 mg kg(-1). F2 gave two most active fractions (L and T) whose chromatographic separations led to the isolation of constituents 1-5, which are being reported for the first time from this natural source. The results of activity profile of the plant were found to be better than the standard drug lovastatin.

  9. Galactolipids from Bauhinia racemosa as a new class of antifilarial agents against human lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Misra, Sweta; Gupta, Jyoti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2012-04-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bauhinia racemosa led to the isolation of galactolipid and catechin class of the compounds (1-7) from the most active n-butanol fraction (F4). Among the active galactolipids, 1 emerged as the lead molecule which was active on both forms of lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. It was found to be better than the standard drug ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in terms of dose and efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ácido giberélico na produção de frutos partenocárpicos de pimenta

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    Tofanelli Mauro Brasil Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sementes em frutos, dependendo da espécie, pode ser dispensável ou até mesmo indesejável ao consumo e à culinária, como seria o caso, por exemplo, de algumas pimentas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de ácido giberélico (GA3 na produção e nas características de frutos partenocárpicos em plantas de pimenta "escabeche" (Capsicum baccatum L.. A semeadura foi realizada em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e o plantio das mudas em estrutura plástica com irrigação por gotejamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0; 700; 1.400 e 2.800 mg L-1 de GA3. Foram feitas duas aplicações de GA3: a primeira quando as plantas estavam em plena floração e a segunda aos 10 dias após a primeira aplicação. Observou-se que o GA3 favoreceu a produção de frutos partenocárpicos (94,6% com 2.100 mg L-1 de GA3, diminuiu a produção de frutos (87,1 g fruto/planta com 2.250 mg L-1 de GA3, aumentou a altura da planta (168,0 cm com 2.450 mg L-1 de GA3, porém, prejudicou as características comerciais dos frutos. É possível produzir frutos partenocárpicos com a aplicação de GA3 em pimenta "escabeche", porém esta técnica não foi agronomicamente viável.

  11. Organização estrutural da folha de Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, Myrtaceae Leaf structural organization of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, Myrtaceae

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    Vanessa de Farias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com grande distribuição no Brasil e ocorrência principalmente no cerrado, caatinga e floresta atlântica, Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum, que está inclusa em um dos menores gêneros de Myrtaceae, é popularmente conhecida como craveiro-do-mato, louro-cravo ou chá-de-bugre. Trata-se de uma espécie nativa e suas folhas são usadas na culinária substituindo o cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum devido ao aroma semelhante. O estudo tem o objetivo de caracterizar anatomicamente a folha dessa espécie. Para a confecção do laminário, amostras da região mediana da folha e do pecíolo foram seccionadas em micrótomo de rotação e coradas com azul de toluidina a 1%. Em vista frontal, a epiderme é glabra na face adaxial e pilosa na face abaxial, com tricomas unicelulares. A folha é hipoestomática e os complexos estomáticos são anomocíticos. Em secção transversal, a epiderme é uniestratificada revestida por cutícula espessa e camada subepidérmica formada por 1-2 estratos celulares. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e bainha esclerenquimática envolve o feixe vascular bicolateral. Na folha e no pecíolo observam-se colênquima lacunar, flanges cuticulares, canais secretores e idioblastos contendo drusas e monocristais. Concluise que a espécie possui características freqüentes para Myrtaceae, com exceção da camada subepidérmica e flanges cuticulares, e que os resultados obtidos contribuem com novas informações que podem subsidiar estudos futuros no que se refere à identificação e delimitação do táxon.Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes L.R. Landrum is a native species from Brazil and occurs mainly in cerrado, caatinga and Atlantic rainforest vegetation. It is commonly known as "craveiro-do-mato", "louro-cravo" or "chá-de-bugre". It is a tree species whose leaves are used for cooking; they smell and taste like cloves (Syzygium aromaticum. This study describes the leaf anatomy of the species. The leaves were sliced

  12. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

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    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  13. Cerveja artesanal com pimenta rosa: processamento, características físico-químicas e estudo de mercado.

    OpenAIRE

    GAMBA, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    O consumo de cervejas artesanais, bebidas destinadas a atender paladares mais exigentes, está em expansão no Brasil. Entretanto, pesquisas sobre inovação no ramo cervejeiro são escassas. O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir uma cerveja artesanal do tipo American Pale Ale empregando a pimenta rosa na sua elaboração e avaliar os efeitos da adição desta especiaria no processo fermentativo, bem como no produto final, por meio de análises físico-químicas e microbiológica. Além disso, teve-se como ...

  14. Physiological aspects of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) grown in microcosms with oil-degrading bacteria and oil contaminated sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodré, Vanessa; Caetano, Vanessa S.; Rocha, Renata M.; Carmo, Flávia L.; Medici, Leonardo O.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the severity of oil spills on mangroves, diagnosis of the vegetation health is crucial. Some aspects of photosynthesis such as photochemical efficiency and leaf pigment composition together with the level of oxidative stress may constitute reliable indicators for vegetation health. To test this approach 14 month old Laguncularia racemosa were contaminated with 5 L m −2 of the marine fuel oil MF-380 and treated with an oil degrading bacterial consortium in microcosms. Contamination resulted in a 20% decrease in shoot dry weight after 128 days. Photochemical efficiency, pigment content, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase remained unchanged. Multivariate ordination of DGGE microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the oil contaminated and the non-contaminated samples. Further studies are necessary before physiological parameters can be recommended as indicators for plant's health in oil polluted mangroves. - Highlights: ► L. racemosa growth rate was reduced by 20% in response to a simulated oil spill of 5 L m −2 in a microcosm. ► Photochemistry was not directly affected by the oil contamination during the 128-day experiment. ► Oil contamination changed the rhizobacterial community. ► The oil degrading bacteria consortium did not affect plant growth. - Despite the need to establish methods to diagnose the health status of mangroves little is known about the impacts of petrochemicals on mangrove plants and associated rhizosphere microorganisms.

  15. A Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Campesterol Derivative from Genetically Transformed Hairy Roots of Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae

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    Norma Elizabeth Moreno-Anzúrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetically transformed hairy root line LRT 7.31 obtained by infecting leaf explants of Lopezia racemosa Cav with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC15834/pTDT, was evaluated to identify the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic compounds reported previously for the wild plant. After several subcultures of the LRT 7.31 line, the bio-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane–methanol (1:1 extract obtained from dry biomass afforded a fraction that showed important in vivo anti-inflammatory, and in vitro cytotoxic activities. Chemical separation of the active fraction allowed us to identify the triterpenes ursolic (1 and oleanolic (2 acids, and (23R-2α,3β,23,28-tetrahydroxy-14,15-dehydrocampesterol (3 as the anti-inflammatory principles of the active fraction. A new molecule 3 was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of its tetraacetate derivative 3a. This compound was not described in previous reports of callus cultures, in vitro germinated seedlings and wild plant extracts of whole L. racemosa plants. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities displayed by the fraction are associated to the presence of compounds 1–3. The present study reports the obtaining of the transformed hairy roots, the bioguided isolation of the new molecule 3, and its structure characterization.

  16. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

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    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  17. Efficient RNA extraction protocol for the wood mangrove species Laguncularia racemosa suited for next-generation RNA sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilwerth, M. W.; Rossetto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove flora and habitat have immeasurable importance in marine and coastal ecology as well as in the economy. Despite their importance, they are constantly threatened by oil spill accidents and environmental contamination; therefore, it is crucial to understand the changes in gene expression to better predict toxicity in these plants. Among the species of Atlantic coast mangrove (Americas and Africa), Laguncularia racemosa, or white mangrove, is a conspicuous species. The wide distribution of L. racemosa in areas where marine oil exploration is rapidly increasing make it a candidate mangrove species model to uncover the impact of oil spills at the molecular level with the use of massive transcriptome sequencing. However, for this purpose, the RNA extraction protocol should ensure low levels of contaminants and structure integrity. In this study, eight RNA extraction methods were tested and analysed using downstream applications. The InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit performed best with regard to purity and integrity. Moreover, the obtained RNA was submitted to cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR, successfully generating amplification products of the expected size. These Results show the applicability of the RNA obtained here for downstream methodologies, such as the construction of cDNA libraries for the Illumina Hi-seq platform. (author)

  18. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

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    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE and stem (BSE from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80% at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage.

  19. In vitro propagation, ex vitro rooting and leaf micromorphology of Bauhinia racemosa Lam.: a leguminous tree with medicinal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Udit; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2017-10-01

    A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l -1 BA (6-benzyladenine) was optimum for shoot bud induction. For shoot multiplication, mother explants were transferred repeatedly on medium containing low concentration of BA (0.75 mg l -1 ). Number of shoots was increased up to two passages and decreased thereafter. Shoot multiplication was further enhanced on MS medium containing 0.25 mg l -1 each of BA and Kin (Kinetin) with 0.1 mg l -1 of NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid). Addition of 0.004 mg l -1 TDZ (thidiazuron) increased the rate of shoot multiplication and 21.81 ± 1.26 shoots per culture vessel were obtained. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions treated with 400 mg l -1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) for 7 min on sterile soilrite. After successful hardening in greenhouse, ex vitro rooted plants were transferred to the field conditions with ≈85% of survival rate. Micromorphological changes were observed on leaf surface i.e. development of vein density and trichomes and stomatal appearance, when plants were subjected to environmental conditions. This is the first report on in vitro regeneration of B. racemosa from mature tree.

  20. Comprimento da estaca no desenvolvimento de mudas de alecrim-pimenta Effect of cutting length on the development of pepper-rosmarin seedlings

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    Wellington Geraldo Oliveira Carvalho Júnior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do comprimento de estacas caulinares no desenvolvimento de mudas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham.. As estacas foram coletadas de plantas matrizes do Horto Medicinal do Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram definidos pelos intervalos de comprimento das estacas (5 a 8cm, 8,1 a 11cm, 11,1 a 14cm e 14,1 a 17cm. Foram avaliados o número de raízes principais, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm, o número de brotações, a porcentagem de enraizamento, a avaliação visual do enraizamento e a fitomassa seca das brotações e das raízes (g. Os resultados indicam que o comprimento das estacas afeta o desenvolvimento de mudas de alecrim-pimenta, especialmente a fitomassa seca das brotações e das raízes. As estacas com 14,1 a 17cm apresentaram a maior porcentagem de enraizamento e as maiores médias para as outras variáveis analisadas, sendo, portanto, mais recomendadas para a propagação vegetativa de alecrim-pimenta.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of shoot cutting length on the development of pepper-rosmarin seedlings (Lippia sidoides Cham.. The cuttings were obtained from stock plants of the medicinal vegetable garden of Instituto de Ciências Agrárias/UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions with intermittent mist. The experimental design was totally randomized with four treatments consisted of different size intervals (5 to 8cm, 8.1 to 11cm, 11.1 to 14cm and 14.1 to 17cm, with five replications each. The amount of shooting and root, the shooting and root dry weight (g, the the longest root length (cm, the visual rooting evaluation and the rooting

  1. Food Grade Pimenta Leaf Essential Oil Reduces the Attachment of Salmonella enterica Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate on to Turkey Skin

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    Divek V. T. Nair

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella attached to the poultry skin is a major source of carcass contamination during processing. Once attached to the poultry skin, it is difficult to detach and inactivate Salmonella by commonly used antimicrobial agents since the pathogen is entrapped deeply in the feather follicles and the crevices on the skin. Essential oils could be natural, safe, and effective alternatives to synthetic antimicrobial agents during commercial and organic processing setup. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pimenta (Pimenta officinalis Lindl. leaf essential oil (PEO, and its nanoemulsion in reducing Salmonella Heidelberg attachment on to turkey (Meleagris gallopavo skin during simulated scalding (65°C and chilling (4°C steps in poultry processing. A multidrug resistant S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States was used in the study. Results showed that PEO and the nanoemulsion resulted in significant reduction of S. Heidelberg attachment on turkey skin. Turkey skin samples treated with 1.0% PEO for 5 min resulted in >2 log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. Similarly, skin samples treated with 1.0% pimenta nanoemulsion (PNE for 5 min resulted in 1.5- and 1.8- log10 CFU/sq. inch reduction of S. Heidelberg at 65 and 4°C, respectively (n = 6; P < 0.05. In addition, PEO and PNE were effective in reducing S. Heidelberg on skin during short-term storage at 4 and 10°C (temperature abuse (n = 6; P < 0.05. No Salmonella was detected in the dipping solution containing 0.5 or 1.0% PEO or PNE, whereas a substantial population of the pathogen survived in the control dipping solution. The results were validated using scanning electron -, and confocal - microscopy techniques. PEO or PNE could be utilized as an effective antimicrobial agent to reduce S. Heidelberg attachment to turkey skin during poultry processing.

  2. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial Efeito da pimenta vermelha nos sintomas de pacientes com fissuras anais agudas

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    Pravin J. Gupta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. AIM: To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. METHODS: Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group. The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group. Patient’s mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. CONCLUSION: Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.RACIONAL: A pimenta vermelha e outras especiarias têm sido responsabilizadas por agravar a sintomatologia das doenças anais, tais como fissuras e hemorróidas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se o consumo de pimentas vermelhas aumentaria os sintomas em fissuras anais agudas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram recrutados e randomizados para receber cápsulas contendo pimenta ou placebos por 1 semana, somadas a analgésicos e suplementos de fibras. Foi solicitado que anotassem um escore de sintomas, tais como dor, queimação anal, prurido durante o per

  3. Data set on the characterization of the phytoestrogenic extract and isolated compounds of the roots of Inula racemosa Hook F (Asteraceae

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    Mangathayaru Kalachaveedu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ‘ Phyto estrogenic effect of Inula racemosa Hook. f – A cardio protective root drug in traditional medicine, (Mangathayaru K, Divya R, Srivani T et al., 2018 [1]. It describes the characterization details of the root extract and the compounds isolated from them that were shown to be phytoestrogenic in vivo and in vitro respectively. Keywords: Alantolactone, Isoalantolactone, Stigmasterol glycoside, Inulin

  4. Update Cimicifuga racemosa – neue Erkenntnisse aus Wissenschaft und Forschung: Differenzierte Evidenz für Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von Traubensilberkerzen-Arzneimitteln zur Behandlung klimakterischer Beschwerden

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    Beer AM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unter den bei Wechseljahresbeschwerden eingesetzten Phytotherapeutika ist die Traubensilberkerze (Cimicifuga racemosa, Actaea racemosa am besten dokumentiert. Die Monographie des Herbal Medicinal Product Committee der Europäischen Arzneimittelbehörde bestätigt das positive Nutzen-Risiko-Profil von Cimicifugaracemosa-(CR- Arzneimitteln. Voraussetzung ist deren Herstellung unter GMP-Bedingungen mit nachweislicher pharmazeutischer Qualität. In einer aktualisierten Metaanalyse unter Berücksichtigung aller geeigneten randomisierten kontrollierten Studien (RCTs zeigt CR eine signifikant bessere Wirksamkeit bei der Besserung klimakterischer Beschwerden im Vergleich zu Placebo. Ein aktueller Review zur Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von CR bei Wechseljahresbeschwerden differenziert erstmalig zwischen Extrakten, deren Qualität (nachgewiesen durch den Arzneimittelstatus und Indikation – und wird somit den Besonderheiten der Phytotherapie gerecht. Hierbei erwiesen sich alle in klinischen Studien untersuchten CR-Extrakte als sicher und gut verträglich. Jedoch konnten nur qualitativ hochwertige, offiziell geprüfte, zugelassene CR-Arzneimittel ihre Wirksamkeit und somit ein positives Nutzen-Risiko-Profil nachweisen. Konsistent konfirmatorische Evidenz mit Oxford-Evidenzlevel 1 und höchstem Empfehlungsgrad A erbringt hierbei nur der isopropanolische Cimicifuga-racemosa-Spezialextrakt (iCR, der in vielen Studien an 11.000 Patientinnen untersucht wurde.

  5. Caulerpa racemosa: a marine green alga for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its catalytic degradation of methylene blue.

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    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Kamal, Chennappan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a simple and green method has been demonstrated for the synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa) as a reducing and capping agent. The formation and stability of AgNPs were studied using visual observation and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) methods. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed a sharp surface plasmon resonance peak at 441 nm in the visible region and they have extended stability which has been confirmed by the UV-Vis spectroscopic results. XRD result revealed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and they are mainly oriented in (111) plane. FT-IR studies proved that the phytoconstituents of C. racemosa protect the AgNPs from aggregation and also which are responsible for the high stability. The size of synthesized AgNPs was approximately 25 nm with distorted spherical shape, identified from the HR-TEM images. The synthesized AgNPs showed excellent catalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue.

  6. Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle) and their effects on the bioactivity of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818

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    Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Pereira, Adalberto Alves; Nogueira, Aline de Jesus Lustosa; Araújo, Karla Regina Freitas; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; de Carvalho, Iramar Borba; da Silva, Natale Maria Lindoso; Azevedo, Alexandre Santana; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from the stem and leaves of each of the three plant species to which mollusks were exposed. The phytochemical analysis of plants showed the presence of important metabolites in the leaves and stems of L. racemosa and R. mangle, such as tannins and saponins, but the absence of these metabolites in A. schaueriana. Leaf and stem extracts of the three plant species showed low molluscicidal activity, not reaching the standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1983). L. racemosa and R. mangle has interfered with motility, feeding and oviposition of snails, unlike the extracts of A. schaueriana, which had no effect on these activities. PMID:29451595

  7. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO COMO FORMA DE CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves n

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    Flávio Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves na sua cadeia produtiva é a ocorrência de perdas consideráveis dos frutos após a colheita, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas para a sua conservação pós-colheita. Desta forma, objetivou-se desenvolver extrato de pimenta-biquinho como forma de conservação da hortaliça e disponibilizar matéria-prima para a elaboração de produtos derivados, com alto valor agregado, principalmente em períodos de entressafra. Para o preparo do extrato, as pimentas foram lavadas, sanitizadas, branqueadas (80oC/3min, trituradas e concentradas até 12oBrix. Avaliou-se o rendimento, extrato seco, umidade, pH, acidez  titulável, oBrix, cor (L*, a*, b*, índices chroma e hue, teor de vitamina C e carotenoides, contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, mesófilos aeróbios, bactérias láticas, coliformes totais e termotolerantes e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., durante 90 dias de armazenamento.  Não houve variação de umidade, extrato seco, oBrix e  acidez  mas, observou-se  variação do pH. Os valores de L* indicaram baixa luminosidade e os valores de a* e b* indicaram a tendência do extrato para coloração vermelha e amarela. A concentração de vitamina C e de carotenoides foi considerável e, estável. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,0 a 4,1 Log UFC/g e de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,3 Log UFC/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de bactérias láticas foi <1,0 Log UFC/g, de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP/g e constatou-se ausência de Salmonella sp. em 25 g do extrato. O extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma excelente alternativa para o processamento da hortaliça em períodos de entressafra e para prevenção de perda de matéria-prima pela agroindústria e em outras indústrias que

  8. Isolated flavonoids from Ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino Wistar rats.

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    Keshari, Amit K; Kumar, Ghanendra; Kushwaha, Priya S; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kumar, Pranesh; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-04-02

    Ficus racemosa (FR) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. It is popularly known as gular. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. However, no detail studies related to isolation of flavonoids has been reported previously with their antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological consequences. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological assessments of flavonoids isolated from Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark. We isolated four flavonoids from stem bark of FR and structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (both 1D and 2D), mass spectroscopy (MS). Later, these flavonoids were administered to streptozotocin (STZ) rats once in a day for a period of seven days at 100mg/kg dose. We measured blood glucose level and body weight changes at different days (1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days). Serum lipid profiles were also estimated to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of flavonoids in the similar experiment. Various oxidative stress parameters in pancreas and liver and hepatic biomarker enzymes in plasma were also determined to investigate the toxicity potential of isolated flavonoids. Finally, we performed docking studies to find out the mechanism of action. Our results collectively suggested that four flavonoids reduced blood glucose level and restored body weight, signifying antidiabetic action. There were reduction of other lipid profile parameters and increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during administration of flavonoids, also signifying hypolipidemic action. Various oxidative stress biomarkers and hepatic enzymes levels were also normalized with respect

  9. In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Inula racemosa Hook. F. an Endangered Medicinal Plant of Temperate Origin

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    R. Kaur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa is an endangered medicinal plant. It is commonly known as Pushkarmool, Pushkar and Manu. The great sage Charaka has characterized it as Hikka magrahana (stops hiccups and Savasahara (helpful in asthma. Also, he has cited it as the best medicament for pleurisy along with cough and asthma (http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/charaka-samhita. Due to the fragile nature of its habitat and exploitation due to its commercial medicinal properties, the species are facing the onslaught of indiscriminate over-exploitation. So far, this plant has not got the required attention from researchers, hence, except for a few efforts, not much work has been done for its cultivation and conservation. Plant tissue culture offers an attractive and quick method for its multiplication and further conservation. In the present investigation, effective procedures for micropropagation and in vitro conservation by vitrification were developed. In vitro propagation using aseptically grown seedlings and in vitro conservation via vitrification were standardized. The in vitro conserved material could be retrieved and multiplied normally on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 medium fortified with 1.00 mg l-1BA (benzyl adenine which has been recorded as the best performing medium for in vitro shoot multiplication. The conserved shoots showed normal in vitro propagation and after retrieval from vitrification, platelets were hardened and successfully established in the experimental fields under Nauni (Solan, HP conditions at an elevation of around 1275 meters above mean sea level.

  10. Investigation of the Key Pharmacological Activities of Ficus racemosa and Analysis of Its Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC-DAD

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    Salma Akter Sumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Oxidative stress leads to numerous physiological disorders including infectious diseases, inflammation, and cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity of methanol crude extract of leaves and fruits of the Ficus racemosa (LCME and FCME, resp. and to analyse its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC-DAD. Methods. Antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenolic, total flavonoid, total tannin content assay, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenols were done by HPLC-DAD method. Antibacterial activity was tested by “disc diffusion” method. Brine shrimp lethality assay was carried out to check the cytotoxic potential. Result. Both LCME and FCME showed DPPH scavenging ability and concentration dependent reducing power activity. They had phenolic content, flavonoid content, and tannin content. Both the extracts showed superoxide radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability. HPLC analysis of LCME and FCME indicated the presence of significant amount of gallic acid along with other phenolic constituents. Conclusion. Significant amount of gallic acid along with other phenolic constituents might have played an important role in the observed antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity.

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and nootropic activities of Tiliacora racemosa Colebr. leaves: In vitro and in vivo approach.

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    T, Vivek Kumar; M, Vishalakshi; M, Gangaraju; Das, Parijat; Roy, Pratiti; Banerjee, Anindita; Dutta Gupta, Sayan

    2017-02-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Tiliacora racemosa leaf extracts in various solvents (methanolic, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) was determined. Additionally, the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the plant prompted us to evaluate the nootropic activity of the methanolic extract in mice. Further, we seek to verify the nootropic effect by examining the anticholinesterase inhibition potential of the methanolic extract. The leaf extracts in various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity by agar diffusion technique and α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, respectively. The ex vivo acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract was carried out by Ellman's method in male Wistar rats. The nootropic capacity of the methanolic extract was examined in Swiss albino mice by utilizing the diazepam induced acute amnesic model. The chloroform/n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction showed promising antioxidant and antibacterial (Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria) property, respectively. The methanolic extract was able to diminish the amnesic effect induced by diazepam (1mg/kg i.p.) in mice. The extract also showed significant acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in rats. The findings prove that the memory enhancing capability is due to increased acetyl choline level at the nerve endings. The strong antioxidant nature and potential nootropic activity shown by the extract suggests its future usage in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Identification of unstable acyl glucoside flavonoids of Oxytropis racemosa Turcz by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation/multi-stage mass spectrometry.

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    Song, Shuang; Zheng, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Wei-Dong; Du, Rui-Fang; Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhang, Pei-Cheng; Bi, Li-Fu

    2013-02-01

    Oxytropis racemosa Turcz is an important minority medicine that is used mainly to improve children's indigestion, especially in inner Mongolia and Tibet. Previous studies indicated that the characteristic constituents of this plant are acylated flavonoids. Rapidly identify the characteristic chemical constituents of O. racemosa by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation/multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) ) and suggest a useful method to control the quality of this medicinal plant. In the HPLC fingerprint, 32 flavonoids were tentatively identified by a detailed analysis of their mass spectra, UV spectra and retention times. Furthermore, 13 flavonoids were confirmed by comparison with previously isolated compounds obtained from O. racemosa. In total, 32 flavonoids, including 13 flavonoids with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) moieties and four flavonoids with 3-malonyl moieties, were identified in the extract of O. racemosa. Among the compounds identified, 10 were characterised as new compounds for their particular acylated sugar moieties. The method described is effective for obtaining a comprehensive phytochemical profile of plants containing unstable acylated flavonoids. The method is also useful for constructing the chromatographic fingerprint of the minority medicine -O. racemosa Turcz for quality control. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Actividad analgésica y antipirética de un extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. y evaluación de su toxicidad aguda oral

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    Ania Benítez López

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad analgésica y antipirética del extracto fluido de Pimenta dioica L. en animales de experimentación, así como su toxicidad aguda oral. Se evaluó el efecto analgésico a las dosis 825, 1 320 y 1 650 mg/kg mediante la técnica de contorsiones inducidas por agentes químicos (Witkin y col, 1961, y la antipiresia fue testada en conejos a las dosis 206 y 406 mg/kg, frente a una endotoxina de E. coli. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos en ambos estudios con ibuprofeno 200 mg/kg, y se demostró que el extracto administrado por vía oral, a las dosis de 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- y 406 mg/kg -antipiresia- posee una efectividad similar al ibuprofeno. Se realizó el estudio toxicológico en ratones, y se obtuvo una DL50 de 2,56 g/kg, lo que permite clasificar al extracto como no tóxico.The analgesic and antipyretic activity of the Pimenta dioica L. fluid extract was studied in experimental animals, as well as its acute oral toxicity. The analgesic effect was evaluated at doses of 825, 1 320 and 1 650 mg/kg by the technique of contorsions induced by chemical agents (Witkin et. al., 1961, whereas antipyresis was tested in rabbits at doses of 206 and 406 mg/kg against an endotoxin of E. coli. The results obtained in both studies were compared with ibuprofen 200 mg/kg, and it was proved that the oral administration of the extract at doses of 1 650 mg/kg -analgesia- and 406 mg/kg -antipyresis- has an efectivity similar to that of ibuprofen. The toxicological study was conducted in mice and it was obtained a DL50 of 2.56 g/kg, which allows to classify the extract as non toxic.

  14. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

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    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05 with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2 and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1 was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) extract in female B6C3F1/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Germolec, Dori R.; Frawley, Rachel P.; White, Kimber L.

    2013-01-01

    Black cohosh extracts (BCE; Actaea racemosa) are being used worldwide as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for the management of menstrual and menopausal symptoms, yet the effects of BCE on the immune system are largely unknown. Female B 6 C 3 F 1 /N mice were treated daily with BCE (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg) for 28 days by oral gavage. Liver weights were significantly increased (26–32%) at the 1000 mg/kg dose. Dose-related increases in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed. Decreasing trends were observed in all thymic T cell populations, with the most notable dose-responsive effects on immature thymocytes. In the spleen, dose-related decreases were observed in all cell phenotypes evaluated, reaching the level of statistical significance at the 1000 mg/kg BCE dose. Splenic natural killer (NK) cell numbers were significantly decreased at all BCE doses, with the exception of absolute NK numbers at the 125 mg/kg dose. No effects were observed on T-dependent antibody responses of the humoral immune system, including the antibody-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC) and IgM antibody levels to both sRBC and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Cytotoxic T cell (T CTL ) activity was increased, as was the mixed leukocyte response in one of two studies. Anti-CD3 mediated proliferation and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response were unaffected. No effects were observed on innate immunity or on bone marrow cellularity and colony-forming units. Overall, BCE exposure in B 6 C 3 F 1 /N mice for 28 days at doses up to 1000 mg/kg had minimal immune effects, with the exception of an increased T CTL response

  16. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  17. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum: aspectos botânicos, ecológicos, etnobotânicos e farmacológicos

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    A.S.R. D'angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes Landrum é a única espécie representante brasileira deste gênero de Myrtaceae. Tem sido popularmente utilizada no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, assim como condimento e aromatizante de bebidas, por seu sabor muito similar ao cravo-da-índia. Em menor escala, é empregada em carpintaria e na arborização urbana. Diversos autores analisaram a composição química do óleo essencial da espécie em diferentes regiões do Brasil, encontrando eugenol, metileugenol, (E metilisoeugenol, chavibetol, geranial e neral como composto predominante nos espécimes estudados. Visando ressaltar a importância de P. pseudocaryophyllus como potencial fonte de recursos assim como subsidiar ações de manejo adequado esta revisão apresenta os principais aspectos botânicos, ecológicos, etnobotânicos e farmacológicos da espécie.

  18. Dose-Dependent Effects of the Cimicifuga racemosa Extract Ze 450 in the Treatment of Climacteric Complaints: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Ruediger Schellenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Cimicifuga racemosa (CR, synonym Actaea racemosa have shown efficacy in trials in women with menopausal symptoms. Yet, dose dependency remains unclear. Therefore, 180 female outpatients with climacteric complaints were treated for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-armed trial (CR extract Ze 450 in 6.5 mg or 13.0 mg, or placebo. Primary outcome was the difference in menopausal symptoms (vasomotor, psychological, and somatic, assessed by the Kupperman Menopausal Index between baseline and week 12. Secondary efficacy variables were patients’ self-assessments of general quality of life (QoL, responder rates, and safety. Compared to placebo, patients receiving Ze 450 showed a significant reduction in the severity of menopausal symptoms in a dose-dependent manner from baseline to endpoint (mean absolute differences 17.0 (95% CI 14.65–19.35 score points, P<0.0001 for 13.0 mg; mean absolute differences 8.47 (95% CI 5.55–11.39 score points, P=0.0003 for 6.5 mg. QoL and responder rates corresponded with the main endpoint. Changes in menopausal symptoms and QoL were inversely correlated. Reported adverse events and clinical laboratory testing did not raise safety concerns. The CR extract Ze 450 is an effective and well-tolerated nonhormonal alternative to hormone treatment for symptom relief in menopausal women.

  19. Supply chain and marketing of sea grapes, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta: Caulerpaceae) in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Bala, S; South, G R; Lako, J; Lober, M; Simos, T

    2014-01-01

    This report describes for the first time the supply chain of Caulerpa racemosa in three Pacific Island countries. The harvesting and marketing of C. racemosa are important subsistence activities for villagers in Fiji and Samoa, less so in Tonga. At least 150 harvesters are involved in Fiji, some 100 in Samoa and only a handful in Tonga. The annual combined crop is of some 123 t valued at around US$266,492. In Fiji, it is projected that supply does not meet local demand and there is a potential export market that is currently operating at a pilot project level. In Samoa, the supply is considered adequate for the current market. In Tonga, harvesting is carried out by a few families and supplies a niche market in that country. The possibilities of field cultivation of Caulerpa have been explored but, at present, with only limited success in Samoa. The supply chain is simple in all three countries, and only in Fiji are middlemen involved in the distribution process. The limitations for marketing include the fact that only a few sites supply most of the crop in all the three countries, that all sites need to be conserved through sustainable harvesting methods, the short shelf life of the crop and a lack of information on the carrying capacity of harvest sites. Caulerpa remains a crop that fulfils a niche market but has the potential to be scaled up for additional livelihood development in the future.

  20. 'BRS Mari': nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça para processamento 'BRS Mari': new hot pepper cultivar for processing

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    Sabrina Isabel C de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Mari' é uma nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça desenvolvida para uso múltiplo, como produto in natura, processada na forma de molho líquido ou desidratada em flocos, moída junto com as sementes, para a produção de pimenta tipo 'calabresa'. A cv. 'BRS Mari' foi desenvolvida a partir da população 'CNPH 0039' por meio de seis ciclos de seleção massal com autofecundação controlada. A nova cultivar apresenta plantas de polinização aberta com hábito de crescimento intermediário, com aproximadamente 90 cm de altura e 1,25 m de largura, com resistência múltipla a doenças, com destaque para o virus Pepper Yellow Mosaic Virus (PepYMV e nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne javanica, resistência mediana ao oídio (Oidium sicula, mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas spp. e antracnose (Colletotrichum spp.. A colheita dos frutos tem início cerca de 70 dias após o transplante. Nas condições da região Centro-Oeste, 'BRS Mari' apresentou boa uniformidade de planta, ótima qualidade de fruto e grande potencial produtivo, alcançando 35 t ha-1 em seis meses, quando cultivada no espaçamento de 1 m entre plantas e 1,5 m entre linhas. Os frutos são alongados e pendentes, típicos do tipo dedo-de-moça, com passagem de coloração verde claro, amarelo com antocianina e laranja quando imaturos e vermelho intenso quando maduros, com aproximadamente 6,0 cm de comprimento, 1,4 cm de largura e cerca de 1,7 mm de espessura da parede. A principal característica da 'BRS Mari' é o elevado teor de capsaicina, aproximadamente 90.000 SHU (Unidades de Calor Scoville, mais elevado quando comparada com outras cultivares do mesmo grupo.'BRS Mari' is a new hot pepper cultivar suitable for processing as sauce or dehydrated flakes, ordinarily known in Brazil as 'calabresa' type, as well as for fresh market. Hot pepper cv. 'BRS Mari' was obtained from population 'CNPH 0039', through six cycles of mass selection with controlled selfing of selected plants. The

  1. Bioatividade dos extratos aquosos de folhas de pimenta malagueta e eucalipto sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus em grãos de fava

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    Aline Amanda Sampaio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Os extratos vegetais atualmente representam uma alternativa importante no controle de insetos-praga. Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de folhas de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens e eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp. sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus em fava. Foram realizados dois bioensaios no laboratório de Entomologia, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Natureza da Universidade Federal do Piauí, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, totalizando cinco tratamentos [0% (testemunha, 30%, 60%, 80% e 100 %], cada um com quatro repetições, onde os parâmetros, número de insetos mortos, número de ovos e emergência de adultos foram avaliados. O extrato aquoso de folhas de pimenta malagueta não foi eficiente contra o caruncho Z. subfasciatus, pois, houve mortalidade média de 20% dos insetos nas concentrações de 80 e 100%, e com o aumento da concentração teve-se um estímulo a oviposição e emergência destes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de Eucalyptus sp. foi eficiente sobre a mortalidade, oviposição e emergência de Z. subfasciatus, com o aumento da concentração observou-se maior mortalidade, atingindo 40% dos indivíduos; redução da oviposição, 13% em relação a testemunha e as demais concentrações, e emergência dos besouros.Bioactivity of the aqueous extracts of chilli pepper and eucalyptus leaves on Zabrotes subfasciatus in fava beansAbstract: The plant extracts currently represent an important alternative in the control of insect pests. The objective of this paper was to analyze the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. on Zabrotes subfasciatus in fava. Two bioassays were performed in the entomology laboratory, Department of Biology, Nature Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí, in a completely randomized experimental design, totaling five treatments [(0% (control, 30%, 60%, 80% and

  2. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

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    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  3. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  4. Melitocoria de Zygia racemosa (Ducke Barneby & Grimes por Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, 1919 y Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Meliponina en la Amazonía Central, Brasil Melitocory of Zygia racemosa (Ducke Barneby & Grimes by Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, 1919 and Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Meliponina in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Christinny Giselly Bacelar-Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de enero a abril de 2005 fueron encontradas semillas de Zygia racemosa, incorporadas al geoprópolis, en el interior de abejas sin aguijón en dos meliponarios experimentales en Manaus - AM. Fue observada intensa actividad de las obreras de M. seminigra merrillae y M. compressipes manaosensis llegando del campo con semillas fijas en las corbículas adheridas con resina y/o saliendo de las colonias con las semillas atrapadas en las mandíbulas. Ochenta semillas fueron recogidas en el interior de las colonias (mezcladas al geoprópolis en los basureros y fisuras y también en el exterior, cerca de la entrada de las colonias, como resultado de la caída de esas semillas de las corbículas durante el vuelo de las obreras. Las semillas fueron plantadas en semilleros para la producción de esquejes y posterior identificación de la especie vegetal. Paralelamente se realizó el rastreo en campo en un radio de aproximadamente 3Km para la confirmación de la dispersión de las semillas, observaciones de comportamiento de las abejas forrajeando y recolección de semillas. Un total de 170 plántulas de Z. racemosa fueron encontradas en los alrededores del meliponario del GPA-INPA y 160 en el meliponario Vale Verde. Esos resultados indican que tanto M. compressipes manaosensis como M. seminigra merrillae recolectan y dispersan las semillas de Z. racemosa.During the period from January to April 2005 seeds of Zygia racemosa were found incorporated in the nest structures, inside the colonies of stingless bee in two experimental meliponaries in Manaus - Am. It was registered an intense activity of the bee-workers of Melipona seminigra merrillae and M. compressipes manaosensis arriving from the field with seeds set in the corbiculae adhered with resin and/or leaving the colonies with the seeds clipped in their jaws. Eighty seeds were collected inside the colonies (mixed with the batume in the litter and/or cracks, and also outside them, near

  5. Caracterização agronômica e pungência em pimenta de cheiro Agronomic traits and pungency of chilli pepper

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    Carolina I Domenico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nove acessos de Capsicum chinense do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de pimentas do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram caracterizados e avaliados nas condições edafoclimáticas de Campinas (SP. O experimento foi realizado de janeiro a outubro de 2010, em blocos casualizados, com nove tratamentos, cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados altura da planta, hábito de crescimento da planta, antese da primeira flor, produtividade, massa fresca do fruto, comprimento do fruto, largura do fruto, conteúdo de capsaicina do fruto fresco, cor do fruto maduro, formato do fruto e superfície do fruto. Para a caracterização da planta e do fruto consideraram-se as quatro plantas centrais de cada parcela; para a extração da capsaicina, utilizaram-se três amostras de cinco frutos de cada acesso. A quantificação de capsaicina foi feita por meio de cromatografia líquida de ultra pressão. A altura das plantas variou de 1,13 a 0,85 m. Constatou-se hábito de crescimento compacto das plantas para a maioria dos acessos. Os acessos mais precoces para antese da primeira flor foram IAC 1644, IAC 1645 e IAC 1643, respectivamente. O acesso IAC 1646 apresentou alta produtividade e maiores largura e massa fresca do fruto e IAC 1641 apresentou os frutos mais longos. IAC 1552 ('Murupi' destacou-se com o maior conteúdo de capsaicina, superando IAC 1646 ('Scotch Bonnet' e IAC 1644 ('Fidalga', do tipo habanero. Observaram-se as cores amarela, laranja, salmão e vermelha para os frutos. Quanto ao formato do fruto, os acessos classificaram-se em alongados, redondos, triangulares campanulados e bloco. Quanto à superfície, caracterizaram-se os frutos como lisos, semi-rugosos e rugosos. Concluiu-se que, nas condições edafoclimáticas em que a pesquisa foi desenvolvida e considerando os acessos avaliados, existe alta variabilidade em pimenta de cheiro para características agronômicas e conteúdo de capsaicina. IAC 1552 destacou-se com o maior conte

  6. Avanços na elucidação dos mecanismos de ação de Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. nos sintomas do climatério Advances on the elucidation of mechanisms of action of Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt. in climacteric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar os avanços ocorridos para a compreensão da atuação terapêutica de Cimicifuga racemosa, um fitoterápico utilizado no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério em mulheres nas quais a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH é contra-indicada. A revisão bibliográfica possibilitou concluir que existem quatro principais hipóteses para esclarecer a base mecanística de ação: indução de apoptose por meio da ativação de caspases, inibição do ciclo celular em G1 por alteração de proteínas reguladoras, efeito central em receptor 5HT e ação estrogênica evidenciada pela inibição seletiva dos receptores nicotínicos da acetilcolina. Porém, é incipiente a produção científica abordando as bases moleculares que sustentem os referidos mecanismos de ação. Ainda há necessidade de elucidação quanto à possível existência de pelo menos mais um receptor estrogênico que possa ser o alvo de ligação para as substâncias ativas de C. racemosa, bem como avançar no conhecimento da atividade reguladora seletiva de receptores estrogênicos já evidenciada em estudos de farmacologia experimental.The aim of this survey was to assemble the advances in the comprehension of the therapeutic action of Cimicifuga racemosa, a phytotherapic drug used in the treatment of climacteric symptoms in women to whom the usual hormonal replacement therapy (HRT is counter-indicated. This literature review led to the conclusion that there are four main hypotheses to elucidate the mechanistic basis of action: apoptosis induction by means of caspase activation, cell cycle inhibition at G1 step through disturbance of regulatory proteins, central effect on 5HT receptors, and estrogenic action evidenced by selective inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. However, scientific literature is still incipient in supporting the molecular bases for the previously proposed mechanisms of action. There is also the need to

  7. Síntese do piperonal a partir do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Synthesis of piperonal from essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Cremasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC é rico em safrol, tornando-o suscetível à reação de isomerização para a obtenção de cis, trans-isosafrol. O presente artigo apresenta a etapa de eletroxidação dos isômeros cis, trans-isosafrol advindos da isomerização direta do óleo essencial de pimenta longa, apresentando 99,7% de conversão em isosafrol glicol, o qual é sujeito à oxidação com conversão de 99% em piperonal, este apresentando 84,9% de pureza.The essential oil of long-pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC is rich in safrole, then susceptible to isomerization reaction to obtain cis, trans-isosafrole. In this paper it is presented the eletroxidation of cis, trans-isosafrole from direct isomerization of essential oil of long-pepper, with 99,7% of convertion to isosafrole glicol, that it is react by oxidation to convert 99% into piperonal with 84,9% purity.

  8. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  9. Contrasting Effects of Historical Sea Level Rise and Contemporary Ocean Currents on Regional Gene Flow of Rhizophora racemosa in Eastern Atlantic Mangroves.

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    Magdalene N Ngeve

    Full Text Available Mangroves are seafaring taxa through their hydrochorous propagules that have the potential to disperse over long distances. Therefore, investigating their patterns of gene flow provides insights on the processes involved in the spatial genetic structuring of populations. The coastline of Cameroon has a particular geomorphological history and coastal hydrology with complex contemporary patterns of ocean currents, which we hypothesize to have effects on the spatial configuration and composition of present-day mangroves within its spans. A total of 982 trees were sampled from 33 transects (11 sites in 4 estuaries. Using 11 polymorphic SSR markers, we investigated genetic diversity and structure of Rhizophora racemosa, a widespread species in the region. Genetic diversity was low to moderate and genetic differentiation between nearly all population pairs was significant. Bayesian clustering analysis, PCoA, estimates of contemporary migration rates and identification of barriers to gene flow were used and complemented with estimated dispersal trajectories of hourly released virtual propagules, using high-resolution surface current from a mesoscale and tide-resolving ocean simulation. These indicate that the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL is not a present-day barrier to gene flow. Rather, the Inter-Bioko-Cameroon (IBC corridor, formed due to sea level rise, allows for connectivity between two mangrove areas that were isolated during glacial times by the CVL. Genetic data and numerical ocean simulations indicated that an oceanic convergence zone near the Cameroon Estuary complex (CEC presents a strong barrier to gene flow, resulting in genetic discontinuities between the mangrove areas on either side. This convergence did not result in higher genetic diversity at the CEC as we had hypothesized. In conclusion, the genetic structure of Rhizophora racemosa is maintained by the contrasting effects of the contemporary oceanic convergence and historical climate

  10. Polissacarídeos sulfatados isolados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides – extração, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante =Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes – extraction, fractionation and anticoagulant activity

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de doenças cardiovasculares e os efeitos adversos da heparinoterapia têm motivado a busca por novos agentes terapêuticos e os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS de algas marinhas têm sido reportados como fontes alternativas para tal. Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial anticoagulante dos PS totais (PST isolados e fracionados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides. Inicialmente, os PST foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato desódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidos de fracionamento em coluna de troca iônica de DEAE-celulose com gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram analisadas por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5% e a atividade anticoagulante, mensurada pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e comparada a uma curva-padrão de heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se semelhantes perfiscromatográficos entre os PS de ambas as espécies, porém com padrões de mobilidades distintas quando as frações foram comparadas por eletroforese. Os PS modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades anticoagulantes foram de apenas 21,23 e 24,36 UI mg-1, quando eluídos com 0,75 M de sal para C. racemosa e C. cupressoides, respectivamente. Portanto, PS anticoagulantes isolados dasclorofíceas C. racemosa e C. cupressoides resultaram em efeitos anticoagulantes inferiores aos da heparina. Estudos comparativos dessas moléculas também são sugeridos como ferramentas auxiliares na identificação de algas do mesmo gênero.The incidence of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects from heparintherapy have led to a search for new therapeutic agents, and the sulfated polysaccharides (SP of seaweeds have been reported as alternative sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anticoagulant potential of total SP (TSP isolated and fractionated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes. Initially, the TSP were extracted with papain

  11. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte

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    Tânia D.M.M. Bona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm; e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm. O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.

  12. Efeitos da adubação química e da calagem na nutrição de melissa e hortelã-pimenta Effect of chemical fertilization and liming on lemon balm and peppermint nutrition

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    Arie F Blank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da adubação química e da calagem no crescimento e na nutrição da melissa (Melissa officinalis e hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, com a técnica da diagnose por subtração. Os tratamentos foram: Completo (adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe e Zn+ calagem; Completo calagem; Completo N; Completo P; Completo K; Completo S; Completo B; Completo Zn; Completo Fe e Testemunha (solo natural. Após 120 dias da semeadura a calagem e a adubação mostraram ser essenciais para o crescimento de melissa e hortelã-pimenta. No solo utilizado, a falta da calagem e dos nutrientes N e P causaram as maiores quedas ou ausência, no caso da falta de calagem em melissa, na produção de folhas, órgão usado na medicina popular e que contém os princípios ativos.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilization and liming on growth and nutrition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and peppermint (Mentha piperita, using the missing element technique. Treatments were: complete (fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe and Zn+ liming; complete - liming; complete -N; complete -P; complete -K; complete -S; complete -B; complete -Zn; complete -Fe and control (natural soil. The following results were obtained within 120 days after sowing: liming and fertilization are essential for lemon balm and peppermint growth. In the soil used in this experiment the nutrients which showed highest results on growth and nutrition of lemon balm and peppermint were N and P, besides liming.

  13. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

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    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  14. Morphologic characterization of spiked pepper's germplasm Caracterização morfológica de germoplasma de pimenta-de-macaco

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper is a plant species with properties that allow the development of natural agrochemicals and medicines, showing large potential of use by humanity. With aim to ascertain the phenotypical variability, 41 parentals were analyzed, sampled in the States of Pará and Amazonas. Principal Component analysis and Jolliffe's criterion were utilized for discarding of variables, subsidized by the Pearson's Correlation. It took seven components to explain 80% of the variation. The essential oil yield and number of leaves per branch were suggested to be discarded because they are the characteristics that have contributed least to the total variance. The 3D scatter diagram constituted a relatively homogeneous and continuous clustering, identifing a divergent pair: PA-020 (Marabá-PA and PA-035 (Santa Isabel-PA. The analyzed traits have variability potentially able to discriminate the parentals, whereas 83.3% of such traits can be used for this purpose. The divergent genotypes identified on 3D scatter diagram analysis can be used in breeding programs for the development of superior genotypes. A comparison with preexisting molecular data of some genotypes permited to conclude that there was one certain agreement degree between morphological and molecular characterizations and that molecular characterization presented higher discriminatory power, using a smaller number of genotypes, identifying dissimilar genotypes and clusters, although analyzed by different multivariate statistic methods.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie que possui propriedades que permitem o desenvolvimento de defensivos agrícolas naturais e medicamentos, apresentando, portanto, grande potencial de uso pela humanidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a variabilidade fenotípica, foram estudadas 41 matrizes amostradas nos Estados do Pará e Amazonas. Utilizou-se análises de componentes principais e critério de Jolliffe para descarte de variáveis, subsidiado pela correlação de

  15. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em linhagens avançadas de pimenta Meiosis and pollen viability in advanced lines of pepper

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    Marisa T Pozzobon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze linhagens de pimenta, incluindo exemplares do tipo Jalapeño (CNPH 2862, CNPH 2864, Dedo-de-Moça (CNPH 1397, CNPH 0039, CNPH 0053, Cambuci (CNPH 0283, Peixe-Boi (CNPH 0434, Falsa Cumari (CNPH 3761, Bode Vermelha (CNPH 3773, Biquinho Doce (CNPH 3870, Tabasco (CNPH 3000 e Malagueta (CNPH 2869 tiveram o comportamento meiótico e a estimativa da viabilidade do pólen analisados, com o objetivo de indicar materiais potencialmente férteis para o programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa. A análise convencional, por coloração, revelou um comportamento relativamente normal, durante a microsporogênese, para a maioria das linhagens, com índice meiótico (IM e percentual médio de viabilidade polínica acima de 90%. As principais anormalidades observadas foram aderências cromossômicas, cromossomos não orientados, retardatários, pontes, micronúcleos, micrócitos e citomixia. Três linhagens, CNPH 0283, CNPH 3000 e CNPH 3773 mostraram menor percentual de pólens viáveis, respectivamente 77, 66 e 58%. Somente para CNPH 0283 a baixa fertilidade do pólen esteve associada à maior frequência de irregularidades e, consequentemente, ao baixo IM (77%. Os resultados do presente trabalho confirmam a importância da análise citológica como ferramenta auxiliar na seleção de linhagens meioticamente estáveis e potencialmente férteis o que possibilita o planejamento de programas de produção de sementes das cultivares em vias de lançamento.Twelve lines of pepper, from different groups {Jalapeño (CNPH 2862, CNPH 2864, Dedo-de-Moça (CNPH 1397, CNPH 0039, CNPH 0053, Cambuci (CNPH 0283, Peixe-Boi (CNPH 0434, Falsa Cumari (CNPH 3761, Bode Vermelha (CNPH 3773, Biquinho Doce (CNPH 3870, Tabasco (CNPH 3000 and Malagueta (CNPH 2869 had their meiotic behavior and the estimation of pollen viability analyzed with the aim of indicating potentially fertile material for the Capsicum breeding program. Conventional analysis by staining revealed a

  16. Teor de óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta em função do horário de colheita Essential oil content of pepper-rosmarin as a function of harvest time

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    Marco Túlio Pinheiro de Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta é uma importante planta medicinal, nativa do nordeste brasileiro, que, devido ao seu óleo essencial, apresenta grande potencial antifúngico e antibacteriano. Um dos fatores que afetam o teor de metabólitos secundários das plantas é o horário de colheita, assim, o conhecimento desse fator subsidia as decisões agronômicas da espécie, favorecendo o aumento do teor de óleo essencial no momento da colheita. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do horário de colheita na produção de óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham.. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICA/UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos, definidos pelos horários de coleta das folhas (6:00, 9:00, 12:00, 15:00 e 18:00 e seis repetições, sendo esse o número de coletas em cada tratamento. As folhas foram obtidas de plantas matrizes do Horto Medicinal do ICA/UFMG. O óleo essencial foi obtido pelo método de hidrodestilação usando o aparelho de Clevenger. A análise de regressão apresentou um efeito cúbico para o teor de óleo essencial, sendo que o maior valor, 5,78% em relação à matéria seca, foi obtido às 9h59min. Portanto, recomenda-se a colheita das folhas de alecrim-pimenta próximo das 10h.The pepper-rosmarin is an important medicinal plant, native of Northeast of Brazil, that, because of its essential oil, presents great antifungal and antibacterial potential. One of the factors that affect the secondary metabolites content of plants is the harvest time, thus, the knowledge of this factor subsidizes the decisions agronomic species, favoring the increase of essential oil content at the harvest moment. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of harvest time on the essential oil production of pepper-rosmarin (Lippia

  17. Extracellular Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 Isolated from the Aerial Roots of the Ghanaian Mangrove Plant, Rhizophora racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camas, Mustafa; Sazak Camas, Anil; Kyeremeh, Kwaku

    2018-06-01

    Through the use of genomes that have undergone millions of years of evolution, marine Actinobacteria are known to have adapted to rapidly changing environmental pressures. The result is a huge chemical and biological diversity among marine Actinobacteria . It is gradually becoming a known fact that, marine Actinobacteria have the capability to produce nanoparticles which have reasonable sizes and structures with possible applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 was isolated from the aerial roots of the mangrove plant Rhizophora racemosa . The Mycobacterium was demonstrated for the first time ever to produce AuNPs with sizes that range between 5 and 55 nm. The highest level absorbance of the biosynthesized AuNPs was typical for actinobacterial strains (2.881 at 545 nm). The polydispersity index was measured as 0.207 in DLS and the zeta potential was negatively charged (- 28.3 mV). Significant vibration stretches were seen at 3314, 2358, 1635 and 667 cm -1 in FT-IR spectra. This demonstrated the possible use of small aliphatic compounds containing -COOH, -OH, -Cl and -NH 2 functional groups in the stabilization of the AuNPs. The effect of the biosynthesized AuNPs on HUVEC and HeLA cell lines was measured at 48 h. IC 50 values were determined at 3500 µg/ml concentration for HUVEC and HeLA cell lines at 45.25 and 53.41% respectively.

  18. Nutritional changes in powdered red pepper upon in vitro infection of Aspergillus flavus Alterações nutricionais em pimenta vermelha em pó após infecção in vitro com Aspergillus flavus

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    Smita Tripathi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative losses in various biochemical constituents like capsaicin, carotenes, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, mineral matter, sugars (soluble and insoluble, protein and fat were estimated after the successful growth of Aspergillus flavus for 30 days on powdered red pepper. The fungal biomass was measured by ergosterol content and Aflatoxin B1 by HPLC. Amongst the various nutritional constituents evaluated for nutritional losses and changes the highest nutritional loss was reported in total carotenoids (88.55% followed by total sugars (85.5%. The protein content of the infected sample increased from 18.01% to 23%. The nutritional profile of chilli powder (Capsicum annum var. sannam L. shows highest share of total soluble sugars (32.89% and fiber content (21.05%, followed by protein (18.01% and fat (13.32% making it an ideal solid - substrate for mould growth. At the end of incubation the fungal biomass was 192. 25 mg / 100 gram powder, total plate count 17.5 X 10 4 CFU/g and Aflatoxin B1 content was 30.06 µg / kg.Foram avaliadas as perdas de vários constituintes bioquímicos como capsaicina, carotenos, acido ascórbico, polifenóis, matéria orgânica, açucares (solúveis e insolúveis, proteína e gordura em pimenta vermelha em pó após a multiplicação de Aspergillus flavus por 30 dias. A biomassa fúngica foi mensurada pelo conteúdo de ergosterol e aflatoxina por HPLC. Entre os vários constituintes avaliados, a maior perda foi a de carotenóides totais (88,55%, seguido de açucares totais (85,5%. O conteúdo protéico da amostra infectada aumentou de 18,01% para 23%. O perfil nutricional da pimenta em pó (Capsicum annum var. sannam L. indica alto teor de açucares totais (32,89% e fibras (21,05%, seguido de proteína (18,01% e gordura (13,32%, tornando-a um substrato ideal para crescimento de fungos. Ao final dos 30 dias, a biomassa fúngica foi 192,25 mg/100g, a contagem total em placas foi 17,5 x 10(4 CFU/g e o conteúdo de

  19. Análise termogravimétrica do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC Thermogravimetric analysis of long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C.DC. essential oil

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    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. é um arbusto originário da região amazônica, cujo óleo essencial é rico em safrol. O óleo essencial da pimenta longa é comercializado in natura, o que faz o processamento para a obtenção do safrol elemento fundamental de investigação científica e tecnológica. Uma importante etapa para a obtenção do safrol é a definição da estratégia da sua separação do óleo essencial a partir, por exemplo, da destilação. Neste caso, torna-se essencial o conhecimento de parâmetros termodinâmicos, tais como energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização. Neste trabalho é utilizada a técnica termogravimétrica para a obtenção dos valores da energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização do óleo essencial de P. hispidinervium. O processo de evaporação do óleo essencial obedece à cinética de ordem zero, resultando para a energia de ativação e calor latente de vaporização os valores 42,11 kJ.mol-1 e 43,73 kJ.mol-1, respectivamente.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. is a shrub found in the Amazon region, which supplies an essential oil rich in safrole. Normally, long pepper essential oil is commercialized in natura, which makes its processing a fundamental step in scientific and technological investigation. An important step of safrole commercialization is the separation of essential oil by, for example, a distillation process. In such a case it is important to know some thermodynamics parameters, such as energy of activation and enthalpy of vaporization. The present study was aimed at applying the kinetic of zero order evaporation process for the essential oil of P. hispidinervum by thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis data were utilized to determine the energy of activation and enthalpy of vaporization, which resulted in the values 41.11 kJ.mol-1 and 43.73 kJ.mol-1, respectively.

  20. Isomerização do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC para a obtenção de isosafrol Isomerization of essential oil of (Piper hispidinervium C. DC to obtain isosafrole

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    Marco Aurelio Cremasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As piperáceas brasileiras apresentam propriedades para serem utilizadas, entre outras aplicações, como inseticidas e antifúngicos. Dentre as piperáceas, pode-se citar a Piper hispidinervum C. DC. De suas folhas e dos talos finos extrai-se um óleo essencial rico em safrol, que é utilizado pela indústria como matéria-prima na manufatura, por exemplo, do piperonal. A sequência natural do processo para a obtenção do piperonal é o de submeter o safrol obtido da concentração do óleo essencial à isomerização para seu correspondente isômero estável chamado isosafrol. Apresenta-se neste artigo, por sua vez, a síntese do isosafrol diretamente do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. Este óleo essencial apresenta o safrol como constituinte majoritário, possibilitando a sua isomerização para a produção de isosafrol, que é empregado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de fragrâncias. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de apresentar a obtenção do isosafrol sem a necessidade da etapa de separação do safrol do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de isomerização do óleo essencial, obtendo-se uma solução contendo 79,4 % da mistura cis, trans-isosafrol. Ressalte-se que o óleo essencial continha 86,4 % de safrol, resultando em alto rendimento na sua conversão a cis, trans-isosafrol de 97,1 %.The Brazilian peppers present proprieties that can be used in fragrance and pharmaceutical industries, for example. One these pepper is long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC., who its essential oil is rich in safrole. Safrole is an important compound with application in several industries, such as pharmaceutics, cosmetics. After its chemical conversion, for example, it is possible to obtain heliotropin, a fixative agent for fragrances. The sequence to obtain the heliotropin is by safrole isomerization, that, initially, produce isosafrole. In this work, however, presents the synthesis

  1. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

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    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  2. Avaliação das espécies de plantas avicennia schaueriana, laguncularia racemosa e rhizophora mangle como bioindicadoras de poluição por metais pesados em ambientes de mangues Assessment of avicennia schaueriana, laguncularia racemosa e rhizophora mangle plant species as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in mangrove environments

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    Miriam Gonçalves Martins Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigou-se o nível de contaminação por Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn, nos ambientes de mangues próximos ao Rio Cubatão, utilizando como bioindicador as espécies de plantas A. schaueriana, L. racemosa e R. mangle. As amostras de folhas destas plantas foram coletadas em quatro pontos de amostragem situados fora da área povoada da cidade de Cubatão. O conteúdo de metais pesados nas folhas foi determinado utilizando a técnica de Espectrometria por Absorção Atômica (FAAS. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma contaminação por cádmio e cromo em diversas amostras analisadas neste trabalho. De uma forma geral, as três espécies de plantas apresentaram resultados muito similares tanto no teor como na ordem em que bioacumulam os metais estudados: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Desta forma, em princípio, qualquer uma delas poderia ser utilizada como bioindicador de poluição ambiental por metais pesados naquela região.In this work, the contamination level by Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in mangrove environments near the Cubatão River has been investigated using as bioindicator the plant species A. schaueriana, L. racemosa and R. mangle. Leave samples of these plants were collected in four locals situated out of the populated area of the Cubatão town. The heavy metals content in the leaves were determined by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS technique. The results obtained have shown some contamination by cadmium and cromium for several leave samples analysed in this work. In general, the three species of plants presented similar results concerning the content as well as the bioaccumulation order for the studied metals: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. In this way, any one of them could, in principle, be employed as bioindicator of heavy metal environmental pollution in that region.

  3. Quantitative determination of triterpenoids and formononetin in rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and dietary supplements by using UPLC-UV/ELS detection and identification by UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-03-01

    A UPLC-UV/ELSD method has been developed for analysis of major triterpenoids and formononetin in ACTAEA RACEMOSA L. (family Ranunculaceae) samples. The best results were obtained with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mmx2.1 mm, i. d., 1 microm) column system using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile:methanol (7:3) at a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Owing to their low UV absorption, the triterpene saponins were detected by evaporative light scattering. Within 5.5 minutes, three main triterpenoid glycosides [cimiracemoside A, 23- EPI-26-deoxyactein, and actein] and an isoflavonoid, formononetin, could be separated, with detection limits of 5, 5, 10, and 0.01 microg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully used to analyze different Actaea racemosa market products as well as to distinguish between two other ACTAEA species. There was a significant variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides for the products containing black cohosh and rhizomes of black cohosh. The isoflavone formononetin was not detected in the samples analyzed. LC-MS coupled with the electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification of formononetin and triterpenoid glycosides in plant samples and dietary supplements that claim to contain black cohosh and different species of Actaea.

  4. Optimization of callus and cell suspension cultures of Barringtonia racemosa (Lecythidaceae family for lycopene production Otimização de culturas de suspensões de calos e células de Barringtonia racemosa (família Lecythidaceae para produção de licopeno

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    Mandana Behbahani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is present in a range of fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in the leaves of Barringtonia racemosa. The traditional lycopene extraction from the plant is being employed instead of an easy propagation technique like cell culture process from the leaf explants. We intend to assess how lycopene could be extracted via tissue culture under light (illuminance: 8,200 lux under white fluorescent lamps, photoperiod 16 h per day at 25ºC and dark. Leaf explants of Barringtonia racemosa were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS, Woody Plant Medium (WPM and B5 media, supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Optimal conditions for callus induction and maintenance under both dark and light were investigated, and growth and lycopene accumulation were evaluated. Among media with different concentrations of 2,4-D, fast growing, friable callus initiated within three weeks after culturing on WPM basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 (weight per volume of 2,4-D, whereas callus induction in explants cultured on all other media started only after five weeks. Calli were subcultured once every fortnight. Pale yellow and green calli developed under conditions of dark and light respectively were then selected for evaluation of their lycopene contents. An improved reversed phase of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used for a selective chemical determination of the lycopene content. Light induced lycopene production; and likewise maximum lycopene level incubated in light was higher than those incubated in darkness. The best growth rates of callus and cell suspension were achieved in WPM and B5 media respectively. The production of lycopene was growth-dependent through analysis of growth and lycopene content of both callus and cell suspension cultures.O licopeno está presente numa série de frutas frescas e hortaliças principalmente na folhas de Barringtonia racemosa. A extra

  5. Polissacarídeos sulfatados isolados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides – extração, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5923 Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes – extraction, fractionation and anticoagulant activity - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5923

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    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de doenças cardiovasculares e os efeitos adversos da heparinoterapia têm motivado a busca por novos agentes terapêuticos e os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS de algas marinhas têm sido reportados como fontes alternativas para tal. Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial anticoagulante dos PS totais (PST isolados e fracionados das clorofíceas Caulerpa racemosa e Caulerpa cupressoides. Inicialmente, os PST foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguidos de fracionamento em coluna de troca iônica de DEAE-celulose com gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram analisadas por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5% e a atividade anticoagulante, mensurada pelo tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e comparada a uma curva-padrão de heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se semelhantes perfis cromatográficos entre os PS de ambas as espécies, porém com padrões de mobilidades distintas quando as frações foram comparadas por eletroforese. Os PS modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades anticoagulantes foram de apenas 21,23 e 24,36 UI mg-1, quando eluídos com 0,75 M de sal para C. racemosa e C. cupressoides, respectivamente. Portanto, PS anticoagulantes isolados das clorofíceas C. racemosa e C. cupressoides resultaram em efeitos anticoagulantes inferiores aos da heparina. Estudos comparativos dessas moléculas também são sugeridos como ferramentas auxiliares na identificação de algas do mesmo gênero.The incidence of cardiovascular diseases and adverse effects from heparintherapy have led to a search for new therapeutic agents, and the sulfated polysaccharides (SP of seaweeds have been reported as alternative sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anticoagulant potential of total SP (TSP isolated and fractionated from Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceaes. Initially, the TSP were extracted with

  6. Cimicifuga racemosa L., Trifolium pratense L. e Vitex agnus-castus L.: a correspondência das indicações contida nas bulas dos fitoterápicos e o respaldo científico

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    L. C. Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    É cada vez maior o número de mulheres que utilizam fitoterápicos como terapia alternativa para a menopausa, entretanto, na maioria das vezes esses produtos não possuem um mecanismo de ação conhecido, tão pouco eficácia clinica comprovada. O presente estudo objetiva avaliar a correspondência das indicações clínicas e os achados científicos de três produtos fitoterápicos de elevado índice de vendas na região de Piracicaba, destinados ao alívio dos sintomas da menopausa. Para isso foi realizado um levantamento dos fitoterápicos com maior venda numa farmácia pertencente a uma grande rede e listadas as plantas medicinais que compunham esses medicamentos. Posteriormente, verificou-se no Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas (DEF 2004/05 todos fitoterápicos que tinham em sua composição pelo menos uma das três plantas medicinais selecionadas (Cimicifuga racemosa L., Trifolium pratense L. e Vitex agnus-castus L. e feito um levantamento de como estavam registrados na ANVISA. Para análise da segurança do uso e eficácia dessas plantas medicinais fez-se uma busca em bases de dados científicos MEDLINE procurando trabalhos pré-clínicos de toxicidade e clínicos controlados randomizados que comprovassem a indicação terapêutica da planta. Dentre os resultados encontrados obteve-se que nenhum trabalho sobre toxicidade referia-se a segurança do uso da planta. Quanto a eficácia, das sete indicações propostas pelo fabricante do medicamento que contém a Cimicifuga racemosa L., somente uma das indicações se confirmava em estudo publicado; das nove indicações descritas na bula da Vitex agnus-castus L., duas se confirmavam através de pesquisas realizadas; e, das sete listadas para a Trifolium pratense L., uma foi comprovada. Palavras-chave: menopausa; medicamentos fitoterápicos; plantas medicinais

  7. Qualidade de folhas e rendimento de óleo essencial em hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L. submetida ao processo de secagem em secador de leito fixo

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    P.P. Gasparin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais e seus derivados para o tratamento de doenças é uma prática antiga e se percebe, atualmente, uma crescente procura por produtos naturais, incluindo medicamentos, produtos alimentícios, e cosméticos. Hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L, além de ser uma planta medicinal, pode ser utilizada para obtenção de aromatizantes, infusões, e temperos. O processo de secagem se faz necessário para aumentar o tempo de conservação e a vida útil do produto facilitando seu transporte, manuseio, e armazenamento. Para que os produtos derivados da hortelã pimenta tenham qualidade é necessário estudos sobre o processo de pré e de pós-colheita. Objetivou-se neste estudo identificar a temperatura de secagem, em duas velocidades de ar circulante, que minimize a degradação da cor das folhas e permita obter maior rendimento de óleo essencial. Folhas da hortelã foram colhidas manualmente no horário entre 7:15 e 8:00, e submetidas a secagem em duas velocidades do ar (0,3 e 0,5 m.s-1 e em cinco temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 °C. O material seco foi analisado quanto à cor utilizando-se colorímetro com escala do sistema CIELab baseado em coloração dentro dos padrões da Norma DIN 6174 (1979. A quantificação do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação em aparelho Clevenger. Observou-se que temperaturas superiores a 50 °C reduzem o rendimento. A cor das folhas submetidas à secagem diferencia-se da cor das folhas frescas. De acordo com a Norma DIN 6174, a cor das folhas submetidas a secagem com temperatura até 40 °C são "Facilmente distinguíveis" e para as folhas submetidas à secagem a temperaturas superior a 50 °C, a diferenciação é "Muito grande". Conclui-se que para obter o máximo de rendimento do óleo essencial e o mínimo de degradação da cor, a secagem deve ser realizada a temperatura de até 50 ºC. A velocidade do ar de secagem, na faixa de 0,3 a 0,5 m.s-1, não afetou os par

  8. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

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    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  9. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

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    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  10. Efeito da pimenta rosa associada a diversas dosagens de antibióticos em frangos de corte Effect of Brazilian red pepper meal associated with different levels of antibiotics on broilers chickens

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    Fabiano Gomes Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de antibióticos associado ao farelo de pimenta rosa (FPR sobre a função hepática e desempenho de frangos de corte. Utilizou-se 528 pintos, machos, da linhagem Cobb de um dia de idade distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições com 22 aves cada: T1: Controle Negativo (CN: Dieta Basal; T2: Controle Positivo (CP: Dieta Basal com 1,2% FPR; T3: CP+11ppm bacitracina Zn e 17ppm salinomicina; T4: CP+22ppm bacitracina Zn e 34ppm salinomicina; T5: CP+33ppm bacitracina Zn e 51ppm salinomicina; T6: CP + 45ppm bacitracina Zn e 67ppm salinomicina. Por conter taninos, o uso de pimenta rosa na alimentação animal requer avaliação da função hepática, sendo a dosagem das enzimas ALT (alanina aminotransferase, AST (aspartato aminotransferase e GGT (gama glutamiltransferase ferramenta auxiliar no diagnóstico de lesões hepáticas. Portanto, aos 21 e 41 dias de idade, 10 animais por tratamento foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e coletadas amostras de sangue. Aos 21 dias de idade, verificou-se efeito significativo (P0,05 do CN aos 21 e 41 dias de idade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o peso das aves e do peso relativo do fígado aos 43 dias. A adição do farelo de pimenta rosa com ou sem promotor de produção melhorou a conversão alimentar aos 43 dias de idade. Concluiu-se que a adição de 1,2% FPR não comprometeu a função hepática e que a inclusão de doses mais altas de antibióticos, associado ao FPR na dieta, resultou em alteração das enzimas hepáticas.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the increase levels of antibiotics associated with the Brazilian red pepper meal (BRPM on liver function and performance of broilers. A total of 528 day-old male chicks, Cobb, distributed in a randomized design of six treatments and four replicates of 22 birds each: T1: Negative Control (NC: basal

  11. Green biochemistry approach for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Ficus racemosa latex and their pH-dependent binding study with different amino acids using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetgure, Sandesh R; Borse, Amulrao U; Sankapal, Babasaheb R; Garole, Vaman J; Garole, Dipak J

    2015-04-01

    Simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis approach was developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Ficus racemosa latex as reducing agent. The presence of sunlight is utilized with latex and achieved the nanoparticles whose average size was in the range of 50-120 nm for SNPs and 20-50 nm for GNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy techniques toget understand the obtained nanoparticles. The pH-dependent binding studies of SNPs and GNPs with four amino acids, namely L-lysine, L-arginine, L-glutamine and glycin have been reported.

  12. Produção de pimenta tabasco com aplicação de CO2, utilizando-se irrigação por gotejamento = Tabasco pepper production with CO2 application using drip irrigation

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    Fabiana Luiza Matielo de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação produz o rebaixamento do pH da solução do solo, causando variações na mobilidade dos nutrientes e consequentes efeitos na absorção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de doses de dióxido de carbono (CO2, aplicadas via irrigação por gotejamento, na produção da pimenta Tabasco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de CO2: 0 (T1, 451,95 (T2; 677,93 (T3 e 903,92 (T4 kg ha-1. Os frutos foram pesados e contados; o comprimento e o diâmetro de frutos foram obtidos com a média de 20 frutos por planta. Ocorreu efeito quadrático (p Application of CO2 through water reduces the soil solution pH, causing variations in nutrient mobility and consequent effects on the absorption. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of carbon dioxide rates supplied by drip irrigation in the production of Capsicum frutescens L. crop. A randomized block design with four treatments and eight replications was used. The treatments were four rates of CO2: 0 (T1, 451.95 (T2; 677.93 (T3 and 903.92 (T4 kg ha-1. The fruits were counted and weighed; the length and the diameter were obtained from an average of 20 fruits per plant, randomly taken, from each treatment in the plot. The quadratic effect (p < 0.01 occurred for CO2 on the yield and there was quadratic effect (p < 0.05 of the rates on the number of fruits. There were no effects of CO2 rates on the green matter, dry matter and fruit length and diameter. The T2 treatment provided greater yield and higher number of fruits per plant with an increase of 16 and 26%, respectively in relation to T1 (without CO2. CO2 application favored the increase in the yield because of the greater number of fruits per plant in the Tabasco pepper crop.

  13. Diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões da Embrapa Clima Temperado Genetic diversity in peppers and sweet peppers of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank

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    Miriam Valli Büttow

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os acessos de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. da Embrapa Clima Temperado constituem parte dos recursos genéticos de Capsicum. Contudo, é necessário conhecer o quanto esses genótipos são divergentes para que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e caracterizar a divergência genética entre os acessos de C. annuum do banco ativo de germoplasma de Capsicum da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 20 acessos com base em 36 descritores morfológicos multicategóricos. A diversidade genética foi avaliada por meio do método de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O método de Tocher formou três grupos de acessos. Pelos critérios utilizados, os dois métodos foram concordantes em agrupar isoladamente o acesso P77, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos particulares em relação aos demais. O estudo realizado evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética moderada entre os 20 acessos de C. annuum estudados e apresenta acessos com características ornamentais, os quais podem ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento.Accessions of peppers and sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank (Pelotas - RS integrate Capsicum genetic resources. However, it is necessary to know how much these genotypes are different, so they can be harnessed and used in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize genetic diversity among C. annuum accessions which belongs to Capsicum Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank. Twenty accessions were characterized through 36 multicategorical morphologic descriptors. Genetic diversity was assessed using Tocher grouping method and UPGMA. Three groups of accessions were formed by Tocher. Both methods were in agreement with the isolation of P77, due to its exclusive morphological traits. The study shows moderate genetic variability among 20 accessions of C. annuum studied and introduced accession with

  14. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As diversidades de clima e de manejo interferem no desenvolvimento e na produtividade vegetal, uma vez que essas características estão diretamente correlacionadas ao genótipo e ao ambiente de cultivo. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi estimar os efeitos do tipo de manejo sob o desempenho agronômico de 12 linhas endogâmicas recombinadas (F7 de pimenta (Capsicum annuum L., originadas do cruzamento entre um acesso de pimentão suscetível à mancha-bacteriana (UENF 1421 e um acesso de pimenta resistente (UENF 1381. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, sendo um deles em condições de campo, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ e o outro em sistema orgânico e cultivo protegido, em Seropédica, RJ. Foram avaliados o número total de frutos (NTF, peso total de frutos (PTF, peso médio dos frutos (PMF, comprimento dos frutos (CF, diâmetro dos frutos (DF, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto (CF/DF e a presença de capsaicina (CAPS. Foram realizadas a análise conjunta e o estudo da decomposição da interação genótipo x ambiente (G x A. Estimaram-se os componentes quadráticos genotípico e da interação G x A, o coeficiente de determinação genotípico e de variação genético e do índice de variação. A interação G x A foi significativa para o número, o peso total e médio de frutos, além do diâmetro do fruto e da relação comprimento/diâmetro. Com exceção do comprimento do fruto, o cultivo protegido e orgânico propiciou melhores médias para todas as características estudadas. Os parâmetros estudados mostraram que as causas de variação foram devidas às diferenças genéticas existentes entre as linhas e que o peso total de frutos foi a característica mais influenciada pelo manejo empregado. Entre as linhas pungentes, no cultivo em campo, a linha 2 mostrou alta capacidade produtiva e, para o cultivo protegido, a linha 8 obteve o maior número de frutos. Entre as não-pungentes, a linha 1 foi superior em ambos os ambientes

  15. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

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    Wânia dos Santos Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, mostarda (Brassica campestris e alho (Allium sativum sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris, de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados

  16. Características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento na produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulated matriz of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. synthetic seed production

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    Rodrigo da Silva Guedes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é um arbusto da família Piperaceae, nativa da região amazônica, que vem despertando o interesse das indústrias de cosméticos e bioinseticidas pelo alto teor de safrol, óleo essencial extraído das folhas e talos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento durante a produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa. Sementes germinadas de pimenta-longa foram utilizadas como material de encapsulamento. Em ambos os experimentos, a influência da constituição (água ou meio Murashige e Skoog e consistência da cápsula (alginato de sódio 1% ou 2% e do tempo de complexação (10, 20 e 30 min em CaCl2, na abertura das cápsulas, foi avaliada. Depois de encapsulados, os materiais foram transferidos para frascos com meio de MS e mantidos em sala de crescimento, onde, quinzenalmente, foi avaliada a taxa de emergência e crescimento das plântulas encapsuladas. Verificou-se que o emprego de um endosperma artificial composto por 1% de alginato de sódio em meio de MS foi o tratamento que promoveu os melhores resultados para a emergência e posterior crescimento de plântulas oriundas de sementes sintéticas aos 30 dias da semeadura em meio MS sólido, independentemente do tempo de complexação utilizado.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is a shrub of the Piperaceae family, native of the Amazonian region, with special interest of cosmetics and bio-insecticide industries due to its high concentration of safrol, an essential oil extracted from the leaves and stems. This work aimed to evaluate the physical and nutritional characteristics of the encapsulation matrix during the production of synthetic seeds of long pepper. Germinated long pepper seeds were used as vegetative material for encapsulation. For both experiments, the influence of capsule composition (water or MS and consistency (sodium alginate at 1% or 2

  17. Biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint essential oil using different organic fertilizer sources Produção de biomassa, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta usando diferentes fontes de adubação orgânica

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    Andressa Giovannini Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentha x piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species belonging to the family Lamiaceae that is popularly known as peppermint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizer sources on the biomass production, yield and chemical composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. essential oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD with a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, two sources of manure (cattle and poultry, five doses (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-2 and four replicates. Different doses of cattle and poultry manure significantly affected plant biomass production and the responses of other variables, including leaf area, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, root:shoot ratio, yield and chemical composition. Organic fertilizer doses of 9.0 kg m-2 cattle manure and 8.3 kg m-2 poultry manure to obtain the maximum total dry biomass. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by applying 11.8 kg m-2 poultry manure. Differences in the chemical composition of the essential oil were observed for only three components (menthone, pulegone and menthyl acetate without significant changes in the menthol content.Mentha x piperita L. é uma planta aromática e medicinal pertencente à família Lamiaceae, popularmente conhecida como hortelã-pimenta. No trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito das fontes de adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa, no rendimento e na composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L.. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com duas fontes de esterco, bovino e avícola, e cinco doses (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 kg m-2, com quatro repetições cada. As diferentes doses de estercos bovino e avícola influenciaram significativamente de forma benéfica a produção de biomassa das plantas e também outras variáveis de crescimento como área foliar, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar, relação raiz:parte aérea, rendimento e

  18. Germination and vigor of long-pepper seeds (Piper hispidinervum as a function of temperature and light Germinação e vigor de sementes de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum em função da temperatura e da luz

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    Francisco Pacheco Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long pepper is considered a promising species because of offering the prospect of making Brazil self-sufficient in the production of safrole, an important essential oil used as a fixative for fragrances and having therapeutic properties. In establishing areas intended for the cultivation of this species, it is necessary to evaluate the physiological quality of the seeds used in the production of seedlings. The objective was to determine the conditions of temperature and luminosity for the test of germination and vigor in seeds of the long-pepper. Seeds from four different lots were used to make the following measurements: moisture content (105 ± 3 ºC for 24 hours, germination (20; 25; 30 and 35 ºC with photoperiods of 12 and 24 hours, and alternating between 20-30 ºC and 20-35 ºC with 12 hours of light at the higher temperature, speed of germination index, speed of germination, seedling dry matter, seedling emergence, emergence rate index and relative frequency of germination. The experimental design was completely randomized with averages being compared by the Tukey test (PA pimenta longa é considerada uma espécie promissora por apresentar a perspectiva de tornar o Brasil autosuficiente na produção de safrol, importante óleo essencial usado como fixador de fragrâncias e com propriedades terapêuticas. Na implantação de áreas destinadas à cultura dessa espécie é necessário avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes utilizadas na formação de mudas. O objetivo foi determinar as condições de temperatura e luminosidade para o teste de germinação e vigor em sementes de pimenta longa. Foram utilizadas sementes de quatro lotes para as seguintes determinações: teor de água (105 ± 3 ºC por 24 horas, germinação (20; 25; 30 e 35 ºC com fotoperíodo de 12 e 24 horas, e alternadas de 20-30 ºC e 20-35 ºC, com 12 horas de luz na temperatura mais alta, índice de velocidade de germinação, velocidade de germina

  19. Composição da matriz de encapsulamento na formação e conversão de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa Composition of the encapsulation matrix on the formation and conversion of synthetic seeds of long pepper

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    Jonny ES Pereira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. é uma planta nativa caracterizada pela produção de safrol, um metabólito secundário usado na produção de perfumes, cosméticos e inseticidas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o uso potencial da tecnologia de sementes sintéticas como alternativa à propagação in vitro de pimenta-longa. Foi estudada a influência da constituição da cápsula sobre a formação e conversão in vitrode unidades encapsuláveis. Sementes pré-germinadas de pimenta-longa com 21 dias de cultivo em meio de cultura de MS foram utilizadas como material de encapsulamento. A concentração de alginato de sódio utilizada na matriz de encapsulamento foi de 1,5% (p/v e a esta consistência se testou na água e o meio de MS nas concentrações plena (100%, 3/4 (75% e 1/2 (50% dos sais e vitaminas, associado ou não a carvão ativado (3 g L-1 como elementos da cápsula. Após encapsulamento, os cultivos foram mantidos em sala de crescimento a 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 30 mmol m-2 s-1, onde a taxa de conversão e a altura das plantas foram avaliadas quinzenalmente até 30 dias de cultivo. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 2 x 4, com cinco repetições e dez unidades encapsuláveis por parcela. Verificou-se que o emprego de um endosperma sintético constituído por 3/4 dos sais e vitaminas de MS, acrescido de carvão ativado (3 g L-1 (85,8% de taxa de conversão ou a utilização de MS pleno, independente do uso de carvão ativado (76,5% promoveram as melhores taxas de conversão de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa. A altura das plantas não foi afetada pelas concentrações de MS e adição de carvão ativado à cápsula.Long pepper (Piper hispidinervumC. DC. is a native plant characterized by the production of safrol, a secondary metabolite used in the production of perfumes, cosmetics and insecticides. In the present work the potential use of synthetic

  20. Composição mineral e sintomas visuais de deficiências de nutrientes em plantas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. Mineral composition and visual symptoms of nutrients deficiencies in long pepper plants (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.

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    Ismael de Jesus Matos Veígas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. é uma das principais fontes alternativas para a produção de safrol empregado como matéria prima na fabricação de inseticidas naturais e aromatizantes. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da omissão dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes, sobre a composição mineral de plantas de pimenta-longa, e caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências decorrentes dessa limitação, utilizando-se da técnica do elemento faltante. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com quatro repetições e doze tratamentos, completo e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Os valores dos teores foliares nos tratamentos com omissão dos nutrientes foram inferiores àqueles obtidos no tratamento completo. As omissões individuais dos nutrientes promoveram alterações na composição mineral de macro e micronutrientes. Os teores de macronutrientes (g kg-1 e micronutrientes (mg kg-1 obtidos nas folhas sem (completo e com sintomas de deficiências (omissões foram, respectivamente: N = 18,32; P = 7,02; K = 22,17; Ca = 15,75; Mg = 8,25; S = 5,12; B = 42,25; Fe = 325,00; Mn = 100; Zn = 61,50, com deficiência: N = 8,98; P = 2,52; K = 8,57; Ca = 10,20; Mg = 1,85; S = 0,90; B = 15,50; Fe = 234,00; Mn = 55; Zn = 53.The long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is one of the main alternative sources for the production of safrol used as raw material in the manufacture of insecticides and natural flavoring. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of omission macronutrients and micronutrients, on the mineral composition of long pepper plants, and featuring the symptoms of deficiencies resulting from this limitation, using the missing element technique. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with four replicates and twelve treatments, complete and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in a completely

  1. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

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    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  2. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. sobre lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Insecticidal Activity of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa Piper hispidinervum, e avaliação de seu efeito no comportamento e/ou mortalidade da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por CG-EM e CG. Foram realizados testes de ingestão e contato tópico em lagartas de 1º e 3º ínstar. Os resultados constataram que o óleo essencial de pimenta-longa possui atividade inseticida sobre S. frugiperda, causando redução alimentar e mortalidade, sendo o safrol (82% seu constituinte majoritário. Verificou-se mortalidade no teste de ingestão em lagartas de 1º ínstar com CL50 = 16,2 mg/mL e para lagartas de 3º ínstar a CL50 = 9,4 mg/mL com redução alimentar CD50 = 0,72 mg/mL; e de toxicidade aguda no teste de contato tópico com DL50 = 277,91 μg/lagarta, após o intervalo de tempo de 96 horas, sendo também observados sintomas de neurotoxicidade, como o efeito knock-down.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil from the long-pepper leaves (Piper hispidinervum and its effect on the comportment and/or mortality of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using the modified Clevenger apparatus, the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC. Tests of ingestion and topical application in fall armyworm of 1 st and 3 rd ínstar were made. The results showed that the long-pepper essential oil has insecticide activity on S. frugiperda, causing mortality and food reduction, and safrole (82% as its majority constituent. Mortality was found in the ingestion test in larvae of 1 st ínstar LC50 = 16.2 mg/mL for larvae of 3 rd ínstar LC50 = 9.4 mg/mL, with reduced food CD50 = 0.72 mg/mL; and

  3. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The

  4. Spiked pepper: selection of clones toward cropping on the edaphoclimatic conditions from Belém, Brazil Pimenta-de-macaco: seleção de clones para plantio nas condições edafoclimáticas de Belém

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    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper presents a high yield of essential oil with useful biological properties for human health and agriculture. In order to evaluate the morphoagronomic variability and, afterwards, to select genotypes for plant breeding and cultivation, thirteen clones were propagated. Thus, spiked pepper cuttings were rooted under greenhouse, transferred to a nursery and, afterwards, planted at the experimental area. The evaluations were carried out in two harvest seasons. The evaluated morphoagronomic traits were number of leaves per branch, leaf length, leaf width, diameter of the oldest branch, plant height, number of orthotropic branches, number of plagiotropic branches, internode length, fresh and dry matter, yield of essential oil and dillapiole content. The analysis of variance and the Scott-Knott test were utilized for data analysis and comparisons among clones and parentals were carried out through genetic and experimental variation coefficients. Fresh matter (first season, number of orthotropic branches and diameter of the the oldest branch (second season presented variability. The Scott-Knott test detected variability for fresh matter, dillapiole content (first season, diameter of the oldest branch and number of orthotropic branches (second season. The yield of essential oil and the dillapiole content were higher for the clones than for the parentals. In conclusion, the clones showed adaptability to the soil and climate conditions of Belém, Pará State, Brazil; the harvest time influenced the oil yield and the dillapiole content; the variance analysis evidenced uniformity and productivity for the evaluated clones, suggesting they can be recommended for cultivation on small-scale production systems in this location.Pimenta-de-macaco é uma espécie com elevado teor de óleo essencial em que se constatam propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variabilidade morfoagronômica e

  5. Controle da fusariose em plantas de pimenta-do-reino com bactérias endofíticas: sobrevivência e respostas morfofisiológicas Fusariosis control in black pepper plants with bacterial endophytes: survival and morphophysiological responses

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    RUTH LINDA BENCHIMOL

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Oito bactérias endofíticas de plântulas de pimenta-do-reino foram testadas em casa de vegetação, objetivando controlar Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis e avaliar respostas morfofisiológicas das plantas tratadas com os agentes de controle. Plantas com quatro meses de idade tiveram o sistema radicular tratado com as suspensões bacterianas (10(9 ufc mL-1 por 10 minutos, e foram plantadas em vasos com solo natural infestado artificialmente com o patógeno (0,25%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições para avaliar o comportamento fotossintético, a produção e a alocação de biomassa, e cinco repetições para avaliar a mortalidade das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas 120 dias após a instalação do ensaio. O isolado B0 (Methylobacterium radiotolerans controlou F. solani f. sp. piperis, provocando redução significativa do número de plantas mortas. Na ausência do patógeno, M. radiotolerans funcionou ainda como promotor de crescimento. Os demais isolados testados não apresentaram efeito na diminuição da mortalidade das plantas. A aplicação das bactérias endofíticas não afetou a taxa fotossintética instantânea das plantas, à exceção de B6, que teve efeito negativo. As plantas tratadas com M. radiotolerans priorizaram a alocação de carbono para a parte aérea.Eight endophytic bacteria from black pepper seedlings were tested under greenhouse conditions aiming to control Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis and to evaluate some morphophysiological responses in plants treated with the biocontrol agents. Four-month old plants had their roots treated with the bacterial suspensions (10(9 cfu mL-1 for 10 minutes and were planted in pots containing soil artificially infested with the pathogen (0.25%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three replications to evaluate photosynthetic behavior, and biomass production and allocation, and five replications to evaluate plant

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  7. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L. cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

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    Simone Alencar Maciel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11 Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum apresentam compostos metabólitos secundários como safrol e dilapiol de interesse comercial em seus óleos essenciais. O trabalho teve como objetivo comparar aspectos anatômicos, relacionados a respostas fisiológicas das folhas de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização. Secções paradérmicas e transversais da lâmina foliar do cultivo in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo, feitas à mão-livre foram realizadas para a medição das estruturas anatômicas em microscópio de luz. A espessura da epiderme e hipoderme de P. hispidinervum e P. aduncum sofrem alterações na transição de cultivo in vitro para o ex vitro. Os tecidos do mesofilo e a abertura do poro estomático de ambas as espécies são influenciados pelo ambiente in vitro. Diferentes ambientes de cultivo promovem a plasticidade das estruturas celulares da lâmina foliar e fundamentam o sucesso da micropropagação de ambas as espécies.

  8. Anatomia comparada de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) e pimenta de macaco (Piper aduncum L.) cultivadas in vitro, ex vitro e in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Simone Alencar; Teixeira, Renata Beltrão; Raposo, Andrea; Fermino Junior, Paulo Cesar Poeta

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p11Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum contain the secondary metabolites safrole and dilapiol, and there is commercial interest in their essential oils. The study aimed to compare anatomical aspects related to physiological responses of leaves from P. hispidinervum and P. aduncum propagated in vitro, in vivo and during acclimatization. Paradermal sections and cross-sections of leaves from in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo culture, were obtained for ...

  9. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  10. Anatomía y usos de la madera de ocho especies tropicales de Quintana Roo, México

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    Silvia Rebollar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la anatomía de la madera de ocho especies procedentes de asociaciones secundarias de las selvas alta y mediana subperennifolia del estado de Quintana Roo: Acacia gaumeri, Diphysa carthagenensis Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena glauca, Senna racemosa, Murraya paniculata, Maytenus guatemalensis, y Pimenta dioica, de acuerdo con la metodología establecida. Son especies de interés por su distribución, abundancia en el estado, y por los usos que tradicionalmente les han dado los campesinos mayas en postería, cercas, construcción rural durmintes, tablones y leña, debido a las cualidades de dureza y resistencia a la humedad y a los insectos. Las especies presentan porosidad difusa, los vasos con puntuaciones areoladas opuestas y alternas, la placa perforada es simple; el parénquima axial se presenta aliforme y en bandas; con cristales en todas las especies a excepción de Acacia gaumeri y Senna racemosa. Los rayos son bajos finos y numerosos; las fibras son de tipo libriforme. Las diferencias encontradas son: el arreglo de los poros, tipo de parénquima axial y radial, la presencia de fibrotraqueidas y traqueidas vasculares y tílides.This paper describes the wood anatomy of Acacia gaumeri Blake, Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud., Leucaena glauca (L. Benth., Senna racemosa (Mill Irwin & Barneby, Murraya paniculata L.Mant., Maytenus guatemalensis Lundell, and Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. These species are aesthetically attractive as well as hard, highly durable and resistant to insects and locally are widely used in posts, fences, sleepers and rural buildings. Samples were collected from the rainforest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. One tree for each species was collected, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were described and measured in wood samples, permanent slides and macerated material. Woods have diffuse porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate and opposite vessel pits and small rays. Crystals

  11. PIMENTA NOS OLHOS DOS OUTROS É... CHILLI BEANS! A PERSONALIDADE DA MARCA AOS "OLHOS" DOS CONSUMIDORES

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    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available Cada vez mais as organizações buscam estabelecer vínculos entre suas marcas e os consumidores como estratégia para construção de valor de modo a estabelecer trocas. Na academia, esta questão aparece em estudos que se localizam na interseção entre as áreas de branding e de marketing de relacionamento. Neste intuito, a personalidade de marca, referente à atribuição de características humanas à mesma, se apresenta como uma noção primordial no fomento a esse elo. O presente estudo investiga a percepção dos consumidores da Chilli Beans, maior vendedora de óculos escuros da América Latina, sobre a marca. Desta forma, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e avaliar as características humanas que compõem a personalidade da marca Chilli Beans sob a ótica de seus consumidores. A investigação se caracteriza como um estudo qualitativo exploratório, realizado por meio de entrevistas em profundidade e analisadas mediante a análise de discurso funcional. Nossos achados indicam treze categorias que, em suas relações, nos levaram à identificação de três perfis que compõem as características ônticas da marca. Implicações teóricas e práticas, bem como indicações de futuras pesquisas são consideradas.

  12. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

    2010-12-01

    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors.

  13. Uptake of Iodine-131 in mussel (Mytilus smaragdinns) and algae (caulerpa racemosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Banzon, R.B.; de la Mines, A.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of radionuclides in the environment has been the subject of research. Iodine-131, a beta emitter as one of the radionuclides has been studied. This study describes Iodine-131 uptake in mussel and algae. The bioaccumulation factor C was determined which gave the relationship between the concentration of radioactivity in biota relative to the water environment. Results of the experiments showed that the mussels steadily accumulated I-131 from radioactive medium. Much higher bioaccumulation factor was obtained in algae than in mussel. No attempt was made to measure activity in the soft parts. (ELC)

  14. “E SE COLOCAR PIMENTA?”: A CONSTRUÇÃO EMPREENDEDORA DA CHILLI BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, brands play greater role in companies’ market performance. The most common approach in the theory of brand management is strategic. However, many brands have become successful by adopting an “unconventional” logic, indicating an entrepreneurial brand building, guided mainly by intuition. We identified Chilli Beans as a brand that illustrates this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the practices adopted by the brand’s entrepreneur to make it successful. To investigate it, we adopted narratology as a way to rebuild the brand’s history. Data were collected through narrative interviews and secondary data. The results reveal several aspects adopted in this process, which are comprehended under an entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Thus, the study contributes to the understanding of this phenomenon by drawing attention to some little investigated aspects in the marketing field: an entrepreneurial branding approach.

  15. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  16. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  17. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae. Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some

  18. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.

  19. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints - a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostock, Matthias; Fischer, Julia; Mumm, Andreas; Stammwitz, Ute; Saller, Reinhard; Bartsch, Hans Helge

    2011-10-01

    The antihormonal therapy of breast cancer patients with the antiestrogen tamoxifen often induces or aggravates menopausal complaints. As estrogen substitution is contraindicated, herbal alternatives, e.g. extracts of black cohosh are often used. A prospective observational study was carried out in 50 breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. All patients had had surgery, most of them had undergone radiation therapy (87%) and approximately 50% had received chemotherapy. Every patient was treated with an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh (1-4 tablets, 2.5 mg) for 6 months. Patients recorded their complaints before therapy and after 1, 3, and 6 months of therapy using the menopause rating scale (MRS II). The reduction of the total MRS II score under black cohosh treatment from 17.6 to 13.6 was statistically significant. Hot flashes, sweating, sleep problems, and anxiety improved, whereas urogenital and musculoskeletal complaints did not change. In all, 22 patients reported adverse events, none of which were linked with the study medication; 90% reported the tolerability of the black cohosh extract as very good or good. Black cohosh extract seems to be a reasonable treatment approach in tamoxifen treated breast cancer patients with predominantly psychovegetative symptoms.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina; Ressonancia magnetica de paciente com cisticercose racemosa da cauda equina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lemos, Sandro Pedroso [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-12-01

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  1. A reversed-phase compatible thin-layer chromatography autography for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; García, Paula; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2015-11-01

    A dual readout autographic assay to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrices adsorbed on reversed-phase or normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates is described. Enzyme gel entrapment with an amphiphilic copolymer was used for assay development. The effects of substrate and enzyme concentrations, pH, incubation time, and incubation temperature on the sensitivity and the detection limit of the assay were evaluated. Experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize conditions with a minimum number of experiments. The assay allowed the detection of 0.01% w/w of physostigmine in both a spiked Sonchus oleraceus L. extract chromatographed on normal phase and a spiked Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J.W. Moore leaf essential oil chromatographed on reversed phase. Finally, the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography assay was applied to reveal the presence of an inhibitor in the Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf essential oil. The developed assay is able to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrixes that were chromatographed in normal phase or reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. The detection limit for physostigmine on both normal and reversed phase was of 1×10(-4) μg. The results can be read by a change in color and/or a change in fluorescence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S A; Reinders, R D

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red varieties) EO had the strongest bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, followed by bay (Pimenta racemosa) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata synonym: Syzygium aromaticum) EO. Oregano oil was colicidal at 625 microl l(-1) at 10, 20 and 37 degrees C. The addition of 0.05% (w/v) agar as stabilizer reinforced the antibacterial properties, particularly at 10 degrees C, whereas 0.25% (w/v) lecithin reduced antibacterial activity. Scanning electron micrographs showed extensive morphological changes to treated cells. Oregano and thyme EO possess significant in vitro colicidal and colistatic properties, which are exhibited in a broad temperature range and substantially improved by the addition of agar as stabilizer. Bay and clove bud EO are less active. Lecithin diminished antibacterial properties. The bactericidal concentration of oregano EO irreversibly damaged E. coli O157:H7 cells within 1 min. Oregano and light thyme EO, particularly when enhanced by agar stabilizer, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  3. REPARAÇÃO DE FERIDAS CUTÂNEAS DE CAMUNGONGOS TRATADAS COM ÓLEO DE PIMENTA LONGA, Piper hispidinervum C.DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Moreira JARDIM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pepper long species Piper hispidinervum is a piperácea of the Brazilian flora, found in it is worth him/it of Rio Acre. Of the essential oil of this pepper the safrol prevails with income of this constituent one in to 5,5% and tenors among 80% to the 97% in relation to the weight of the foliage dies. Recognized it insecticide and synergistic action checks to the oil of this long pepper loud commercial value. Treatments of venereal diseases, intestinal disorders,genito-urinary evils and cure of rheumatism were also registered through popular reports. The objective of this work was to discover the tissue’s answer promoted by the activity of the oil of the Piper hipidinervum, happened in cutaneouswounds of mice of the species Swiss albinus after daily applications of ointment transmitted to the essential oil, in the concentrations of this composed in 1,25%, 2,5% and 5%, during the periods of four, eight and twelve days. The essential oil used in this experiment, it was acquired through rural producer, municipal district of Rio Branco of Acre, obtained by extraction of long pepper, species Piper hispidinervum, being the improvement accomplished through itdrags of steam, standard process of EMBRAPA/AC, that guides the production in the area. During the treatment the wounds were observed for macroscopic analysis, considering the basic events of the repair process in fabric animal “alive in.” The analysis material, object of that study, after surgical procedure, it was conditioned in formol solution to 10%, the pieces were split up obliquely, dehydrated in alcohool diafanized in xylol and included in paraffin under the form of blocks, submitted the microtomy and obtained cuts of five micras of thickness, being colored by hematoxilineosin(HE solution. The histological analysis based on the answers teciduais: espessamento of the crust, infiltratedinflammatory mononuclear and polimorfocoreus, reepitelizement, vasodilatation and hiperemia, edema and fibrosament, in intensity degrees: it is absent, discreet, moderate and intense, compared to the group controls, being those evaluated qualitatively. The reached results, tissue´s answer of cutaneous wounds of mice revealed that the proliferation epitelial was superior to the group it controls being ended that the material is apparently capable of accelerating the process of tissue´s repairing in mice, although the time was not enough for an evaluation of the tissue´s repairing completes. Of the 8th and, more strongly in the 12nd day the results revealed regression characteristics as for the repair of the wounds.

  4. Vocalizations, tadpole, and natural history of Crossodactylus werneri Pimenta, Cruz Caramaschi, 2014 (Anura: Hylodidae), with comments on distribution and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidigal, Izadora; De Carvalho, Thiago R; Clemente-Carvalho, Rute B G; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A

    2018-02-28

    Crossodactylus werneri was described based on specimens collected in the 1970's at Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, being also reported for nearby localities. We collected specimens that we assigned to C. werneri, and recorded calls of the species during fieldworks at Serra das Cabras (Campinas, state of São Paulo). In this paper, we describe for the first time the vocalizations, tadpole, coloration in life, and comment on aspects of the natural history of C. werneri. Besides, the examination of specimens in zoological collections allowed us to extend the geographic range for this species. We also make remarks on morphological/chromatic variation and provide 16S rDNA sequences for the species. Adults were found along a slow-flowing streamlet with sandy/muddy bottom within a small fragment of secondary forest. Males called between sunset and first hours of the night. Advertisement call consisted of series of pulsed notes. Call duration lasted around 3 s, emitted at the highest rate of 17 calls per minute and six notes per second. Note duration lasted around 18 ms. Notes had poorly defined pulses (irregular and/or weak amplitude modulations along the note). The dominant frequency was about 3380 Hz. Territorial call had a long, well-defined pulsed portion followed by a higher-amplitude "squeak". The dominant frequency was around 3400 Hz. Tadpoles were essentially similar to those of other Crossodactylus species, except by not having nostril ornamentation. Our record of C. werneri in Serra das Cabras might be regarded a rediscovery of this species since C. werneri had not been recorded for more than 30 years until our first record of C. werneri in the field from 2011 and subsequent years. Our record is approximately 100 km west, and Mococa 200 km northwest, from Santo Antônio do Pinhal, the westernmost previous record for C. werneri up to date. Gene sequences (16S rRNA) give insights into the genetic divergence between C. werneri and some congeners.

  5. Padrões de inativação microbiana em hortelã-pimenta por radiação gama

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Duarte; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Santos, Pedro M.P.; Falcão, António N.; Margaça, Fernanda M.A.; Cabo Verde, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    As plantas podem ter várias aplicações, especialmente como aditivos alimentares e na promoção da saúde, como ingredientes em formulações de alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. Contudo, um dos maiores problemas associados ao seu consumo e comercialização é a sua contaminação microbiana. Esta contaminação pode ocorrer ao longo da colheita, processamento e distribuição. Deste modo, torna-se necessário encontrar uma solução viável para a conservação de plantas comestíveis ou medicin...

  6. Aceites esenciales de plantas colombianas inactivan el virus del dengue y el virus de la fiebre amarilla Essential oils from Colombian plants inactive dengue virus and yellow fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Meneses

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un antiviral contra el virus del dengue (VDEN y el virus de la fiebre amarilla (VFA para tratamiento de los enfermos, no está disponible en el mercado a pesar de numerosas investigaciones con compuestos sintéticos. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto inhibitorio in vitro sobre el VDEN y el VFA del aceite esencial obtenido de plantas cultivadas en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Los virus se incubaron con el aceite esencial (100 μg/mL 2 h a 37°C antes de la adsorción a la célula y el efecto inhibitorio fue determinado por el método de reducción de placa. Resultados: El aceite esencial obtenido de 10 y 8 plantas redujo desde 74 hasta 100% placas del VDEN y del VFA, respectivamente. Los aceites de Lippia citriodora (verbena y Pimenta racemosa (laurel fueron más activos contra ambos virus reduciendo 100% las placas. La magnitud del efecto inhibitorio se relacionó con el método de extracción del aceite y la parte de la planta seleccionada. Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de plantas colombianas puede inhibir la replicación in vitro del VDEN y VFA. Se requieren más estudios para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria y el índice de selectividad para considerar estas plantas como fuente de compuestos antivirales. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 236-243Introduction: Products obtained from plants can inhibit in vitro viruses that cause human diseases. An antiviral drug against dengue virus (DENV and yellow fever virus (YFV does not exist despite extensive research exploring synthetic compounds. Objective: To evaluate the inhibitory effect on DENV and YFV of essential oils obtained from Colombian plants. Materials and methods: Viruses were incubated with essential oil (100 μg/mL 2 h at 37°C before cell adsorption and the inhibitory effect was determined by plaque reduction assay. Results: The essential oil obtained from 10 and 8 plants reduced from 74 to 100% DENV and YFV plaques, respectively. Essential oils from Lippia citriodora

  7. Quadro clínico do lobo orbitário com crises cerebelares: Cisticercose racemosa do ângulo ponto-cerebelar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Silveira

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available O paciente fôra apresentado duas vêzes em reuniões clínicas, para diagnóstico diferencial entre alterações neuropsíquicas orgânicas e pitiatismo. Da primeira, aos 2 meses de internação, releva notar os seguintes dados: trabalho mental lento, porém sem distúrbios intelectuais intrínsecos; atenção pouco fixável; expressão verbal sem transtornos intrínsecos, mas escassa; carência global de iniciativa; indiferença para com a própria situação; atitudes por vezes teatrais, em aparência pitiáticas; hipertonia muscular variável, aparentemente despertada pelo exame; marcha em pequenos passos, com incerteza variável; queda lenta, em direção inconstante; camptocormia, que se exagera quando desamparado; crises tônicas, de tipo da descerebração; condições somáticas precárias; exame neuro-oftalmológico só possível quanto a fundos oculares, sem anormalidade; exames de líquor incompletos, com alterações discretas; reações negativas para sífilis no líquor e no sangue. Diagnóstico provisório: Psicose por lesão cerebral, com provável comprometimento orgânico da região frontal orbitaria ou da via fronto-ponto-cerebelar. Ao ser apresentado da segunda vez, decorridos três meses, estavam mais acentuados o desligamento para com o ambiente, a carência de iniciativa, a total incapacidade para cuidar de si, com espurcícia; agravou-se a perturbação da marcha com completa astasia-abasia e com ataxia do tronco; tornaram-se mais freqüentes as crises tônicas de tipo cerebelar; repetidos os exames de líquor, ainda incompletos, denotaram alterações do mesmo tipo anterior; o exame de fundos oculares foi novamente negativo; não fôra ainda possível a pneumencefalografia. A evolução dos distúrbios, com alterações de origem orgânica evidente e com outras aparentemente pitiáticas, permitiu precisar o aspecto localizatório: Síndrome frontal orbitaria por alterações cerebelares prováveis. Sòmente cinco meses após a primeira discussão clínica do quadro, quando obtido o exame completo do líquor, o diagnóstico etiológico pôde ser aventado. O exame neuro-oftalmológico foi ainda negativo. A evolução dos sintomas levou o doente à obnubilação e ao embotamento intelectuais, à espurcícia; e, pelo lado neurológico, à impossibilidade de locomoção, à ataxia do tronco, ao relaxamento dos esfincteres. Diagnóstico: quadro neuropsiquiátrico orbitario, como repercussão de alterações ponto-cerebelares; cisticercose provável. O paciente faleceu 11 meses após a internação. A necropsia revelou, quanto ao sistema nervoso central, um cacho de vesículas de cisticerco racemoso ao nível do ângulo ponto-cerebelar direito (fig. 1 e espessamento das leptomeninges na base do encéfalo até a dos lobos temporais. Nenhuma alteração histológica do córtex cerebral ou das vias intra-hemisféricas (Nissl e Weil. Quanto ao aspecto patogênico, o quadro orbitario descrito por Kleist era representado pela falência na manutenção do esfôrço e da atividade em geral (Ausdauer, na regência instintiva dos atos (gesinnungsmässige Handlungen, bem como pelo distúrbio teatral, tipo pitiático, do caráter (Gesin-nung. Os transtornos neurológicos e mesmo neurovegetativos correspondiam, na opinião dos autores, à falência paleocerebelar.

  8. 2018-05-08T18:33:05Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barringtonia racemosa, Leeythidaceae, Aedes aegypti, Dengue, Biomphalaria glabrata, mollusicides, schistosomiasis, piscicides The aqueous, methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether extracts of Barringtonia racemosa Blume pericarp and seed were evaluated for molluscicidal, larvicial and pisicidal activity ...

  9. Laguncularia recemosa (L.) Gaertner f. (Family Combretaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    ABSTRACT: The morphology, phytochemistry, ecology and distribution of Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertner f., (basionym: Conocarpus racemosa L.), in the Niger Delta area was investigated in this study. The data showed that Laguncularia racemosa is a small tree or shrub 30 cm in diameter and about 6 m in height,.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp; Efeito da radiacao gama do {sup 60}Co na conservacao e qualidade de pimenta in natura e em polpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant activity and the color were influenced by irradiation during storage. Coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella not were detected in irradiated and non-irradiated samples during storage. In the dose of 6.00 kGy there was reduction of the initial count of yeasts and molds of the 5 logarithmic cycles, while other doses decreased by 2 and 3 logarithmic cycles. However, 21 days after the irradiation, the contamination by yeasts and molds increased in all treatments. In pepper Dedo-de-moca fresh, the irradiation doses studied not contributed to preserving the fruit during storage. In the pulp pepper, doses of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy, associated with 5% NaCl proved promising to increase shelf-life without affecting the bioactive compounds, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes during storage at 25 °C. (author)

  11. Collecting and evaluation of germplasm of spiked pepper from Brazilian Amazon Pimenta-de-macaco: coleta e avaliação de germoplasma na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria D Gaia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum L. is an aromatic plant species with high essential oil production. It is a species that occurs abundantly in the Brazilian Amazon. Its essential oil has exploitable biological properties in the human health and agriculture. Aiming to study its germplasm toward future use in genetic breeding programs, collecting was carried out (inflorescences, cuttings, leaves and thin branches in ten provenances from the Brazilian Amazon. Twelve morphoagronomic traits were determined to take the data: number of leaves by branch, length of leaf, width of the leaf, circumference of the older branch, height of the plant, number of orthotropic branches, number of plageotropic branches, length of the internodes, number of spikes per branches, yielding of oil, content and production of dillapiole, as well as data on the environment and populations of spiked pepper. The inflorescences and cuttings were encoded and sent for the Federal Rural University from Pará State (UFRA, Brazil, for propagation. The leaves and thin branches were sent for the Emílio Goeldi Museum, from Pará State (MPEG for extraction of essential oil (hydrodistillation. Estimators of amplitude of variation, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were utilized to study the phenotypical variability. The morphoagronomic traits of largest variability were number of orthotropic branches, number of spikes per branch, circumference of the older branch and the content and production of dillapiole. This species has adapted to many different environments of vegetation, soil, climate, relief and drainage becomming easy the domestication and cropping. There is morphoagronomic variability pleasing the selection and genetic breeding.Piper aduncum L. é uma planta que ocorre na Amazônia Brasileira com elevado teor de óleo essencial e que apresenta propriedades biológicas utilizáveis na agricultura e saúde humana. Com o objetivo de avaliar germoplasma visando ao melhoramento genético e cultivo econômico, realizaram-se coletas (inflorescências, estacas, folhas e ramos finos em dez municípios da Amazônia Brasileira (Manaus, Marabá, Goianésia, Moju, Belém, Santa Izabel, Americano, Bonito, Santarém Novo e Aveiro. Tomaram-se dados do ambiente, populações e de doze caracteres morfoagronômicos (número de folhas por ramo, comprimento da folha, largura da folha, circunferência do ramo mais velho, altura da planta, número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, comprimento do entrenó, número de espigas por ramo, rendimento de óleo, teor e produção de dilapiol. As inflorescências e estacas foram identificadas e encaminhadas para a UFRA em Belém-PA e, as folhas e ramos finos, para o Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi-MPEG, para extração do óleo essencial (hidrodestilação. Utilizaram-se estimadores de média, desvio padrão, coeficiente de variação e amplitude total para estudo da variabilidade fenotípica. As matrizes prevalenceram em ambientes antropizados, solos argilosos, condições de drenagem variáveis, terrenos planos e clima Ami, como também predominaram populações definíveis pela agregação dos indivíduos, em terra alta e a pleno sol, serrapilheira, tamanho das populações e presença de plântulas no chão muito variáveis. Os caracteres de maior variabilidade foram número de ramos ortotrópicos, número de espigas por ramo, circunferência do ramo mais velho (morfológicos, teor e produção de dilapiol (agronômicos. Concluiu-se que a espécie apresenta adaptação a diferentes ambientes com relação à vegetação, solo, clima, relevo e drenagem, facilitando o cultivo e domesticação. Há variabilidade morfoagronômica favorecendo a seleção e fitomelhoramento.

  12. Determinação espectrofotométrica indireta de capsaicinoides em pimentas Capsicum a partir da reação com o complexo de Co(II com 4-(2-piridilazo resorcinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tonon de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAPS are substances responsible for pungency in Capsicum. It is important to quantify these types of compounds owing to their broad application in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical weapons. In this work, we developed an indirect spectrophotometric method based on the colorimetric reaction between CAPS, Co(II 3.10×10-5 mol L-1 and 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol (PAR 6.23×10-5 and, in cachaça:water 92:8v/v solutions, for quantification of total CAPS in Capsicum peppers. The product of the reaction is CoPAR2CAPS2 and its absorption in aquo-ethanolic solution at 510 nm is proportional to the total CAPS concentration from 0.60 to 17.94 mg L-1. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0004 and 0.001 mg of CAPS/g of pepper, respectively, with 4% relative standard deviation. The developed method yielded similar results to those obtained from high performance liquid chromatography, with 95% of confidence.

  13. Reação de acessos de pimentão e pimentas ao oídio (Oidiopsis taurica Reaction of sweet and hot pepper accesses to powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally F. Blat

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio causado pelo fungo Oidiopsis taurica é uma das principais doenças no gênero Capsicum spp. Seus danos podem causar desfolha de até 75% e perdas de até 40% em produção. Seu controle através de fungicidas tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. Poucas fontes de resistência já foram identificadas em Capsicum annuum. Neste trabalho avaliou-se os acessos da coleção de Capsicum spp. do banco de germoplasma da USP/ESALQ quanto às suas reações ao oídio e identificar novas fontes de resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em condições severas de ocorrência do patógeno. Durante a fase de frutificação foi feita a avaliação das reações, através de uma escala de notas, de 1 (resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Dos 156 acessos testados, 53 foram considerados resistentes, sendo representados por 5 acessos em C. annuum, 31 em C. baccatum e 17 em C. chinense. Dentre os acessos resistentes em C. annuum, a variedade dihaploide HV-12 mostrou-se como a mais resistente. Duas novas fontes de resistência se destacaram em C. annuum, #124 e Chilli. Esses acessos mostraram um mecanismo diferenciado de resistência, apresentando uma reação de hipersensibilidade ao patógeno. Os híbridos comerciais Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R e Magda foram classificados como suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis. Grande parte dos acessos resistentes de C. baccatum e C. chinense apresentaram desfolha em conseqüência do mecanismo de hipersensibilidade.Powdery mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica is one of the major diseases of Capsicum spp., causing damage due to defoliation of up to 75% and yield losses of up to 40%. Disease control with fungicide is inefficient, genetic resistance being the best way of control. Few resistant sources have been identified in Capsicum annuum. Capsicum spp. collection accesses of USP/ESALQ germplasm bank were screened in their reaction and identification of new resistance sources. The screening was carried out in a greenhouse under high inoculum pressure. Disease was assessed during fruit production using a severity scale varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. From 156 accesses evaluated 53 were resistant, represented by five accesses in C. annuum, 31 in C. baccatum and 17 in C. chinense. The hv-12 was the most resistant among the C. annuum accesses. Two new resistant sources were found in C. annuum, # 124 and chilli. These accesses showed different resistance mechanisms through hypersensitive host reaction. The commercial hybrids Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R and Magda were susceptible or highly susceptible. Most of C. baccatum and C. chinense resistant accesses showed defoliation as a consequence of hypersensitive mechanism.

  14. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  15. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Bosquiroli, Lauriane S.S.; Demarque, Daniel P.; Rizk, Yasmin S.; Cunha, Marillin C.; Marques, Maria Carolina S.; Matos, Maria de Fátima C.; Kadri, Mônica C.T.; Carollo, Carlos A.; Arruda, Carla C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpene...

  16. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Jhon Willy Lopes; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma) cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in ...

  17. Distribution and diversity of mangrove species in Gokana Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plots 1 and 2 were dominated by Rhizophora racemosa (62.07% and 41.17% respectively). Plots 3 were dominated by R. mangle (4 1.67%) while Plots 4 had 26.56% of Acrostichum aureum and 26.56% of Phoenix reclinata. The overlapping mangrove species occurrence (Laguncularia racemosa and R. mangle) at the ...

  18. Evaluation of the interespecific behaviour in frogs Avaliação do comportamento interespecífico de rã, Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (rã pimenta) e Lithobates catesbeianus (rã-touro) em diferentes ambientes. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v2i1.23

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Oliveira de Souza; Adriano de Souza Alves; Oswaldo Pinto Ribeiro Filho; Rafael de Souza Alves; Marcelo Maia Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted in Experimental Frog Federal University of Viçosa, in the period from 7 to 8 November 2010, aiming to assess the interspecific behavior of two species of frog, Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (frog-pepper) and Lithobates catesbeianus ( bullfrog) in different environments. In one stall (floor masonry) were placed 5 copies of pepper and five-frog bull-frogs with an average weight of 171.6 ± 157.8 ± 2g and 2g respectively. Bay...

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the ...

  20. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    peepal, the value of Ficus racemosa to animals, its relevance as an indicator of water .... neath the peepal trees facilitate cultural exchanges in the evening. The hanging roots of ... However, with religious beliefs fading, fig trees are increasingly ...

  1. Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    of the north atolls. Male' atoll was totally devoid of mangroves due to their large scale reclamation mainly for urbanisation and tourism. Mangrove flora comprised of 12 species and was dominated by Bruguiera cylindrica followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Ceriops...

  2. Chemistry and antifungal potential of Alantolides from Inula ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using. Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the ...

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  4. Taking Centrioles to the Elimination Round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2016-07-11

    Two recent papers published in The Journal of Cell Biology (Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016) and Science (Pimenta-Marques et al., 2016) have begun to shed light on the mechanism of centriole elimination during female oogenesis, highlighting a protective role for Polo kinase and the pericentriolar material. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Map of Portuguese 'Reconquista'; Map of Danish conquest in the Baltic; Map of the maritime routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Tre kort til artikel "Military orders between territorialization and periphery from the 12th to the 16th century" af Paula Pinto Costa, Luís Adão da Fonseca, Kurt Villads Jensen & Cristina Pimenta, udgivet i 'Scandinavian Journal of History' 41:2 (Routledge, 2016), s. 141-159 (fig. 1-3, s. 145-147)....

  6. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic succession of the southwesternmost Amazon Craton, state of Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Willy Lopes Afonso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Facies and stratigraphic analysis were carried out in Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic carbonate-siliciclastic deposits of Cacoal and Pimenta Bueno formations exposed on basement rocks and into the Pimenta Bueno Graben, northwestern portion of Parecis Basin, southwesternmost Amazon Craton. The redescription and redefinion of this succession confirmed the previous interpretation for the Cacoal Formation as a Marinoan (~ 635 Ma cap carbonate. The Cacoal Formation is subdivided here in two units separate by sharp contact found exclusively overlying Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement rocks: 1 a homonymous formation characterized by diamictites, sandstones and siltstones with dropstones interpreted as glacio-marine deposits; and 2 the Espigão d’Oeste Formation that consists of dolostone, dolomitic stromatolites, dolostone-siltstone rhythmite and siltstone interpreted as shallow to moderately deep platform deposits. The Ordovician to Silurian Pimenta Bueno Formation is a filling of Pimenta Bueno graben and overlies locally the Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. This unit consists in diamictites, sandstones, siltstones and pelites interpreted as glacial-marine and tide- to storm-influenced platform deposits, recording a glacio-eustatic regressive-transgressive event. This new stratigraphic proposal modify the current stratigraphy for the Parecis Basin and suggest, at least, two levels of glaciation exposed in the sothwesternmost Amazon Craton related to the Marinoan and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian events.

  7. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  8. Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Dispersion and establishment of the species of mangrove of the Rancheria River in the period of maximum fructification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema Velez, Luisa Fernanda; Polania, Jaime; Urrego Giraldo, Ligia Estela

    2003-01-01

    Dispersion and establishment patterns of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa, at the Rancheria River were studied using marked propagules. These mangroves are small, and surrounded by subtropical dry forest, subtropical thorn forest and the city of Riohacha. Significant relationships were found between the number of propagules retained and species, time, distance to release site, and retention structure. Avicennia germinans and L. racemosa propagules left the ecosystem within two weeks while a portion of R. mangle propagules remained during the two months study and were able to settle. Goat predation affected mainly the propagules, especially of A. germinans and L. racemosa. Predation did not follow the current dominance-predation model. A pre-dispersion consumption of 30% of A. germinans propagules by Pyralidae larvae was also documented. Batis maritima plants were the most effective structures that retain propagules of the three species and R. mangle propagules remained in greater quantities and for longer periods in the ecosystem

  10. Plántulas de algunas especies leñosas nativas y connaturalizadas del bosque subandino Silvania- Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera Torres Eduardo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar, en el medio natural, los primeros estadios de crecimiento de algunas especies de árboles y arbustos representativps de la franja inferior del Bosque Subandino, se describen las plántulas de 45 taxa de Dicotiledóneas, obtenidas mediante la germinación de semillas en condiciones de vivero semidescubierto. Entre otros caracteres observados, útiles para el reconocimiento taxonómico, se cuentan las modalidades de germinación, la estructuración y organización de los cotiledones, del hipocotilo y el epicotilo, complementados con la determinación de la filotaxis y la diferenciación foliar. Las familias con mayor número de especies estudiadas corresponden a los ordenes Fabales y Myrtales , con 13 y 6 especies, respectivamente.In order to identify in the natural medium the first growth sta tes of some trees and ahrubs represented on the inferiorfringe of the andino woods, 45 taxa of Dicotyledons seedlings are described, obtained through germination of seeds under semigreenhouse conditions. Among other characters observed which are used for taxonomic identification are: The germination, structure and organization of the Cotyledons, hypocotyl, andepicotyl coupled with the determination of the filotaxis and leaf diferentiation. The familias of the higher species studied
    correspond to the orders: Fabales and Myrtales, whith 13 and 6 species respectively.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DEL MANGLAR EN EL ESTERO PALO VERDE, LAGUNA DE CUYUTLÁN, COLIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli P. Téllez-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Estero Palo Verde, ubicado en el vaso IV de la Laguna de Cuyutlán, estado de Colima, se establecieron 48 unidades de muestreo (UM en tres rodales de mangle: 10 UM en rodal monoespecífico de Laguncularia racemosa, 25 UM en rodal monoespecífico de Rhizophora mangle y 13 UM en rodal mixto de L. racemosa-R. mangle. Se registró altura del dosel, diámetro del tronco, densidad de adultos y de repoblación, también se calculó área basal y volumen de madera. Los resultados indicaron que la densidad, área basal y volumen, para la categoría diamétrica (CD de 5 cm fueron significativamente diferentes (P < 0.05 entre los rodales monoespecíficos de R. mangle (2,500 árboles•ha-1, 4.2 m2•ha-1 y 22 m3•ha-1, respectivamente y L. racemosa (700 árboles•ha-1, 1.9 m2•ha-1 y 10 m3•ha-1, respectivamente. En las CD de 20 a 30 cm, el área basal fue significativamente mayor (P < 0.05 en el rodal monoespecífico de L. racemosa (1.6 - 3.8 m2•ha-1 que en el mixto de L. racemosa-R. mangle (0.5 - 2.5 m2•ha-1. La repoblación natural fue más abundante en el rodal de R. mangle (138 a 270 individuos•ha-1 que en el de L. racemosa (70 a 80 individuos•ha-1. Los valores estructurales mayores se alcanzaron para altura del dosel (10 m en el rodal de L. racemosa; para diámetro (40 cm y área basal (14.1 m2•ha-1 en el rodal de L. racemosa-R. mangle; y para repoblación natural (624 individuos•ha-1 en el rodal de R. mangle.

  12. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXII: tres nuevas especies de Prestonia (Apocynoideae, Echiteae para Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Prestonia subgenus Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana and P. racemosa, from Colombia, Venezuela and Peru, respectively, are described and illustrated, and their relationships with related taxa discussed, including distribution, phenology, additional specimens examined and a key of the group.Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Prestonia subgénero Prestonia, P. cogolloi, P. premontana y P. racemosa, de Colombia, Venezuela y Perú respectivamente, comentándose sus relaciones con especies afines. Se incluye una clave del grupo, datos de distribución, fenología y especímenes adicionales examinados.

  13. Constituintes químicos voláteis de especiarias ricas em eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Aparecida de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação, usando um adaptador Clevenger, foram extraídos óleos essenciais das espécies Pimenta dioica (folhas e frutos e Syzygium aromaticum (botões florais, talos e folhas. A composição química dos óleos foi determinada através da analise CG-EM. Os teores de óleos essenciais variaram de 0,97 a 1,41% e 2,30 a 15,40% nas espécies Pimenta dioica e Syzygium aromaticum, respectivamente. O componente majoritário presente nessas espécies foi o eugenol, variando de 72,87 a 90,41%. Syzygium aromaticum forneceu maior teor de óleo essencial rico em eugenol. Em quantidades menores foram também encontrados chavicol e? β-cariofileno.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Botelho; N.A.P. Nogueira; G.M. Bastos; S.G.C. Fonseca; T.L.G. Lemos; F.J.A. Matos; D. Montenegro; J. Heukelbach; V.S. Rao; G.A.C. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commerc...

  15. Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Two Mangrove Species with Morphological Alterations in a Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is an ecosystem subjected to tide, salinity and nutrient variations. These conditions are stressful to most plants, except to mangrove plants that are well-adapted. However, many mangrove areas have extremely stressful conditions, such as salt marshes, and the plants nearby usually present morphological alterations. In Sepetiba Bay, two species of mangrove plants, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa, have poor development near a salt marsh (SM compared to plants at the riverside (RS, which is considered a favorable habitat in mangroves. The level of genetic diversity and its possible correlation with the morphological divergence of SM and RS plants of both species were assessed by AFLP molecular markers. We found moderate genetic differentiation between A. schaueriana plants from SM and RS areas and depleted genetic diversity on SM plants. On the other hand, Laguncularia racemosa plants had no genetic differentiation between areas. It is possible that a limited gene flow among the studied areas might be acting more intensely on A. schaueriana plants, resulting in the observed genetic differentiation. The populations of Laguncularia racemosa appear to be well connected, as genetic differentiation was not significant between the SM and RS populations. Gene flow and genetic drift are acting on neutral genetic diversity of these two mangrove species in the studied areas, and the observed genetic differentiation of A. schaueriana plants might be correlated with its morphological variation. For L. racemosa, morphological alterations could be related to epigenetic phenomena or adaptive loci polymorphism that should be further investigated.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  17. Response to elevated CO 2 from a natural spring in a C 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eragrostis racemosa (C4), a slow grower, showed no significant responses to high CO2 during the late season. CO2-responsiveness in the field generally followed the seasonal phenologies of each species, being greatest during the most active growth period. Keywords: climate change; gas exchange; photosynthetic ...

  18. A review of the genus Rhizophora with special reference to the Pacific species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1960-01-01

    The species of the Atlantic Rhizophora have formerly been considered as belonging to one species, R. mangle L. In 1818 G. F. W. Meyer (11) described a second species, R. racemosa, from British Guiana. On working up the Rhizophoras of British Guiana Leechman (10) added a third species, R. harrisonii

  19. Screening selected Vietnamese plants used to treat diabetes for PTP1B inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Staerk, D; Jäger, A K

    2016-01-01

    -scale HPLC, and this showed that ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of R. mucronata and K. candel contained high levels of tannins, and were therefore not investigated further. Ethyl acetate extracts of N. mirabilis, P. amarus, P. urinaria, L. octavalvis, E. hirta, S. cumini, F. racemosa, P. ducle, C...

  20. Chemical Characteristics Combined with Bioactivity for Comprehensive Evaluation of Tumuxiang Based on HPLC-DAD and Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dried roots of Inula helenium L. (IH and Inula racemosa Hook f. (IR are used commonly as folk medicine under the name of “tumuxiang (TMX”. Phenolic acid compounds and their derivatives, as main active constituents in IH and IR, exhibit prominent anti-inflammation effect.

  1. COMPOSIÇÃO E ESTRUTURA FLORÍSTICA EM BOSQUES DE MANGUEZAIS PARAENSES, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Almeida de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure of mangroves in three municipalities in Pará, to identify possible conservation and environmental change indicators. At each site, three plots were delimited in 10 x 50 m, registering the species present and measuring DAP and height. Were analized density, frequency and dominance, hedge value index and importance. Typical species found were Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophora racemosa G.F.W. Meyer, Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn. e Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. Rhizophora racemosa found only in Soure and Laguncularia racemosa only in Salinópolis. The Soure of forest had higher mean values of height and diameter and, in the three areas, Avicennia germinans showed the highest values of height and diameter. The largest basal area values for living individuals occurred in Soure and Salinas, and dead individuals, the greatest contribution was in Maracanã, both for the class > 10.0 cm DBH. In Soure were not recorded dead individuals. The woods had a high degree of structural development and are adjusted to the pattern found in Brazil’s northern coast. Joint information about the floristic composition, abundance, density and parameters that show the degree of structure thereof other than registration and analysis of dead individuals, are good indicators of this ecosystem conservation status. Concluded at good state of conservation of mangroves in this region. However, preventive actions management and conservation are essential to ensure the maintenance of its resources.

  2. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  3. Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; W. Fernandez; F. Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Element uptake from substrate and resorption capacity of nutrients before leaf shedding are frequently species-specific and difficult to determine in natural settings. We sampled populations of Rhizophora mangle (salt-excluding species) and Laguncularia racemosa (salt-secreting species) in a coastal lagoon in the upper section of the Maracaibo strait in western...

  4. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  5. Modeling belowground biomass of black cohosh, a medicinal forest product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine Small; Simon Bonner; Elizabeth Hiebert

    2014-01-01

    Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of menopausal conditions. Sustainable management of this and other wild-harvested non-timber forest products requires the ability to effectively and reliably inventory marketable plant...

  6. Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of In-Situ Natural Dendroremediation Capability of Rhizophora racemosa in a Heavy Metal Polluted Mangrove Forest, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Many of these noxious substances have been noted to be removable from polluted environment through proper application of phytoremediation techniques, particularly ...

  7. Bioactivity of mangrove humic materials on Rizophora mangle and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of mangrove humic materials on Rizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa seedlings, Brazil. Leonardo Barros Dobbss, André Luiz Paier Barroso, Alessandro Coutinho Ramos, Karla Stéphanie Nunes Torrico, Fabíola Schunk de Souza Arçari, Daniel Basílio Zandonadi ...

  8. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  9. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected

  10. Determination of Optimum Tropic Storage and Exposure Sites. Report 2. Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    at the Fort Sherman site and the oldest at Gamboa. A taxonomic listing of trees, shrubs, vines and ground cover plants for each of these sites is...tibourbou X Avicennia nitida X Cordia alliodora X Cupania sylvatica X Hieronyma lax iflora X Laguncularia racemosa X Luehea seemanji X Ormosia

  11. REVESTIMENTO COMESTÍVEL À BASE DE GOMA XANTANA, COMPOSTOS LIPOFÍLICOS E/OU CLORETO DE CÁLCIO NA CONSERVAÇÃO DE MORANGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SÁVIA FERREIRA LEITE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar revestimentos comestíveis à base de goma xantana e glicerol, combinada a cloreto de cálcio, ácido oleico e/ou óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta na conservação de morangos cv. Festival. Os morangos foram selecionados, lavados, sanitizados e, a seguir, submetidos a diferentes tratamentos de revestimentos à base de goma xantana acrescidos de glicerol, cloreto de cálcio, ácido oleico e/ou óleo essencial de hortelã-pimenta. Os frutos foram secos sob ventilação forçada a 4 ºC, por 15 h, e, posteriormente, embalados em bandejas com tampa de Polietileno Tereftalato (PET e armazenados a 4 ºC, durante 12 dias. Foram realizadas análises de perda de massa, firmeza, luminosidade, tonalidade, pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis totais, antocianinas e a incidência de deterioração fúngica. Os diferentes revestimentos utilizados foram eficientes na conservação dos morangos. O tratamento com goma xantana e glicerol apresentou os melhores resultados, pois a influência do ácido oleico ou do óleo essencial de hortelãpimenta, assim como do cloreto de cálcio, não foi significativa. O revestimento de goma xantana proporcionou redução da perda de massa, manutenção da firmeza, cor, pH, acidez, sólidos solúveis totais, antocianinas e não estimulou o crescimento fúngico. Desta forma, esta goma apresenta potencial para aplicação como revestimento em morangos, visando a maximizar a vida útil deste produto.

  12. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  13. Isolation of microsatellite markers for the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Diana O.; Vinson, Christina C.; Nascimento, Dulcivania S. S.; Mehlig, Ulf; Menezes, Moirah P. M.; Sampaio, Iracilda; Silva, Marivana B.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Three species of the mangrove tree genus Rhizophora are found in the New World and along the west coast of Africa. Of these, R. mangle is the most abundant and has a complex interbreeding relationship with the sympatric R. racemosa and R. harrisonii. The development of additional microsatellite markers would permit paternity analyses and investigation of the hybrid origin of these species. • Methods and Results: Using an enriched library method, via hybridization with biotinylated oligonucleotides complementary to repetitive poly AG/TC, primers for 11 microsatellite markers of R. mangle were developed and characterized in populations in Pará and São Paulo (Brazil) and Florida (USA). Ten of these markers were transferable to R. racemosa and R. harrisonii. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers presented here will be useful in studies of contemporary and historical gene flow between American and West African Rhizophora species. PMID:25202582

  14. Isolation of Microsatellite Markers for the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana O. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Three species of the mangrove tree genus Rhizophora are found in the New World and along the west coast of Africa. Of these, R. mangle is the most abundant and has a complex interbreeding relationship with the sympatric R. racemosa and R. harrisonii. The development of additional microsatellite markers would permit paternity analyses and investigation of the hybrid origin of these species. Methods and Results: Using an enriched library method, via hybridization with biotinylated oligonucleotides complementary to repetitive poly AG/TC, primers for 11 microsatellite markers of R. mangle were developed and characterized in populations in Pará and São Paulo (Brazil and Florida (USA. Ten of these markers were transferable to R. racemosa and R. harrisonii. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers presented here will be useful in studies of contemporary and historical gene flow between American and West African Rhizophora species.

  15. Efeito do uso tópico de capsaicina na mucosite intestinal induzida por 5-fluorouracil em camundongos Swiss

    OpenAIRE

    Lorrayne Gonçalves Lopes

    2014-01-01

    5-FU (5-Fluorouracil) é um agente quimioterápico chave no tratamento de diversos tipos de câncer, sendo amplamente usado contra o câncer colorretal. Mucosite intestinal com diarreia e vômito é um efeito adverso frequentemente dose-limitante da terapia com 5- FU, afetando a qualidade de vida dos pacientes e a continuidade da terapia. Capsaicina (trans-8-metil-N-vanílico-6-nonenamida) é um componente de várias espécies de pimenta, sendo responsável pela pungência dos frutos. Ela apresenta amplo...

  16. Estado nutricional e produção da pimenteira com uso de biofertilizantes líquidos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,José R. de; Gomes,Regina L. F.; Araújo,Ademir S. F.; Marini,Fillipe S.; Lopes,João B.; Araújo,Raul M.

    2014-01-01

    Os biofertilizantes podem melhorar a sanidade das plantas e incrementar a produtividade das culturas, com baixo custo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o estado nutricional e características relacionadas à produtividade do fruto de pimenteira em resposta à aplicação de biofertilizantes líquidos na variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum L.). O trabalho foi realizado em campo, no município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, no período de dezembro de 2010 a setembro ...

  17. Saberes docentes da dança

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Camara Soter da Silveira; Monique Andries Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo trata do tema saberes docentes e busca sua relação com o ensino da dança na escola. A categoria saber docente tornou-se central no campo da formação de professores a partir dos anos 1990 no Brasil. Neste trabalho, o saber docente é abordado através de dois autores que se dedicaram ao tema: Maurice Tardif (2012) e Selma Garrido Pimenta (2012), na busca de refletir sobre as especificidades do saber docente daquele que ensina dança na escola. O saber docente se constitui, de uma par...

  18. First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Unknown, Unknown

    1986-01-01

    First hoisting of the Portuguese flag at CERN, following the country's membership. Photo taken on January 22 (or 23), 1986. From left to right: António Costa Lobo (Portugal's ambassador to the UN in Geneva), Gaspar Barreira, Karin Wall (José Mariano Gago's wife), José Mariano Gago (Portugal's JNICT president), Catarina Wall Gago (José Mariano Gago's daughter), João Varela, Herwig Schopper (CERN's Director-General), Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira (Portugal's Secretary of State for Science), , Margarida Nesbitt Rebelo, , Mário Pimenta, , Gustavo Castelo Branco, João Seixas, Sérgio Ramos, and Peter Sonderegger.

  19. Aspectos fisiológicos e qualidade de mudas da pimenteira em resposta ao vigor e condicionamento das sementes

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Thiago Barbosa; Binotti, Flávio Ferreira da Silva; Cardoso, Eliana Duarte; Bardiviesso, Estefânia Martins; Costa, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    ResumoA pimenta é um fruto do gênero Capsicum, bastante utilizada na culinária como tempero. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito do condicionamento fisiológico em sementes de Capsicum frutescens, e sobre as mudas obtidas das sementes condicionadas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x6, designado por: qualidade fisiológica das sementes (vigor acima e abaixo) e cinco agentes no condicionamento fisiológico (água, nitrato de potássio a 0...

  20. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Molanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  1. Investigação do potencial químico e farmacológico de Xylopia sericea A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Renata de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Xylopia sericea, Annonaceae, espécie nativa do Brasil, é conhecida popularmente como “embiriba”, “banana-de-macaco”, “pindaíba”, “pimenta-de-macaco”. Além do uso das sementes como condimento, a espécie é utilizada no paisagismo, na indústria caseira de cordoaria e para fins medicinais no tratamento da dor, inflamação e desordens gastrointestinais. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram contribuir com o estudo de alguns dos usos medicinais da espécie e ampliar o conhecimento acerca de seu potencial...

  2. Soil-plant transfer factors of radionuclides in mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil; Fatores de transferência solo-planta de radionuclídeos em manguezais do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, J.D.S.; França, E.J. de, E-mail: paivajds@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Mangroves are the main inputs of chemical substances, considering the Brazilian estuarine environments. Natural radionuclides such as {sup 40}K and {sup 228}Ra can be transferred to vegetation. The objective of this work is to determine the transfer factors (TF) and aggregate transfer (TF{sub ag}) of radionuclides {sup 40}K and {sup 228}Ra in the soil-plant system of mangroves in the State of Pernambuco , Brazil. Concentrations of {sup 40}K and {sup 228}Ra activity in the soil of mangroves and in samples composed of leaves of individuals of the native plant species Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Aviccenia Schaueriana were determined from Gamma Spectrometry with hyper-pure germanium detector (HPGe). The transfer and aggregate transfer factors were calculated according to the methodology proposed in the literature. The respective TF and TF{sub ag} values for the {sub 40}K radionuclide were 0.384 and 2.13 x 10{sup -3} for R. mangle; 0.394 and 2.05 x 10{sup -3} for L. racemosa and 1.348 and 3.44 x 10{sup -3} for Avicennia sp. For the radionuclide {sup 228}Ra, the results were lower for R. mangle (TF = 0.089; TF{sub ag} = 1.95 x 10{sup -4}) and L. race-mosa (TF = 0.142; TF{sub ag} = 3.46 x 10{sup -4}). For Avicennia schaueriana, the concentrations of {sup 228}Ra activity in the leaves were below the detection limit. The TF values found demonstrated a greater {sup 40}K transfer in Avicennia and {sup 228}Ra dominated mangroves for mangroves where the L. racemosa distribution predominates.

  3. Soil-plant transfer factors of radionuclides in mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, J.D.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are the main inputs of chemical substances, considering the Brazilian estuarine environments. Natural radionuclides such as 40 K and 228 Ra can be transferred to vegetation. The objective of this work is to determine the transfer factors (TF) and aggregate transfer (TF ag ) of radionuclides 40 K and 228 Ra in the soil-plant system of mangroves in the State of Pernambuco , Brazil. Concentrations of 40 K and 228 Ra activity in the soil of mangroves and in samples composed of leaves of individuals of the native plant species Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Aviccenia Schaueriana were determined from Gamma Spectrometry with hyper-pure germanium detector (HPGe). The transfer and aggregate transfer factors were calculated according to the methodology proposed in the literature. The respective TF and TF ag values for the 40 K radionuclide were 0.384 and 2.13 x 10 -3 for R. mangle; 0.394 and 2.05 x 10 -3 for L. racemosa and 1.348 and 3.44 x 10 -3 for Avicennia sp. For the radionuclide 228 Ra, the results were lower for R. mangle (TF = 0.089; TF ag = 1.95 x 10 -4 ) and L. race-mosa (TF = 0.142; TF ag = 3.46 x 10 -4 ). For Avicennia schaueriana, the concentrations of 228 Ra activity in the leaves were below the detection limit. The TF values found demonstrated a greater 40 K transfer in Avicennia and 228 Ra dominated mangroves for mangroves where the L. racemosa distribution predominates

  4. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for th...

  5. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their abili...

  6. 2131-IJBCS-Article-Ngor Ndour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    mono spécifiques ont été regroupées indépendamment des unités d'échan- tillonnage. Ainsi, l'échantillon homogène obtenu était de 125 tiges pour les peuplements de Rhizophora mangle L. de hauteur moyenne les plus représentatifs au Delta du Saloum. Celui constitué de R. racemosa/harisonnii, issu des deux types de ...

  7. Long-term growth and succession in restored and natural mangrove forests in southwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, C.E.; Devlin, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    We compared colonization, growth and succession from 1989 to 2000 in a restored mangrove site and in gap and closed canopy sites in a natural mangrove forest. The restored site was created in 1982 and planted with Rhizophora mangle (???2 m-2) propagules. By 1989, Laguncularia racemosa, with densities up to 12.9 tree m-2, was a dominant in all plots, although densities were greater at edge plots relative to inner plots, and near open water (west plots) relative to further inland (east plots), and in tall mangrove plots relative to scrub plots. Rhizophora mangle (1989 tree densities about 2 m-2) was a codominant in inner and scrub plots, while Avicennia germinans had the lowest densities (mangle and L. racemosa, rapid growth in height of all species (1989-1996), followed by a dieoff of L. racemosa in later years (1997-2000) as the canopy came to resemble that of tall mangrove plots. Colonization and growth rates were lower in gap and closed canopy regions of the natural forest relative to rates in the restored site. After 11 years, densities of L. racemosa were 10-20x lower and R. mangle slightly less in the gap relative to densities in tall mangrove plots in the restored site at the same age. Although the restored stand had converged with the natural forest by 2000 in terms of some factors such as species richness, vegetation cover, litterfall, and light penetration, trees were still much smaller and stem densities much higher. Full development of mature structure and ecological function will likely require decades more development. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Predicting future mangrove forest migration in the Everglades under rising sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide valued habitat for fish and shorebirds. Mangrove forests are universally composed of relatively few tree species and a single overstory strata. Three species of true mangroves are common to intertidal zones of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Coast, namely, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangrove forests occupy intertidal settings of the coastal margin of the Everglades along the southwest tip of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1).

  9. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  10. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  11. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huilian; Sun, Jianghao; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Zhong, Haiyan; Fletcher, Edward J.; Harnly, James; Chen, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals

  12. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huilian [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Sun, Jianghao [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); McCoy, Joe-Ann [The North Carolina Arboretum Germplasm Repository, UNC Affiliate Campus, Asheville, NC (United States); Zhong, Haiyan [College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Fletcher, Edward J. [Strategic Sourcing, Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604 (United States); Harnly, James, E-mail: harnly.james@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Chen, Pei, E-mail: pei.chen@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals.

  13. Pollen analysis of honey and beebread derived from Brazilian mangroves

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto da; Barth, Ortrud Monika

    2012-01-01

    Pollen analyses were performed on honey and beebread from hives in apiaries located in two distinct mangrove areas dominated by Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaernt. One apiary was located at the edge of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, and the other near Maranguá Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. We investigated the contribution of nectar and pollen from mangrove vegetation to Apis mellifera L. honey and beebread stocks. Intensive visitation to this plant species by honeybees and the presence ...

  14. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year−1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximum number of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha−1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year−1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  15. Cimicifuga species identification by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/mass spectrometric/evaporative light scattering detection for quality control of black cohosh products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kan; Pauli, Guido F.; Zheng, Bolin; Wang, Huikang; Bai, Naisheng; Peng, Tangsheng; Roller, Marc; Zheng, Qunyi

    2006-01-01

    Black cohosh has become one of the most important herbal products in the U.S. dietary supplements market. It is manufactured from roots and rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (Ranunculaceae). Botanical identification of the raw starting material is a key step in the quality control of black cohosh preparations. The present report summarizes a fingerprinting approach based on HPLC-PDA/MS/ELSD that has been developed and validated using a total of ten Cimicifuga species. These include three North American species, C. racemosa, C. americana, C. rubifolia, and seven Asian species, C. acerina, C. biternat, C. dahurica, C. heracleifolia, C. japonica, C. foetida, and C. simplex. The chemotaxonomic distinctiveness of the HPLC fingerprints allows identification of all ten Cimicifuga species. The triterpene glycosides cimigenol-3-O-arabinoside (3), cimifugin (12), and cimifugin-3-O-glucoside (18) were determined to be suitable species-specific markers for the distinction of C. racemosa from the other Cimicifuga species. In addition to identification, the fingerprint method provided insight into chemical interconversion processes occurring between the diverse triterpene glycosides contained in black cohosh. The reported method has proven its usefulness in the botanical standardization and quality control of black cohosh products. PMID:16515793

  16. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella P. M. Wanderley Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA at 28º ± 2º C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  17. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and barcoded pyrosequencing reveal unprecedented archaeal diversity in mangrove sediment and rhizosphere samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana C C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Dealtry, Simone; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Smalla, Kornelia; Gomes, Newton C M

    2012-08-01

    Mangroves are complex ecosystems that regulate nutrient and sediment fluxes to the open sea. The importance of bacteria and fungi in regulating nutrient cycles has led to an interest in their diversity and composition in mangroves. However, very few studies have assessed Archaea in mangroves, and virtually nothing is known about whether mangrove rhizospheres affect archaeal diversity and composition. Here, we studied the diversity and composition of Archaea in mangrove bulk sediment and the rhizospheres of two mangrove trees, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes with a nested-amplification approach. DGGE profiles revealed significant structural differences between bulk sediment and rhizosphere samples, suggesting that roots of both mangrove species influence the sediment archaeal community. Nearly all of the detected sequences obtained with pyrosequencing were identified as Archaea, but most were unclassified at the level of phylum or below. Archaeal richness was, furthermore, the highest in the L. racemosa rhizosphere, intermediate in bulk sediment, and the lowest in the R. mangle rhizosphere. This study shows that rhizosphere microhabitats of R. mangle and L. racemosa, common plants in subtropical mangroves located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, hosted distinct archaeal assemblages.

  18. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P. M.; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28o ± 2o C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  19. Mangrove habitat partitioning by Ucides cordatus (Ucididae): effects of the degree of tidal flooding and tree-species composition during its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, A. C.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental factors strongly affect mangrove crabs, and some factors modulate population structure and habitat partitioning during the crabs' life cycle. However, the effect of these environmental factors on habitat selection by mangrove crabs is still unknown. We evaluated habitat selection by the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in mangrove forests with different degrees of predominance of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa or Avicennia schaueriana, two tidal flooding levels (less- and more-flooded), and two biological periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons). Sampling was conducted in four mangrove forests with different influences of these biotic and abiotic parameters. We used the data for sex ratio to explain environmental partitioning by this species. Females predominated in R. mangle mangroves, independently of the biological period (breeding or non-breeding seasons), and males predominated only in the less-flooded L. racemosa mangroves. The flooding level affected the sex ratio of U. cordatus, with a predominance of males in less-flooded mangroves, independently of the biological period; and a gender balance in the more-flooded mangroves only during the breeding season. Outside the breeding season, the largest specimens were recorded in the R. mangle mangroves, but in the breeding season, the largest crabs were recorded in the L. racemosa mangroves with a higher level of flooding. These results suggest that tree-species composition and tidal flooding level can have a significant effect on the habitat partitioning of sexes and sizes of the mangrove crab U. cordatus both during and outside the breeding season.

  20. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P M; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-07-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28(o) ± 2(o) C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  1. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  2. Mediterranean species of Caulerpa are polyploid with smaller genomes in the invasive ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Varela-Álvarez

    Full Text Available Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies.

  3. Decomposition of mangrove leaves in the estuary of Paraíba do Sul RiverRio de Janeiro, Brazil Descomposición de hojas de mangle en el estuario del Río Paraíba do SulRio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Barroso-Matos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition rate of senescent leaves of Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle in their respective areas of dominance were analyzed in the estuary mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, by the method of litter bags. Results indicated that the rate of decomposition of leaves of L. racemosa (3.2 x 10-3 did not differ significantly from A. germinans and R. mangle (P > 0.05, but that A. germinans (5.1 x 10-3 exhibits a higher decomposition rate than R. mangle (2.7 x 10-3 (P La tasa de descomposición de las hojas senescentes de Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle en sus respectivas áreas de dominio se analizaron en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, por el método de bolsas de resíduos. Los resultados indicaron que la tasa de descomposición de las hojas de L. racemosa (3,2 x 10-3 no difirió significativamente de A. germinans y R. mangle (P > 0,05, pero A. germinans (5,1 x 10-3 presentó una mayor tasa de descomposición que R. mangle (2,7 x 10-3 (P < 0,05. Según la literatura, estas diferencias se deben a las distintas características foliares de las especies (por ejemplo, el contenido de agua, ó la concentración de taninos y nitrógeno. La vida media calculada fue 138 días, 216 y 257 de A. germinans, L. racemosa y R. mangle, respectivamente. Considerando que A. germinans tiene la mayor prevalencia y abundancia en relación con R. mangle, y su cinética de descomposición fue más rápida, se sugiere que esta especie representa la principal fuente de materia orgánica originada en los manglares del estuario del río Paraíba do Sul, así como a las cadenas alimentarias en la región.

  4. Differential bioaccumulation and translocation patterns in three mangrove plants experimentally exposed to iron. Consequences for environmental sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants

  5. Estado nutricional e produção da pimenteira com uso de biofertilizantes líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os biofertilizantes podem melhorar a sanidade das plantas e incrementar a produtividade das culturas, com baixo custo. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o estado nutricional e características relacionadas à produtividade do fruto de pimenteira em resposta à aplicação de biofertilizantes líquidos na variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum L.. O trabalho foi realizado em campo, no município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, no período de dezembro de 2010 a setembro de 2011. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os biofertilizantes "supermagro", "fermentado biológico" e "P + K", com aplicações via foliar e no solo, adubação NPK, conforme recomendação para a cultura do pimentão, e a testemunha absoluta, sem adubação. A variedade de pimenta Dedo de Moça respondeu positivamente ao uso de biofertilizantes líquidos, com aplicação foliar e no solo. O biofertilizante fermentado biológico promoveu maior massa de fruto.

  6. In vitro anti-Leishmania infantum activity of essential oil from Piper angustifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane S.S. Bosquiroli

    Full Text Available Abstract Piper angustifolium Lam., Piperaceae, popularly known as "matito", "pimenta-de-macaco", "pimenta-longa" or "jagurandi" in Brazil, has been commonly used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis-associated lesions, but there are few studies on the activity against visceral leishmaniasis-associated species. This study demonstrates the first in vitro antileishmanial activity of the P. angustifolium essential oil, of which the phytochemical profile showed the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. The main compounds were spathulenol (23.8% and caryophyllene oxide (13.1%. P. angustifolium essential oil was highly active [the half maximum inhibitory concentration = 1.43 μg/ml] against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New and Old World. Activity was obtained 24 h after addition of the oil (6.25–50 μg/ml, with a reduction of 100% in the infection index at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml. P. angustifolium essential oil showed low cytotoxicity for mammalian fibroblasts and macrophages (the half maximum inhibitory concentration values of 31.67 and 48.22 μg/ml, respectively, and it was 33 and 22 times more toxic to amastigotes than to mammalian cells, as indicated by selectivity indexes. The results demonstrated that P. angustifolium essential oil is a promising alternative for the study of potential drugs for visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  8. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  9. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-04-09

    The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum likelihood analyses place

  10. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

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    Alverson Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vitaceae (grape is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade

  11. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

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    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  12. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of ferns. PMID:19223592

  13. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Victor H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n. Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  14. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.

  15. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: A New Threat for Crapemyrtles, a Popular Landscape Plant in the U.S.

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    Zinan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae, is a newly introduced insect pest on crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. (Myrtales: Lythraceae, one of the most popular flowering shrubs in the U.S. Since first detected in Texas in 2004, this pest has spread to twelve states causing losses to stakeholders. To develop a management plan, we reviewed current knowledge about the pest’s biology and ecology, and suggested research approaches including studying its thermal tolerance, host range, plant resistance and biological control. Parasitoids and predators have been reared from A. lagerstroemiae in the U.S. and China. However, new surveys of natural enemies should be conducted in China, and studies on the host range and impacts of natural enemies on A. lagerstroemiae may help determine the potential for classical biological control. The life history, preying efficiency and rearing methods are important for coccinellid predators found in the U.S. including Chilocorus cacti L. and Hyperaspis spp. To enhance natural enemy performance, it is important to evaluate a sustainable insecticide program that considers efficacy, timing, rate and impact on pollinator health. Finally, an integrated management program of A. lagerstroemiae is discussed including planting resistant cultivars, using host specific natural enemies, and prudent use of insecticides.

  16. Protein domain evolution is associated with reproductive diversification and adaptive radiation in the genus Eucalyptus.

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    Kersting, Anna R; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Eucalyptus is a pivotal genus within the rosid order Myrtales with distinct geographic history and adaptations. Comparative analysis of protein domain evolution in the newly sequenced Eucalyptus grandis genome and other rosid lineages sheds light on the adaptive mechanisms integral to the success of this genus of woody perennials. We reconstructed the ancestral domain content to elucidate the gain, loss and expansion of protein domains and domain arrangements in Eucalyptus in the context of rosid phylogeny. We used functional gene ontology (GO) annotation of genes to investigate the possible biological and evolutionary consequences of protein domain expansion. We found that protein modulation within the angiosperms occurred primarily on the level of expansion of certain domains and arrangements. Using RNA-Seq data from E. grandis, we showed that domain expansions have contributed to tissue-specific expression of tandemly duplicated genes. Our results indicate that tandem duplication of genes, a key feature of the Eucalyptus genome, has played an important role in the expansion of domains, particularly in proteins related to the specialization of reproduction and biotic and abiotic interactions affecting root and floral biology, and that tissue-specific expression of proteins with expanded domains has facilitated subfunctionalization in domain families. © 2014 University of Pretoria New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  18. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

  19. Bilirubin present in diverse angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Johnson, Jodie V; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David

    2010-01-01

    Bilirubin is an orange-yellow tetrapyrrole produced from the breakdown of heme by mammals and some other vertebrates. Plants, algae and cyanobacteria synthesize molecules similar to bilirubin, including the protein-bound bilins and phytochromobilin which harvest or sense light. Recently, we discovered bilirubin in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the White Bird of Paradise Tree, which was the first example of this molecule in a higher plant. Subsequently, we identified bilirubin in both the arils and the flowers of Strelitzia reginae, the Bird of Paradise Flower. In the arils of both species, bilirubin is present as the primary pigment, and thus functions to produce colour. Previously, no tetrapyrroles were known to generate display colour in plants. We were therefore interested in determining whether bilirubin is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and whether it contributes to colour in other species. In this paper, we use HPLC/UV and HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS/MS) to search for bilirubin in 10 species across diverse angiosperm lineages. Bilirubin was present in eight species from the orders Zingiberales, Arecales and Myrtales, but only contributed to colour in species within the Strelitziaceae. The wide distribution of bilirubin in angiosperms indicates the need to re-assess some metabolic details of an important and universal biosynthetic pathway in plants, and further explore its evolutionary history and function. Although colour production was limited to the Strelitziaceae in this study, further sampling may indicate otherwise.

  20. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genome and the genomics of punicalagin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gaihua; Xu, Chunyan; Ming, Ray; Tang, Haibao; Guyot, Romain; Kramer, Elena M; Hu, Yudong; Yi, Xingkai; Qi, Yongjie; Xu, Xiangyang; Gao, Zhenghui; Pan, Haifa; Jian, Jianbo; Tian, Yinping; Yue, Zhen; Xu, Yiliu

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a perennial fruit crop grown since ancient times that has been planted worldwide and is known for its functional metabolites, particularly punicalagins. We have sequenced and assembled the pomegranate genome with 328 Mb anchored into nine pseudo-chromosomes and annotated 29 229 gene models. A Myrtales lineage-specific whole-genome duplication event was detected that occurred in the common ancestor before the divergence of pomegranate and Eucalyptus. Repetitive sequences accounted for 46.1% of the assembled genome. We found that the integument development gene INNER NO OUTER (INO) was under positive selection and potentially contributed to the development of the fleshy outer layer of the seed coat, an edible part of pomegranate fruit. The genes encoding the enzymes for synthesis and degradation of lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose were also differentially expressed between soft- and hard-seeded varieties, reflecting differences in their accumulation in cultivars differing in seed hardness. Candidate genes for punicalagin biosynthesis were identified and their expression patterns indicated that gallic acid synthesis in tissues could follow different biochemical pathways. The genome sequence of pomegranate provides a valuable resource for the dissection of many biological and biochemical traits and also provides important insights for the acceleration of breeding. Elucidation of the biochemical pathway(s) involved in punicalagin biosynthesis could assist breeding efforts to increase production of this bioactive compound. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ocorrência de Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis em Piper nigrum no estado de Alagoas Report of Fusariom solani f. sp. piperis in Piper nigrum in the state of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paiva Carnaúba

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. é uma planta trepadeira, pertencente à família Piperaceae. Ela é originária do Sudeste Asiático, sendo a mais comum e importante das especiarias. A fusariose, também conhecida por podridão do pé e podridão das raízes é a principal doença da cultura, de ocorrência restrita ao Brasil. Um isolado de Fusarium sp., encontrado infectando plantas de pimenta-do-reino cv. bragantina no município de União dos Palmares em Alagoas, foi caracterizado morfologicamente e teve sua patogenicidade confirmada em mudas deste hospedeiro. Os macroconídios apresentaram-se falcados, hialinos com três a cinco septos, com dimensões de 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm, enquanto os microconídios apresentaram-se hialinos, unicelulares, elípticos ou alantóides medindo 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. Os clamidósporos foram abundantes em meio batata-dextrose-ágar. O isolado foi identificado como Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis Alb. tratando-se do primeiro relato deste patógeno em pimenta-do-reino no estado de Alagoas.The pepper-of the-kingdom (Piper nigrum L. it is a climbing plant, pertaining plant to the Piperaceae family. It is originary the southeastern Asian, being most common and important of the spices. Seedling death, also known for rottenness of the foot and rottenness of the root is the main illness of the culture, restricted occurrence to Brazil. Isolated of Fusarium sp., found contamined plants of bragantina pepper-do-kingdom cv. in the city of União dos Palmares in Alagoas, was characterized morphologycament and had its pathogenicity confirmed in changes of this host. The macroconidia slightly curved, typically canoe-shaped, hyaline with three the five septate, measuring 30,5 - 26,5 x 6,3 - 4,9 ìm. Microconidia hyaline, unicellulars, ellipticals or allantoises measuring 16,6 - 4,9 x 6,5 - 3,3 ìm. The chlamydospores had been abundant in half potato-dextrose-agar. The isolated one was identified as to Fusarium

  2. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Fonseca Lira-Medeiros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS or near a salt marsh (SM, with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation.Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples. Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST and multivariate (beta(ST methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity.In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented

  3. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  4. Surveying Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. UKABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caulerpa (Chlorophyta species inhabiting intertidal and shallow subtidal areas along the Israeli Mediterranean shores were surveyed (i.e. presence/absence on a seasonal basis from 2007-2009. We recorded the presence of three speciesC. prolifera, C. mexicana, and C. scalpelliformis. These species were noticeable in autumn and inconspicuous during winter, thus, revealing seasonality and population dynamics. There were no indications of well-known invasive species such as Caulerpa racemosa var.cylindracea and Caulerpa taxifolia. This study is the first of a kind that assesses the geographical distribution and seasonality of the genus Caulerpa along the Israeli shores.

  5. Microwave assisted extraction, antioxidant potential and chromatographic studies of some Rasayana drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish; Mishra, Shilpi; Bhargav, Shilpi; Bhargava, Cs; Thakur, Mayank

    2015-07-01

    To study and compare the conventional extraction procedure with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for some Ayurvedic Rasayana drugs and to evaluate their antioxidant potential and carry out the characterization of extracts by thin layer chromatography. Three Ayurvedic rasayana plants Allium sativum Linn., Bombax ceiba Linn. and Inula racemosa Hook. were evaluated for an improved MAE methodology by determining the effects of grinding degree, extraction solvent, effect of dielectric constant and duration of time on the extractive value. Antioxidant potential of all three drugs was evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power was determined by using Gallic acid as standard. Further thin layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on pre-activated Silica Gel G plates and Rf value were compared with those reported for the important biomarkers. The total extractive value for Allium sativum Linn. was 36.95% (w/w) and 49.95% (w/w) for ethanol extraction respectively. In case of Bombax ceiba Linn. the yield of aqueous extract by MAE was 50% (w/w) compared to 42% (w/w) in ethanol (50% v/v). Percent yield of Inula racemosa Hook. in aqueous extract was found to be 27.55% (w/w) which was better than ethanol extract (50%) where the yield was 25.95% (w/w). Upon antioxidant activity evaluation. sativum extract showed an absorbance of 0.980±0.92 at concentration of 500 μg with maximum reducing capacity. This was followed by. ceiba Linn. 0.825±0.98 and. racemosa Hook. with 0.799±2.01 at a concentration of 500 μg. TLC based standardization of. sativum Linn. extract shows single spot with Rf value of 0.38, B. ceiba Linn. extract shows Rf values were 0.23, 0.58, 0.77, 0.92 and I. racemosa Hook. extract spot had a Rf value of 0.72. A significant improvement in extractive values was observed as a factor of time and other advantages by using MAE technology. All three drugs have high antioxidant potential and a TLC

  6. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ? 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at 2500 years B.P., the water level lowered to its actual size, allowing the installation of this mangrove.

  7. New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

  8. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies.

  9. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lori; Hicks, G Swink; Low, Annette K; Shepherd, Jinna M; Brown, C Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States by traditional medical professionals. Over the past decade, the market for complementary/ alternative therapies for hormone replacement has dramatically increased. Women are seeking more "natural" alternatives to treat menopausal symptoms. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are often lacking, as is the information on efficacy and safety. This article will review several popular herbal therapies for menopausal symptoms including phytoestrogens, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), chast tree (Vitex agnus-castus), and wild Mexican yam. Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined.

  10. INVENTARIO FLORÍSTICO DE PLANTAS VASCULARES LITORALES DE LA LAGUNA EL MORRO, ISLA DE MARGARITA, ESTADO NUEVA ESPARTA, VENEZUELA I FLORÍSTIC INVENTORY OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF EL MORRO COASTAL LAGOON, MARGARITA ISLAND, NUEVA ESPARTA STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelys Valerio González

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to make a floristic inventory of El Morro Lagoon, which is a protected area of Margarita Island, three zones were sampled with transects bordering the lagoon, between the months March and May and from October to December 2008. At least, 98 species were recorded, distributed in 43 families. The best represented families were Poaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Mangrove is the dominating biotope, mainly Avicennia germinans (L. L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L. C. F. Gaertn. The alteration of flora could be related to anthropogenic activities, such as urbanism, informal economy and local tourism.

  11. Características geológicas, hidrológicas y del manglar en la planicie costera de Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The different geoforms of the coastal zone are consecuence of environmental changes (hydrology, climate, marine hydrodynamic and organic growth. The coastal plain of Nayarit is an example of the confluence of these factors which result in saltmarshes, lagoons, deltas, meanders, channels, swamps, all of which are bordered by high mangrove density. These characteristics coastal plain structures are exploited for human activities. In this paper the geologic, and hydrologic evolution, as well as the mangrove vegetation distribution was analized, using a LANDSAT image, which covers 108 113 ha, with heterogeneus species distribution and predominance of Laguncularia racemosa followed by Rhizophora mangle.

  12. Características estruturais de bosques de mangue do estuário do rio São Mateus, ES, Brasil Structural characteristics of the mangrove forests at São Mateus River Estuary, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Bonfante da Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da vegetação do manguezal do estuário do rio São Mateus foi analisada pelo método de parcelas em quatro sítios de estudo. Nesse manguezal, foram registradas as espécies Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapft & Leechm., Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. e Rhizophora mangle L. Considerando todas as parcelas, o DAP médio variou de 8,12 a 29,6 cm, a altura média de 5,4 a 12,0 m, a área basal de 7,21 a 31,1 m².ha-1 e a densidade de 450 a 1.450 ind.ha-1. Os sítios de estudo sob maior influência das marés apresentaram menor desenvolvimento estrutural e dominância de R. mangle, enquanto que o melhor desenvolvimento estrutural, com dominância de L. racemosa e A. germinans, foi observado nos sítios sujeitos ao maior aporte de ��gua doce. Os resultados demonstraram que o manguezal do estuário do rio São Mateus apresenta bom desenvolvimento estrutural em relação a outros manguezais do Estado do Espírito Santo.The structure of the mangrove forests at São Mateus River Estuary was analyzed using the plot method. Mangrove species at the estuary are Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Avicennia schaueriana Stapft & Leechm., Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn., and Rhizophora mangle L. Structural analyzes were performed in four sites. In all stands, the DBH varied from 8.12 to 29.6 cm, average height from 5.4 to 12.0 m, the basal area from 7.21 to 31.1 m².ha-1, and the density from 450 a 1,450 ind.ha-1. Sites under larger influence of the tides, presented smaller structural development and dominance of R. mangle. L. racemosa and A. germinans were dominant in sites with fresh water predominance. The results obtained demonstrated that mangrove which was studied presented a good structural development in relation to other mangroves located in the Espírito Santo State.

  13. Expansion of southern distributional range of Ucides occidentalis (Decapoda: Ucididae and Cardisoma crassum (Decapoda: Gecarcinidae

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    Solange Alemán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Is recorded the species of crabs brachyuran Ucides occidentalis (mangrove crab and Cardisoma crassum (Blue crab or without mouth in the mangroves of San Pedro (Piura, expanding its geographical distribution south of Tumbes, which was the known limit. The habitat of these species is characterized by the presence of two varieties of mangrove trees, Jeli white (Laguncularia racemosa and salty Jeli (Avicenia germinans and halophytic shrub called glass (Batis maritima, it observing that the depth of the burrows is shallow (< 60 cm. Biometric information and some biological aspects of the collected specimens are also presented.

  14. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  15. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

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    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  16. Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-de-Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seasonal relationships (dry vs. rainy between reflectance (400–1000 nm and leaf pigment contents (chlorophyll-a (chl-a, chlorophyll-b (chl-b, total carotenoids (tcar, chlorophyll a/b ratio in three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa (L. racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle (R. mangle according to their condition (stressed vs. healthy. Based on a sample of 360 leaves taken from a semi-arid forest of the Mexican Pacific, it was determined that during the dry season, the stressed A. germinans and R. mangle show the highest maximum correlations at the green (550 nm and red-edge (710 nm wavelengths (r = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively for both chl-a and chl-b and that much lower values (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively were recorded during the rainy season. Moreover, it was found that the tcar correlation pattern across the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from that of the chl-a, the chl-b, and chl a/b ratio but that their maximum correlations were also located at the same two wavelength ranges for both seasons. The stressed L. racemosa was the only sample to exhibit minimal correlation with chl-a and chl-b for either season. In addition, the healthy A. germinans and R. mangle depicted similar patterns of chl-a and chl-b, but the tcar varied depending on the species. The healthy L. racemosa recorded higher correlations with chl-b and tcar at the green and red-edge wavelengths during the dry season, and higher correlation with chl-a during the rainy season. Finally, the vegetation index Red Edge Inflection Point Index (REIP was found to be the optimal index for chl-a estimation for both stressed and healthy classes. For chl-b, both the REIP and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (Vog1 index were found to be best at prediction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is suggested that caution be taken as mangrove leaf pigment contents from spectroscopy data

  17. Produção de biomassa, óleo essencial e características fisiiológicas anatômicas foliares de Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter em função da adubação orgânica, malhas coloridas e idade das plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosal, Louise Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    A espécie Plectranthus neochilus Schlechter é uma planta herbácea, perene, ramificada, muito aromática, conhecida também como boldo pequeno, boldo cheiroso, boldo rasteiro ou boldo gambá. Possui folhas pequenas quase triangulares, dispostas compactamente, pouco amargas, de odor forte e inflorescência racemosa de coloração violeta. Suas folhas são utilizadas para o tratamento de insuficiência hepática, dispepsia e dores no estômago. O objetivo na presente pesquisa foi avaliar a produção de bio...

  18. Paleoenvironment interpretation of a 1760 years B.P. old sediment in a mangrove area of the Bay of Guanabara, using pollen analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Ortrud M.; São-Thiago, Luiz E.U.; Barros, Marcia A.

    2006-01-01

    A sediment sample was obtained at 122 cm from the top of a drilling core in the Guapimirim mangrove, Bay of Guanabara, and analyzed using pollen analysis. This muddy core reached a sandy ground at 133 cm. 14C datation got the age of 1760 ± 50 years B.P. The most frequent pollen grains were mangrove species of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana. "Restinga" and tropical rain forest vegetation was recognized behind the mangrove. After the last sea transgression at...

  19. Benzoylsalireposide an antioxidant, lipoxygenase and chymotrypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.A.; Ahmad, V.U.; Zubair, A.M.; Rashid, M.A.; Farooq, U.; Nawaz, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two phenolic glycosides, benzoylsalireposide (1) and salireposide (2) were isolated from Symplocos racemosa Roxb, which showed DPPH radical scavenging activity, with the IC/sub 50/ values of 773 +- 11.83 micro meter and 757 +- 0.374 micro meter respectively. In addition to this, compound 1 also displayed in vitro inhibitory potential against lipoxygenase and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent fashion with the IC/sub 50/ values of 75.1 +- 0.5 micro meter and 65.07 +- 0.10 micro meter respectively, while 2 was inactive against these enzymes. (author)

  20. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes; Giovana Augusta Torres; Lisete Chamma Davide; Caio Césio Salgado

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  1. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes,Juliane Dornellas; Torres,Giovana Augusta; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Salgado,Caio Césio

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e ...

  2. Avaliação da uniformidade de distribuição de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento em pimentao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Silva dos santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola em áreas irrigadas depende de uma série de fatores, dentre eles, o dimensionamento e manutenção dos sistemas. Aplicações excessivas ou insuficientes de água prejudicam o desenvolvimento das plantas e, consequentemente, a produtividade e a rentabilidade do agricultor. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a uniformidade em sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, utilizado na cultura da pimenta cultivada no município de Arapiraca-AL. Os coeficientes de uniformidade (CUC, CUD, a eficiência de aplicação, a vazão do sistema foram obtidos em avaliações de campo. Os resultados identificaram que o sistema está operando com boa uniformidade, porém a eficiência de aplicação está abaixo do recomendado.   

  3. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (ppreservation process for pink peppers.

  4. Capsaicina e sua aplicação em odontologia

    OpenAIRE

    Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Farias, Michelle Moura de; Gomes, Maria Cláudia Baggio; Azevedo, Luciana Reis de; Lima, Antônio Adílson Soares de; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval

    2016-01-01

    A capsaicina é o princípio ativo presente na pimenta vermelha responsável pela sua ação picante. Possui várias propriedades farmacológicas como a ação mucolítica, termogênica e analgésica. Atua sobre a fisiopatologia da dor, principalmente nos mediadores químicos que induzem algesia, inibindo temporariamente a substância P. É empregada no tratamento de vários tipos de dores como a dor orofacial crônica, a dor pósherpética e a dor por desaferentação.Descritores: Capsaicina. Dor. Fisiologia....

  5. As Armas Não Letais como Abordagem Temática para o Ensino de Química

    OpenAIRE

    Razuck, Fernando Barcellos

    2017-01-01

    Nos últimos anos o Brasil acompanhou uma série de manifestações reivindicando a melhoria na qualidade dos serviços públicos. Como resposta a essas manifestações houve uma intensa abordagem policial, com o uso de armas não letais, como o gás lacrimogêneo e o spray de pimenta. Considerando a importância de se atrelar o momento histórico à presença da ciência, este trabalho, realizado em uma escola pública na forma de oficina temática durante a Semana de Educação para a Vida, teve o objetivo de ...

  6. Das Staatsunternehmen als Expertenarena. Die Anfangsjahre der Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, 1942-1951

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The essay examines the role played by Brazilian technical and scientific elites during and after the Second World War. It focuses on the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), a Brazilian state company with both Brazilian and U.S. directors, which was founded in 1942 to realize a large-scale iron ore...... and the war, Pinheiro was perceived as a political expert loyal to President Getúlio Vargas but detached from his professional peers and his home state Minas Gerais. Pimenta, in turn, maintained an image as a true technical expert. He followed clearly nationalistic administrative style aimed at brazilianising...... the company while using it to serve the economic needs of Minas Gerais....

  7. Distraction: heroic attitude before the metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zacca Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering distraction as the heroic ethos of  modernity, I intend to analyze the perceptive changes brought about by the advance of the productive forces under capitalism; and the subsequent apprehension  of this change by four contemporary poets, namely Liv Lagerblad, Heyk Pimenta, Alberto Pucheu and Eucanaã Ferraz. Each of these poets brings distraction as what Walter Benjamin classified as inner form. In all cases, distraction appears as a poetic force before the danger of annihilation in big cities. This reflection is the basis for another, another, yet concerning the relations between poetry and politics, thinking with Jacques Rancière its position on the "distribution of the sensible". Finally, a resumption of Baudelaire, a master of distraction, seems to be inevitable.

  8. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  9. As vozes da mímica pós-colonial em Terra Papagalli

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    Jacimara Vieira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on the studies undertaken in the area of cultural studies, inparticular,Homi Bhabha‟s formulations, to propose an analysis of the BraziliannovelTerra Papagalli(by José Roberto Torero and Marcus Aurelius Pimenta,showing how the narrative dismounts historical reality, to explore other angles; and shifts the focus to the imaginary construction that involves revisiting theDiscoveries. Thus, contrary to expectations, revealing paradoxes such as thosewhich tend to increase civic and commemorative urges that liveantagonistically, with anti-establishment thoughts that questionthe internalconnections of these developments, articulating, through mimetic resources,other voices and their critic repetitions of contested models and references.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laira Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  11. Efeito inibitório de extratos vegetais sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides - agente causal da podridão de frutos de mamoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Luiz Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos foram obtidos a partir de bulbilhos de alho, folhas de hortelã e mamona e frutos de pimenta. Após a incorporação destes extratos em BDA, obtendo-se concentrações de 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000 e 10000 ppm, foi avaliado o crescimento e a produção de conídios de um isolado de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente de podridão em frutos de mamoeiro. Os resultados demonstraram o efeito inibitório dos diferentes extratos a partir da concentração de 200 ppm. O extrato de alho inibiu o crescimento micelial, em porcentagens variáveis de 5,3 a 67,6%, porém não atuou de modo expressivo sobre a produção de conídios. Em contraposição, os extratos de hortelã, mamona e pimenta promoveram inibição menos acentuada do crescimento de micélio, porém reduziram drasticamente a produção de conídios em níveis variáveis de 41 a 84%, de acordo com as concentrações crescentes dos mesmos. As propriedades fungitóxicas detectadas nos extratos utilizados no ensaio evidenciaram o uso potencial dos mesmos como alternativa aos métodos físicos e químicos convencionalmente usados para o controle da doença.

  12. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

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    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  13. Repelência e atividade inseticida de pós vegetais sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman em feijão-fava armazenado

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    J.E. Girão Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de Piper nigrum L. (pimenta do reino, Ruta graveolens L. (arruda, Laurus nobilis L. (louro, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry (cravo da índia, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (mastruz, Piper tuberculatum Jaqc. (pimenta de macaco, Tagetes erecta L. (cravo de defunto, Cymbopogon nardus L. (citronela e Melissa officinalis L. (erva cidreira sobre Z. subfasciatus Boh. através dos testes de confinamento, onde os insetos foram confinados durante cinco dias em um recipiente contendo dez grãos de feijão-fava com 0,3 g do pó da planta a ser testada, e, com chance de escolha por meio de uma arena circular, os insetos tiveram a possibilidade de escolha entre grãos com os pós e a testemunha, grãos sem pó das plantas. Observou-se que houve plantas que atuaram como inseticida, outras que repeliram o inseto e não causaram a morte, e outras, que além de repelir também mataram os insetos quando em contato (cravo da índia e matruz. Concluímos que: P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, S. aromaticum e C. ambrosioides são tóxicas à Z. subfasciatus causando-lhes a morte, L. nobilis, T. erecta, e C. nardus não apresentaram efeito tóxico sobre Z. subfasciatus, C. ambrosioides, S. aromaticum, e C. nardus são repelentes à Z. subfasciatus; P. nigrum, P. tuberculatum, e T. erecta são neutras, e que M. officinalis não apresentou nenhum efeito sobre Z. subfasciatus em relação aos parâmetros avaliados.

  14. Ampelomyces hyperparasites – occurrence and effect on the development of ascomata of Erysiphales species under conditions of anthropopressure

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    Ewa Sucharzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Ampelomyces are the major antagonists of Erysiphales fungi being a significant group of phytopathogens. The hyperparasites attack various developmental stages of powdery mildews. As a result the infested ascomata do not reach the stage of maturity, do not form appendages nor ascospores, which is linked with a reduction of the source of primary infections. Studies conducted so far have mainly been devoted to Ampelomyces fungi application in the biological control of powdery mildews on crops, whilst a few only have been focused on the ecology of these mycoparasites on Erysiphales fungi infecting plants, especially in the urban environment. The present study addresses the natural occurrence and effect of Ampelomyces fungi on the development of ascomata of powdery mildews species. The material was collected in 2005–2009 in several cities of the northeastern Poland. First time ever Ampelomyces spores are reported in mature ascomata of Erysiphales with fully developed appendages. This phenomenon has been observed in the case of two species, viz.: Erysiphe flexuosa on Aesculus spp. and E. vanbruntiana var. sambuci-racemosae on Sambucus racemosa and is presumably linked with improved implementation, propagation and probably better survival during winter months.

  15. The University of Illinois at Chicago/National Institutes of Health Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: from plant to clinical use1,2, 3, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Krause, Elizabeth C; Bolton, Judy L; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Graham, James G

    2013-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Chicago/National Institutes of Health Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research began in 1999 with an emphasis on botanical dietary supplements for women’s health. We have concentrated on plants that may improve women’s health, especially to reduce hot flashes in menopausal women, alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, and reduce persistent urinary tract infections. The primary focus of this article is to describe the operation of our center, from acquiring and identifying botanicals to isolating and identifying active constituents, to elucidating their mechanisms of action, and to conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa; syn Cimicifuga racemosa) has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking this plant from the field to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. We conclude that this type of research can only be successful with the use of a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:18258647

  16. High-Resolution Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of PTP1B Inhibitors from Vietnamese Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Binh Thi Dieu; Jäger, Anna K; Staerk, Dan

    2017-07-20

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role as a negative regulator in insulin signal transduction by deactivating the insulin receptor. Thus, PTP1B inhibition has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for curing insulin resistance. In this study, 40 extracts from 18 different plant species were investigated for PTP1B inhibitory activity in vitro. The most promising one, the EtOAc extract of Ficus racemosa , was investigated by high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis. This led to the identification of isoderrone ( 1 ), derrone ( 2 ), alpinumisoflavone ( 3 ) and mucusisoflavone B ( 4 ) as PTP1B inhibitors. IC 50 of these compounds were 22.7 ± 1.7, 12.6 ± 1.6, 21.2 ± 3.8 and 2.5 ± 0.2 µM, respectively. Kinetics analysis revealed that these compounds inhibited PTP1B non-competitively with K i values of 21.3 ± 2.8, 7.9 ± 1.9, 14.3 ± 2.0, and 3.0 ± 0.5 µM, respectively. These findings support the important role of F. racemosa as a novel source of new drugs and/or as a herbal remedy for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  17. High-Resolution Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of PTP1B Inhibitors from Vietnamese Plants

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    Binh Thi Dieu Trinh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B plays a key role as a negative regulator in insulin signal transduction by deactivating the insulin receptor. Thus, PTP1B inhibition has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for curing insulin resistance. In this study, 40 extracts from 18 different plant species were investigated for PTP1B inhibitory activity in vitro. The most promising one, the EtOAc extract of Ficus racemosa, was investigated by high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis. This led to the identification of isoderrone (1, derrone (2, alpinumisoflavone (3 and mucusisoflavone B (4 as PTP1B inhibitors. IC50 of these compounds were 22.7 ± 1.7, 12.6 ± 1.6, 21.2 ± 3.8 and 2.5 ± 0.2 µM, respectively. Kinetics analysis revealed that these compounds inhibited PTP1B non-competitively with Ki values of 21.3 ± 2.8, 7.9 ± 1.9, 14.3 ± 2.0, and 3.0 ± 0.5 µM, respectively. These findings support the important role of F. racemosa as a novel source of new drugs and/or as a herbal remedy for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove

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    MARIANA M. DE SOUSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  19. Fitossociologia de florestas de mangue plantadas e naturais no estuário do Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n1p37 A fitossociologia de florestas de mangue plantadas e naturais foi comparada no estuário do Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostragem da vegetação foi feita pelo método de parcelas, sendo registrado o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP e a altura dos indivíduos > 1 m de altura. Os resultados indicaram que a floresta plantada apresenta menores valores de DAP médio e área basal, e maior densidade de troncos em relação à floresta natural. A distribuição de indivíduos por classes de altura e a distribuição de troncos por classes diamétricas mostraram que a floresta plantada é mais jovem. Laguncularia racemosa e Rhizophora mangle ocorreram em ambas as florestas, enquanto Avicennia schaueriana foi registrada apenas na floresta plantada. Laguncularia racemosa apresentou maior dominância e densidade relativa em todos os sítios analisados, provavelmente, por ser característica de locais com menor influência marinha e pelo fato do estuário ter sido alterado por perturbações antrópicas.

  20. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

    2013-08-01

    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mariana M DE; Colpo, Karine D

    2017-01-01

    It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank) of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  2. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

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    P. J. Weisser

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  3. Assessing Genetic Diversity after Mangrove Restoration in Brazil: Why Is It So Important?

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    Renan Granado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vital for many marine and terrestrial species, and several other environmental services, such as carbon sink areas, the mangrove ecosystem is highly threatened due to the proximity of large urban centers and climate change. The forced fragmentation of this ecosystem affects the genetic diversity distribution among natural populations. Moreover, while restoration efforts have increased, few studies have analyzed how recently-planted areas impact the original mangrove genetic diversity. We analyzed the genetic diversity of two mangroves species (Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana in three areas in Brazil, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Using the local approach, we identified the genetic diversity pool of a restored area compared to nearby areas, including the remnant plants inside the restored area, one well-conserved population at the shore of Guanabara Bay, and one impacted population in Araçá Bay. The results for L. racemosa showed that the introduced population has lost genetic diversity by drift, but remnant plants with high genetic diversity or incoming propagules could help improve overall genetic diversity. Avicennia schaueriana showed similar genetic diversity, indicating an efficient gene flow. The principal component analysis showing different connections between both species indicate differences in gene flow and dispersal efficiencies, highlighting the needed for further studies. Our results emphasize that genetic diversity knowledge and monitoring associated with restoration actions can help avoid bottlenecks and other pitfalls, especially for the mangrove ecosystem.

  4. Comparative effects of split Orimulsion reg-sign, fuel oil number-sign 6 and Lago Medio Crude oil over functional variables of an estuarine community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilici, A.; Rodriguez-Grau, J.; Vasquez, P.; Infante, C.; Schiazza, J. La; Briceno, H.; Pereira, N.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects, on comparative bases, of three different kinds of hydrocarbon products, on physiological and dynamic parameters of a mangrove community (located East of Venezuela), by experimentally monitoring changes on those parameters using Laguncularia racemosa as a bioindicator mangrove species. Orimulsion reg-sign has been introduced recently in the World market; and it is, in essence, an emulsion produced from bitumen mixed with water and stabilized with a surfactant. Results indicate that litter disappearance rate, a parameter directly related to nutrient cycling and dynamics, is not altered by the split Orimulsion reg-sign, when compared to controls; while the other hydrocarbon products tested, seem to exert an impact over this parameter. In addition, Orimulsion reg-sign, is less retained in mangrove sediments compared with the other two products, as indicated by the remaining percent mean of total hydrocarbon soil content sampled on the same consecutive dates. Nonetheless, the photosynthetic capacity of leaves as well as soil respiratory rates, monitored at treatment and control plots, were not affected by any of the products tested. In conclusion, L. racemosa, in terms of its photosynthetic capacity, is not directly affected by any of the hydrocarbon products tested, nor does there seem to be an effect on soil respiration; however, Orimulsion reg-sign, in contrast to the other products, does not seem to be causing an impact with regard to litter dynamics

  5. Host-exclusivity and host-recurrence by wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota - Agaricomycetes in Brazilian mangroves

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    Georgea S. Nogueira-Melo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate for the first time the ecological interactions between species of Agaricomycetes and their host plants in Brazilian mangroves. Thirty-two field trips were undertaken to four mangroves in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, from April 2009 to March 2010. One 250 x 40 m stand was delimited in each mangrove and six categories of substrates were artificially established: living Avicennia schaueriana (LA, dead A. schaueriana (DA, living Rhizophora mangle (LR, dead R. mangle (DR, living Laguncularia racemosa (LL and dead L. racemosa (DL. Thirty-three species of Agaricomycetes were collected, 13 of which had more than five reports and so were used in statistical analyses. Twelve species showed significant values for fungal-plant interaction: one of them was host-exclusive in DR, while five were host-recurrent on A. schauerianna; six occurred more in dead substrates, regardless the host species. Overall, the results were as expected for environments with low plant species richness, and where specificity, exclusivity and/or recurrence are more easily seen. However, to properly evaluate these relationships, mangrove ecosystems cannot be considered homogeneous since they can possess different plant communities, and thus different types of fungal-plant interactions.

  6. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.Muchas hipótesis se han propuesto para explicar la diversidad de dipteros de la familia Cecidomyiidae, algunos de ellos teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de las plantas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo probar la importancia del tamaño, la edad y la composición de las plantas en la diversidad de Cecidomyiidae, a través de los inventarios de las agallas y las plantas hospederas, en Brasil. Asterales, Malpighiales y Myrtales fueron los órdenes más importantes, con 34, 33 y 25 tipos de agallas, respectivamente. Las familias m

  7. Distribución y conservación de especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y Andes tropicales Distribution and conservation of endangered species in Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes

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    María Cecilia Londoño-Murcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se modeló el nicho ecológico proyectado como distribución potencial de 313 especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y los Andes tropicales, según las listas de la UICN. De estas especies, 285 fueron plantas y 28 fueron vertebrados terrestres. La superposición de las distribuciones de las especies amenazadas cubrió prácticamente toda la región. Ecuador mostró cerca del 30% de su área con 50 especies. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panamá mostraron > 50, aunque en 50% de su área. El Salvador y Honduras, de 11 a 20 en > 50% de su área y México de 1 a 5 especies en > 50% de su área. La distribución de estas especies en áreas transformadas (agricultura y áreas urbanas varió del 11al 30%; El Salvador, Panamá y Guatemala mostraron > 50% de la distribución; Colombia, Honduras y México This study modeled ecological niches projected as potential distributions for 313 endangered species listed in the IUCN for Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes, of which 285 were plants, and 28 terrestrial vertebrates. Overlapping of endangered species distributions covered most of the region. Ecuador showed close to 30% of its area with 50 endangered species. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panama showed more than 50 endangered species in 50% of its area with endangered species (21 to 50 species were Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Panama. El Salvador and Honduras showed > 50% of its area with 11 to 20 endangered species; Mexico showed 50% of endangered species in transformed areas; Colombia, Honduras and Mexico showed < 40%, and Belize and Ecuador showed < 25% of endangered species in transformed areas, respectively. El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Mexico showed a high proportion of endangered species in transformed areas for the Classes Amphibia, Liliopsida, Polipodiopsida, and the Orders Asterales, Fabales, Laurales, Myrtales, Scrophulariales and Rubiales. Less than 35% of endangered

  8. Assessment of Geographic and Host-Associated Population Variations of the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, on Pomegranate, Fig, Pistachio and Walnut, Using AFLP Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Mardi, Mohsen; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Nouri Ganbalani, Gadir

    2008-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most important pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Myrtales: Ponicaceae), in Iran. In this study, 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations were used to survey the genetic structure of the geographic and putative host-associated populations of this pest in Iran. An AMOVA was performed on test populations. Pairwise differences, Mantel test, multidimensional analysis, cluster analysis and migration rate were calculated for 5 geographic populations of E. ceratoniae sharing the same host, pomegranate. In another part of the study, 3 comparisons were performed on pairwise populations that were collected on different hosts (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) in same geographic regions. The results showed high within population variation (85.51% of total variation), however geographic populations differed significantly. The Mantel test did not show correlations between genetic and geographic distances. The probable factors that affect genetic distances are discussed. Multidimensional scaling analysis, migration rate and cluster analysis on geographic populations showed that the Arsanjan population was the most different from the others while the Saveh population was more similar to the Sabzevar population. The comparisons didn't show any host fidelity in test populations. It seems that the ability of E. ceratoniae to broaden its host range with no fidelity to hosts can decrease the efficiency of common control methods that are used on pomegranate. The results of this study suggest that in spite of the effects of geographic barriers, high within-population genetic variation, migration rate and gene flow can provide the opportunity for emerging new phenotypes or behaviors in pest populations, such as broadening host range, changing egg lying places, or changing over-wintering sites to adapt to difficult conditions such as those caused by intensive control

  9. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  10. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  12. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  13. CAMBIOS EN LA FLORA BÉNTICA DE ARRECIFE HORNOS (VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Godínez-Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Arrecife Hornos pertenece al Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano y por su accesibilidad a la costa ha sufrido el impacto antropogénico directo causando cambios en su biodiversidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la composición y estructura florística, además de verificar los posibles cambios florísticos que han ocurrido en el área desde el último estudio en 1962. Los muestreos fueron realizados en las épocas de secas y lluvias (abril, 2008 y junio, 2008, respectivamente. La atribución de flora presente para 5 formas de vida (pastos marinos + epífitas, calcificadas/costrosas, filamentosas, tubulares/ laminares, racemosas/carnosas fue realizada con base en el análisis de la cobertura vegetal muestreada en 50 m2. Al comparar las especies del presente estudio con las especies reportadas en la literatura previamente se observó que de las 58 especies, 25 son nuevos reportes para Arrecife Hornos. La flora en 2008 fue pobre en comparación con las reportadas en 1962 (27 especies comparadas con las 58 especies. La flora de 1962 tenía un índice de Cheney de 3.5 que indica una flora mixta con elementos tropicales y subtropicales, sin embargo, para el presente estudio observamos un índice de 25 lo cual indica una flora tropical sin elementos subtropicales. Diversas especies de Sargassum hystrix var. buxifolium y S. polyceratium, comunes en 1962 han desparecido de Arrecife Hornos y especies con afinidad a aguas tropicales como Caulerpa racemosa y C. sertularioides están ahora presentes. Los valores de cobertura nos demuestran que Arrecife Hornos está cubierto en su mayoría por Thalassia testudinum y algas calcificadas (Lithophyllum aff. congestum y en menor proporción algas filamentosas, laminares y racemosas. El presente estudio sugiere la existencia de cambios en la composición y cobertura fitobentónica de Arrecife Hornos.

  14. Natural products to agro-ecological pest management and their natural enemies of cotton plant intercropped with maize, cowpea and sesame = Produtos naturais no manejo agroecológico de pragas e seus inimigos naturais do algodoeiro consorciado com milho, feijão-caupi e gergelim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Pereira de Araujo

    2015-06-01

    . Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os inseticidas naturais: extrato aquoso da pimenta malagueta, caulim, Azamax®, Rotenat® e Pironat® no manejo agroecológico das principais pragas e seus inimigos naturais do algodoeiro consorciado com as culturas do milho, feijão-caupi e gergelim. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no campo experimental da Embrapa Algodão em Barbalha, Ceará, onde instalou-se o experimento para avaliação dos produtos naturais, com o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso e com quatro repetições, representado por seis tratamentos: T1-Testemunha (sem aplicação, T2-Pimenta malagueta, T3-Caulim, T4-Azamax®, T5-Rotenat® e T6-Pironat®. Os produtos foram aplicados a cada sete dias, seguidos de avaliações também semanais, considerando-se o efeito dos tratamentos sobre a ocorrência dos insetos pragas do algodoeiro e seus inimigos naturais. O Caulim é o produto natural mais eficiente no controle do bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis . A pimenta malagueta não é eficiente no controle das principais pragas do algodoeiro. Os produtos naturais aplicados a cada 7 dias em pulverizações nas folhas do algodoeiro não interferem na presença de inimigos naturais.

  15. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O registro de cultivares permite a produção e comercialização de sementes no país. É um processo importante para os programas de melhoramento, pois assegura a identidade genética e a qualidade varietal das cultivares. Adicionalmente, a proteção de cultivares, que garante os direitos intelectuais aos obtentores, possibilita que empresas públicas e privadas de pesquisa possam ser beneficiadas com o ingresso de recursos decorrentes dos direitos sobre as cultivares que desenvolvem dando sustentabilidade parcial ou total à continuidade de programas de melhoramento e o subseqüente lançamento de novas cultivares de interesse para o agronegócio brasileiro. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças e o resultado dos processos de registro e proteção de cultivares de pimentas do grupo jalapeño, denominadas BRS Sarakura e BRS Garça. Foram utilizados 48 descritores, sendo que quatro apresentaram potencial discriminatório para diferenciar as duas cultivares: altura e largura das plantas, intensidade da coloração verde dos frutos antes da maturação e espessura do pedúnculo. Ambas cultivares apresentam uniformidade de plantas, alta produtividade, alto teores de capsaicina, estabilidade quanto aos descritores avaliados durante os dois ciclos, bem como se mostraram distintas de outras cultivares de pimentas do gênero Capsicum. Para a obtenção do registro e proteção das cultivares de pimenta foram relevantes a experiência na caracterização morfológica do banco de germoplasma e aplicação dos descritores, o conhecimento da morfologia da planta, o auxílio de um profissional na área de botânica para identificar as diversas espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum e o conhecimento e cumprimento das exigências burocráticas para efetivação dos processos.The process of registration of new cultivars in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply is an

  16. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise financeira e a simulação de risco de investimento em sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs implantados em 1987, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Rondônia, localizado no município de Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. A análise financeira foi realizada mediante os métodos de avaliação de projetos florestais, e para a análise de risco utilizou-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, mediante o programa @RISK. Entre os arranjos testados, o SAF T1 Castanha-do-brasil-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu apresentou o melhor desempenho financeiro em relação aos SAFs T2 Freijó-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu e T3 Pupunha-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu . Os custos com tratos culturais e colheita representaram mais de 70% da composição dos custos totais, e a participação da mão-de-obra foi superior a 50% nas fases de preparo da área e de manutenção (tratos culturais dos SAFs. A simulação da análise de risco indicou que as variáveis que afetaram o Valor Presente Líquido no Horizonte Infinito (VPL*, de acordo com a ordem de importância (R, foram: taxa de desconto, preço do fruto de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, custo de colheita, preço da madeira de castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa e o custo de tratos culturais. Apesar do alto custo de implantação e manutenção, o SAF T1 apresentou uma probabilidade de 15% de os valores do Valor Presente Líquido (VPL se concentrarem em torno de R$35.000 ha-1.ano-1.The objective of this study was to carry out the financial analysis and the risk of investment simulation in agroforestry systems (AFSs established in 1987 in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Rondônia, located in the County of Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. Financial analysis was made through the evaluation of results from the forestry enterprise evaluation methods, and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. Among the arrangements

  17. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  18. A base de conhecimentos profissionais para o ensino: provocações à docência universitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson da Silva Moreira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto resulta de pesquisa que buscou investigar como se deu a construção dos conhecimentos profissionais relacionados ao ensino por parte de professores que lecionam em cursos de Engenharia de uma universidade pública baiana. Visto que, comumente, os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu estão voltados, predominantemente, para a formação do pesquisador, o processo investigativo girou em torno da seguinte questão norteadora: onde e por meio de quais processos professores de cursos de Engenharia de uma universidade pública baiana construíram seus conhecimentos profissionais relacionados ao ensino? O estudo, de natureza qualitativa, ancora-se em discussões tecidas por autores que discutem sobre a Pedagogia Universitária: Masetto (2012, Pimenta (2009, D’Ávila (2013, Soares (2009, e sobre formação de professores: Pimenta (2014; Marcelo Garcia (2012; Mizukami et. al. (2010 e Nono (2005. A coleta de dados foi procedida mediante um questionário socioprofissional, além da aplicação do caso de ensino intitulado “O dilema de Ricardo”. O corpus de dados produzido foi analisado com base nos pressupostos da técnica de análise de conteúdo (BARDIN, 1977. A análise dos achados empíricos permite-nos afirmar que: a os docentes universitários exercem a docência baseados nos professores modelos que tiveram durante o seu processo de escolarização na educação básica e superior; b a profissão docente, no ensino superior, vai sendo construída cotidianamente, a partir das trocas de experiências com os pares. c o estágio de docência, realizado durante o período do mestrado, e a participação em treinamentos têm se constituído elementos impulsionadores nos processos de aprendizagem da docência e desenvolvimento profissional dos sujeitos participantes do nosso estudo. Palavras-chave: Docência universitária. Conhecimentos profissionais. Formação de professores.   The basis of professional knowledge for teaching

  19. Ecological resilience indicators for mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard H.; Allen, Scott T.; Brenner, Jorge; Goodin, Kathleen; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Ames, Katherine Wirt

    2018-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are coastal wetland ecosystems dominated by mangrove species that are typically found in the intertidal zone, characterized by frequently flooded saline soil conditions. The majority of the approximately 500,000 acres of mangrove ecosystem in the United States occurs in the NGoM, and almost all of that is in Florida, with over 90 percent in the four southern counties of Lee, Collier, Miami-Dade, and Monroe. Scattered stands and individuals occur north and westward into Louisiana and Texas (Osland et al., 2016). The three common mangrove species are: black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). The mangrove system described in this project includes Tidal Mangrove Shrubland and Tidal Mangrove Forest as classified in CMECS (FGDC, 2012). It is classified as Caribbean Fringe Mangrove (G004) in the USNVC (2016), with a variety of distinct associations, based on species dominance and ecological setting.

  20. Manifestações cutâneas das trombofilias Cutaneous manifestations of thrombophilia

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    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O escopo deste artigo é revisar os estados de hipercoagulabilidade sangüínea (trombofilias mais provavelmente encontrados por dermatologista. Seus sinais cutâneos incluem o livedo reticular, necrose cutânea, ulcerações e isquemia digital, púrpura retiforme, além de úlceras nas pernas. Revisamos seu tratamento adequado, bem como ressaltamos as manifestações cutâneas que impõem pesquisa laboratorial de trombofilias e os exames indicados nessas situações.The aim of this article is to review the hypercoagulable states (thrombophilia most probably found by dermatologists; their cutaneous signs including livedo racemosa, skin necrosis, digital ischemia and ulcerations, retiform purpura and leg ulcers; their appropriate treatment; to describe the skin manifestations that require laboratory tests for thrombophilias and the tests indicated in these clinical conditions.

  1. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling.

  2. Spatial-temporal development of the mangrove vegetation cover on a hydraulic landfill (Via Expressa Sul, Florianópolis, SC: mapping and interpretation of digital aerophotographs, and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Tavares de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a hydraulic landfill along the southern expressway (Via Expressa Sul, in the central-south region of Santa Catarina Island, started in 1995 and was completed in 1997. The landfill provided the mangrove vegetation a new environment to colonize, which has developed rapidly during this short period of time. This study mapped the vegetation cover of this region using aerial photographs from five years (1994, 1997, 2002, 2004 and 2007, which demonstrated the spatial-temporal evolution of the vegetation since the year before the implementation of the landfill (1994 to its recent state (2007. The data from this study allowed changes in the surface of three bands of vegetation, a band of trees (Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana, a band of the seagrass praturá (Spartina alterniflora and a transition band (companions of mangrove species and restinga plants, to be quantified.

  3. Catálogo sistemático dos pólens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil Meridional: IV - Thymelaeaceae, Lythraceae, Lecythidaceae, Rhizophoraceae e Combretaceae

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wurden pollenmorphologisch diejenigen Arten der vorliegenden Familien untersucht, welche als Baeume in den suedbrasilianischen Waeldern auftreten, mit Ausnahme der krautigen Heimia myrtifolia. Gekennzeichnet durch drei einfache Colpori laesst sich die Gruppe von Buchenavia kleinii, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Heimia myrtifolia (Lythraceae und Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae bilden. Wegen ihrer Pseudocolpi oder aehnlichen Laengsstreifen einer duenneren Sexine stellen die Pollenkoerner von Combretum futicosum, Terminalia autralis (Combretaceae und Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae eine andere Gruppe dar. Daphnopsis (Thymelaeaceae besitzt 10 - 14 gleichmaessing verteilte Poren und eine Oerflaechenstruktur die der des Croton-Types der Euphorbiaceen sehr nahe kommt. Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae, mit nur drei Colpi, nimmt auch eine gesonderte Position ein. Es bestehen Beziehungen zwischen der Morphologie der Pollenkoerner der oben bearbeiteten Familien und jenen der Guttiferales und Rosales.

  4. Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.

  5. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  6. Concentration of heavy metals in benthic algae from Ribera Bay, Angra dos Reis, R.J. State, Brazil, suggesting monitor species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.; Lacerda, L.D. de; Teixeira, V.L.; Faculdade de Biologia e Psicologia Maria Thereza, Niteroi

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, Co, Pb and Ni were determined in benthic algae of Bay of Ribeira, Angra dos Reis, SE Brazilian coast. The results showed that these elements are concentrate under different degrees depending on the algae species considered: Galaxaura marginata and Caulerpa racemosa presented the highest concentrations (ppm) for Cu (5,2), Cd (1,5), Mn (91,5), Co (6,2) and Ni (8,0) and Cr (7,9) and Pb (21,9) respectively. These algae are then suggested as potential monitor species for these metals in tropical coastal waters. The estimated bioaccumulation factors varied from 10 2 for Ni to 10 5 for Pb, falling within the range reported in the literature, with the exception of Cd, which was found to be two orders of magnitude greater. (Author) [pt

  7. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa

  8. Mapping mangrove leaf area index at the species level using IKONOS and LAI-2000 sensors for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, John M.; Wang, Jinfei; Flores-Verdugo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Using both IKONOS and in situ LAI-2000 sensor data, a map of estimated LAI, based on NDVI, was created for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific. The LAI values were then aggregated according to four classes; red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle), healthy white mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa), poor condition white mangrove and dead mangrove. Of the live mangrove, calculated at approximately 85% of the forest, mean LAI values of 2.49, 1.74 and 0.85 were determined for the red, healthy white and poor condition white mangrove, respectively. Excluding the dead areas, an overall estimated mangrove LAI value of 1.81 was ascertained for the 71 km 2 of mapped mangrove forest. Although the results do suggest the technique as a very rapid and effective method for monitoring the condition of mangroves at the species level, potential limitations are also discussed.

  9. Crescimento de mudas de mangue sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento na península de Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará Growth of mangrove seedlings under different levels of shading at the Peninsula of Ajuruteua, Bragança, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Lopes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas das espécies arbóreas de mangue Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Rhizophora mangle L. e Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. f. O experimento foi conduzido na comunidade de Tamatateua, na península de Ajuruteua, município de Bragança. Para a produção das mudas, os propágulos das espécies arbóreas de mangue foram semeados em embalagens de polietileno (17 x 27 cm, preenchidas com substrato típico de manguezal. As mudas das três espécies foram testadas a pleno sol, 30% e 60% de sombreamento em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (3 x 3 x 3 (3 espécies arbóreas e 3 níveis de sombreamento. Após as plantas atingirem a idade de nove meses, retiraram-se amostras de oito mudas por repetição de cada tratamento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro do coleto, massa da parte aérea, massa seca do caule, matéria seca das raízes e matéria seca total e índices morfológicos. O crescimento das mudas de R. mangle ocorreu em todos os níveis de luminosidade. As mudas de A. germinans apresentaram maior crescimento a pleno sol e a 30% de sombreamento. Já as mudas de L. racemosa foram tolerantes a 30% e 60% de sombra, mas se desenvolveram melhor a pleno sol.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of shading on the development of seedlings of three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn., Rhizophora mangle L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. f.. The experiment was conducted at the community of Tamatateua, Ajuruteua peninsula, Bragança, PA, Brazil. For seedling production, the propagules and seeds of the mangrove species were planted in polyethylene bags (17 x 27 cm, filled with a typical mangrove substrate. The seedlings of the three species were grown under full sun (0, 30% and 60% shading, in a completely randomized

  10. Consumo de hojas por herbívoros en manglares del estuario del Río Dagua, Costa Pacífica Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Romero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf consumption by herbivores in mangroves of the Dagua river estuary, Pacific coast of Colombia. Herbivore leaf consumption of various mangrove species in relation to environmental factors and leaf hardness were studied in the Dagua river estuary, Colombia. Leaf consumption and damage were assessed by measuring the percentage of area attacked by herbivores, distinguishing between consumption and damage. The species that suffered the highest consumption, such as Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, had softer leaves and less herbivore species when compared with Rhizophora spp. (Rhizophoraceae and Pelliciera rhizophorae (Theaceae. The abundance and diversity of leaf grazing and its variability among mangrove species in the Dagua River estuary, show the importance of the trophic dynamics of live vegetable matter, in spite of their relatively low contribution to removing organic matter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1205-1214. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  11. Vegetation structure in the mountain forest in the Turquino National Park, province of Granma

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Jeringa site of the Turquino National Park in order to characterize the vegetation of a mountain forest fragment with Juglans jamaicensis. Floristic composition, vegetation structure, and the index value of importance were evaluated. Diameter at 1.30 m above the ground and height of all trees greater than 5 cm in diameter was measured. Data were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis. 776 individuals of 43 species and 41 genera belonging to 30 families, reporting the Rubiaceae family as the richest in species, followed by Amigdalaceae, Araliaceae, Cyatheaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Poaceae. The tree species with more IVI were the Pseudolmedia spuria, Oxandra laurifolia, Trophis racemosa, Ocotea leucoxylon, Guarea guara, Dendropanax arboreus and Juglans jamaicensis, mainly due to its abundance in the vegetation, but it was found that the main contributor to the organic weight parameter species was the relative frequency.

  12. Comparative study of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa spp. (Chlorophyceae. Biotechnological tool for species identification?=Estudo comparativo dos polissacarídeos sulfatados de clorofíceas Caulerpa spp. (Chlorophyceae. Ferramenta biotecnológica na identificação de espécies?

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    Chistiane Oliveira Coura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on macromolecules isolated from marine algae suggested sulfated polysaccharides (SPs as possible molecular markers for species. We evaluated isolated and fractionated SPs from the green marine algae Caulerpa cupressoides, C. prolifera and C. racemosa collected at Pacheco Beach, as possible taxonomic molecular indicators. Total SPs were extracted with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (both 5 mM, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose using a NaCl gradient. The obtained fractions were analyzed by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Anticoagulant assays employing normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1 by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test were also performed as comparison parameters. Low yields, and similar chromatographic profiles were found among species’ SPs, but electrophoresis revealed distinct SPs resolution patterns. The changes in APTT of SP fractions were dependent on charge density as showed by electrophoresis profiles. Activities were 17.37 (C. cupressoides, 22.17 (C. racemosa and 25.64 (C. prolifera IU mg-1, respectively, similar to a previous study using the first and second species. The results suggest that comparative studies of SPs isolated from seaweeds may be an important tool for the identification of Caulerpaceae.A utilização de macromoléculas isoladas de organismos marinhos sugere correlacionar características em estudos taxonômicos e a investigação comparativa de polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs de algas despertam seu interesse como marcadores moleculares. Objetivou-se avaliar PSs isolados e fracionados das algas marinhas verdes Caulerpa cupressoides, C. prolifera e C. racemosa, coletadas na Praia do Pacheco, Estado do Ceará, como possíveis indicadores moleculares taxonômicos. Os PSs totais foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (ambos 5 mM, seguido por

  13. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  14. Efficacy of Indigenous Herbal Preparation on Altered Milk pH, Somatic Cell Count and Electrolyte Profile in Subclinical Mastitis in Cows

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    A.Y. Kolte

    Full Text Available Comparative efficacy of three different locally prepared indigenous herbal paste were evaluated in subclinical 24 mastitic cows with reference to restoring altered milk pH, somatic cell count and milk electrolyte profile. The study revealed that all the treatment were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased in the milk production. T3 (oots of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, Asparagus reacemosus (Shatavari, Curcuma-amada (Ambe Haldi and fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi in equal quantities was found more effective than T5 ( T3 and T4 in combination in equal quantities and T4 (fresh roots of Glycerrhiza glabra (Jeshathamadh, Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi, leaves of Riccinus communis (Yerand, bark of Ficus racemosa (Umber and rhizome of Curcuma longa (Haldi in equal quantities [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 239-240

  15. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  16. Qualidade da bebida em espécies e populações derivadas de híbridos interespecíficos de Coffea Cupping quality of coffee species and interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Carvalho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em dois experimentos, a qualidade da bebida das espécies Coffea canephora e C. congensis e derivados de híbridações interespecíficas [C. canephora duplicado (dp x C. arabica, C. canephora x C. eugenioides, C. arabica x C. dewevrei dp e C. racemosa x C. arabica]. Por tratar-se de análise de bebida de cafés pouco conhecidos, avaliou-se a eficiência de uma escala de 1 a 10 pontos em comparação à escala de 0 a 5 pontos utilizada para C. arabica. Foram, também, acrescentadas pelos provadores indicações relacionadas ao gosto da bebida. A escala de 6 pontos mostrou-se pouco eficaz na discriminação dos tratamentos e a de 10 pontos, utilizada alternativamente, revelou-se mais eficiente nos dois experimentos. No primeiro, verificou-se, quanto à qualidade, uma superioridade dos grupos C arabica x C. dewevrei dp e C. canephora dp x C. arabica pelas duas escalas. No segundo experimento, o grupo C. racemosa x C. arabica apresentou a maior média, apesar de não diferir, pela escala 1, dos demais grupos. Pela escala 2, superou, no entanto, os grupos C. canephora e C. congensis. Gostos incomuns foram observados nas amostras com relação à bebida. Atribuem-se à grande diversidade do material analisado e a falta de familiarização dos provadores com espécies bem diferentes de C. arabica, certas discrepâncias com relação à determinação desses defeitos nas amostras analisadas.Investigations on coffee cupping quality of the species C. canephora, C. congensis and several populations derived from interespecific crosses (C. canephora dp x C. arabica, C. canephora x C. eugenioides, C. arabica x C. dewevrei dp and C. racemosa x C. arabica were undertaken in two trials, in order to guide breeding programs using this germoplasm. Two grading systems were used for classification of the cupping quality, the normal six points scale used for C. arabica samples and a new one with 10 points, 1 for the lowest and 10 for the highest quality

  17. Caracterização morfocultural e infecção cruzada de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides agente causal da antracnose de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita / Morfocultural characterization and cross infection Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose in fruits and vegetables post-harvested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Pereira Bonett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecta uma grande variedade de plantas em regiões tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas ocasionando consideráveis perdas econômicas em doenças pré e pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a morfologia e a infecção cruzada de isolados de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtidos de frutos e hortaliças em pós-colheita. Os isolados foram obtidos de lesões de frutos com sintomas de antracnose e cultivados em meio de cultivo BDA, sendo a avaliação do crescimento micelial realizada por meio de duas leituras diárias do diâmetro das colônias pelo período de quatorze dias e a caracterização morfológica das colônias realizada no final deste período. Para a realização do experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado com três repetições por tratamento. Para o experimento da infecção cruzada foram realizados dois ferimentos em frutos sadios nos quais foram depositados blocos de meio de cultura com 6 mm2 contendo os isolados. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial de 8 x 8, com quatro repetições. As médias de ambos os experimentos foram analisadas por meio do teste de Scott-Knott com 5% de probabilidade. A maioria dos isolados de C. gloeosporioides possuem grande potencial de infecção cruzada, já que foram capazes de causar lesões em frutos de mamão, manga, abacate, chuchu, jiló, pimentão verde e pimenta. Os isolados de frutos de mamão e abacate apresentaram o maior índice de crescimento micelial e os isolados provenientes do chuchu apresentaram o menor. Quanto ao desenvolvimento de lesões, o mamão apresentou-se mais suscetível, com lesões maiores, enquanto que a pimenta cambuci demonstrou-se a mais resistente, apresentando as menores lesões.

  18. Effect of the natural and artificial drying of leaf biomass Piper hispidinervum on the chemical composition of the essential oilEfeito da secagem natural e artificial da biomassa foliar de Piper hispidinervum na composição química do óleo essencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervum C.DC. is a plant native to the Amazon region, produces an essential oil rich in safrole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of drying biomass in chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum cultivated in Morretes (PR. The treatments were: fresh leaves; natural drying for 6 and 12 days; oven drying at 40°C for 6 and 12 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation from samples of 50 g of each treatment in triplicate. The chemical composition of essential oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/ MS. The experimental design was completely randomized design with three replication and four plants per plot. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. The type and drying time changes the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. hispidinervum. The dried at 40°C for 12 days reduce the amount of essential oil components, but with increasing content of safrole. Piper hispidinervum C.DC. é uma planta nativa da Amazônia, produtora de óleo essencial rico em safrol. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de secagem da biomassa folia de pimenta longa (P. hispidinervum, cultivada em Morretes (PR, na composição química do óleo essencial. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: folhas frescas; secagem natural por 6 e 12 dias; secagem em estufa à 40°C por 6 e 12 dias. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação a partir de amostras de 50 g de cada tratamento em triplicata. A determinação da composição química do óleo essencial foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa (GC/MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância. O tipo e tempo de secagem alteram a constituição química do óleo essencial de pimenta-longa. A secagem em

  19. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface Allelopathy of plant volatile extracts on seed germination and radicle length of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Sampaio Alves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação e comprimento das raízes de plântulas de alface, efeitos que variaram de acordo com a concentração do óleo. O extrato volátil de óleo de jaborandi estimula o crescimento da radícula e não provoca inibição da germinação de sementes de alface, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico.The objective of this work was to identify allelopathic effects of volatile extracts of essential oils on germination and radicle length of lettuce seedlings. Five concentrations were utilized for each oil (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%, v/v arranged into a completely randomized design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The volatile extracts of essential oils of cinnamon, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela and alfavaca-cravo revealed allelopathic potentialities on lettuce seed germination and radicle growth, effect which varied according to the oil concentration. The volatile extract of Jaborandi essential oil stimulates radicle growth and does not inhibit lettuce seeds germination, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect.

  20. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

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    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  1. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  2. Estrutura da vegetação de mangue associada ao gradiente de inundação no litoral norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O manguezal é um ecossistema de grande complexidade que ocorre na interface entre os ambientes marinhos e terrestres, mas que apresenta baixa riqueza de espécies vegetais adaptadas às suas condições diferenciadas. Avaliar a estrutura e distribuição da vegetação no manguezal do rio Piraquê-Açu, ES, associando-as com parâmetros abióticos ao longo de um gradiente, foi o objetivo deste estudo. Em seis parcelas de 100 m² cada, foram registrados 306 indivíduos vivos e um morto, pertencentes às espécies Laguncularia racemosa, Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana, Terminalia catappa e outras quatro indeterminadas, sendo L. racemosa de maior densidade, dominância, área basal e IVI. A altura média das árvores foi de 4,2 m (DP±1,9 e a CAP, de 12,4 cm (DP±9,5, estando a maioria dos indivíduos em classes de CAP até 10 cm. O manguezal encontrava-se em estado juvenil e pouco desenvolvido estruturalmente, e houve distinção na distribuição das espécies na área, com espécies associadas ocorrendo na parcela mais elevada e menos úmida. As variáveis abióticas diferiram entre as parcelas, contudo apenas a umidade do substrato apresentou relação significativa com a abundância de indivíduos e circunferência dos troncos.

  3. Degradation of mangrove tissues and implications for peat formation in Belizean island forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    1. Macrofaunal leaf consumption and degradation of leaves, woody twigs and roots were studied in mangrove island forests on a Belizean island. Factors influencing accumulation of organic matter deposited both above and below ground in this oligotrophic, autochothonous system were assessed. 2. Leaf degradation rates of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) measured in mesh bags, were much faster in the lower than the upper intertidal zone. Mass loss was most rapid in A. germinans but zonal effects were much larger than species differences. 3. Exposure to invertebrates such as crabs and amphipods tripled overall rates of leaf litter breakdown. In the lower intertidal, crabs completely consumed some unbagged leaves within 23 days. Crabs also had an effect on some upper intertidal sites, where degradation of leaves placed in artificial burrows was 2.4 times faster than when placed on the soil surface. 4. In contrast to leaves (27??5% remaining after 230 days), roots and woody twigs were highly refractory (40??2% and 51??6% remaining after 584 and 540 days, respectively). Root degradation did not vary by soil depth, zone or species. Twigs of R. mangle and A. germinans degraded faster on the ground than in the canopy, whereas those of L. racemosa were highly resistant to decay regardless of position. 5. Peat formation at Twin Cays has occurred primarily through deposition and slow turnover of mangrove roots, rather than above-ground tissues that are either less abundant (woody twigs) or more readily removed (leaves).

  4. Estructura forestal de una zona de manglar en la laguna de Coyuca de Benítez, Guerrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Castillo Elías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Los manglares son un recurso forestal de gran importancia en los humedales, tanto por su diversidad y estructura maderable como por los beneficios ambientales y socioeconómicos que representan. Su composición depende de factores ambientales, condiciones edáficas, acción antrópica y de la capacidad de interrelacionarse entre sí para compartir un espacio. En el estado de Guerrero existen solo registros que indican áreas de distribución de bosques de manglar y descripción de especies. El objetivo fue conocer la importancia ecológica del manglar adjunto a las comunidades de El Carrizal y Playa Azul, municipio Coyuca de Benítez, Guerreo, a través de la obtención de su densidad y abundancia relativa, diversidad y volumen maderable. De julio a diciembre del 2016, se obtuvo la composición estructural de la vegetación asociada al manglar, con base en 10 unidades de 10 ×10 m (100 m2 y una intensidad de muestreo de 4 %. Se identificaron nueve especies forestales asociadas al ecosistema de manglar. Se determinó un volumen total de 10.30 m3 rollo total árbol, de los cuales Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco aporta el mayor volumen con 8.05 m3 rollo total árbol; mientras que para el área total de la zona de humedal el valor fue de 218.92 m3 rollo total árbol. Con esta investigación se logró conocer la composición estructural de las especies de flora en el área de estudio, y la importancia ecológica del manglar constituido por L. racemosa, representada como alternativa de conservación para la zona.

  5. Effect of a novel essential oil mouthrinse without alcohol on gingivitis: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta"-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05 between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation.

  6. EFFECT OF A NOVEL ESSENTIAL OIL MOUTHRINSE WITHOUT ALCOHOL ON GINGIVITIS: A DOUBLE-BLINDED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Bezerra, José Gomes; Correa, Luciano Lima; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Montenegro, Danusa; Gapski, Ricardo; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Several different plant extracts have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and for reduction of gingivitis. Given that a large number of these substances have been associated with significant side effects that contraindicate their long-term use, new compounds need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of a Lippia sidoides ("alecrim pimenta")-based essential oil mouthrinse on gingival inflammation and bacterial plaque. Fifty-five patients were enrolled into a pilot, double-blinded, randomized, parallel-armed study. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo a 7-day treatment regimen with either the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse or 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The results demonstrated decreased plaque index, gingival index and gingival bleeding index scores at 7 days, as compared to baseline. There was no statistically significance difference (p>0.05) between test and control groups for any of the clinical parameters assessed throughout the study. Adverse events were mild and transient. The findings of this study demonstrated that the L. sidoides-based mouthrinse was safe and efficacious in reducing bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation. PMID:19089126

  7. Diferentes condimentos vegetais: avaliação sensorial e de atividade antibacteriana em preparação alimentar com frango cozido Different spice plants: sensorial evaluation and antibacterial activity in chicken broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da atividade antibacteriana in vitro, predeterminada em doze plantas com indicativo etnográfico condimentar, testou-se este atributo in loco no modelo caldo com frango cozido. Primeiramente, procedeu-se ao treinamento de 10 avaliadores, segundo a legislação vigente quanto ao Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, oportunizando conhecimentos prévios sobre as plantas salsa (Petroselinum sativum, manjerona branca (Origanum X aplii, manjerona preta (Origanum majorana, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, sálvia (Salvia officinalis, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris, anis verde (Ocimum selloi, alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum, alho nirá (Allium tuberosum, alho poró (Allium porrum, cúrcuma (Curcuma longa e pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum. Realizou-se, através da adição individualizada desses condimentos ao caldo com frango cozido, um Teste de Aceitação tipo escala hedônica, selecionando, dentre os doze condimentos, quatro deles que se destacaram sensorialmente, a pimenta dedo-de-moça, o alho nirá, o alho poró e o tomilho. Foi feito, então, um Teste de Aceitação de concentrações denominadas pequena, média e grande destes quatro condimentos, para determinação da intensidade sensorialmente melhor aceita. As quantidades eleitas (0,5 g de pimenta dedo-de-moça, 15 g de alho nirá, 15 g de alho poró e 5 g de tomilho foram acrescidas ao caldo com frango cozido, sendo estes desafiados frente a Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 em concentração final de 10 UFC mL-1, limite tolerado pela legislação, tendo como grupo-controle o caldo com frango cozido sem condimentos. O crescimento bacteriano foi aferido a cada duas horas após a inoculação, até completar 24 horas de confronto, utilizando-se meio seletivo para coliformes termo-resistentes e incubação constante a 25ºC em DBO, sendo atribuídos valores arbitrários às variações logarítmicas de crescimento. Comparados ao controle, todos os tratamentos condimentados apresentaram

  8. Citogenética de Piper hispidinervum e Piper aduncum Cytogenetics of Piper hispidinervum and Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Dornellas Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar diferenças entre duas espécies de pimenta-longa por meio de análise de cariótipos. Foram analisados cinco acessos de Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae C. DC. e Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae pertencentes à coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Acre, utilizando-se o método de esmagamento e coloração de Feulgen. As duas espécies apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 24 e cromossomos pequenos e metacêntricos com comprimento médio de 1,38 µm em P. hispidinervum e 1,32 µm em P. aduncum. Pelos descritores citogenéticos obtidos não há diferença entre as duas espécies.The aim of this work was to detect differences between two species of long pepper by karyotypic analysis. Five acessions of Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae and Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae, belonging to germplasm collection of Embrapa Acre, were analysed using squashing technique and Feulgen staining. The chromosome number observed for both species was 2n = 24 and karyotype presented small metacentric chromossomes, with average length of 1.38 µm in P. hispidinervum and 1.32 µm in P. aduncum. Karyotypic descriptions pointed out that the species are not different.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE EXTRATOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Spodoptera eridania (CRAMER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fazolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera eridania é uma espécie desfolhadora cuja fase larval se alimenta de várias espécies de importância econômica. Dada a grande participação do agronegócio na economia do país e compreendendo a necessidade de buscar métodos que viabilizem o controle de pragas de maneira sustentável e segura para o meio ambiente, o uso de extratos vegetais com potencial inseticida pode oferecer uma alternativa de baixo custo e de fácil produção. Sendo assim, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a atividade inseticida de plantas sobre a mortalidade de larvas de S. eridania. Para isto, utilizou-se extratos aquosos de fumo (N. tabacum L., cinamomo (M. azedarach, alho (A. sativum L., pimenta roxa (C. chinense e erva-de-santa-maria (C. ambrosioides L., os quais foram pulverizados sobre lagartas de segundo instar de S. eridania e sobre o alimento fornecido. O extrato de Fumo apresentou-se promissor para o controle de S. eridania, sendo necessárias novas pesquisas que possibilitem verificar concentrações que ocasionem mortalidade acima de 50%, bem como testes de fitotoxidade do extrato na planta hospedeira.

  10. Detecção de capsaicina em extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires de Souza RODRIGUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum L. é uma espécie utilizada no mundo inteiro pelo seu sabor picante e por possuir inúmeras atividades medicinais. Essas atividades farmacológicas são proporcionadas por um grupo de substâncias presentes, os capsaicinoides, além de taninos, flavonoides, vitamina C, entre outros. Dos capsaicinoides presentes, a capsaicina possui especial importância. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença da capsaicina nos extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica. Os extratos foram preparados com acetona. A cromatografia foi realizada com placas de sílica gel G4, eluída com hexano:acetato de etila (60:40 e reveladas com reagente de Dragendorff. A capsaicina pode ser detectada somente no estágio imaturo (verde dos frutos de Capsicum baccatum L. pela metodologia de cromatografia em camada delgada e pelo teste histoquímico.

  11. Caracterização morfológica e fisiológica de isolados de Colletotrichum sp. causadores de antracnose em solanáceas Morphological and physiological characterization of Colletotrichum sp. isolates from solanaceous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J. Tozze Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose é uma doença freqüente nas hortaliças solanáceas. O agente causal é reportado como o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Neste trabalho caracterizou-se a morfologia e a fisiologia de Colletotrichum sp. obtidos de pimenta, pimentão e jiló. A caracterização morfológica se baseou no tamanho e forma dos conídios e na forma dos apressórios de 30 isolados. A caracterização fisiológica foi baseada no crescimento em diferentes temperaturas, utilização de diferentes fontes de carbono e sensibilidade ao fungicida benomyl. Quinze isolados foram cultivados em meio BDA, nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 28, e 30ºC. Trinta e dois isolados foram cultivados em meio mínimo acrescido de glicose, frutose, lactose, maltose, sacarose ou amido. Além disso, 43 isolados foram cultivados em meio BDA suplementado com 0, 1, 10 e 100 mig/mL de benomyl. Os isolados de jiló apresentaram menor sensibilidade ao benomyl e predominância de conídios fusiformes, com ápices afilados e menores dimensões, características semelhantes às citadas para C. acutatum. Os isolados de pimentão e pimenta apresentaram alta sensibilidade ao benomyl e predominância de conídios cilíndricos com ápices arredondados, características citadas para C. gloeosporioides. Apressórios de formato irregular, circular e ovalado foram observados independente do hospedeiro de origem do isolado. O amido foi a fonte de carbono que proporcionou maior desenvolvimento micelial para a maioria dos isolados. A temperatura ótima de desenvolvimento, para todos os isolados, foi próxima a 25ºC, exceto para um único isolado de pimenta, com maior desenvolvimento a 28ºC. A velocidade de crescimento micelial para todos os isolados, em todas as temperaturas testadas, foi semelhante à apresentada pelo isolado padrão de C. acutatum usado no teste. Os isolados de pimentão e pimenta foram os que mostraram maior variabilidade para as características estudadas. Finalmente

  12. Living innovation: experiences in the course of nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Beltrame Pedroso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study results from careful consideration of the pedagogical practices considered meaningful by students of the undergraduate course in Nutrition, as well as in the protagonism of the female teachers who develop them. We seek to understand whether these experiences mean innovation in the perspective of a paradigmatic rupture, considering innovation as a discontinuous process of breakage with traditional ways of teaching and learning. A qualitative methodology of study and the ethnographic approach principles were used. The activities indicated by the students as meaningful practice were of different types and included interactions with affective and subjective dimensions, which involve emotion, sensitivity and esthetic perception, thus articulating subjectivity and objectivity, science and culture, technique and politics; all analyzed from the scope of the studies of Sousa Santos, Cunha, Lucarelli, Leite, Tardif, Pimenta and Anastasiou. Personal and professional trajectories are defining factors of teachers' performances, revealing their conceptions concerning their pedagogical procedures. They indicate the conditions present in the constitution of the professionality of the higher education teacher. In this context, this study aligns with other research aimed at constructing the basis of a university pedagogy.

  13. Nanotechnology in Phytotherapy: Antiinflammatory Effect of a Nanostructured Thymol Gel from Lippia sidoides in Acute Periodontitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Marco A; Barros, Gisele; Queiroz, Dinalva B; Carvalho, Celso Felício; Gouvea, Julia; Patrus, Lia; Bannet, Mariane; Patrus, Danile; Rego, Amália; Silva, Ivaldo; Campus, Guglielmo; Araújo-Filho, Irami

    2016-01-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae) is largely distributed in the northeastern region of Brazil. It is popularly known as 'Alecrim-pimenta'. Recent studies have shown that some species of Lippia have interesting pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanostructured thymol gel (TG) 1.2 mg/g on acute phase of ligature-induced periodontitis model [acute periodontal disease (APD)] in rats. APD was induced in 24 Wistar rats subjected to ligature placement on left molars in maxillae. Animals were treated with TG, immediately after APD induction. Saline-based gel was utilized as negative control and diethylammonium diclofenac gel 10 mg/g was used as positive control. Animals were randomly assigned into the groups. The periodontium and the surrounding gingiva were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingiva was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity levels by ELISA method. TG treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity production in gingival tissue when compared with the saline gel control group (p < 0.05). The TG gel was able to provide a significant myeloperoxidase decreasing in gingiva tissue confirming to be effective in reducing gingival inflammation in this model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fatores econômicos relacionados à intervenção na vegetação para a implantação de linhas de transmissã o no estado de Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Abreu Ribeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was made on an electric energy transmission line between the cities of Ji-Paraná and Pimenta Bueno, in the State of Rondônia. The objective was to quantify the economic factors related to the suppression of vegetation by traditional and selective methods. The selective method cost was estimated according to the number of individuals per hectare, the area of intervention and the cost of felled trees. The total cost of the traditional method was determined by the area of intervention and by the cost of deforested hectares. The transposal of a fragment with the use of seven 55m towers, with no intervention in the vegetation, generates an increase of only 2,8% on the total cost, if compared to the cost of employing seven 35m towers plus the costs of a selective intervention in the vegetation. In the selective method, the number of individuals per hectare is the most important variable because it indicates directly the value to be wasted with the felling of trees. The traditional method will grow out of use because it does not offer big advantages in tecnicals envairomentals and economics terms.

  15. Sistemas agroflorestais em áreas de agricultores familiares em Igarapé-Açu, Pará: caracterização florística, implantação e manejo Agroforestry systems in areas of smallholder agriculture in Igarapé-Açu, Pará: floristic characterization, implantation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Almeida Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os Sistemas Agroflorestais-SAF comerciais multiestratificados de agricultores familiares de Igarapé-Açu, bem como identificar as espécies que compõem os sistemas agroflorestais. A partir de entrevistas foram catalogadas as espécies de maior interesse dos agricultores familiares e por meio de inventário florístico foram avaliados os SAF produtivos. Os cultivos de pimenta-do-reino, mandioca, feijão, cupuaçu, caju, açaí, pupunha, mogno e o nim indiano foram os mais freqüentes pelos agricultores. Os SAF são manejados na sua maioria de forma tradicional.This paper aimed to evaluate the multistrata agroforestry systems of small farmers of Igarapé-Açu, as well as to identify the species that compose of they interest. Through interviews were listed the interest species of small farmers and from inventory floristic were evaluated the productive AFS. The species: pepper-of-kingdom, cassava, beans, cupuaçu, caju, açai palm, pupunha palm, mahogany and indian neem were the most cultivated by these farmers. Most of the AFS are managed in the traditional manner.

  16. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Center and Clinical Center of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAbstract: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is an important mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons and is a major contributor to hypertension-related target organ damage. The concept of renin inhibition for managing hypertension by blocking the RAAS pathway at its point of activation is very attractive since the renin-angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II. Aliskiren, the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs, is approved for the treatment of hypertension. It is effective in reducing BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and in special patient groups such as obese persons, and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has renoprotective, cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects in animal models that appear to be independent of BP lowering. It reduces proteinuria in diabetic patients and has favorable neurohumoral effects in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in the therapeutic armamentarium.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  17. Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pimenta1, Suzanne Oparil21Endocrine Hypertension Research Centre and Clinical Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Disorders, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Greenslopes Princess Alexandra Hospitals, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS is a key mediator of blood pressure (BP and volume regulation in both normotensive and hypertensive persons. Stimulation of RAAS also contributes to hypertension-related target organ damage. The renin–angiotensinogen reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the generation of angiotensin II (Ang II and has been a target of antihypertensive drug development for decades. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally effective direct renin inhibitors (DRIs and is approved for the treatment of hypertension in humans. It effectively reduces BP in the general population of hypertensive patients and has a tolerability and safety profile similar to placebo. Aliskiren has favorable effects on vascular inflammation and remodeling, on neurohumoral mediators of various forms of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and on proteinuria in diabetic patients. Additional outcome trials are needed to establish the role of this novel class of antihypertensive medication in preventing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.Keywords: hypertension, renin inhibitors, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  18. Hundreds of fridges to cool the heart of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The detectors used in the LHC experiments are packed with electronics that will register thousands of particles produced in the collisions. All this hard work will generate a lot of heat, but there are systems in place to help the electronics to cool down, not shut down. Members of the DC section team in USA15 of the ATLAS cavern, standing behind four of the compressors used in the cooling system. The inlet and outlet pipes that carry the refrigerant to the experimental hall can be seen on the left. Left to right: M. Battistin, P. Bonneau, C. Houd, P. Feraudet, F. Corbaz, J. Lethinen, P. Guglielmini, M. Ciclet, P. Tropea, S. Berry (M. Pimenta absent).An unconfirmed member of the DC section :-) in charge of a part of the perfluoropropane distribution network for the ATLAS evaporative cooling system. The next time your desktop computer crashes from overheating, spare a thought for Pierre Feraudet, a member of the Detector Cooling section (TS/CV/DC). He is in charge of constructing the cooling systems for the d...

  19. Study for the energization of isolated community in the Amazon - Canaa Micro Hydropower Project; Estudo para a energizacao de comunidade isolada na Amazonia - Projeto Microcentral Canaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Lemos, Helmo; Nogueira, Fabio Jose Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Centro Nacional de Referencias em PCH' s], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, helmo@unifei.edu.br, fabioh@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The initiatives for electrification of remote communities have proven, so far, to difficult economic sustainability, with high rates of discontinuation of service and low quality of electricity provided. Another important aspect of these initiatives is great difficulty for the energy supply in these communities. The program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All), launched by federal government in 2002, is an alternative that aims to universalize the service of electricity in all throughout the country, mainly of small isolated communities by giving them access to development due to the arrival of energy. One of these communities who will benefit from the program is the Community settlement of Nova Canaa, located in Pimenta Bueno in the State of Rondonia in the Amazon region. It will be met 55 families who never had access to a power quality and continuous supply. The relevance of this project is expressed by the possibility of replication of its management model for other communities in the country, contributing to the improvement of quality of life, poverty reduction and rural exodus. (author)

  20. A LEITURA NA FORMAÇÃO INICIAL DO PROFESSOR: O FORMADOR EM CENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luís da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é relatar uma pesquisa sobre o trabalho com leitura na formação inicial do professor de língua portuguesa.  Adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa na busca de informações junto a três informantes de curso de Letras de três Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES do Estado de São Paulo. O estudo baseou-se, sobretudo, em Veiga (1998, Pimenta e Anastasiou (2002, Kaufman & Rodriguez (1995, Solé (1998, Silva (2005, Schneuwly & Dolz (2004; a LDBN (1996; as Propostas Curriculares do Curso de Letras; o Parecer 9/2001 do MEC; e o Projeto Pedagógico do Curso de cada uma das IES. Observou-se que o curso superior ainda apresenta defasagens em relação ao trabalho com a leitura, havendo necessidade de se pensar em estratégias que tornem a leitura significativa para o futuro professor.  Palavras-chave: Leitura. Formação. Estratégia.

  1. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Régia Marques de Souza, Adriana; Arthur, Valter; Pires Nogueira, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Pink peppers, also known as “pimenta-rosa” and “poivre rose”, are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p ⁎ and b ⁎ were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  2. Literatura e Transdisciplinaridade: uma proposta de ensino a partir do romance Terra Papagalli

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    Rodolfo Meissner Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available É inegável que a Educação, de um modo geral, enfrenta uma crise na contemporaneidade. E, naturalmente, as aulas de Língua Portuguesa e Literatura são afetadas por esse cenário. Devido a isso, muitos caminhos têm sido discutidos para a superação dos problemas vigentes e, sem dúvida, a transdisciplinaridade emerge como uma possibilidade instigante. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste artigo é oferecer uma unidade didática transdisciplinar de ensino de Literatura para alunos do Ensino Médio. Para tanto, foi escolhido o romance contemporâneo Terra Papagalli, dos autores José Roberto Torero e Marcus Aurelius Pimenta, como corpus para a concretização de tal proposta. As sugestões aqui contidas foram embasadas, principalmente, nas proposições de Coelho (2000 a respeito de Literatura e Transdisciplinaridade e Paulino e Cosson (2009 sobre letramento literário. Em síntese, acredita-se que a proposta de ensino trazida por este artigo poderá auxiliar o professor de Língua Portuguesa a enfrentar os desafios impostos pela Educação no século XXI, além de contribuir para a realização do letramento literário.

  3. Consumo de hojas por herbívoros en manglares del estuario del Río Dagua, Costa Pacífica Colombiana

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    Isabel C. Romero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf consumption by herbivores in mangroves of the Dagua river estuary, Pacific coast of Colombia. Herbivore leaf consumption of various mangrove species in relation to environmental factors and leaf hardness were studied in the Dagua river estuary, Colombia. Leaf consumption and damage were assessed by measuring the percentage of area attacked by herbivores, distinguishing between consumption and damage. The species that suffered the highest consumption, such as Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, had softer leaves and less herbivore species when compared with Rhizophora spp. (Rhizophoraceae and Pelliciera rhizophorae (Theaceae. The abundance and diversity of leaf grazing and its variability among mangrove species in the Dagua River estuary, show the importance of the trophic dynamics of live vegetable matter, in spite of their relatively low contribution to removing organic matter. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1205-1214. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Se estudió el consumo foliar por herbívoros en hojas de varias especies de mangle con relación a los factores ambientales y la dureza de las hojas en el estuario del río Dagua. La intensidad del consumo o de los daños producidos en las hojas se cuantificó determinando el porcentaje de área foliar afectado por herbívoros separando las distintas señales de consumo o daño de las hojas. Las especies más consumidas, como A germinans y L. racemosa, presentan el menor número de tipos de huellas de daños y menor dureza que las especies menos consumidas como Rhizophora sp. y P. rhizophorae. La abundancia y diversidad de huellas de ataque por herbívoros y su variabilidad a lo largo del estuario del río Dagua, muestra la importancia de los procesos de consumo de tejido vegetal vivo en el bosque de manglar dentro de la red trófica del sistema estuarino

  4. Assessment and Comparison of salt Content in Mangrove Plants in Sri Lanka

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    N. P. Dissanayake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the predicted threats of global warming and sea level rise, the salt tolerance and salt accumulative abilities of plants have become popular contentious topics. Mangroves are one of the major groups of salt tolerant plants and several mechanisms are known as instrumental in their salt tolerance. Salt excretion through leaf drop is given as one, but its validity is questioned by some recent works compelling the necessity for further studies. Knowledge of the salt contents in different mangrove plants is a pre requisite for such studies. Hence, this study aimed to quantify and compare the salt content in mature leaves of nine mangrove species in Sri Lanka., i.e. Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata which are growing in the same mangrove system; the Rekawa lagoon in Sri Lanka. Two species of non mangrove plants, Gliricidia sepium and Artocarpus heterophyllus, which were growing in inland areas were also selected for comparison. The concentration of Na+ in leaves was considered as a measure of the salt concentration. The Na+ in leaves was extracted by acid digestion and quantified by flame photometry. The salt content of mangroves was measured under two contrasting hydrological situations: at the highest and lowest water levels of the lagoon. Rekawa lagoon can be considered as a ‘barrier built estuary’, the highest water level occurs when the lagoon mouth is blocked due to the formation of the sand bar and the water level is increased by fresh water inflow, inundating the total mangrove area and decreasing the soil/water salinity. The water level of the lagoon becomes lowest when the lagoon mouth is opened (naturally or by dredging and lagoon water is flushed out to the sea. Then the salinity of lagoon water becomes high due to sea water influx. The results showed

  5. Estrutura da vegetação em florestas de mangue do estuário do rio Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Vegetation structure of the mangrove forest at the estuary Paraíba do Sul river, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da vegetação do manguezal do estuário do rio Paraíba do Sul foi analisada pelo método de parcelas, que foram distribuídas na franja e no interior da floresta em dois sítios de estudo. No geral, considerando-se os indivíduos > 1m alt., a altura média variou de 6,3 a 9,9m, o DAP médio de 7,44 a 13,4cm, a área basal média de 14,5 a 35,3m².ha-1 e a densidade média de 1.920 a 3.400 troncos.ha-1. Estes parâmetros estruturais não diferiram, significativamente, entre a franja e o interior da floresta, mas a contribuição de cada espécie variou entre as distintas zonas. Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn. foi a espécie dominante em área basal de indivíduos vivos (60%, seguida de Rhizophora mangle L. (25% e de Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. (15%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a área de manguezal analisada apresenta melhor desenvolvimento estrutural quando comparada a outros manguezais do litoral fluminense, tais como os encontrados nas Baías de Guanabara e Sepetiba.A structural analysis of the mangrove forest at the Paraíba do Sul river estuary was performed using the stand method. The stands were demarcated in two points both at the forest edge and interior. The results indicate that average height varied from 6.3 to 9.9m; DBH varied from 7.44 to 13.4cm; average basal area varied from 14.5 to 35.3m².ha-1, and average density varied from 1,920 to 3,400 trunks.ha-1 (trees > 1m height. These structural parameters did not differ between the edge and the interior, but the contribution of each species varied between the zones. Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn. was the dominant species (60%, followed by Rhizophora mangle L. (25%, and Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. (15%. These results demonstrate that the mangroves forest at the Paraíba do Sul estuary has a better structural development than other mangrove sites found in the Rio de Janeiro State (e.g., those mangrove forests located at the Sepetiba and Guanabara

  6. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

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    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was

  7. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

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    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also

  8. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon

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    Dahdouh-Guebas Farid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb. Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60% reported that mangrove marketed wood

  9. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon).

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    Atheull, Adolphe Nfotabong; Din, Ndongo; Longonje, Simon N; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2009-11-17

    Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II) close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test) was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey) suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60%) reported that mangrove marketed wood constitute a principal source of income. Most of the villagers (85

  10. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

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    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  11. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women?

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    Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Andersen, Monica L; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and

  12. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings.

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    Arentz, Susan; Abbott, Jason Anthony; Smith, Caroline Anne; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-12-18

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent, complex endocrine disorder characterised by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism leading to symptoms of irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne and infertility. Evidence based medical management emphasises a multidisciplinary approach for PCOS, as conventional pharmaceutical treatment addresses single symptoms, may be contra-indicated, is often associated with side effects and not effective in some cases. In addition women with PCOS have expressed a strong desire for alternative treatments. This review examines the reproductive endocrine effects in PCOS for an alternative treatment, herbal medicine. The aim of this review was to identify consistent evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical research, to add to the evidence base for herbal medicine in PCOS (and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism) and to inform herbal selection in the provision clinical care for these common conditions. We undertook two searches of the scientific literature. The first search sought pre-clinical studies which explained the reproductive endocrine effects of whole herbal extracts in oligo/amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism and PCOS. Herbal medicines from the first search informed key words for the second search. The second search sought clinical studies, which corroborated laboratory findings. Subjects included women with PCOS, menstrual irregularities and hyperandrogenism. A total of 33 studies were included in this review. Eighteen pre-clinical studies reported mechanisms of effect and fifteen clinical studies corroborated pre-clinical findings, including eight randomised controlled trials, and 762 women with menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism and/or PCOS. Interventions included herbal extracts of Vitex agnus-castus, Cimicifuga racemosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp., Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia. Endocrine outcomes included reduced luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin

  13. Estructura y dinámica del manglar del delta del río Ranchería, Caribe colombiano

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    Luisa Fernanda Lema Vélez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió de la supervivencia de plántulas y aumento de biomasa de Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia germinans L. y Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. f., principales especies de manglar del delta del río Ranchería, Colombia. Se encontró supervivencia de plántulas sólo de R. mangle. Se cuantificó también la tasa máxima de caída de hojarasca en el bosque; este valor se interpoló dentro de una regresión exponencial elaborada a partir valores máximos y anuales publicados en diferentes fuentes, y se halló un valor anual de 12.9 mgha-1a-1. A partir ecuaciones alométricas elaboradas para la zona y otras de fuentes secundarias puede calcularse un aumento de biomasa en 7.4 mgha-1a-1. La productividad del manglar del río Ranchería (20.2 mgha¹a-1 está representada en su mayoría por caída de hojarasca. Consideramos que esta productividad es alta para un bosque sometido a condiciones naturales y antrópicas tan desfavorables, como son la extrema estacionalidad y el continuo forrajeo de ganado ovino y caprino. Suponemos que la alta productividad se trata precisamente de una respuesta de la vegetación a la tensión ambiental.Structure and dynamics of the mangrove forest in the Ranchería river delta, Colombian Caribbean. We registered seedling survival and biomass increase for Rhizophora mangle L., Avicennia germinans L. and Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. f., main mangrove species in the Rancheria River delta, Colombia. Only seedlings of R. mangle were found to survive. We also measured maximum rate of litterfall. We estimated annual litterfall through interpolation within an exponential regression performed with maximum and annual litterfall data published in other sources; the value of annual litterfall for the area was estimated to be 12.9 mgha-1y-1. We found a 7.4 mgha-1y-1 increase in biomass. Litterfall constitutes the larger fraction of the 20.2 mgha-1y-1 productivity of this mangrove. We believe this is a very high value for a

  14. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

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    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  15. A formação prática de professores no estágio curricular Practical curricular training of teachers

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    Helena Maria dos Santos Felício

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da premissa de que a dimensão prática deve ser considerada na formação inicial de professores, entendemos que o Estágio Curricular, se bem fundamentado, estruturado e orientado, configura-se como um momento relevante na perspectiva curricular do processo de formação prática dos futuros professores. Dessa forma, o presente artigo apresenta algumas reflexões e discussões, oriundas de uma investigação qualitativa, sobre a importância e o papel do Estágio Curricular na formação prática de alunos. Os sujeitos desta pesquisa são alunos concluintes do Curso Normal Superior da Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP. A partir da interpretação de diferentes autores(LIMA, 2001; TARDIF, 2002; PIMENTA, 2001; GÓMEZ, 2000, compreendemos a prática enquanto práxis, uma vez que, permeada por um processo de reflexão, ela pode ser construída e reconstruída, objetivando a transformação da realidade escolar. Sendo assim, evidenciamos, nos relatórios apresentados e nos discursos dos alunos, as aprendizagens práticas consideradas construídas durante o estágio. Analisamos os dados recolhidos, à luz da teoria estudada sobre a formação prática e profissional dos professores. Identificamos os aspectos favoráveis e desfavoráveis da realização do estágio curricular na dimensão de ser um espaço/tempo, também destinado à construção de conhecimentos práticos na formação dos professores. E, finalmente, propomos novas perspectivas para a orientação e realização do estágio curricular na formação de professores, centradas na relevância da formação prática e na articulação entre todas as disciplinas do curso de formação.Based on the premise that the practical dimension must be considered in the initial training of teachers, we understand that curricular training, if well founded, structured and oriented, is relevant to the curricular outlook of the practical training process for future teachers. This article

  16. Influência de diferentes extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais no desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e de Fusarium moniliforme

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    M.M. Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos extratos aquosos das plantas medicinais alecrim, alho, cravo-da-índia, sálvia, capim-limão, orégano ou pimenta-do-reino no desenvolvimento in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e de Fusarium moniliforme. Os extratos foram obtidos pela infusão de 60 g de cada planta medicinal em 200 mL de água fervente. Cada extrato aquoso foi fracionado em concentrações de 0, 5, 10 e 20% (p:v e incorporado ao meio de cultivo BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar antes da esterilização em autoclave. Posteriormente, um disco de 8 mm de diâmetro de micélio fúngico de cada patógeno foi transferido para o centro de placas de Petri. Após 24, 48 e 96 horas de incubação em câmara de crescimento a 22 ± 2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas avaliou-se o crescimento micelial de F. moniliforme e de C. gloesporioides. No último período de incubação, também se quantificou o número de conídios de cada fungo. Para o teste de germinação adicionou-se nas cavidades de placas de teste Elisa, uma alíquota de 40 µL de cada extrato nas concentrações de 0, 5, 10 e 20%, e outra alíquota, da suspensão de conídios de cada patógeno. Após 24 horas a 22 ± 2 ºC, no escuro, a germinação dos conídios foi paralisada com a adição de 20 µL de lactofenol; avaliou-se então a porcentagem de germinação de conídios. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 x 4 (extratos de plantas medicinais x concentrações com quatro repetições. Para ambos os patógenos o extrato aquoso de alho e cravo-da-índia apresentaram maior ou total inibição do crescimento micelial, respectivamente, quando comparado com os demais extratos. Para C. gloeosporioides, o extrato de cravo-da-índia apresentou menor número de conídios em todas as concentrações testadas, e para o extrato de alho a 20%, também não foi observada a germinação de conídios. O extrato de alho foi

  17. Professor de língua estrangeira para crianças: conhecimentos teórico-metodológicos desejados Teachers of english to young learners: expected theoretical and methodological knowledge

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    Leandra Ines Seganfredo Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tem aumentado o interesse pelo domínio da língua inglesa como ferramenta de comunicação para inclusão no mundo globalizado, bem como a oferta de seu ensino para crianças (CAMERON, 2001; PINTER, 2006. Neste texto, buscamos refletir acerca da formação do docente para atuar junto a esse público em especial. Trazemos sugestões de mudanças no processo vigente, que venham ao encontro das necessidades contemporâneas (SACRISTÁN, 2006; LIBÂNEO, 2006, mediante a visão de cinco professoras que lecionam língua inglesa para crianças em um município matogrossense. Os dados fazem parte de um estudo qualitativo e foram gerados por meio de entrevistas individuais e sessões reflexivas coletivas entre o grupo de docentes e a pesquisadora. Com base em seus dizeres, apresentamos os conhecimentos teórico-metodológicos adquiridos e os desejados, e algumas características peculiares a esses docentes (SPADA, 2004. São abordadas, também, algumas dificuldades encontradas e a importância da experiência para o desenvolvimento da docência. A formação é entendida como contínua, com caráter coletivo, colaborativo e reflexivo (PORTO, 2004; IMBERNÓN, 2005; PIMENTA e GHEDIN, 2005, possibilitando ao docente desenvolver ação investigativa de sua prática pedagógica.The interest for the domain of the English Language (EL to young learners is increasing. It is considered a communication tool for inclusion in a globalized world (CAMERON, 2001; PINTER, 2006. The article aims at discussing the development of teachers for this specific context. Some suggestions of changes in the current process are mentioned, so that it meets the contemporary needs (SACRISTÁN, 2006; LIBÂNEO, 2006. They show points of view of five teachers that teach EL for children in a city in Mato Grosso State. The data are part of a qualitative study and to collect them, individual interviews and collective reflexive sessions were used with the teachers' group and the researcher

  18. Avaliação da qualidade dos discos com antimicrobianos para testes de disco-difusão disponíveis comercialmente no Brasil Evaluation of the quality of the antimicrobial agents disks used in disk-diffusion tests comercially available in Brazil

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    Lilian M. Sejas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O teste de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos representa um dos testes de maior importância clínica realizados pelo laboratório de microbiologia. Devido ao grande número de antimicrobianos e à complexidade dos mecanismos de resistência desenvolvidos pelas bactérias, fica muito difícil hoje a detecção de problemas nos testes de suscetibilidade pela simples avaliação dos resultados obtidos. Sendo assim, é extremamente importante que haja uma avaliação constante da qualidade destes testes. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade dos discos de antimicrobianos comercializados no Brasil. Material e métodos: Foram avaliados discos de 18 antimicrobianos obtidos de cinco diferentes fontes comerciais, os quais foram testados frente a quatro cepas bacterianas oriundas da ATCC, pelo método de difusão em ágar, seguindo as recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Cada teste foi repetido 20 vezes. Resultados: Nenhuma das marcas apresentou desempenho satisfatório para o uso na rotina de um laboratório de microbiologia. O melhor desempenho foi apresentado pela marca Cecon®, com 89,6% de concordância. A marca Sensifar® apresentou taxa de concordância geral semelhante (90,8%. A marca com o pior desempenho foi a Pimenta Abreu®, com apenas 58,6% de concordância. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os discos de antimicrobianos comercializados no Brasil são de baixa qualidade, possivelmente refletindo a falta de controle de qualidade na produção e/ou estocagem dos produtos antes da sua distribuição. Esses dados chamam a atenção para a necessidade de implantação de sistemas efetivos de fiscalização da comercialização desses produtos e de programas criteriosos de controle de qualidade por parte dos laboratórios que os utilizam.Background: The antimicrobial susceptibility test is one of the most important clinical test carried out in

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

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    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2008-12-01

    . As curvas cinéticas seguiram o modelo cinético de primeira ordem, e a partir destas foram calculadas as constantes de velocidade de (k obs. Os extratos de sálvia e de alecrim apresentaram as maiores capacidades redutoras de radicais livres, enquanto o extrato de cebola praticamente não apresentou atividade e o colorífico, um dos condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil, apresentou baixa atividade de aprisionamento de radicaisABTS•+. Três situações distintas foram observadas em relação à capacidade de aprisionar radicais DPPH•: (1 extratos, como os de alecrim e de louro, que apresentaram as mesmas concentrações eficientes (EC50, porém, valores de TEAC e velocidade de ação (k obs distintos ; (2 extratos, como os de alho e de manjericão, que apresentaram valores similares de EC50 e TEAC, com valores distintos de k obs e (3 extratos com a mesma velocidade de ação que diferiram totalmente na capacidade de aprisionamento de radicais livres, como de pimenta preta, segurelha, noz moscada, alecrim e sálvia. Considerações semelhantes podem ser feitas para os resultados de ABTS•+. Osdois métodos apresentaram boa correlação de TEAC, indicando que a reatividade dos compostos presentes nos extratos etanólicos foi similar. A atividade redutora de ABTS•+ para pimenta da Jamaica, manjericão, cardamomo, cebolinha, colorífico, cominho, dill, louro, manjerona, salsinha e estragão foi reportada pela primeira vez.

  20. Os saberes dos professores-referência no ensino de contabilidade

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    Gilberto José Miranda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como propósito avaliar os saberes predominantes nos docentes percebidos como professores-referência pelos alunos de um curso de Graduação em Ciências Contábeis de uma universidade pública brasileira. O estudo justifica-se pelas recentes e significativas mudanças no contexto da Contabilidade no Brasil. Para alcance desse propósito, estruturou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, em que foram utilizadas as seguintes estratégias de pesquisa e técnicas de coleta de dados: (i pesquisa bibliográfica em obras relevantes que tratam do tema; (ii pesquisa documental nas avaliações dos professores feitas pela instituição; (iii questionários aplicados aos alunos do último ano; (iv grupo focal com parte do grupo de alunos respondentes dos questionários; e (v entrevista semiestruturada com professores apontados pelos alunos como docentes de referência. Amparados pelas discussões tecidas acerca de saberes, competências e conhecimentos necessários à docência (Shulman, 1986; Garcia, 1992; Freire, 2000; Pimenta, 1998; Pimenta & Anastasiou, 2002; Gauthier, Martineau, Desbiens, Malo, & Simard, 1998; Tardif, 2003; Cunha, 2004; Masetto, 1998; Braslavsky, 1999; Perrenoud, 2000; Zabalza, 2006 e aqueles necessários ao ensino de contabilidade (Antonelli, Colauto, & Cunha, 2012; Miranda, 2011; Catapan, Colauto, & Sillas, 2011; Vasconcelos, 2010; Slomsky, 2009; Araujo & Santana, 2008; Celerino & Pereira, 2008; Andere & Araújo, 2008; Laffin, 2005, bem como pesquisas sobre professores exemplares (Young & Shaw, 1999; Lowman, 2007, verificaram-se os seguintes resultados: as disciplinas responsáveis pelas experiências mais significativas de aprendizagem, durante o curso, eram as percebidas como base do curso (Contabilidade Básica, Intermediária e Avançada e que apresentavam maior aplicação prática. As razões principais para escolha dos docentes de referência foram: didática ou metodologia de ensino, atitudes e qualidades

  1. Effect of essential oils of medicinal plants on leaf blotch in Tanzania grass Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a helmintosporiose do capim Tanzânia

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    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spots caused by phyto-pathogenic fungi, can reduce the production of forage plants. The essential oils of medicinal plants have antimicrobial potential. The objective here was to evaluate the fungotoxicity in vitro of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill. NE Br ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae and peppermint (Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae on the fungus Helminthosporium sp. and the in vivo effect of these oils and of commercial neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae on leaf blotch in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1. The mycelial growth of the fungus was evaluated over five periods (2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 days from incubation and with five concentrations of essential oils (C1 = 250 ppm; C2 = 500 ppm; C3 = 750 ppm; C4 = 1,000 ppm e C5 = 1,250 ppm. As an alternative control, the preventative and curative effect on leaf blotch of five oil-based treatments were evaluated: lemongrass, citronella, lemon balm, peppermint and neem in four concentrations (2,500; 5,000; 7,500 and 10,000 ppm. The essential oils of lemongrass and citronella were the most effective in reducing mycelial growth of Helminthosporium sp. With the essential oil of lemongrass, the pathogen presented the highest growth concentration (1.250 ppm. The results obtained showed that all the essential oils and concentrations tested presented a preventive and curative effect, reducing the severity of leaf blotch.Manchas foliares, causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos, podem reduzir a produção de forrageiras. Óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade in vitro dos óleos essenciais de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e hortelã-pimenta

  2. Estudo piloto sobre alimentos que devem ser evitados nos portadores de psoríase Pilot study on which foods should be avoided by patients with psoriasis

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    Moira Festugato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Psoríase é uma doença inflamatória crônica, sistêmica, mediada por fatores imunológicos. Serão abordados os alimentos que atuam sobre estes fatores, contribuindo para a psoríase. Como doença sistêmica, que compartilha o mesmo substrato fisiopatológico com outras comorbidades, a dieta alimentar também leva à piora das comorbidades. OBJETIVO: Destacar um grupo de alimentos que pode atuar como um fator de manifestação e/ou agravo da psoríase e ao mesmo tempo viabilizar estratégias individuais para alimentos que devam ser introduzidos. MÉTODOS: 43 pacientes foram selecionados, com diversas formas de psoríase (exceto psoríase pustulosa e eritrodérmica, e responderam a um questionário sobre seus hábitos alimentares na primeira consulta, focando a atenção no consumo de café preto, chá preto, chocolate, mate, pimenta, defumados, carne de gado e realçador de sabor (glutamato monossódico. Na sequência, o paciente foi orientado a suspender bebidas com qualquer percentagem alcoólica e o tabagismo. RESULTADO: A carne de gado é o alimento mais consumido pelos pacientes seguida por: realçador de sabor (glutamato monossódico, que existe nos alimentos industrializados, mate e café preto, chocolate, defumados, pimenta e chá preto. 88,37% notaram diminuição das escamas e eritema, surtos mais brandos durante o ano e melhora da qualidade de vida; 11,63% (5 pacientes não notaram repercussões na pele. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada ingestão dietética precária nos pacientes com psoríase. Além de uma orientação científica adequada, o paciente necessita de uma ação educativa frente aos seus hábitos alimentares para uma melhoria da qualidade de vida e como coadjuvante na terapia medicamentosa empregada.FUNDAMENT: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease mediated by immune factors. We will explore the foods that act on these factors contributing to psoriasis. As a systemic disease, which shares the

  3. O ESTÁGIO SUPERVISIONADO NA FORMAÇÃO DO PROFESSOR DE FILOSOFIA

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    Regiane Rodrigues Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a formação docente nos cursos de licenciatura tem sido objeto de estudo no campo da educação. A defesa do professor intelectual, crítico e reflexivo nem sempre tem considerado a contribuição da Filosofia na elaboração dos seus princípios. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar a compreensão dos alunos acerca do Estágio no decorrer do curso de licenciatura.Optou-se, metodologicamente, pela abordagem qualitativa, a revisão bibliográfica, a pesquisa de campo e a análise de conteúdo. A pesquisa de campo consultou dez estudantes de Licenciatura em Filosofia da turma de Prática de Ensino da Universidade Estadual do Ceará.O embasamento teórico para as análises dos dados ancorou-se nos estudos de Gallo (2008, Ghedin (2009, Severino (1994, Lima (2012, Pimenta e Lima (2004, dentre outros. Os resultados da pesquisa revelaram que o Estágio é um dos momentos mais significativos do curso universitário, pois possibilita ao aluno a vivência, na prática,dos ensinamentos teóricos e o contato com a realidade da profissão docente. Cada graduando tem um conceito e um significado para tal vivência, que influenciará, como passo inicial no exercício do magistério e na construção de sua identidade professoral.

  4. Efeito de extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida no controle de Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col.: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p41 Extratos de plantas com atividade inseticida foram testados no controle de  Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, uma importante praga de brassicáceas nas fases larval e adulta. Duas larvas com três dias de idade, mantidas sob condições de laboratório (T:25ºC, U.R:70% e 14 horas de fotofase, foram colocadas em tubos de vidro contendo folha de  couve-chinesa (Brassica chinensis previamente tratada com extratos aquosos (10% p/v de folha de cinamomo (Melia azedarach, de ramo de  cinamomo e de pó-de-fumo (Nicotiana tabacum. O mesmo procedimento foi repetido em dois ensaios com insetos adultos. No primeiro, foram utilizados todos os extratos anteriormente citados mais o extrato de Dal- Neem (produto comercial à base de Azadirachta indica. No segundo, os insetos foram expostos a extratos de frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens e de folhas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora, de jambolão (Syzygium cuminii e de eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.. Todos os testes constaram de 10 insetos por tratamento, com cinco repetições no primeiro ensaio com insetos adultos e com seis repetições nos demais. As  observações foram realizadas diariamente até o quinto dia, objetivando avaliar a mortalidade dos insetos. Todos os extratos testados  resultaram num controle efetivo de larvas de M.ochroloma.Em  relação aos insetos adultos, apenas os extratos de pó-de-fumo e de Dal- Neem apresentaram efi ciência de controle.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

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    M.A. Botelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae, popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7% and carvacrol (16.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, M A; Nogueira, N A P; Bastos, G M; Fonseca, S G C; Lemos, T L G; Matos, F J A; Montenegro, D; Heukelbach, J; Rao, V S; Brito, G A C

    2007-03-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  7. OS DESAFIOS DA APRENDIZAGEM DA PROFISSÃO E O ESTÁGIO

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    Elisangela André da Silva Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estágio é um componente curricular que se constitui, por excelência, como uma oportunidade dos alunos vivenciarem momentos que favoreçam um processo de identificação com seu campo de atuação. Sua obrigatoriedade leva em consideração a aplicabilidade da legislação, a consistência teórica, a produção do conhecimento, a relação teoria e prática, a docência e a pesquisa. Nesse trajeto, são evidenciados limites e possibilidades da execução de projetos que venham a interferir de maneira positiva no processo de formação dos alunos, uma vez que neste campo de conhecimento ainda há dissensos sobre o que é Estágio, sobre qual o papel do professor orientador e sobre a natureza das atividades desenvolvidas pelo estagiário nos diferentes espaços que o recebem. Assim, o presente texto objetiva apresentar discussões sobre o Estágio dos Cursos de formação profissional e sobre os novos desafios que se apresentam no desenvolvimento do mesmo. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica, tendo como referências Pimenta e Lima (2004, Libâneo (2011, Rios (2000 e Nóvoa (1991, 1992, entre outros. Os resultados apontam que se faz necessário um aprofundamento conceitual das práticas que se realizam no Estágio, a ser realizado de maneira coletiva pelo professor da universidade, junto a seus pares e seus alunos.

  8. New records of tick-associated spotted fever group Rickettsia in an Amazon-Savannah ecotone, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A A R; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Costa, Ivaneide Nunes da; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Rodrigues, Vinícius da Silva; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Andreotti, Renato

    2018-05-01

    Human rickettsiosis has been recorded in the Amazon Biome. However, the epidemiological cycle of causative rickettsiae has not been fully accounted for in the Amazon region. This study investigates the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in free-living unfed ticks of the Amblyomma genus. The study was conducted in seven municipalities in Rondonia State, Brazil, where the main biomes are Amazon forest, Brazilian Savannah and their ecotones (areas of ecological tension between open ombrophilous forest and savannah). The following tick species were collected: Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) s.l., A. cajennense (sensu stricto) s.s., A. coelebs, A. naponense, A. oblongoguttatum, A. romitii, A. scalpturatum and A. sculptum. A total of 167 adults, 248 nymphs and 1004 larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of SFG Rickettsia spp. PCR-positive samples included: one A. cajennense s.s. female and one A. cajennense s.l. male from a rural area in Vilhena Municipality; 10 nymphs and a sample of larvae of A. cajennense s.l. from a peri-urban area in Cacoal Municipality; and an A. oblongoguttatum adult male from a rural area of Pimenta Bueno Municipality. All sequences obtained exhibited 100% identity with Rickettsia amblyommatis sequences. This is the first confirmation of SFG Rickettsia in an A. oblongoguttatum tick. Furthermore, this is the first record of SFG Rickettsia in the municipalities targeted by this study. These results warn that SFG Rickettsia circulation poses a threat in Rondonia State (among Amazon-Savannah ecotones), and that this threat is increased by the fact that SFG Rickettsia infect a human-biting tick species hitherto unconfirmed as a vector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

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    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  10. NARRATIVAS (AUTO BIOGRÁFICAS DAS REDIMENSÕES DA PRÁTICA PEDAGÓGICA NOS PRIMEIROS ANOS DA DOCÊNCIA NO ENSINO SUPERIOR

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    Aleksandra Nogueira de Oliveira Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa aqui apresentada tem como objetivo analisar as redimensões da minha prática pedagógica no estágio supervisionado nos primeiros anos da docência no ensino superior. Utilizei o método (auto biográfico apoiada teoricamente em Josso (2010 que discute sobre a pesquisa formação e Zabalza (2004 que aborda sobre o diário de aula, em que faço uso para refletir sobre as minhas narrativas como professora de estágio. O diário é um documento em que professores e professoras anotam suas impressões sobre o que vai acontecendo em suas aulas. Dessa maneira tenho os seguintes resultados: a metodologia por mim utilizada na disciplina de estágio na educação infantil no curso de Pedagogia da Faculdade de Educação – FE da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte - UERN de 2010 a 2014 se modificou com a experiência, pois antes era mais fechada, sem abertura para o diálogo e focada nas técnicas de ensino. Mas, com a experiência, estudo e relação com os alunos e demais professores compreendi que a aprendizagem é algo coletivo, contínuo e que requer problematização (FARIAS, 2009. A fundamentação teórica que norteou este trabalho parte das discussões de Josso (2010, Zabalza (2004, Veiga (1994, Libâneo (1994, Luckesi (1994, Freire (1996, Tardif (2012, Pimenta e Lima (2010, Farias (2009, Marcelo (1999, entre outros.

  11. Sinergia entre aditivo vegetal e níveis crescentes de promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho produtivo e morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte

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    Fabiano Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de antibióticos associados ao farelo integral de pimenta rosa (FIPR sobre o desempenho produtivo e morfometria intestinal de frangos corte. Utilizaram-se 528 pintos Cobb, machos, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de 22 animais cada, constituído pelos grupos T1 - Controle Negativo (CN - Dieta basal sem FIPR e sem antibióticos; T2 - Controle Positivo (CP - Dieta Basal com 1,2% FIPR; T3 - CP + 11ppm bacitracina zinco e 17ppm salinomicina; T4 - CP + 22ppm bacitracina zinco e 34ppm salinomicina; T5 - CP + 33ppm bacitracina zinco e 51ppm salinomicina; T6 - CP + 45ppm bacitracina zinco e 67ppm salinomicina. No período de 1-43 dias de idade, observou-se que a adição de FIPR com ou sem antibiótico reduziu (P≤0,05 o consumo e melhorou a conversão alimentar, comparado com CN. Verificou-se que os frangos alimentados com FIPR associado aos antibióticos, em valores acima de 22mg kg-1 de bacitracina de zinco e 34mg kg-1 de salinomicina, tiveram maiores alturas de vilosidades intestinais que o CN (P≤0,05. O FIPR pode ser utilizado em substituição aos antibióticos sem queda de desempenho animal e com a manutenção da viabilidade e do fator de produção.

  12. QUEM TEM MEDO DO LOBO MAU? A REPRESENTAÇÃO DO LOBO EM CONTOS E RECONTOS

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    Elesa Vanessa Kaiser da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contact with Children’s Literature, especially with fairy tales, allows the reader to know classical characters that have survived over the years. And, among these, some stand out: princesses, princes, Little caps, wolves and witches, since these are the ones that inhabit, also very often, contemporary stories and continue attracting the attention of children. Thus, this study aims to specifically analyze the representation of the wolf in contemporary children’s books that compose the collection of the National Program of School’s Library (Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola – PNBE – 2012. Works that dialogue with the classical fairy tales were selected, in order to analyze if the parodistic creation allows an innovation in relation to the possibilities of new ways to be taken by the characters. Thus, this paper aims to analyze “Chapeuzinhos Coloridos”, José Roberto Torero and Marcus Aurelius Pimenta (2010; “Chapeuzinho Vermelho: uma aventura borbulhante”, Lynn Roberts (2009; “De quem tem medo o Lobo Mau?”, Silvana de Menezes (2009; “Cuidado com o menino!”, Tony Blundell (2011; and ”Mamãe, por que os dinossauros não vão à escola?”, Quentin Greban (2010, which were selected from the reading of 150 (one hundred fifty literary works of 2012 PNBE collection. For this purpose, works of Linda Hutcheon (1985 Robert Darnton (2011, Ana Maria Machado (2002, Vera Teixeira de Aguiar and Alice Áurea Penteado Martha (2012 were used especially, for theoretical basis, among others.

  13. Saberes docentes da dança

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    Silvia Camara Soter da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do tema saberes docentes e busca sua relação com o ensino da dança na escola. A categoria saber docente tornou-se central no campo da formação de professores a partir dos anos 1990 no Brasil. Neste trabalho, o saber docente é abordado através de dois autores que se dedicaram ao tema: Maurice Tardif (2012 e Selma Garrido Pimenta (2012, na busca de refletir sobre as especificidades do saber docente daquele que ensina dança na escola. O saber docente se constitui, de uma parte, na formação inicial e contínua em instituições de formação de professores e, de outra parte, se desenvolve ao longo da vida dos estudantes e professores, em contextos distintos destas instituições, nas vivências destes professores antes da chegada à formação inicial, nas marcas que a escolarização deixou, na articulação do que aprendem nos cursos de formação de professores com a realidade da escola e, também, pela própria prática docente no início da atividade profissional, no contexto da escola, através das trocas com seus pares. No caso da dança, no saber docente se mesclam saberes constituídos no ensino formal como no não formal, que na trajetória dos docentes de dança parece ter um papel importante.

  14. Fitoextração de cádmio e zinco de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo contaminado com metais pesados Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an oxisol contaminated with heavy metals

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    Carolina de Freitas Zeittouni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a capacidade das plantas de mamona, girassol, pimenta da amazônia e tabaco, cultivadas em vasos de 3 L, em casa de vegetação, em extrair metais de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, esquema fatorial 4 espécies x 3 doses de metais x 2 doses de EDTA (Ácido Etilenodiaminotetraacético, com três repetições. As doses empregadas de metais, aplicadas na forma de sais inorgânicos foram, em mg kg-1: dose zero - sem adição de metal; dose 1 - adição conjunta de 0,75 de Cd, 6,25 de Pb, 20,0 de Cu, 8,75 de Ni e 62,5 de Zn e; dose 2 - adição conjunta de 1,5 de Cd, 12,5 de Pb, 40,0 de Cu, 17,5 de Ni e 125,0 de Zn, na presença (1 mmol kg-1 e ausência de EDTA. A colheita da parte aérea das quatro espécies de plantas variou de 48 dias (pimenta até 100 dias (tabaco. A aplicação do EDTA diminuiu a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea de todas as plantas, embora tenha provocado aumento na concentração de Cd na parte aérea da mamoneira e do girassol e nenhuma influência na concentração de Cd (pimenta e tabaco e na de Zn em todas as espécies. Concluiu-se que a planta mais eficiente em extrair o Cd e o Zn do solo enriquecido com metais foi o tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum e que para descontaminar o solo, será necessário um maior número de cultivos para todas as culturas, com exceção da mamoneira, se houver a aplicação de EDTA na dose de 1 mmol kg-1.In a greenhouse experiment, the ability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., castor bean (Ricinus communis L., tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., and Amazon pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. to extract Cd and Zn from an oxisol contaminated with heavy metals was evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a complete ramdomized block design in a factorial scheme consisted of 4 species x 3 rates of metals x 2 rates of EDTA, with 3 replicates and using plastic pots with 3 L capacity. Heavy metals were applied to the soil, as

  15. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

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    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  16. Potential influence of thermal effluents on the production and water-use efficiency of mangrove species in South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.C.; Stoner, W.A.; Hom, J.; Poole, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    Data on mangrove-water relations and photosynthesis and energy-balance relationships between solar and infrared radiation, wind, air and surface temperature, and humidity profiles in mangrove canopies in south Florida were synthesized in a simulation model of leaf energy exchange, water relations, and photosynthesis. The model calculates the diurnal courses of these processes for sunlit and shaded leaves at different levels in the canopy. The model includes only canopy microclimate interaction and does not include the possible effects of changing root temperatures. The data on which model parameters are based are reviewed, and results of simulated changes in air and ground-surface temperature are discussed. Changes in ground-surface temperature showed little effect. Several trends and patterns appear in the simulations. Daily net photosynthesis is suppressed throughout the year by air temperatures over 5 0 C above ambient. Peak production occurs in spring when solar irradiance is high and air temperatures are moderate. Increased air temperatures shift the diurnal pattern of photosynthesis in winter, when maximum photosynthesis occurs at midday, to the pattern of summer, when maximum photosynthesis occurs in early morning and late afternoon. Increased temperatures are expected to affect Rhizophora mangle most adversely, but photosynthesis in Laguncularia racemosa showed the greatest sensitivity to temperature changes

  17. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation of eight Bauhinia L. species from Egypt using UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Sakna, Sarah T; El-Fiky, Nabaweya M; Shabana, Marawan M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-11-01

    Bauhinia L. (Fabaceae) comprises ca. 300-350 plant species, many of which are traditionally used in folk medicine for their antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Bauhinia s.l. recently has been subdivided into 9 genera based on phylogenetic data: Bauhinia s.str., Barklya, Brenierea, Gigasiphon, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma, Schnella (American Phanera) and Tylosema. The aerial parts of 8 species corresponding to 5 genera were analyzed: Bauhinia forficata, Bauhinia variegata, B. variegata var. candida, Bauhinia galpinii, Schnella glabra, Piliostigma racemosa, Phanera vahlii and Lysiphyllum hookeri. Leaves and shoots were subjected to metabolite profiling via UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS coupled to multivariate data analyzes to identify compound compositional differences. A total of 90 metabolites were identified including polyphenols and fatty acids; flavonoid conjugates accounted for most of the metabolite variation observed. This study provides a comprehensive map of polyphenol composition in Bauhinia and phytochemical species aggregations are consistent with recent Bauhinia genus taxonomic relationship derived from phylogenetic studies. DPPH radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays were also performed to assess selected aspects of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential for the examined species with respect to metabolite profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Response surface methodology to simplify calculation of wood energy potency from tropical short rotation coppice species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqiqi, M. T.; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.

    2018-04-01

    Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) system is an option to provide renewable and sustainable feedstock in generating electricity for rural area. Here in this study, we focussed on application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to simplify calculation protocols to point out wood chip production and energy potency from some tropical SRC species identified as Bauhinia purpurea, Bridelia tomentosa, Calliandra calothyrsus, Fagraea racemosa, Gliricidia sepium, Melastoma malabathricum, Piper aduncum, Vernonia amygdalina, Vernonia arborea and Vitex pinnata. The result showed that the highest calorific value was obtained from V. pinnata wood (19.97 MJ kg-1) due to its high lignin content (29.84 %, w/w). Our findings also indicated that the use of RSM for estimating energy-electricity of SRC wood had significant term regarding to the quadratic model (R2 = 0.953), whereas the solid-chip ratio prediction was accurate (R2 = 1.000). In the near future, the simple formula will be promising to calculate energy production easily from woody biomass, especially from SRC species.

  19. High-throughput screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overk, Cassia R.; Yao, Ping; Chen, Shaonong; Deng, Shixing; Imai, Ayano; Main, Matthew; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2009-01-01

    Symptoms associated with menopause can greatly affect the quality of life for women. Botanical dietary supplements have been viewed by the public as safe and effective despite a lack of evidence indicating a urgent necessity to standardize these supplements chemically and biologically. Seventeen plants were evaluated for estrogenic biological activity using standard assays: competitive estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay for both alpha and beta subtypes, transient transfection of the estrogen response element luciferase plasmid into MCF-7 cells expressing either ER alpha or ER beta, and the Ishikawa alkaline phosphatase induction assay for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. Based on the combination of data pooled from these assays, the following was determined: a) a high rate of false positive activity for the competitive binding assays, b) some extracts had estrogenic activity despite a lack of ability to bind the ER, c) one extract exhibited selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity, and d) several extracts show additive/synergistic activity. Taken together, these data indicate a need to reprioritize the order in which the bioassays are performed for maximal efficiency of programs involving bioassay-guided fractionation. In addition, possible explanations for the conflicts in the literature over the estrogenicity of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) are suggested. PMID:18473738

  20. Research highlights from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women’s Health: Black cohosh from the field to the clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Norman R; Mahady, Gail B.

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy at the College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois (UIC) at Chicago was funded to establish a Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Center from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The emphasis of the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research (CBDSR) is botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for women's health. Center’s research has focused on BDS that may improve women's health and quality of life, specifically in the areas of menopause, premenstrual syndrome, and persistent urinary tract infections. Center investigators have overcome many challenges associated with botanical dietary supplements research, including acquiring and identifying plant species for investigation, isolating and identifying active constituents, elucidating the mechanisms of action of these botanicals, and conducting phase I and phase II clinical studies. Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae)] has been used as a model to illustrate the steps involved in taking a botanical dietary supplement from the field, all the way to clinical trials. Bioassays are described that were necessary to elucidate the pertinent biological studies of plant extracts and their mechanisms of action. The Center has used an innovative multidisciplinary approach to this type of research, and thus has been very successful in fulfilling its specific aims. PMID:20161501

  1. Content of polyphenol compound in mangrove and macroalga extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Patria, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Polyphenol or phenolic are compounds containing one or more hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring [1]. These compounds have some activities like antibacterial, antiseptic, and antioxidants. Natural resources like mangrove and macroalga were known containing these compounds. The purpose of the research was to investigate polyphenol content in mangrove and macroalga. Materials used in this research were mangrove (Avicennia sp.) leaves and the whole part of macroalga (Caulerpa racemosa). Samples were dried for 5 days then macerated in order to get an extract. Maceration were done using methanol for 48 hours (first) and 24 hours (second) continously. Polyphenol content was determined using phytochemical screening on both extracts. The quantitative test was carried out to determine catechin and tannin as polyphenol compound. The result showed that catechin was observed in both extracts while tannin in mangrove extract only. According to quantitative test, mangrove has a higher content of catechin and tannin which were 12.37-13.44 % compared to macroalga which was 2.57-4.58 %. Those indicated that both materials can be the source of polyphenol compound with higher content on mangrove. Moreover, according to this result, these resources can be utilized for advanced studies and human needs like medical drug.

  2. The Use of Various Vegetation Level by Bird Community on Mbarek Spring, Gedangan, Malang

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    Suparno Suparno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of correlation between vegetation and birds could show how great the impact of Figs (Ficus spp. towards wildlife. Mbarek spring has a unique microhabitat by Figs. These trees expected to provide a high potential role and benefit related to supporting bird life. This study aims to analyze the use of vegetation by birds in the sphere of Mbarek’s spring microhabitat. Study was held in Mulyosari sub-village, Sumberejo village, Gedangan subdistrict, Malang regency. The study was conducted from 26-29 October 2017. Bird observation point was chosen on Ficus racemosa, known locally as ‘Lo’, which suspected to have a major influence on the presence of birds. Each of observation results were identified, counted, and recorded. Documentation were done incidentally. The results are visualized by descriptive representations of the use of vegetation composition on 4 vegetation classifications : seedling (high = 0-1.5 m, sapling (high≥1.5 m, pole (diameter = 10-20 cm, tree (diameter> 20 cm. Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster is the dominant bird during observation. Most of birds observed at the canopy  with the activity of sunbathing. Figs became a favorite location for birds to rest and parenting during the day. Sedges (Cyperus sp. is the greatest importance on study site. Keywords: Birds, Figs, Mbarek, Sedges

  3. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  4. Mangroves act as a small methane source: an investigation on 5 pathways of methane emissions from mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Peng, C.; Guan, W.; Liao, B.; Hu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The methane (CH4) source strength of mangroves is not well understood, especially for integrating all CH4 pathways. This study measured CH4 fluxes by five pathways (sediments, pneumatophores, water surface, leaves, and stems) from four typical mangrove forests in Changning River of Hainan Island, China, including Kandelia candel , Sonneratia apetala, Laguncularia racemosa and Bruguiera gymnoihiza-Bruguiera sexangula. The CH4 fluxes (mean ± SE) from sediments were 4.82 ± 1.46 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those without pneumatophores and 1.36 ± 0.17 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 for those with pneumatophores. Among the three communities with pneumatophores, S. apetala community had significantly greater emission rate than the other two. Pneumatophores in S. apetala were found to significantly decrease CH4 emission from sediments (P duck farming. Leaves of mangroves except for K. candel were a weak CH4 sink while stems a weak source. As a whole the 72 ha of mangroves in the Changning river basin emitted about 8.10 Gg CH4 yr-1 with a weighted emission rate of about 1.29 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, therefore only a small methane source to the atmosphere compared to other reported ones. Keywords: Greenhouse Gases; Biogeochemistry; Tropical ecosystems; Methane budget

  5. Macrolgae as an indicator of the environmental health of the Pirangi reefs, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Carolina A. A. Azevedo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs of Pirangi beach have suffered the impact of anthropic actions, mainly those related to tourism. To evaluate these effects, algal samples were collected at nine stations, distributed along the reef fringe. The macrobenthic community (algae/coral was identified through photographic methods. A total of thirty species of algae, five species of coral, and one species of mollusk were identified. In areas of intense tourist activity, small algae were predominant, while in areas without human interference, foliose algae were predominant. Cluster analysis of the organisms revealed a pattern in spatial distribution into five zones: (1 a submerged zone with very diverse flora, (2 a zone with a predominance of Caulerpa racemosa, (3 a zone with high coverage of Sargassum vulgare, (4 a trampled zone with bare spaces, small algae and Zoanthus sociatus, and (5 a zone with predominance of Palythoa caribaeroum. The results show that human disturbances of the natural order can result in a different distribution model for benthic organisms in reefs. Moreover, these results allow us to infer that the area studied has undergone changes resulting from human activities and that the differences in biological composition can be used as an important indicator of the health of the Pirangi reef.

  6. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  7. Are there general spatial patterns of mangrove structure and composition along estuarine salinity gradients in Todos os Santos Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Dórea, Antônio; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Barros, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution and structural patterns of mangrove fringe forests along three tropical estuaries were evaluated in northeast of Brazil. Interstitial water salinity, percentage of fine sediments and organic matter content were investigated as explanatory variables. In all estuaries (Jaguaripe, Paraguaçu and Subaé estuaries), it was observed similar distribution patterns of four mangrove species and these patterns were mostly related with interstitial water salinity. Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia schaueriana tended to dominate sites under greater marine influence (lower estuary), while Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa dominated areas under greater freshwater influence (upper estuary), although the latter showed a wider distribution over these tropical estuarine gradients. Organic matter best explained canopy height and mean height. At higher salinities, there was practically no correlation between organic matter and density, but at lower salinity, organic matter was related to decreases in abundances. The described patterns can be related to interspecific differences in salt tolerance and competitive abilities and they are likely to be found at other tropical Atlantic estuaries. Future studies should investigate anthropic influences and causal processes in order to further improve the design of monitoring and restoration projects.

  8. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2012-09-01

    The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.

  9. Mercury in litterfall and sediment using elemental and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in the mangrove of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Cynara Pedrosa; Bernini, Elaine; Araújo, Beatriz Ferreira; Almeida, Marcelo Gomes de; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de

    2018-03-01

    Mercury and elemental and isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen were determined in litterfall and sediments from the mangrove of the Paraíba do Sul River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in sediment ranged from 33 to 123 ng g-1 and 0.20-1.38 ng g-1, respectively. The δ13C in sediment varied from -29.4 to -26.5‰ and from 2.4 to 5.8‰ in δ15N. The THg concentration in litterfall and its annual input to the mangrove was 21 ± 2 ng g-1 and 16 ± 4 μg m-2 for the species Laguncularia racemosa, 18 ± 1 ng g-1 and 17 ± 3 μg m-2 for Rhizophora mangle, and 53 ± 4 ng g-1 and 33 ± 4 μg m-2 for Avicennia germinans, respectively. The isotopic composition of leaf litter ranged from -28.6 to -26.9‰ for δ13C and 4.5-7.2‰ for δ15N. Both the highest annual Hg input via litterfall and highest sediment Hg concentration were observed in areas dominated by A. germinans. These results suggest that the rate of litterfall of plant species and the atmospheric deposition have played an important role in the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the mangrove ecosystem.

  10. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  11. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

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    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  12. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

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    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  13. Method for in vitro screening of aquatic fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods were developed for in vitro screening of candidate aquatic fungicides for efficacy against Achlya fiagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna and S. megasperma. Agar plugs containing fungal hyphae, removed from the edge of actively growing colonies, were placed in the depressions of spot plates containing 1a??0, 10a??0 and 100 mg/I of the candidate compounds for 15 or 60 min. After exposure, the plugs were transferred on to filter papers (0a??45-A?m pore) in a holder, rinsed, and then placed on cornmeal agar medium in tri-petri dishes. The plates were checked for mycelial growth after 48, 96 and 168 h of incubation in a lighted (400-800 A?m) environmental control chamber at 20A?2A?C. Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of candidate aquatic fungicides for further study were based on the antifungal spectrum index (ASI) comparisons between respective compounds and malachite green after 48 h and the concentration level producing complete growth inhibition. Candidate compounds whose ASI was less than 50% that of malachite green after 48 h or did not inhibit growth at levels less than 100 mg/l were rejected. This method provides a base from which in vivo and definitive test regimens can be developed. Preliminary in vitro screening of candidate fungicides reduces the need for costly in vivo tests on compounds that have low antifungal activity.

  14. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh--an ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocvirk, Soeren; Kistler, Martin; Khan, Shusmita; Talukder, Shamim Hayder; Hauner, Hans

    2013-06-24

    The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes.

  15. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  16. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

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    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  17. A review of effective herbal medicines in controlling menopausal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozar, Rahele; Azizi, Hoda; Salari, Roshanak

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute menopausal syndrome especially hot flashes, is one of the most common gynecological problems during menopause. Due to the side effects of hormone therapy, herbal and complementary medicines are always of immense interest to people in the treatment and management of the symptoms and complications of menopause. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and effects of medicinal plants employed in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Methods This review article was carried out by examining clinical trial studies between the period of 1994 and 2016. The keywords, which include menopause, climacteric, hot flushes, flashes, herb and phytoestrogens were used to search for herbal medicines used in clinical trials for the treatment of menopausal symptoms using databases such as PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Google scholar, SID and Magiran. Results The results of the study showed that the medicinal plants, which include Sage herb (Salvia officinalis), Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), Valerina officinalis, Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Vitex (Vitex agnus-castus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), Ginkgo biloba, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Hypericum perforatum, Panax ginseng, Pimpinella anisum, Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Passiflora incarnata, Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Glycine soja were effective in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome with different mechanisms. Conclusion Medicinal plants can play an imperative role in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome; however, further studies are required to buttress their efficacy in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome. PMID:29403626

  18. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities.

  19. [Evaluation of the efficacy of a new nutraceutical product in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, V; Morgante, G; Di Sabatino, A; Massaro, M G; De Leo, V

    2015-12-01

    The onset of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women represents the beginning of a hard period from the emotional point of view which involves some of the most important neurotransmitters. Hot flushes and insomnia associated with a state of anxiety that affect postmenopausal women are included in an index known as the Kupperman Index. The use of nutraceuticals in Italy is increasingly widespread, and only 6-8% of women currently choose to take hormone replacement therapy. The action of these natural supplements primarily depends on the selection of substances and the dose of each single ingredient. Moreover, it also depends on the range of vasomotor symptoms (from mild to moderate/severe). The aim of this study was to test the action of a new product without phytoestrogens containing Cimicifuga racemosa, chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus), hyaluronic acid, zinc and ginger (ElleN®) in two different groups of women: one with mild and the other with moderate/severe menopausal symptoms. All women received a dose of one tablet per day of ElleN® for three months. Results showed a significant reduction in the Kupperman Index in both groups. The treatment was particularly effective against hot flushes associated with night insomnia and anxiety. The product was well tolerated, did not cause any side effects, and none of the subjects dropped out of the study. In conclusion, it can be stated that the supplement evaluated in the present study is able to reduce moderate/severe menopause symptoms.

  20. Mapping and analysis land-use and land-cover changes during 1996-2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Fitri, A.; Harahap, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forest plays a significant role for biogeochemical carbon cycle in the context of climate change along the tropical coastal area. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes from 1996, 2006 and 2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove diversity in Lubuk Kertang consists of fifteen species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, A. lanata, A. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, L. littorea, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Xylocarpus granatum. The land use/land cover consists of seven classes namely, mangrove forest, river, residential, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, and open space area. A land use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest 109.4 ha from 1996-2006 converted to aquaculture 51.5 ha (47.1%). By contrast, mangrove lost 291.2 ha during 2006-2016, with main driver deforestation was oil palm plantation 128.1 ha (44%). During twenty years mangrove forest has been lost more than 400.4 ha, which is equal to 20.02 ha/year. On the other hand, oil palm plantation and aquaculture have been increased 155.3 ha and 114.1 ha during 1996-2016, respectively, suggested that both land-uses are mainly responsible for mangrove deforestation. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning and practice and mitigating actions for emission reduction scenario.

  1. A comparative study on the effect of "black cohosh" and "evening primrose oil" on menopausal hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Maryam; Rabiee, Soghra; Larki-Harchegani, Amir; Fallahian, Amir-Mohammad; Moradi, Abbas; Ataei, Sara; Javad, Masoumeh Taravati

    2018-01-01

    Hot flashes are considered to be a common experience for menopausal women and they can compromise the quality of life. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa in comparison with evening primrose oil (EPO) in postmenopausal women with menopause-related symptoms. This study was performed on 80 postmenopausal women with hot flashes. The participants were randomly divided into two groups by blocked randomization. The participants of one group received black cohosh and the other group received EPO for 8 weeks. The severity and number of hot flashes and quality of life were measured by four-point scale, and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire at pre-intervention, 1 st , 4 th , and 8 th weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed in SPSS Version 16 using independent t -test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Average severity of hot flashes in both groups and number of hot flashes in black cohosh group in 8 th week were significantly lower than 1 st week ( P hot flashes in primrose oil group in 8 th week showed no significant differences ( P = 0.32). The number of hot flashes and quality of life score in black cohosh arm compared to EPO showed a significant decrease in the 8 th week ( P hot flashes and improvement of the quality of life, but it seems that black cohosh is more effective than primrose oil because it was able to reduce the number of hot flashes too.

  2. Characterization of the structure and composition of a fragment of coastal area of the Popular Council Belic, municipality Niquero

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    Marcos Manuel Domínguez García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out among the months of October from 2014 to May of 2016, in the Popular Council Belic belonging to the municipality Niquero, county Granma, with the objective of characterizing the structure and composition of the swamp ecosystem in this area. The species of the area were listed using the method of band transecto, rushing 13 bands transecto for a total area of 26 000 m2. 84 species of plants and 7 649 individuals belonging to 33 botanical families were determined; being the families Rhizophoraceae, Verbenaceae and Combretaceae the most important to be typical species of this ecosystem like: Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus, which play an important part in the protection of the coastal area. In a general way it is presented in the area a diversity of half species, reinforced approach when determining the indexe of Shannon (1,094. This value of diversity can be associated to the man's intervention, when pouring solid residuals and waste of agricultural parcels to the swamp ecosystem and talar the present species in the coastal area in a stealthy way.

  3. Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T.W.; Smith, T. J.; Robblee, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew downed and defoliated an extensive swath of mangrove trees across the lower Florida peninsula. Permanent field sites were established to assess the extent of forest damage and to monitor the rate and process of forest recovery. Canopy trees suffered the highest mortality particularly for sites within and immediately north of the storm's eyewall. The type and extent of site damage, windthrow, branch loss, and defoliation generally decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the storm track. Forest damage was greater for sites in the storm's right quadrant than in the left quadrant tor the same given distance from the storm center. Stand exposure, both horizontally and vertically, increased the susceptibility and probability of forest damage and accounted for much of the local variability. Slight species differences were found. Laguncularia racemosa exceeded Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle in damage tendency under similar wind conditions. Azimuths of downed trees were strongly correlated with maximum wind speed and vector based on a hurricane simulation of the storm. Lateral branch loss and leaf defoliation on sites without windthrow damage indicated a degree of crown thinning and light penetration equivalent to treefall gaps under normally intact forest conditions. Mangrove species and forests are susceptible to catastrophic disturbance by hurricanes; the impacts of which are significant to changes in forest structure and function.

  4. Interspecific variation of the bacterial community structure in the phyllosphere of the three major plant components of mangrove forests

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    Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests encompass a group of trees species that inhabit the intertidal zones, where soil is characterized by the high salinity and low availability of oxygen. The phyllosphere of these trees represent the habitat provided on the aboveground parts of plants, supporting in a global scale, a large and complex microbial community. The structure of phyllosphere communities reflects immigration, survival and growth of microbial colonizers, which is influenced by numerous environmental factors in addition to leaf physical and chemical properties. Here, a combination of culture-base methods with PCR-DGGE was applied to test whether local or plant specific factors shape the bacterial community of the phyllosphere from three plant species (Avicenia shaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle, found in two mangroves. The number of bacteria in the phyllosphere of these plants varied between 3.62 x 10(4 in A. schaeriana and 6.26 x 10³ in R. mangle. The results obtained by PCR-DGGE and isolation approaches were congruent and demonstrated that each plant species harbor specific bacterial communities in their leaves surfaces. Moreover, the ordination of environmental factors (mangrove and plant species, by redundancy analysis (RDA, also indicated that the selection exerted by plant species is higher than mangrove location on bacterial communities at phyllosphere.

  5. 6 Structural variation in mangrove forests of the estuary of the River Itabapoana, ES-RJ

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    Elaine Bernini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the structure of 13 sites of mangrove vegetation in the Itabapoana estuary by use of the methodology of permanent plots. Considering all individuals >1m within the plots, the average height of forests ranged from 4.0 to 10.1m, the average DBH (diameter at breast height ranged from 3.7 to 13.5cm, the basal area of living individuals was 13.5 to 48.3m2.ha-1, and the density of trunks was 1,475 to 21,000 trunks.ha-1. Overall, there was a greater contribution of the live basal area in relation to diameter >10.0cm (59%. Forests with better structural development exhibited a dominance of Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn, while Laguncularia racemosa (L. Gaertn. f. was dominant in less-developed forests. Our results showed that environmental features and biotic factors contribute to mangrove differentiation among sites. Such differences highlight the peculiarities of each mangrove and emphasize the need of specific management plans for ecosystem maintenance.

  6. Taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen as proxies for tracking past mangrove ecosystems 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie; Marret, Fabienne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Jansen, J. H. Fred

    2004-02-01

    Angola Basin and Cape Basin (southeast Atlantic) surface sediments and sediment cores show that maxima in the abundance of taraxerol (relative to other land-derived lipids) covary with maxima in the relative abundance of pollen from the mangrove tree genus Rhizophora and that in the surface sediments offshore maxima in the relative abundance of taraxerol occur at latitudes with abundant coastal mangrove forests. Together with the observation that Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa leaves are extraordinarily rich in taraxerol, this strongly indicates that taraxerol can be used as a lipid biomarker for mangrove input to the SE Atlantic. The proxy-environment relations for taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen down-core show that increased taraxerol and Rhizophora pollen abundances occur during transgressions and periods with a humid climate. These environmental changes modify the coastal erosion and sedimentation patterns, enhancing the extent of the mangrove ecosystem and/or the transport of mangrove organic matter offshore. Analyses of mid-Pleistocene sediments show that interruption of the pattern of taraxerol maxima during precession minima occurs almost only during periods of low obliquity. This demonstrates the complex environmental response of the interaction between precession-related humidity cycles and obliquity-related sea-level changes on mangrove input.

  7. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (pRhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  8. Quantificação e Avaliação das Principais Espécies Florestais Licenciadas no Estado do Acre de 2005 a 2012

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    Flávia Alessandra Pinheiro da Rocha Cordeiro e Silva

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, identificar e quantificar os 15 principais gêneros e espécies florestais exploradas legalmente no estado do Acre, na Amazônia brasileira, bem como analisar o número de autorizações emitidas para exploração de florestas manejadas, o volume de madeira e a área de manejo licenciada pelo Instituto de Meio Ambiente do Acre de janeiro de 2005 a agosto de 2012. Os dados coletados demonstraram que a área e o volume de madeira licenciados apresentaram um crescimento no período analisado, atingindo o ápice em 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os 15 principais gêneros e espécies licenciados foram: cumaru-ferro (Dipteryx spp., garapeira (Apuleia spp., sumaúma (Ceiba spp., açacu (Hura crepitans L., matamatá (Eschweilera spp., jatobá (Hymenaea spp., tauari (Couratari spp., manitê (Brosimun spp., caucho (Castilla ulei Warb., cedro (Cedrela spp., guariúba (Clarisia racemosa Ruiz e Pav., faveira (Parkia spp., copaíba (Copaifera spp., guaribeiro (Phyllocarpus riedelii Tul. e abiurana (Pouteria spp..

  9. Los manglares de Costa Rica: el Pacífico norte

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    Priscilla Zamora-Trejos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica tiene bosques de manglar en las costas Caribe y Pacífica. El 99% de los manglares del país se encuentran en la costa Pacífica. En este trabajo recopilamos la información disponible sobre los manglares del Pacífico norte de Costa Rica, desde la frontera con Nicaragua hasta la Reserva Absoluta de Cabo Blanco, en la punta sur de la Península de Nicoya. La ubicación de los manglares y cualquier información disponible para cada manglar es resumida. El clima de esta región es seco con estaciones de lluvia y sequía muy bien definidas. Los manglares del norte son relativamente pequeños en extensión y tamaño de árboles, y de baja diversidad comparados con los del Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Las principales especies de mangle son: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa a lo largo de los bordes de los canales, seguido por Avicennia germinans, y más tierra adentro Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus. En el manglar de Potrero Grande se informa de una población saludable de la especie de Pelliciera rhizophorae, especies muy poco abundante. Reconocemos 38 comunidades de manglares en el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica basado en el Inventario Nacional de Humedales, artículos publicados, observaciones de campo, tesis, informes técnicos y los mapas 1: 50 000 del Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Se pudo encontrar información relativamente detallada pero fragmentada de únicamente cinco manglares (los descritos en esta publicación, de 14 solamente hay listas preliminares e incompletas de plantas y en algunos casos de animales, de nueve manglares más hay información todavía más limitada, y de otros nueve se conoce solamente su ubicación, que en algunos casos se comprobó que era incorrecta. Trabajos de mapeo detallado, caracterización de la vegetación y la fauna, estudios fisiológicos, análisis de procesos biogeoquímicos, evaluaciones económicas, y determinación del estado de salud de los manglares

  10. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

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    Ehab Omer Abdalla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae, brown algae (Phaeophyceae and the red algae (Rhodophyceae collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods: Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm against Candida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  11. A critical review of records of alien marine species from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters (Central Mediterranean

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    M. SCIBERRAS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated list of alien marine species recorded from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters, compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ literature and from authenticated unpublished reports to the authors, is presented. The listed species are classified in one of four categories as regards establishment status: established, casual, invasive and questionable. Doubtful records are listed as ‘?’. A total of 48 species, including nine dubious ones, are included in the list. Of the accepted records, 64% are established, of which 15.4% are invasive, 18% are casual and 18% are questionable. The most represented groups are molluscs (14 species, fish (13 species and macrophytes (10 species. Six species are classified as invasive in Maltese waters: Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii and Sphoeroides pachygaster; impacts of some of these species on local ecosystems are discussed. Since the early 1900s, there has been an increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands. Transportation via shipping and in connection with aquaculture, as well as the range expansion of Lessepsian immigrants, appear to be the most common vectors for entry, accounting for 20%, 11% and 32% respectively of the alien species included in this review. The general warming trend of Mediterranean waters and increasing marine traffic may be facilitating the spread of warm-water Atlantic and Indo-Pacific species to the central Mediterranean, including the Maltese Islands.

  12. Anti-Androgenic Activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Tribulus terrestris L. and Their Beneficial Effects on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Induced Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Palakkil Mavilavalappil; Bovee, Toine F H; Sreejith, Krishnan

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major hyperandrogenic disorder. Many drugs prescribed specifically to treat PCOS have side effects; however, previous studies suggest that natural therapeutics including botanicals may be less invasive and equally effective for the management of PCOS. In the present study, plants were screened for antiandrogenic activity using the RIKILT yeast Androgen bioAssay (RAA). Selected positive plants were subsequently tested for their efficacy against PCOS induced by estradiol valerate (EV) in rat models. RAA revealed the antiandrogenic property of Nardostachys jatamansi DC (NJ), Tribulus terrestris L. (TT), and Embelia tsjeriam-cottam DC (EJ), whereas Whithania somnifera Dunal (WS), Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (SR), and Helicteres isora L. (HI) exhibited androgenic properties. EJ also exhibited mild androgenic activity and therefore was excluded from further study. EV administration reduced the weight gain and disrupted cyclicity in all rats. NJ and TT extract treatment normalized estrous cyclicity and steroidal hormonal levels and regularized ovarian follicular growth. The in vitro antiandrogenic activity of plant extracts and their positive effects on different parameters of PCOS were proved in vivo.

  13. Phytosociology of aquilaria malaccensis lamk. and its communities from a tropical forest reserve in peninsular malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, S. A.; Haron, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    A phytosociological study on the floristic and vegetation communities of Aquilaria malaccensis was carried out in Sungai Udang Forest Reserve, Malacca, Malaysia. The main objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and classify the Aquilaria malaccensis communities which were naturally distributed in the Sungai Udang Forest Reserve. A total of 25 plots (40 m x 20 m) in size were constructed according to the line transect method. The vegetation sampling and data analysis were done. A total of 80 species belonging to 79 genera and 40 families were found from all the 25 plots in Sungai Udang Forest Reserve. The most abundant family was the Euphorbiaceae with 220 individual trees, followed by Myrtaceae and Anacardiaceae representing 212 and 197 individual trees, respectively. A community which was Aquilaria malaccensis Artocarpus rigidus community with two new sub-community known as Palaquium gutta sub-community and Barringtonia racemosa sub-community were identified on the basis of statistical and phytosociological analyses. These community and sub-community also showed preference on different geographical and environmental factors such as soils and local relief. This study is useful in providing more information on the growth response of the mixed dipterocarp forest in the development of proper forest management. (author)

  14. Mangroves on the Edge: Anthrome-Dependent Fragmentation Influences Ecological Condition (Turbo, Colombia, Southern Caribbean

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    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are commonly seen as the most effective strategy for protecting mangroves from external human pressures but little is known about the role of public land-tenure contexts (dense settlements, agricultural or range lands and wild anthromes on clearing rates, patch properties, and ecological condition. We addressed the following questions using a peri-urban to wild gradient along the anthropogenic coastal-scape in Turbo Municipality (Colombia, Southern Caribbean: Do the different deforestation rates observed under peri-urban, rural, military-protected and wild land-use-and-tenure contexts, promote distinctive fragmentation patterns? Do these patterns influence loggers’ access and ultimately ecosystem ecological condition? Loss rate (1938–2009 was the greatest peri-urban mangroves and positively correlated with urban edge and patch density. Pasture edge was highest in rural mangroves while mean patch area was higher in protected and wild mangroves. An Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ADI was strongly correlated with reduced mean patch area and increased patch density, due to increased trampling and logging, that ultimately promoted high densities of thin (diameter: <5 cm Laguncularia racemosa trees but had no significant effect on the presence of a dominant benthic gastropod. In conclusion, both protection and remoteness were effective in reducing anthropogenic edges and fragmentation, and thus contributed to a high ecological condition in mangroves at a major deforestation hotspot.

  15. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

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    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  17. Invasion of alien plants in fire-damaged forests at southern boundary of the taiga zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapugin, A.A.; Vargot, E.V.; Chugunov, G.G.; Shugaev, N.I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Biological invasions are one of the most important areas of forest research. In this study, we revealed invasibility of fire-damaged forests at the southern boundary of the taiga zone. Area of study: The Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Central Russia). Material and Methods: Altogether, 11 square plots of each 100 ×100 m were established in different types of fire-damaged forests. To test plant invasion outside the established plots, field researches were carried out by route method in fire-damaged area of the Mordovia Reserve. Main Results: Six alien species (Erigeron canadensis, E. annuus, Oenothera biennis, Lactuca serriola, Sambucus racemosa, Viola arvensis) were registered within the established plots in 2011–2014. In addition, two alien invasive plants (Solidago canadensis and Bidens frondosa) were found outside these plots. No differences were detected in invasibility of the tested forest ecosystems. Research highlights: Among the revealed alien species, Erigeron canadensis, Lactuca serriola and Solidago canadensis are the most invasive plants in forest ecosystems. The first one was observed with a high occurrence frequency and abundance in all forest types tested. The second one has not been differed by abundance, but it characterized by a high competition as well as a large biomass and a large number of seeds. Solidago canadensis penetrated to natural forest ecosystem in a short time period due to closest location of its dispersal centers near the boundary of the Mordovia Reserve. These species are the most probable invaders of the forest ecosystems. (Author)

  18. Mangroves and Their Response to a Heavy Metal Polluted Wetland in The North Coast of Puerto Rico

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    Marixa Maldonado-Román

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Peninsula La Esperanza is part of the San Juan Bay Estuary and located in the north coast of Puerto Rico. Mangroves are the predominant type of vegetation; that can exhibit diverse external and internal mechanisms allowing them to tolerate and to act as phytoremediators of heavy metals (HM in surrounding soils. This study was focused in three mangrove species that can be found in La Esperanza: Rhizophora mangle (RM, Laguncularia racemosa (LR and Avicennia germinans (AG. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn were selected to be identified, measure concentrations in sediments, in green (GL and senescent (SL leaves, and study phytoremediation potential as a mitigation alternative calculating bioconcentration afctors (BCFs and retranslocation percents (RT%. For this, Peninsula La Esperanza was divided in three main research sites. Our results show a significant difference among all heavy metals and their distribution in each site. Moreover, the mangrove species, A. germinans, showed lower RT% for Hg in all three sites, which could be considered the best species for phytoextraction of this heavy metal. The results suggest that the three species have a synergistic effect in the way they manage the heavy metal in surrounding polluted soils, although each species have a different capacity to manage each heavy metal.

  19. Neurocisticercose: estudo clínico e patológico de 27 casos de necrópsia

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    MONTEMÓR NETTO MÁRIO RODRIGUES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocisticercose é a mais frequente e disseminada neuroparasitose humana. O desenvolvimento de lesões no cérebro e leptomeninges, com consequente aparecimento de sintomas, está relacionado com a resposta imune do hospedeiro, ao número e à fase de involução dos parasitas . Relatamos os achados anatomopatológicos durante a necrópsia em 27 casos de neurocisticercose, que corresponderam a 3,1% dos casos necropsiados no serviço. 77% dos pacientes eram masculinos, com idade variando entre 18 e 85 anos. Em 26% dos casos havia história de alcoolismo. A análise clinico-patológica mostrou que 50% dos casos eram da forma assintomática, 11% da forma epiléptica, 11% da forma intraventricular e 11% da forma combinada. 33% dos pacientes apresentaram crise epiléptica como fator agravante do quadro clínico. O cisticerco era único em 60% dos casos, a forma cellulosae estava presente em 82% e a racemosa em 7% dos casos, sendo os 11% restantes portadores da forma combinada. Em 30% dos pacientes a causa mortis estava relacionada com a presença do cisticerco no sistema nervoso central. Nossos achados confirmam a alta morbidade desta parasitose.

  20. Characterization of midrib vascular bundles of selected medicinal species in Rubiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Syahirah, M.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.

    2016-11-01

    An anatomical study was carried out on mature leaves of five selected medicinal species of Rubiaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. The chosen medicinal species were Aidia densiflora, Aidia racemosa, Chasallia chartacea, Hedyotis auricularia and Ixora grandifolia. The objective of this study is to determine the taxonomic value of midrib anatomical characteristics. Leaves samples were collected from Taman Paku Pakis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor and Kledang Saiong Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Leaves samples then were fixed in spirit and acetic acid (3:1), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, cleared using Clorox, stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, mounted in Euparal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown all species have collateral bundles. The midrib vascular bundles characteristics that can be used as tool to differentiate between species or genus are vascular bundles system (opened or closed), shape and arrangement of main vascular bundles, presence of both additional and medullary vascular bundles, position of additional vascular bundles, shape of medullary vascular bundles, presence of sclerenchyma cells ensheathed the vascular bundles. As a conclusion, midrib anatomical characteristics can be used to identify and discriminate medicinal plants species studied in the Rubiaceae.

  1. Cytotoxicity of flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic acids from Inula oculus-christi on mammalian cell lines

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    Ralitsa K. Veleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbs of the genus Inula are well known in traditional medicine. Their extracts are used as expectorants, antitussives, bactericides as well as for the treatment of lung inflammation and have shown to possess anti-inflammatory and secretolytic activity. Experimental research findings indicate the anti-tumor effect of certain components of extracts from Inula cappa and Inula britannicа and those from Inula racemosa have antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity. We have directed our efforts on investigating the effects of different extracts from Inula oculus-christi, enriched with certain groups of biologically active substances - flavonoid glycosides (A, phenolic acids (B, flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids (C, flavonoids and phenolic acids (D. The effect of these extracts on normal (MDCK ІІ and RPE1 and carcinoma cell lines (A549 and HepG2 was evaluated. We have performed cytotoxicity study (crystal violet assay as well as morphological analysis of changes induced by the extracts. Among the tumor cell lines HepG2 show greater sensitivity. Surprisingly extract C has no significant influence on both cancer cell lines.

  2. Targeting Apoptosis Pathways in Cancer with Alantolactone and Isoalantolactone

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    Azhar Rasul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alantolactone and isoalantolactone, main bioactive compounds that are present in many medicinal plants such as Inula helenium, L. Inula japonica, Aucklandia lappa, Inula racemosa, and Radix inulae, have been found to have various pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, with no significant toxicity. Recently, the anticancer activity of alantolactone and isoalantolactone has been extensively investigated. Here, our aim is to review their natural sources and their anticancer activity with specific emphasis on mechanism of actions, by which these compounds act on apoptosis pathways. Based on the literature and also on our previous results, alantolactone and isoalantolactone induce apoptosis by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated in cancers and suggest that their simultaneous targeting by these compounds could result in efficacious and selective killing of cancer cells. This review suggests that alantolactone and isoalantolactone are potential promising anticancer candidates, but additional studies and clinical trials are required to determine their specific intracellular sites of actions and derivative targets in order to fully understand the mechanisms of therapeutic effects to further validate in cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Evaluations of Insecticides and Fungicides for Reducing Attack Rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea Sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Infested Landscape Trees in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Kabashima, John; Eskalen, Akif; Dimson, Monica; Mayorquin, Joey S; Carrillo, Joseph D; Hanlon, Christopher C; Paine, Timothy D

    2017-08-01

    A recently discovered ambrosia beetle with the proposed common name of polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is reported to attack >200 host tree species in southern California, including many important native and urban landscape trees. This invasive beetle, along with its associated fungi, causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including sycamore (Platanus racemosa Nutt.). Due to the severity of the impact of this Euwallacea sp., short-term management tools must include chemical control options for the arboriculture industry and private landowners to protect trees. We examined the effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations for controlling continued Euwallacea sp. attacks on previously infested sycamore trees which were monitored for 6 mo after treatment. Pesticide combinations were generally more effective than single pesticide treatments. The combination of a systemic insecticide (emamectin benzoate), a contact insecticide (bifenthrin), and a fungicide (metconazole) provided some level of control when applied on moderate and heavily infested trees. The biological fungicide Bacillus subtilis provided short-term control. There was no difference in the performance of the three triazole fungicides (propiconazole, tebuconazole, and metconazole) included in this study. Although no pesticide combination provided substantial control over time, pesticide treatments may be more effective when trees are treated during early stages of attack by this ambrosia beetle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Floristic Study of Buxus hyrcana Stands in the Western Forests of Haraz District, Amol

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    S. Hosseinzadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition of boxwood (Buxus hyrcana Pojark stands in the forests of Western Haraz, distributed at the altitudinal range of 250 to 1,200 m asl, was investigated by field-walk method. Results showed that the flora of this area includes 50 families, 69 genera, and 78 plant species. Rosaceae, Orchidaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Lamiaceae and Aspleniaceae are the greatest families in this area. Chorological studies showed that the largest proportion of the flora is related to Euro-Siberian region (56.4%. Cryptophytes (32 species, Phanerophytes (26 sp. and Hemicryptophytes (16 sp., which are compromising 44%, 33.3% and 20.5% of the flora, were the most important structure groups of the biological spectrum. Abundance of Cryptophytes with Phanerophytes and Hemicryptophytes in these forests implys that there is a temperate climate with cold winter, frequently rainfall and relatively cool summer, which are suitable for growing temperate forest. Frequent occurrence of Prunus Laurocerasus trees with Daneae racemosa as a woody understory species especially in the upper parts of the studied area accompany by absence of Therophytes and relatively well distribution of ferns species, especially Asplenium scolopendrium, also implys high, favorable, moisture conditions without any disturbances in Box tree stands of these forests.

  5. Anatomia do lenho de cinco espécies comercializadas como 'Sucupira'

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    Warley Felício Soares

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa da anatomia do lenho das espécies Bowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth, Diplotropis brasiliensis (Tul. Benth., Diplotropis martiusii Benth., Diplotropis purpurea (Rich. Amshoff e Diplotropis racemosa (Hoehne Amshoff é descrita no presente trabalho, visando a determinar as principais características anatômicas necessárias à distinção dessas espécies. Qualitativamente, as características anatômicas mais importantes para a diferenciação do lenho dessas espécies foram: camadas de crescimento, estratificação dos raios, arranjo dos vasos e fileira marginal dos raios. Quantitativamente, a análise estatística mostrou que os parâmetros anatômicos mais importantes no agrupamento das espécies foram: diâmetro dos elementos de vasos, largura dos raios em micrometros, comprimento, espessura da parede e largura das fibras. Verificou-se que a anatomia do lenho pode ser utilizada como importante subsídio na identificação das espécies estudadas.

  6. Successful plasma exchange combined with rituximab therapy in aggressive APS-related cutaneous necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rubens; Fazal, Salman; Kaplan, Robert B; Spero, Joel; Costa, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by venous and/or arterial thrombosis or recurrent fetal loss associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and/or a lupus anticoagulant. The skin appears to be an important target organ and many cases of APS may present with skin manifestations. These lesions may be manifold and may take the form of livedo reticularis, livedo racemosa, ulcerations, digital gangrene, subungeal splinter hemorrhages, superficial venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenic purpura, pseudovasculitic manifestations, extensive cutaneous necrosis, or primary anetoderma. We report a case of fulminant APS-related cutaneous necrosis. A 38-year-old Caucasian male with a past history of APS, multiple deep vein thrombi/pulmonary emboli, presented with necrotic lesions on his right upper and right lower extremities. Initially, baseline anticoagulation was increased without improvement. Subsequently, plasma exchange was initiated on a daily schedule. Furthermore, rituximab 1,000 mg IV was administered on days 1 and 15. After six consecutive daily sessions of plasma exchange, there was significant regression of the necrotic lesions. After a 22-day hospital stay, the patient was discharged to home on fondaparinux. The patient presented approximately 2 months later after missing follow-up appointments. At the time, his initial lesions looked remarkably improved.

  7. Estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D R; Singh, Shrawan; Salim, K M; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 262.46 μg/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r² = 0.846, r² = 0.864, r² = 0.915 and r² = 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands.

  8. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.

  9. Biosphere 2's Marsh Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.

  10. Biologia floral de Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae ocorrente em vegetação ripária da ilha Porto Rico, Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1638 Floral biology of Croton urucurana Baill (Euphorbiaceae that occurs in riparian vegetation of Porto Rico Island, in Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1638

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    Luiz Antonio de Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos de biologia floral em Croton urucurana, espécie monóica, arbórea, pioneira e recomendada para a recuperação de matas ciliares. As flores são diclinas, pequenas, apresentam coloração amarelo-esverdeada e dispõem-se em inflorescências racemosas. A antese é noturna, por volta das 23h, e as flores duram três dias. Os visitantes florais foram insetos das ordens Diptera, Odonata, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera e Hymenoptera (Apidae e Vespidae, sendo Apis mellifera a espécie mais freqüenteStudies of floral biology were developed on Croton urucurana, a pioneer monoecious tree, recommended to be used in the process of regeneration of the riparian forest. The plant presents small yellow-greenish unisexual flowers, disposed in racemose inflorescences. Anthesis occurs at night, flowers last three days and open around 11 pm. Flowers are visited by insects belonging to the following Orders Diptera, Odonata, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae. Apis mellifera was the most frequent flower visitor

  11. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  12. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  13. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

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    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  14. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

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    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  15. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

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    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at −30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a −30 m de profundidad, que

  16. Spectral characterization of mangrove leaves in the Brazilian Amazonian Coast: Turiaçu Bay, Maranhão State

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    Flávia Rebelo-Mochel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove communities are tropical systems which have fewer species than tropical forests, especially in Latin America and display a single architecture, usually lacking the various strata commonly found in other forest ecosystems. The identification of mangrove communities by orbital data is not a difficult task but the most interesting challenge is to identify themselves by the dominant species. The first step toward that floristic identification is the spectral characterization of detached leaves. Leaves from four species of mangrove trees were spectrally characterized considering the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance Factor (DHRF determined through radiometric measurements using an integrating sphere LICOR 1800 attached to a spectroradiometer SPECTRON SE-590. In the visible bands (0.45-0.69 µm the button-shaped mangrove Conocarpus erectus was brighter and the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle was darker than the other two species which shows very close DHRF values. Otherwise the black mangrove Avicennia germinans and the white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa can be distinguished from one another in the Near Infra Red (NIR region (0.76-0.90 µm and in this region of the spectrum the DHRF of C. erectus and R. mangle become very close.Comunidades de manguezais são sistemas tropicais que apresentam poucas espécies constituintes em relação às florestas tropicais úmidas, especialmente na América Latina e apresentam arquitetura simples, freqüentemente com a falta de vários estratos encontrados em outros ecossistemas florestais. A identificação de manguezais mediante a observação de dados orbitais não é uma tarefa muito complicada, porém um desafio interessante seria sua diferenciação mediante a identificação de espécies dominantes. O primeiro passo para essa identificação florística é a caracterização espectral de folhas isoladas. Folhas de quatro espécies arbóreas de manguezais foram caracterizadas espectralmente

  17. Anatomia de raízes de nove espécies de Bromeliaceae (Poales da região amazônica do estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Anatomy of the roots of nine species of Bromeliaceae (Poales from the Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca caracterizar raízes de Bromeliaceae: Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae e T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae ocorrentes nas regiões amazônicas (Mato Grosso-MT, procurando levantar caracteres de valor taxonômico e significado ecológico. As espécies estudadas são epífitas e suas raízes se caracterizam por apresentar velame pluriestratificado, córtex diferenciado, endoderme e periciclo unisseriados, cilindro vascular poliarco e medula com células de paredes espessadas. Estruturas anatômicas como: número de camadas e tipo de espessamento das paredes das células do velame, tipo de espessamento de parede da exoderme e endoderme, presença de idioblastos contendo cristais e número de pólos de protoxilema agrupam as espécies nos diferentes gêneros e subfamílias. A presença de canais de mucilagem no córtex de A. castelnavii relatados pela primeira vez na literatura para Bromeliaceae é caráter diagnóstico. As raízes de Dyckia e Tillandsia apresentam maior número de caracteres comuns, representando maior similaridade entre Pitcairnioideae e Tillandsioideae. Raízes com velame, exoderme com células de paredes espessadas constituindo uma camada mecânica, canais de mucilagem, lacunas de ar no córtex interno e idioblastos com cristais são estruturas adaptativas ao hábito epifítico.This study aimed to characterize the roots of Bromeliaceae, Aechmea bromeliifolia, A. castelnavii, A. mertensii (Bromelioideae, Dyckia duckei, D. paraensis, D. racemosa (Pitcairnoideae, Tillandsia adpressiflora, T. didistachae and T. paraensis (Tillandsioideae, that occur in Amazonian regions (Mato Grosso-MT, in order to find features of taxonomic value and ecological importance. The studied species are epiphytes and their roots are characterized by a multi-layered velamen, differentiated cortex, uniseriate

  18. Plantio de árvores de crescimento rápido para recuperação de áreas agrícolas na Amazônia Oriental brasileira: estudo de caso com produção de milho e mandioca Planting of fast-growing trees for recovery of agricultural areas in the Eastern of Brazilian Amazon: studying case of maize and cassava prdution

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    Silvio Brienza Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência de árvores leguminosas plantadas para recuperar áreas degradadas e as produtividades de milho e mandioca num sistema tradicional de agricultura de derruba-e-queima. Foram utilizados os espaçamentos 1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m e 2 m x 2 m para plantio de Acacia angustissima, Clitoria racemosa, Inga edulis e Acacia mangium. A espécie Sclerolobium paniculatum foi plantada somente no espaçamento 2 m x 1 m. Na condução do experimento, o milho permaneceu no experimento nos primeiros quatro meses e considerado como monocultura, produziu 1.890 +/- 32 kg ha-1. A sobrevivência das árvores, plantadas junto com milho e na mesma época da mandioca, não sofreu interferência negativa das culturas agrícolas. Independente do espaçamento, as árvores não causaram impacto negativo no peso seco das raízes de mandioca. Quanto a densidade de árvores observou-se tendência de aumento do peso seco das raízes de mandioca com a diminuição do número de árvores plantadas por hectare. Os resultados evidenciam a possibilidade de se manter a produtividade agrícola associada ao plantio de árvores. Entretanto, a opção pelo espaçamento 1 m x 1 m deve ser cuidadosamente analisada quando o objetivo principal for a produção de alimentos.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.347

     

    The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the survival of planted leguminous trees to restore degraded areas and yields of maize and cassava in traditional farming system. The trees species Acacia angustissima, Clitoria racemosa, Inga edulis, and Acacia mangium were planted at spacing of 1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m. Sclerolobium paniculatum was planted only at spacing of 2 m x 1 m. The maize, remained in the cropping system during the first four months, and it was considered as monocropping phase and, yielded 1,890 +/- 32 kg ha-1. The survival of planted trees was not negatively

  19. Wind effects on leaf morphology for the mangrove Conocarpus erecta at an oceanic island from the Mexican Pacific Ocean Efectos del viento en la morfología foliar del mangle Conocarpus erecta en una isla océanica del Pacífico mexicano

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    ERICK DE LA BARRERA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology was measured and aerodynamical attributes as well as transpiration rates were calculated for the mangrove Conocarpus erecta from sites naturally sheltered or sites exposed to oceanic winds at Socorro Island, Mexico, and compared with those of C. erecta, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle at a mainland estuary near La Manzanilla, Jalisco, Mexico. Leaves of C. erecta, 5.98 cm in length and 2.03 cm in width, were the smallest and most streamlined of the mainland mangroves. Moreover, both leaf dimensions were 32 % smaller for trees from the exposed sites on Socorro Island than on the mainland. For a given wind velocity, Reynolds numbers were 10 to 33 % lower at Socorro Island than on the mainland for leaves of C. erecta, leading to a 17 to 45 % lower drag force exerted by wind on such leaves. Reynolds numbers characterize the degree of turbulence of a fluid moving adjacent to the surface of an object; here such a dimensionless number was used as a measure of fluttering for leaves. Transpiration rates for C. erecta were 25 % lower for plants growing at exposed sites on Socorro Island than on the sheltered sites, whose midday transpiration averaged 4 mmol m_2 s_1. Conocarpus erecta was better suited than the other mainland mangroves to windy environments owing to its smaller and more streamlined leaves. The population from Socorro Island underwent further morphological changes in response to wind at exposed sites, explaining, in part, the presence of this species and not of other mangroves on this oceanic Pacific islandSe midió la morfología foliar y se calcularon atributos aerodinámicos además de tasas potenciales de transpiración del mangle Conocarpus erecta en sitios naturalmente protegidos y expuestos al viento oceánico en la Isla Socorro, México, y de C. erecta, Laguncularia racemosa y Rhizophora mangle en un estuario continental cerca de La Manzanilla, Jalisco, México. Se realizaron comparaciones entre especies

  20. Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Renato B. Macedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 ± 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V, which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type, from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP, the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome, especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age.Um testemunho de sondagem coletado em Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi submetido para análise polínica a fim de revelar a história vegetacional e mudanças paleoecológicas e paleoclimáticas. Um total de 98 táxons foi identificado a partir de 35 subamostras. Três datações radiocarbônicas foram obtidas ao longo de uma seção de 115 cm de profundidade, incluindo a idade basal de 4730 ± 50 anos AP. Diagramas polínicos e análises de agrupamentos foramrealizadas com base nas freqüências dos palinomorfos, demonstrando cinco fases distintas (SAP-I a SAP-V, as quais refletiram diferentes condições paleoecol

  1. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

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    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  2. De pedagogos a professores: balanço de uma década das Diretrizes Curriculares dos Cursos de Pedagogia no Brasil

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    Aline Daiane Nunes Mascarenhas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As diretrizes curriculares nacionais que normatizam os cursos de Pedagogia no Brasil, acabam de completar uma década. Considerando-se os embates que precederam a efetivação de tais diretrizes, as incongruências epistemológicas percebidas por muitos pesquisadores, pergunta-se neste trabalho: quais os rebatimentos da nova estrutura curricular imposta pelas diretrizes, sobre os processos de formação de pedagogos? Como a dubiedade epistemológica da Pedagogia, entre ser bacharelado ou ser licenciatura, foi vivenciada na organização curricular dos referidos cursos? Para esse estudo, foi realizada uma meta-análise a partir de pesquisa de autoria de Mascarenhas (2015, em que se utilizou de questionários, de grupo focal e de análise documental, em triangulação com outras pesquisas já publicadas ,com base em trabalhos de Pimenta (1998; 2002, 2004, Libâneo (2000; 2006; 2010 e Franco (2008 que denunciam, a problemática em torno de um currículo fragmentado e a defesa do campo teórico da Pedagogia como a base da formação e da atuação profissional do pedagogo. Foi possível constatar a insuficiência da carga horária para formar perfis de diferentes profissionais em um único curso; bem como a descaracterização da figura do Pedagogo e de sua identidade profissional. Os dados sugerem a necessidade de uma reestruturação das referidas diretrizes, e a organização de dois trajetos formativos nos cursos de Pedagogia: um focado na licenciatura, com vistas a uma densa formação do professor das séries iniciais e educação infantil e outro, no bacharelado, para administração, coordenação e gestão escolar. 

  3. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

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    Cybele E. Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.Para combater a diarréia muitas vezes as pessoas utilizam extratos de plantas conhecidas popularmente como anti-diarréicas, mesmo sem base científica. Em razão disto, verificou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso bruto (EAB das folhas da Psidium guajava (goiabeira, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (gervão, Polygonum punctatum (polígono ou pimenta d'água, Eugenia uniflora (pitangueira e Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva no transporte intestinal de água em ratos e na propulsão gastrointestinal em camundongos. Com exceção do EAB de S. cayenensis, os demais aumentaram a absorção de água em uma ou mais porções do intestino em relação ao grupo-controle. Todos os EAB testados, com exceção do P. punctatum, reduziram o trânsito intestinal em relação ao grupo-controle. Com base nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os EAB das folhas de P

  4. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

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    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  5. Teores de metais pesados em cambissolo irrigado com água residuária doméstica e água de poço

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    Adriana de Fátima Mendes Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de nutrientes das águas residuárias doméstica estimula a prática do reuso na produção agrícola, porém a presença de metais pesados, mesmo que em baixas concentrações, pode acarretar problemas ambientais no longo prazo. O presente trabalho objetivou analisar os efeitos da aplicação da água residuária doméstica e água de poço na alteração dos teores de metais pesados em um cambissolo cultivado com pimenta malagueta. Para isso, uma área experimental de 744 m² foi montada no assentamento Milagres em Apodi-RN. Essa área é composta de estação de tratamento de esgoto e de sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram T1 - 100% de aplicação água residuária doméstica tratada (ART e 0% de água de poço (AP, T2 - 75% de ART e 25% de AP, T3 - 50% de ART e 50% de AP, T4 - 25% de ART e 75% de AP e T5 - 0% de ART e 100% de AP. No período experimental foram realizadas análises químicas da ART e AP, enquanto do solo foram coletadas amostras nas camadas de 0 a 0,20 m, 0,20 a 0,40 m e 0,40 a 0,60 m para determinação dos valores de pH e do conteúdo de cobre, zinco, ferro e manganês. Os resultados indicaram que os teores de cobre, zinco, ferro e manganês do cambissolo não foram influenciados pelas proporções de água residuária doméstica tratada e de água de poço. Os valores de pH do solo apresentaram tendência de redução nas proporções com mais água residuária doméstica tratada em relação a água de poço.

  6. Ação e caracterização química de óleos essenciais no manejo da antracnose do maracujá

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    César Fernandes Aquino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dois métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides em maracujá, testar a patogenicidade de diferentes isolados, o efeito fungitóxico e a composição química dos óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham., capim-santo [Cymbopogon citratus (D. C. Stapf.], alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., no controle da antracnose [Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.], associado ao estádio de maturação de frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo. Avaliaram-se três experimentos, onde se testou a patogenicidade de seis isolados do fungo em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, outro com o mesmo delineamento em esquema fatorial 2x2 (suspensão de conídios e disco de micélio e frutos (verdes e maduros, com seis repetições. No tratamento com frutos, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x3+1, sendo cinco concentrações (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8µL mL-1 e três espécies medicinais, mais o tebuconazol, com cinco repetições. Fez-se a caracterização química dos óleos por cromatografia gasosa, com espectrometria de massas. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos. Os frutos maduros apresentaram maior diâmetro das lesões, quando inoculados com suspensão de conídios. O óleo de C. citratus proporcionou o menor diâmetro das lesões nos frutos, até a concentração de 6 µL mL-1. Na concentração de 8 µL mL-1, todos os óleos inibiram o desenvolvimento do fungo. O timol (30,24%, o citral (77,74% e o eugenol (92,89% foram componentes majoritários em L. sidoides, C. citratus e O. gratissimum, respectivamente.

  7. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

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    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  8. Rendimento e composição do óleo essencial de Piper aduncum L. cultivado em Manaus, AM, em função da densidade de plantas e épocas de corte

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    A.L. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. - Piperaceae é uma espécie usada na medicina popular em quase to