WorldWideScience

Sample records for pilot-scale continuous sterilization

  1. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  2. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW th . A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign

  3. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  4. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Bryan, Bill; Parker, Denny S; Merrill, Matthew D; Mehanna, Maha; Kiely, Patrick D; Liu, Guangli; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA/SCOD ≥ 0.5) and by raising the wastewater temperature (31 ± 1°C). Once enriched, SCOD removal (62 ± 20%) was consistent at a hydraulic retention time of 1 day (applied voltage of 0.9 V). Current generation reached a maximum of 7.4 A/m(3) by the planned end of the test (after 100 days). Gas production reached a maximum of 0.19 ± 0.04 L/L/day, although most of the product gas was converted to methane (86 ± 6%). In order to increase hydrogen recovery in future tests, better methods will be needed to isolate hydrogen gas produced at the cathode. These results show that inoculation and enrichment procedures are critical to the initial success of larger-scale systems. Acetate amendments, warmer temperatures, and pH control during startup were found to be critical for proper enrichment of exoelectrogenic biofilms and improved reactor performance.

  6. Pilot scale electron bombardment furnace for continuous casting; application to the trial preparation of 20 kg of uranium monocarbide rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouve, J.; Genard, R.; Treillou, A.; Accary, A.

    1964-01-01

    The authors describe a pilot scale electron beam furnace designed for continuous melting and casting of uranium-carbon alloys. This equipment allows the melting and casting processes to be completely automatically controlled, the cooling being carried out under vacuum and the discharge being effected without breaking the vacuum. In a pre-production run of 20 kg of slugs, the composition of practically all the pieces was controlled within ± 0,1 per cent C. The output of the furnace was 2,2 kg/hour. (authors) [fr

  7. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  8. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Shenoy, K.T.; Sreenivas, T.

    2015-01-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40–60 MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. - Highlights: • Radiotracer technique was applied for evaluation of design of a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor. • Mean residence time and dead volume were estimated. Dead volume was found to be ranging from 4% to 15% at different operating conditions. • Tank-in-series model was used to simulate the measured RTD data and was found suitable to describe the flow in the reactor. • No flow abnormality was found and the reactor behaved as a well-mixed system. The design of the reactor was validated

  9. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  11. Sugar and ethanol production from woody biomass via supercritical water hydrolysis in a continuous pilot-scale system using acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seong, Yeong-Je; Lee, Soo Min

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study were to efficiently produce fermentable sugars by continuous type supercritical water hydrolysis (SCWH) of Quercus mongolica at the pilot scale with varying acid catalyst loading and to use the obtained sugars for ethanol production. The SCWH of biomass was achieved in under one second (380°C, 230bar) using 0.01-0.1% H 2 SO 4 . With 0.05% H 2 SO 4 , 49.8% of sugars, including glucose (16.5% based on biomass) and xylose monomers (10.8%), were liberated from biomass. The hydrolysates were fermented with S. cerevisiae DXSP and D452-2 to estimate ethanol production. To prepare the fermentation medium, the hydrolysates were detoxified using activated charcoal and then concentrated. The ethanol yield of fermentation with S. cerevisiae DXSP was 14.1% (based on biomass). The proposed system has potential for improvement in yield through process optimization. After further development, it is expected to be a competitive alternative to traditional systems for ethanol production from woody biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality comparison of continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing versus conventional canning of whole and sliced mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N M; Walker, P N

    2011-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate segmented-flow aseptic processing of particle foods. A pilot-scale continuous steam sterilization unit capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed whole and sliced mushrooms was developed. The system utilized pressurized steam as the heating medium to achieve high temperature-short time processing conditions with high and uniform heat transfer that will enable static temperature penetration studies for process development. Segmented-flow technology produced a narrower residence time distribution than pipe-flow aseptic processing; thus, whole and sliced mushrooms were processed only as long as needed to achieve the target F₀  = 7.0 min and were not overcooked. Continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing produced shelf stable aseptically processed mushrooms of superior quality to conventionally canned mushrooms. When compared to conventionally canned mushrooms, aseptically processed yield (weight basis) increased 6.1% (SD = 2.9%) and 6.6% (SD = 2.2%), whiteness (L) improved 3.1% (SD = 1.9%) and 4.7% (SD = 0.7%), color difference (ΔE) improved 6.0% (SD = 1.3%) and 8.5% (SD = 1.5%), and texture improved 3.9% (SD = 1.7%) and 4.6% (SD = 4.2%), for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively. Segmented-flow aseptic processing eliminated a separate blanching step, eliminated the unnecessary packaging of water and promoted the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. Segmented-flow aseptic processing is capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed particle foods of superior quality to a conventionally canned product. This unique continuous steam sterilization process eliminates the need for a separate blanching step, reduces or eliminates the need for a liquid carrier, and promotes the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Sterility among female lizards (Uta stansburiana) exposed to continuous γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, F.B.; Medica, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A natural population of the lizard Uta stansburiana occupying a fenced 9-ha area in southern Nevada was exposed to essentially continuous γ irradiation from an arificial source between February 1964 and September 1973. Tissue doses were estimated using implanted lithium fluoride microdosimeters. Females became sterile as early as 11 months of age, but many were still fertile at ages of 20 months and a very few may have reproduced at 32 months. Dosimetry showed some females to be sterile after accumulated doses of around 500 rad, while others may have required 1000 or more rad. One female estimated to have received over 1200 rad was still reproductive. Irradiated females may pass through a state of half sterility, during which time they possess one functional ovary. Female U. stansburiana are sterilized at lower doses than the sterilizing dose (1500 rad) previously suggested for the leopard lizard, Crotaphytus wislizenii

  14. Alcohol production from sterilized and non-sterilized molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on brewer's spent grains in two types of continuous bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Bekatorou, Argyro; Tzia, Constantina; Kanellaki, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this work an integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation of a cheap raw material (molasses) is described, involving yeast immobilized by a simple method on brewer's spent grains, able to ferment in the temperature range 30–40 °C, and two types of bioreactors, a Multistage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) and a Packed Bed reactor (PB). The MFBT bioreactor gave better results regarding ethanol concentration, productivity and conversion. Furthermore, the use of sterilized and non-sterilized molasses, fed in two similar MFBT bioreactors, showed that ethanol concentration (kg m −3 ) was significantly (p −3 at 35 °C and 44.2–48.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C), compared to sterilized molasses, where ethanol concentration ranged from 35.6 to 46.6 kg m −3 at 35 °C and 30.8–44.2 kg m −3 at 40 °C. During 32 days of continuous operation using non-sterilized molasses no contamination was observed. Industrialization of the proposed system seems to have a potential, mainly due to its high fermentation efficiency and the obtained high operational stability. -- Highlights: ► An integrated cost effective system for continuous alcoholic fermentation. ► Efficient conversion of non-sterilized molasses to ethanol. ► No need for additional treatments to prevent contamination. ► Results showed high fermentation efficiency and high operational stability.

  15. Continuing to work with a sterile thumb splint: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roner, S; Fürnstahl, P; Schweizer, A; Wieser, K

    2018-05-17

    Nonoperative treatment of an injured ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint (skier's thumb without a Stener lesion) is managed by immobilization. A splint is applied on the radial side with the thumb in slight flexion to immobilize the MCP joint and allow motion in the interphalangeal joint. Thermoplastic splints are mainly used for daily activities with the advantage of custom fabrication for optimal comfort. To immobilize the thumb during surgical procedures performed by an orthopedic surgeon, splints made of sterilizable materials are needed but not yet available to our knowledge. We present the case of a 36-year-old orthopedic surgeon diagnosed with skier's thumb, and the development and application of a reusable, patient-specific (i.e., the orthopedic surgeon) splint to immobilize the thumb MCP joint in a sterile environment so the surgeon could continue working. Copyright © 2018 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pilot scale electron bombardment furnace for continuous casting; application to the trial preparation of 20 kg of uranium monocarbide rods; Appareil pilote de fusion par bombardement d'electrons et coulee continue - application a un essai de fabrication portant sur 20 kg de barreaux de monocarbure d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouve, J; Genard, R; Treillou, A; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors describe a pilot scale electron beam furnace designed for continuous melting and casting of uranium-carbon alloys. This equipment allows the melting and casting processes to be completely automatically controlled, the cooling being carried out under vacuum and the discharge being effected without breaking the vacuum. In a pre-production run of 20 kg of slugs, the composition of practically all the pieces was controlled within {+-} 0,1 per cent C. The output of the furnace was 2,2 kg/hour. (authors) [French] Les auteurs decrivent un appareil pilote de fusion par bombardement d'electrons et coulee continue. Cet appareil, muni d'un systeme de coulee automatique, permet la fusion et la coulee d'alliages uranium-carbone, leur refroidissement sous vide et leur defournement, toutes ces operations se deroulant d'une maniere continue. Ils montrent qu'au cours d'une campagne preliminaire de fusion et coulee de 20 kg de barreaux, la teneur en carbone de la quasi-totalite des barreaux obtenus est controlee a 0,1 pour cent pres. La production horaire de l'appareillage est de 2,2 kg. (auteurs)

  17. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  18. Pilot-scale continuous recycling of growth medium for the mass culture of a halotolerant Tetraselmis sp. in raceway ponds under increasing salinity: a novel protocol for commercial microalgal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon Sing, S; Isdepsky, A; Borowitzka, M A; Lewis, D M

    2014-06-01

    The opportunity to recycle microalgal culture medium for further cultivation is often hampered by salinity increases from evaporation and fouling by dissolved and particulate matter. In this study, the impact of culture re-use after electro-flocculation of seawater-based medium on growth and biomass productivity of the halotolerant green algal strain Tetraselmis sp., MUR 233, was investigated in pilot-scale open raceway ponds over 5months. Despite a salinity increase from 5.5% to 12% (w/v) NaCl, Tetraselmis MUR 233 grown on naturally DOC-enriched recycled medium produced 48-160% more ash free dry weight (AFDW) biomass daily per unit pond area than when grown on non-recycled medium. A peak productivity of 37.5±3.1gAFDWm(-2)d(-1) was reached in the recycled medium upon transition from ∼14% to ∼7% NaCl. The combination of high biomass-yielding mixotrophic growth under high salinity has been proven to be a successful sustainable cultivation strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  20. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  1. Postpartum Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  2. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  3. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...

  4. Improving the energy efficiency of a pilot-scale UASB-digester for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Shengnan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shengle; Zeeman, Grietje; Rijnaarts, Huub; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    A pilot-scale UASB-Settler-Digester (USD) system was utilized to treat raw municipal wastewater collected from a sewer system at 10 °C. During the reactor operation, UASB sludge was continuously transferred from the UASB to a settler; concentrated sludge in the settler was then transferred to a

  5. Flow characteristics of a pilot-scale high temperature, short time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Kozempel, M F

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we present a method for determining the fastest moving particle (FMP) and residence time distribution (RTD) in a pilot-scale high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer to ensure that laboratory or pilot-scale HTST apparatus meets the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance standards for pasteurization of milk and can be used for obtaining thermal inactivation data. The overall dimensions of the plate in the pasteurizer were 75 x 115 mm, with a thickness of 0.5 mm and effective diameter of 3.0 mm. The pasteurizer was equipped with nominal 21.5- and 52.2-s hold tubes, and flow capacity was variable from 0 to 20 L/h. Tracer studies were used to determine FMP times and RTD data to establish flow characteristics. Using brine milk as tracer, the FMP time for the short holding section was 18.6 s and for the long holding section was 36 s at 72 degrees C, compared with the nominal times of 21.5 and 52.2 s, respectively. The RTD study indicates that the short hold section was 45% back mixed and 55% plug flow for whole milk at 72 degrees C. The long hold section was 91% plug and 9% back mixed for whole milk at 72 degrees C. This study demonstrates that continuous laboratory and pilot-scale pasteurizers may be used to study inactivation of microorganisms only if the flow conditions in the holding tube are established for comparison with commercial HTST systems.

  6. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  7. Cost effective pilot scale production of biofertilizer using Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We standardized the protocol for pilot scale production of Rhizobium and Azotobacter biofertilizer technology using region specific and environmental stress compatible strains isolated from various agro climatic regions of Odisha, India. The cost benefit of biofertilizer production through a cottage industry is also presented.

  8. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sterilization? Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. What is tubal sterilization? Sterilization procedures for women are ... is quicker than from other types of sterilization. What are the risks of ... on for birth control. • There is a risk of injury to the ...

  9. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-01-01

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H + ] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  10. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  11. Pilot-scale study of ballasted-flocculation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, L.E.; Brant, W.H.; Gagne, B.; Michaud, J.; Beaudet, J.-F.; Landry, D.; Braden, K.; Campbell, D.

    2002-01-01

    A ballasted-flocculation pilot-scale study was undertaken to treat a wide-range river water turbidity (17 to 2,608 NTU). The pilot-scale unit was operated at flowrates of 30 to 63 m 3 /h, which corresponded to loading rates of 40 to 84 m/h. Coagulants, polymers, and microsand were added to enhance the floc agglomeration. The weighted flocs settled rapidly resulting in excellent turbidity removals of 94.7 to 99.9%. At the peak turbidity, the unit had a 99.9% removal performance (2.7 from 2,608 NTU) at a loading rate of 40 m/h. In this case, polyaluminum silicosulfate and anionic polymer dosages were 82 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The microsand recycle rate was kept constant at 4.5 m 3 /h, and 1mg microsand was added for each liter of water treated. (author)

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi......-ples of electrodialysis. It has previously been shown that it is possible to remove Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated wood using electrodialytic remediation in laboratory scale (Ribeiro et al., 2000; Kristensen et al., 2003), but until now, the method had not been studied in larger scale. The pilot scale plant used...... in this study was designed to contain up to 2 m3 wood chips. Six remediation experiments were carried out. In these experiments, the process was up-scaled stepwise by increasing the distance between the electrodes from initially 60 cm to fi-nally 150 cm. The remediation time was varied between 11 and 21 days...

  13. Poly aniline synthesized in pilot scale: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Maria Alice Carvalho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: aie.mzz@hotmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gama, Adriana Medeiros [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Faria, Lohana Komorek [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Among various conducting polymers, poly aniline (PAni) has received wide-spread attention because of its outstanding properties including simple and reversible doping–dedoping chemistry, stable electrical conduction mechanisms, high environmental stability and ease of synthesis [1]. Increasing applications require PAni at industrial scale and optimization of manufacturing processes are essential for this purpose. Since pilot scale influences hydrodynamics of the polymerizations system [2], pilot scale is an important instrument for evaluating amendments in the process. In this work, polyaniline was synthesized on pilot scale, with variation of reaction time for every synthesis, keeping the other parameters unchanged. The PAni salt first obtained was dedoped and the PAni-B (PAni in a base form, nonconductive) obtained was redoped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), when PAni-DBSA (PAni in a salt form, conductive) is obtained. The effects of synthesis conditions on the structural and morphological characteristics of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA are investigate by Raman Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffractometer) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy). Electrical conductivity was determined to redoped samples. Results were analyzed and we compare PAni forms to identifying the doping structure to PAni-DBSA by Raman spectroscopy. It was found too that reaction time can give some influence at conductivity. The XRD result showed differences in crystalline peaks of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA and this difference could be attributed mainly to the redoping process. Whereas the formation of crystals on a pilot scale may change because of effects caused by water flow, speed of polymerization could affect the formation of crystals too. The SEM pictures to PAni-B showed tiny coral reefs with globules structure and PAni-DBSA showed multilayer structure. References: 1 - Fratoddia I. et al. Sensors and Actuators B 220: 534–548 (2015); 2 - Roichman Y et al. Synthetic Metals 98

  14. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  15. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump

  16. Culture scale-up and immobilisation of a mixed methanotrophic consortium for methane remediation in pilot-scale bio-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Saravanan, Nadarajan; Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Razaghi, Ali; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Velu, Chinnathambi; Subashchandrabose, Gobalakrishnan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Robust methanotrophic consortia for methane (CH 4 ) remediation and by-product development are presently not readily available for industrial use. In this study, a mixed methanotrophic consortium (MMC), sequentially enriched from a marine sediment, was assessed for CH 4 removal efficiency and potential biomass-generated by-product development. Suitable packing material for bio-filters to support MMC biofilm establishment and growth was also evaluated. The enriched MMC removed ∼7-13% CH 4 under a very high gas flow rate (2.5 L min -1 ; 20-25% CH 4 ) in continuous-stirred tank reactors (∼10 L working volume) and the biomass contained long-chain fatty acids (i.e. C 16 and C 18 ). Cultivation of the MMC on plastic bio-balls abated ∼95-97% CH 4 in pilot-scale non-sterile outdoor-operated bio-filters (0.1 L min -1 ; 1% CH 4 ). Contamination by cyanobacteria had beneficial effects on treating low-level CH 4 , by providing additional oxygen for methane oxidation by MMC, suggesting that the co-cultivation of MMC with cyanobacterial mats does not interfere with and may actually be beneficial for remediation of CH 4 and CO 2 at industrial scale.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  18. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  20. Removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation: A pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Li; Chen Jing; Xu Zuqun; Yuan Songhu; Cao Menghua; Liu Huangcheng; Lu Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    A large removal of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater has been achieved by microwave (MW) radiation in our previous bench-scale study. This study developed a continuous pilot-scale MW system to remove ammonia nitrogen in real wastewater. A typical high concentration of ammonia nitrogen contaminated wastewater, the coke-plant wastewater from a Coke company, was treated. The output power of the microwave reactor was 4.8 kW and the handling capacity of the reactor was about 5 m 3 per day. The ammonia removal efficiencies under four operating conditions, including ambient temperature, wastewater flow rate, aeration conditions and initial concentration were evaluated in the pilot-scale experiments. The ammonia removal could reach about 80% for the real coke-plant wastewater with ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 2400-11000 mg/L. The running cost of the MW technique was a little lower than the conventional steam-stripping method. The continuous microwave system showed the potential as an effective method for ammonia nitrogen removal in coke-plant water treatment. It is proposed that this process is suitable for the treatment of toxic wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen.

  1. Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Mats; Nordberg, Ake; Thyselius, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste, and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including blood, represent 70-80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300 MJ/cattle and about 140 MJ/pig. Fed-batch digestion of pasteurized (70 degrees C, 1 h) animal byproducts resulted in a fourfold increase in biogas yield (1.14 L/g of volatile solids [VS]) compared with nonpasteurized animal byproducts (0.31 L/g of VS). Mixtures with animal byproducts representing 19-38% of the total dry matter were digested in continuous-flow stirred tank reactors at laboratory and pilot scale. Stable processes at organic loading rates (OLRs) exceeding 2.5 g of VS/(L.d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) less than 40 d could be obtained with total ammonia nitrogen concentrations (NH4-N + NH3-N) in the range of 4.0-5.0 g/L. After operating one process for more than 1.5 yr at total ammonia nitrogen concentrations >4 g/L, an increase in OLR to 5 g of VS/(L.d) and a decrease in HRT to 22 d was possible without accumulation of volatile fatty acids.

  2. TBT-contaminated sediments. Treatment in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichnothe, H.; Calmano, W.; Arevalo, E.; Keller, A.; Thoeming, J. [Hamburg Univ. of Technology, Dept. Environmental Science and Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Background, aims and scope. Sediments in harbours and nearby shipyards demonstrate widespread contamination with tributyltin (TBT). Therefore, reuse and relocation of dredged material from these locations are prohibited. Even if the international marine organization (IMO) convention concerning TBT-based paints is ratified (champ 2003) the TBT problem in sediments will continue to remain for many years due to the persistence of TBT. Methods. An electrochemical process has been developed to treat polluted sediments. Dredged materials with high and low TBT-contents were studied on a technical and a pilot scale. The treatment process was assessed by chemical analysis and a biotest battery. Additionally, an economic analysis was performed to check the economic feasibility of the process to treat dredged material from two different locations at different operating conditions. Furthermore an up-scaling estimation was performed to evaluate treatment costs at a larger scale, i.e. for a plant having a capacity of 720,000 t/a. Results and discussion. Butyltin species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were decomposed due to electrochemically-induced oxidation, while the treatment did not alter heavy metal and PCB concentrations. The bacteria luminescence test indicated a reduced toxicity after the electrochemical treatment, while the algae growth inhibition test and bacteria contact test did not confirm these results. Based on a small consumer price of Euro 0.12/kWh, treating the high-contaminated sediment in the pilot plant would cost Euro 21/m{sup 3} and Euro 31/m{sup 3} for the low contaminated sediment, respectively. Assuming an industrial consumer price of Euro 0.06/kWh for electricity in an up-scaled process with a capacity of 720,000 t/a, the total treatment costs for the low contaminated sediment would be Euro 13/m{sup 3}. Conclusion. The results of treating dredged material from Bremerhaven and the fine-grained fraction from the METHA plant show that the

  3. Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

    2014-08-01

    Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%).

  4. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  5. Pilot scale simulation of cokemaking in integrated steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Andriopoulos, N.; Keating, J.; Loo, C.E.; McGuire, S. [Newcastle Technology Centre, Wallsend (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Pilot scale coke ovens are widely used to produce coke samples for characterisation and also to assess the coking behaviour of coal blends. The Newcastle Technology Centre of BHP Billiton has built a sophisticated 400 kg oven, which can produce cokes under a range of carefully controlled bulk densities and heating rates. A freely movable heating wall allows the thrust generated at this wall at the different stages of coking oven to be determined. This paper describes comparative work carried out to determine a laboratory stabilisation technique for laboratory cokes. The strength of stabilised cokes are characterised using a number of tumble tests, and correlations between different drum sizes are also given since a major constraint in laboratory testing is the limitation in the mass of sample available. Typical oven wall pressure results, and results obtained from embedded temperature and pressure probes in the charge during coking, are also presented.

  6. Radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  7. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  8. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  9. Pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment in a continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile real hospital wastewater after a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Parladé, E; Llorca, M; Villagrasa, M; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Martinez-Alonso, M; Gaju, N; Caminal, G; Sarrà, M

    2017-06-01

    Hospital wastewaters are a main source of pharmaceutical active compounds, which are usually highly recalcitrant and can accumulate in surface and groundwater bodies. Fungal treatments can remove these contaminants prior to discharge, but real wastewater poses a problem to fungal survival due to bacterial competition. This study successfully treated real non-spiked, non-sterile wastewater in a continuous fungal fluidized bed bioreactor coupled to a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment for 56 days. A control bioreactor without the fungus was also operated and the results were compared. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing approach was used to study the microbial community arisen in both reactors and as a result some bacterial degraders are proposed. The fungal operation successfully removed analgesics and anti-inflammatories, and even the most recalcitrant pharmaceutical families such as antibiotics and psychiatric drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (BEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (BEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these radioactively contaminated filters will be dissolved using caustic solutions. As a result of these tests, a simple dissolution process was developed. In this process, the contaminated filter is first immersed in boiling 5% caustic solution for 24 hours and then water is sprayed on the filter. These steps break down the filter first chemically and then mechanically. The metal cage is rinsed and considered low level waste. The dissolved filter is pumpable and mixed with high level waste. Compared to earlier dissolution studies using caustic-acid-caustic solutions, the proposed method represents a 66% savings in cycle time and amount of liquid waste generated. This paper provides the details of filter mockups and results of the dissolution tests

  11. In-situ vitrification: pilot-scale development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Brouns, R.A.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in-situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for buried radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These in situ vitrification process development testing and product evaluation studies are being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy. This report discusses the results of four ISV pilot-scale field tests simulating radioactive and hazardous waste site conditions. The primary objectives of the field tests were to: demonstrate process scale-up from engineering-scale laboratory tests; verify equipment performance of the power system, electrodes and off-gas system; characterize the behavior of simulated wastes in the vitrified soil; identify waste losses to the off-gas system; and evaluate waste form durability. Test results have been encouraging. Process scaleup has been successfully demonstrated, with equipment and electrode performance equally as successful. The off-gas system effectively contained any volatile or entrained hazardous species. Vitrified soil analysis also indicated effective containment and a homogeneous distribution of nonradioactive radionuclide and hazardous waste simulants due to convective mixing during vitrification. Waste form leaching studies revealed that the ISV product has a durability similar to Pyrex glass

  12. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  13. Mathematical simulation of column flotation in pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; Jordan, D.; Cifuentes, G.; Morales, A.; Briones, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Procemin-I area of the Centro Minero Metalurgico Tecnologia y Servicio (CIMM T and S), has a full milling and flotation pilot plant in which several experiences are developed as: optimization of circuits, plant design, procurement of operating parameters, etc. Ones of the equipment in operation is the column flotation to pilot scale, witch have a medium level of automation. The problem presented in the operation of the column flotation is the low relationship during the operation between the operating basis parameters and the metallurgical results. The mathematical models used today to estimate the metallurgical results (i.e.: concentrate, tailing, enrichment and recovery) depending on variables that are manipulated by hand according the operator experience. But the process engineer needs tools without subjective vision to obtain the best performance of the column. The method used to help the column operation was a mathematical model based on the Stepwise Regression then considering empirical relationships between operational variables and experimental results. All the mathematical relationship developed in this study have a good correlation (up 90 % of precision), except one (up 70 %) due by non regular mineralogical feed. (Author) 7 refs.

  14. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr

  15. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables

  16. In situ vitrification pilot-scale radioactive test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.H.

    1984-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as an in-place stabilization technique for selected liquid radioactive waste disposal sites. The process melts the wastes and surrounding soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form. These ISV process development testing and evaluation studies are being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June of 1983 in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified are discussed. The primary objectives of the radioactive test were to: demonstrate containment and confinement of the radioactive material; verify equipment performance of the power and off-gas systems; identify losses to the off-gas system; and characterize the behavior of the radioactive material in the vitrified soil. The test successfully demonstrated the processing containment of radionuclides both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was measured during testing operations. The vitrified soil had a greater than 99% retention of all radionuclides. Losses to the off-gas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. No migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred, as indicated by analysis of soil samples from around the block. Previous waste form leaching studies indicate an acceptable durability of the ISV product. 8 references, 34 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Data for pilot-scale low level hydrogen peroxide tests using humidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset includes data from each experiment conducted in the pilot-scale testing. Each sheet of the Excel file pertains to each test. A data dictionary is included in...

  18. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.; Johnson, J. R.; Williams, P. J.; Koros, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system

  19. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  20. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  1. Polyelectrolytes processing at pilot scale level by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.; Ighigeanu, D.; Marin, Gheorghe G.

    2002-01-01

    Three years of research, combined with engineering activities, have culminated in the development of a new method of electron beam processing applicable up to the pilot scale level, namely, the polyelectrolytes (acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers) electron beam processing. This new radiation processing method has been achieved by bilateral co-operation between the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP) and the Electrical Design and Research Institute, EDRI - Bucharest. The polyelectrolytes electron beam (EB) processing was put in operation at EDRI, where, recently, an industrial electron accelerator of 2 MeV and 20 kW, manufactured by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia was installed in a specially designed irradiation facility. Automatic start-up via computer control makes it compatible with industrial processing. According to the first conclusions, which resulted from our experimental research with regard to acrylamide - acrylic acid copolymers production by EB irradiation, the proper physical and chemical characteristics can be well controlled by chemical composition to be treated and by suitable adjustment of absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate. So, it was possible to obtain a very large area of characteristics and therefore a large area of applications. The conversion coefficient is very high (> 98%) and concentration of the residual monomer is under 0.05%. The tests applied to some wastewaters from the vegetable oil plants demonstrated that the fatty substances, matters in suspension, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand over 5 days were much reduced, in comparison with classical treatment. Also, sedimentation time was around four times smaller and sediment volume was 60% smaller than the values obtained in case of classical treatment. The necessary EB absorbed dose for the acrylamide - acrylic acid aqueous solution polymerization, established by optimization of chemical composition and irradiation

  2. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  3. Eutrophic water purification efficiency using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation on a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Tang, Chuan-Dong; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Yi; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the purification of eutrophic water using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and ozonation (O3) at a continuous flow of 0.8 m(3) h(-1) on a pilot scale. The maximum removal rate of chlorophyll a using O3 alone and the HC/O3 combination was 62.3 and 78.8%, respectively, under optimal conditions, where the ozone utilization efficiency was 64.5 and 94.8% and total energy consumption was 8.89 and 8.25 kWh m(-3), respectively. Thus, the removal rate of chlorophyll a and the ozone utilization efficiency were improved by 26.5% and 46.9%, respectively, by using the combined technique. Meanwhile, total energy consumption was reduced by 7.2%. Turbidity linearly decreased with chlorophyll a removal rate, but no linear relationship exists between the removal of COD or UV254 and chlorophyll a. As expected, the suction-cavitation-assisted O3 exhibited higher energy efficiency than the extrusion-cavitation-assisted O3 and O3 alone methods.

  4. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  5. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  6. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  7. Pilot-scale demonstration of phytofiltration for treatment of arsenic in New Mexico drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, Mark P; Poynton, Charissa Y; Willms, Cari A; Doyle, Mike P; Lopez, Alisa C; Sokkary, Dale A; Ferguson, Bruce W; Blaylock, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water poses serious health risks to millions of people worldwide. To reduce such risks, the United States Environmental Protection Agency recently lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level for arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10 microgL(-1). The majority of water systems requiring compliance are small systems that serve less than 10,000 people. Current technologies used to clean arsenic-contaminated water have significant drawbacks, particularly for small treatment systems. In this pilot-scale demonstration, we investigated the use of arsenic-hyperaccumulating ferns to remove arsenic from drinking water using a continuous flow phytofiltration system. Over the course of a 3-month demonstration period, the system consistently produced water having an arsenic concentration less than the detection limit of 2 microgL(-1), at flow rates as high as 1900 L day(-1) for a total treated water volume of approximately 60,000 L. Our results demonstrate that phytofiltration provides the basis for a solar-powered hydroponic technique to enable small-scale cleanup of arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

  8. Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  10. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  11. Effect of Molasses on Phenol Removal Rate Using Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growing industrial and social development through time, toxic substances such as phenol and its derivatives are increasingly released into the environment from a variety of sources. The present study aims to investigate the effects of molasses on phenol removal. For this purpose, five pilot scale batch reactors (5 Erlenmeyer flasks equipped with the air and gas diffusion control system were used in the laboratory scale. The volumes of the reactors were kept constant with a final volume content of 550 ml in each reactor. Phenol with a fixed concentration of 100 mg/l was tested under anaerobic conditions in each reactor in contact with beet molasses (organic matter used as the auxiliary substrate with COD concentrations of 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/l over 5 retention times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days. All the sampling and testing procedures wer e performed according to the standard methods. The results showed that in all the five experimental reactors, increasing retention time was accompanied by a continuous decline in initial phenol and COD concentrations. However, for each retention time, increasing COD concentration led to a decrease in COD removal efficiency such that increasing the initial COD concentration up to a certain level was associated with an increase in chemical oxygen demanding materials, but beyond this range, COD removal decreased slowly. It was also found that phenol removal increased with increasing retention time but it was not proportional to the concentration of the biodegradable COD. After 50 days of contact with 1000 mg/l of the supporting substrate, phenol removal in the reactors reached 98.62%. Another finding of the study was the fact that the highest phenol removal was achieved when 1000-2000 mg/l of biodegradable COD was used over 50 days of retention time

  12. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  13. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  14. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  15. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  16. Pilot-scale demonstration of SPORL for bioconversion of lodgepole pine to bioethanol and lignosulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2016-01-01

    The process sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) has been the focus of this study. Pilot-scale (50 kg) pretreatment of wood chips of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were conducted at 165°C...

  17. Fractionation of milk proteins on pilot scale with particular focus on β-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thienel, Katharina J.F.; Holder, Aline; Schubert, Thomas; Boom, Remko M.; Hinrichs, Jörg; Atamer, Zeynep

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield and purity of casein fractions at pilot scale and determine the main process parameters influencing the isolation of β-casein, such as cold extraction time, separation speed. The fractions were obtained from micellar casein by means of selective

  18. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  19. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  20. Review on the current practices and efforts towards pilot-scale production of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available -effective production technologies account for the slow progression towards the development of envisioned MOF products at pilot-scale level. This short review brings together the scattered literature that addresses pilot-scale production of MOF materials. An additional...

  1. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds

  2. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  3. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  4. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  5. Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer in a stirred pilot scale bioreactor utilizing CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Yang, Jifeng; Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge and prediction of mixing and mass transfer in agitated bioreactors is fundamental for process development and scale up. In particular key process parameters such as mixing time and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are essential for bioprocess development. In this work the mixing...... and mass transfer performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulence inside the vessel was predicted using a standard RANS k-ε model. Mixing time...... transfer coefficients were in accordance with the experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the two phase fluid dynamic performance of an agitated pilot scale bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied to illustrate the effect of changing the physical...

  6. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature......, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50–65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect...... of temperature (55–65 °C) and exposure to gas–liquid and liquid–heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG...

  7. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described

  8. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  9. Pilot-scale tests for EB flue gas treatment process in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Tokunaga, O.; Namba, H.

    1994-01-01

    A review of electron beam applications for flue gas treatment in Japan has been done. Several pilot plants are being performed for commercial use of electron beams process for cleaning of flue gas from low-sulfur coal burning boiler, a municipal waste incinerator and for removal of NO x from a ventilation exhaust of a highway tunnel. Outlines of three pilot-scale tests are introduced. 9 refs, 4 figs

  10. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  11. The low-energy electron accelerator LEA for pilot scale operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.; Klenert, P.

    1990-01-01

    An electron processor equipped with a linear cathode has been developed for use in pilot scale radiation processing. It can provide electron beam powers up to 6 kW at energies between 150 and 200 keV. The design of some components of the processor system and first results of its operation as part of a pilot unit for curing of furniture elements will be discussed. (author)

  12. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S.

    2005-10-01

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site

  13. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S

    2005-10-15

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site.

  14. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  15. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).

  16. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Dingwall, Paul A.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-09-01

    High power, phase-pure Nb-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles are synthesised using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process (production rate of 6 kg per day) in the range 0.01-2.00 at% Nb with respect to total transition metal content. EDS analysis suggests that Nb is homogeneously distributed throughout the structure. The addition of fructose as a reagent in the hydrothermal flow process, followed by a post synthesis heat-treatment, affords a continuous graphitic carbon coating on the particle surfaces. Electrochemical testing reveals that cycling performance improves with increasing dopant concentration, up to a maximum of 1.0 at% Nb, for which point a specific capacity of 110 mAh g-1 is obtained at 10 C (6 min for the charge or discharge). This is an excellent result for a high power cathode LFP based material, particularly when considering the synthesis was performed on a large pilot-scale apparatus.

  17. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  18. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  19. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  20. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  1. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  2. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  3. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  4. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  5. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  6. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  7. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  8. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  9. Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized

  10. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  11. Evaluation of sludge properties in a pilot-scale UASB reactor for sewage treatment in a temperate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syutsubo, K; Yoochatchaval, W; Tsushima, I; Araki, N; Kubota, K; Onodera, T; Takahashi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoneyama, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this study, continuous operation of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for sewage treatment was conducted for 630 days to investigate the physical and microbial characteristics of the retained sludge. The UASB reactor with a working volume of 20.2 m(3) was operated at ambient temperature (16-29 °C) and seeded with digested sludge. After 180 days of operation, when the sewage temperature had dropped to 20 °C or lower, the removal efficiency of both total suspended solids (TSS) and total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) deteriorated due to washout of retained sludge. At low temperature, the cellulose concentration of the UASB sludge increased owing to the rate limitation of the hydrolytic reaction of suspended solids in the sewage. However, after an improvement in sludge retention (settleability and concentration) in the UASB reactor, the process performance stabilized and gave sufficient results (68% of TSS removal, 75% of total BOD removal) at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.7 h. The methanogenic activity of the retained sludge significantly increased after day 246 due to the accumulation of Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium following the improvement in sludge retention in the UASB reactor. Acid-forming bacteria from phylum Bacteroidetes were detected at high frequency; thus, these bacteria may have an important role in suspended solids degradation.

  12. Effect of substrate concentration on hydrogen production by photo-fermentation in the pilot-scale baffled bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhou, Xuehua; Hu, Jianjun; Ge, Xumeng; Xia, Chenxi; Zhao, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jing, Yanyan; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Quanguo

    2018-01-01

    Effect of substrate concentration on photo-fermentative hydrogen production was studied with a self-designed 4m 3 pilot-scale baffled photo-fermentative hydrogen production reactor (BPHR). The relationships between parameters, such as hydrogen production rate (HPR, mol H 2 /m 3 /d), hydrogen concentration, pH value, oxidation-reduction potential, biomass concentration (volatile suspended solids, VSS) and reducing sugar concentration, during the photo-fermentative hydrogen production process were investigated. The highest HPR of 202.64±8.83mol/m 3 /d was achieved in chamber #3 at a substrate concentration of 20g/L. Hydrogen contents were in the range of 42.19±0.94%-49.71±0.27%. HPR increased when organic loading rate was increased from 3.3 to 20g/L/d, then decreased when organic loading rate was further increased to 25g/L/d. A maximum HPR of 148.65±4.19mol/m 3 /d was obtained when organic loading rate was maintained at 20g/L/d during continuous bio-hydrogen production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997

  14. PDCA循环在消毒供应中心质量持续改进中的应用%Application of PDCA cycle in continuous quality improvement of central sterile supply department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 李淑君; 李燕妮; 秦建; 翟智超; 董海蛟; 王聪

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the application of PDCA cycle management mode in continuous quality improvement of the central sterile supply department and further strengthen the central sterile supply quality management so as to ensure zero defect of the sterile supplies.METHODS The quality control management team was established,the PDCA cycle management responsibility system was implemented,the PDCA cycle management approach was employed to set up the key points of the quality control,the PDCA cycle improvement program was developed to constantly improve the systems; the PDCA group was implemented the PDCA cycle management mode in Nov 2011,while the control group was not implemented the PDCA cycle management mode from Nov 2010 to Oct 2011,there were 96 pieces of data in each group,then the satisfaction rate was compared between the two groups.RESULTS After the implementation of the PDCA cycle management mode,the satisfaction rate of the clinical departments was 97.9% in the PDCA group,significantly higher than 91.7% of the control group,the difference was significant(P<0.05); the qualified rates of the hand hinge,monitoring of disinfectant concentration,cleaning and disinfection of surgical equipments,cleaning and disinfection of pipelines,rust removal,sterile supplies of the PDCA group were respectively 99.0%,95.5%,98.0%,97.5%,97.0%,and 100.0%,significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION Through the application of PDCA cycle management model and the implementation of comprehensively continuous quality improvement,the overall quality of the CSSD staff,service quality,and quality of the sterile supplies have been substantially improved.%目的 探索PDCA循环管理模式在消毒供应中心(CSSD)质量持续改进中的应用,进一步加强CSSD质量管理,保证无菌物品供应零缺陷.方法 成立质量控制管理小组,实行PDCA循环管理责任制,运用PDCA循环管理方法设定质控重

  15. Succession of microbial functional communities in response to a pilot-scale ethanol-blended fuel release throughout the plume life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2015-01-01

    GeoChip, a comprehensive gene microarray, was used to examine changes in microbial functional gene structure throughout the 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume, including 2-year continuous released followed by plume disappearance after source removal. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Mantel tests showed that dissolved O 2 (which was depleted within 5 days of initiating the release and rebounded 194 days after source removal) was the most influential environmental factor on community structure. Initially, the abundance of anaerobic BTEX degradation genes increased significantly while that of aerobic BTEX degradation genes decreased. Gene abundance for N fixation, nitrification, P utilization, sulfate reduction and S oxidation also increased, potentially changing associated biogeochemical cycle dynamics. After plume disappearance, most genes returned to pre-release abundance levels, but the final functional structure significantly differed from pre-release conditions. Overall, observed successions of functional structure reflected adaptive responses that were conducive to biodegradation of ethanol-blend releases. - Highlights: • GeoChip discerned microbial functional changes through an ethanol blend plume. • The release increased gene abundance for anaerobic BTEX degradation. • The release changed key biogeochemical (N, P, C, and S) cycling gene abundance. • The functional structure did not recover 4 months after the plume attenuated. • Dissolved O 2 was the most influential factor shaping community structure. - Geochip analysis discerned adaptive shifts in microbial functional structure and controlling environmental factors throughout a 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume

  16. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using real centrate wastewater with waste glycerol for improving microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Tuo, Jinhua; Addy, Min M; Zhang, Renchuan; Lu, Qian; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-12-01

    To improve nutrients removal from real centrate wastewater and enhance the microalgae biomass production, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in lab and a pilot-scale photobioreactor with waste glycerol was studied. The results showed the optimal concentration of the crude glycerol was 1.0gL -1 with the maximum biomass productivity of 460mgL -1 d -1 TVS, the maximum lipid content of 27%, the nutrient removal efficiency of all above 86%, due to more balanced C/N ratio. The synergistic relationship between the wastewater-borne bacteria and the microalgae had significant good influence on nutrient removal. In pilot-scale wastewater-based algae cultivation, with 1gL -1 waste glycerol addition, the average biomass production of 16.7gm -2 d -1 , lipid content of 23.6%, and the removal of 2.4gm -2 d -1 NH 4 + -N, 2.7gm -2 d -1 total nitrogen, 3.0gm -2 d -1 total phosphorous, and 103.0gm -2 d -1 of COD were attained for 34days semi-continuous mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  18. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Lane; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2009-05-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) was designed and built to decrease the concentration and toxicity of constituents of concern in ash basin water from coal-burning power plants. The CWTS was designed to promote the following treatment processes for metals and metalloids: precipitation as non-bioavailable sulfides, co-precipitation with iron oxyhydroxides, and adsorption onto iron oxides. Concentrations of Zn, Cr, Hg, As, and Se in simulated ash basin water were reduced by the CWTS to less than USEPA-recommended water quality criteria. The removal efficiency (defined as the percent concentration decrease from influent to effluent) was dependent on the influent concentration of the constituent, while the extent of removal (defined as the concentration of a constituent of concern in the CWTS effluent) was independent of the influent concentration. Results from toxicity experiments illustrated that the CWTS eliminated influent toxicity with regard to survival and reduced influent toxicity with regard to reproduction. Reduction in potential for scale formation and biofouling was achieved through treatment of the simulated ash basin water by the pilot-scale CWTS.

  19. Performance of A Pilot-Scale Vermifilter for the Treatment of A Real Hospital Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghobadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale vermifilter (VF for the treatment of hospital wastewater using the earthworm species Eisenia fetida was evaluated. The earthworms’ gut acts as a bioreactor and can ingest the wastewater solid and liquid organic wastes and expel these as vermicompost. A pilot-scale vermifilter was installed and operated for 133 days in one of hospitals in Hamadan city; the designed system was fed with the influent passed through coarse and fine grillage and the sedimentation tank of the hospital’s sanitary collection system. In order to study the efficiency of the system, the variations of pH value, chemical oxygen demand (COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and total suspended solids (TSS were measured. In addition, a conventional geofilter (GF without Earthworm was used as the experimental control. The vermifiltration caused a significant decrease in the levels of COD (75%, BOD5 (93%, and TSS (89% as well as neutralized pH in the wastewater. Also, these contents in the geofilter were observed to be 65%, 71%, and 71%, respectively. The vermifiltration technology can, therefore, be applied as an environmentally friendly method for hospital wastewater treatment.

  20. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  1. Influence of reaction time on the structure of polyaniline synthesized on a pre-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to follow the structural variations of polyaniline (PAni obtained by chemical oxidation on a pre-pilot scale, with different reaction times. Synthesis of PAni is well known, but when it is carried out on a pre-pilot scale, several factors can lead to structural changes and understanding these changes is important to improve controls on the synthesis process. The polymers formed were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - FTIR and UV-Visible. Degree of oxidation and yield were calculated for each reaction time. The analysis by FTIR, the calculated degree of oxidation and the yield showed significant changes in polymer structure at reaction times of 65 and 80 min. This result was attributed to the excessive oxidation of PAni, with the breaking of its polymer chain. The changes observed in the structure of PAni gave subsidies to the optimization of the process of obtaining polyaniline by chemical synthesis.

  2. [Pilot-scale purification of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kangbo; Guan, Cheng; Xu, Jiahui; Li, Shulan; Luo, Yuanchan; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Daojing; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-11-25

    This research was aimed at establishing the pilot-scale purification technology of lipopeptide from marine-derived Bacillus marinus. We studied lipopeptide surfactivity interferences on scale-up unit technologies including acid precipitation, methanol extraction, solvent precipitation, salting out, extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HZ806 macroporous absorption resin column chromatography. Then, the unit technologies were combined in a certain order, to remove the impurities gradually, and to gain purified lipopeptide finally, with high recovery rate throughout the whole process. The novel pilot-scale purification technology could effectively isolate and purify lipopeptide with 87.51% to 100% purity in hectograms from 1 ton of Bacillus marinus B-9987 fermentation broth with more than 81.73% recovery rate. The first practical hectogram production of highly purified lipopeptide derived from Bacillus marinus was achieved. With this new purification method, using complex media became possible in fermentation process to reduce the fermentation cost and scale-up the purification for lipopeptide production. For practicability and economy, foaming problem resulting from massive water evaporation was avoided in this technology.

  3. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat

  4. Winter Maintenance Wash-Water Heavy Metal Removal Pilot Scale Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage sustainable engineering practices, departments of transportation are interested in reusing winter maintenance truck wash water as part of their brine production and future road application. Traffic-related metals in the wash water, however, could limit this option. The objective of this work was to conduct a pilot scale evaluation of heavy metal (copper, zinc, iron, and lead removal in a filtration unit (maximum flow rate of 45 L/minute containing proprietary (MAR Systems Sorbster® media. Three different trials were conducted and approximately 10,000 L of wash water collected from a winter maintenance facility in Ohio was treated with the pilot unit. Lab studies were also performed on six wash-water samples from multiple facilities to assess particle size removal and estimate settling time as a potential removal mechanism during wash-water storage. Pilot unit total metal removal efficiencies were 79%, 77%, 63%, and 94% for copper, zinc, iron, and lead, respectively. Particle settling calculation estimates for copper and zinc show that 10 hours in storage can also effectively reduce heavy metal concentrations in winter maintenance wash water in excess of 70%. These pilot scale results show promise for reducing heavy metal concentrations to an acceptable level for reuse.

  5. Thermal versus high pressure processing of carrots: A comparative pilot-scale study on equivalent basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, Van der L.; Grauwet, T.; Verlinde, P.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first study comparing different high pressure (HP) and thermal treatments at intensities ranging from mild pasteurization to sterilization conditions. To allow a fair comparison, the processing conditions were selected based on the principles of equivalence. Moreover,

  6. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  7. Radiosterilization and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.A.; Gruenewald, T.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a survey of the principles of cold sterilization by radiation or gas, and also of the problems involved. The reader who has to do with sterilization of some kind or other, as e.g. sterilization of medicaments, medical supplies, medical device, drugs, grafts, or food, will find comprehensive information on the various available methods and their effects, as well as on monitoring procedures and techniques, together with proposals for efficient documentation and validation of partial sterilization processes. The introduction summarizes the potentials of sterilization by radiation, and the subsequent by radiation, and the subsequent chapters explain the specific applicabilities of radiosterilization along with the most important criteria for evaluating the sterilizing efficiency. The information on the legal situation and requirements takes into account the second amendment of the Medical Preparations Act. With 38 figs., 14 tabs [de

  8. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  9. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  10. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  11. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  12. Air purification from a mixture VOCs in the pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarzyński Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the air bio-purification from the mixture of two volatile organic compounds (styrene and p-xylene was studied. The process was carried out in a pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor installation designed to purify ∼200 m3h-1 of the polluted air. The bioreactor operated at concurrent flow of gas and liquid (mineral salt solution through packing (polypropylene Ralu rings covered with a thin layer of microorganisms (bacterial consortium of Pseudomonas sp. E-022150 and Pseudomonas putida mt-2. The experiments, carried out for various values of a reactor load with pollutant, confirmed the great efficiency of the investigated process. At the tested bed load with pollution (inlet specific pollutant load was changed within the range of 41 – 84 gm-3 h -1, styrene conversion degree changed within the range of 80-87% and p-xylene conversion degree within the range of 42-48%.

  13. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m 3 N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO 2 and NO x simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO 2 (250-2,000ppm) and NO x (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality. (author)

  14. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described

  15. Pilot-Scale Bio-Augmented Aerobic Composting of Excavated Foot-And-Mouth Disease Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we tested the validity of using novel, bio-augmented, aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms for the ex situ stabilization of carcasses at pilot scale with previously poorly decomposed carcasses excavated from a 3-year old burial site. The significantly decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5000 mg/kg to 2000 mg/kg indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses by bio-augmented composting. The subsequent germination assays and the quantitative characterization of potentially pathogenic bacteria using NGS (next-generation sequencing showed that the burial–composting sequential system with the carcass-degrading microorganisms and mechanical agitation successfully reduced plant toxicity as well as microbial risk to human health, suggesting that the composting by-product is suitable for farming or/and landfill use(s.

  16. A review of semi-pilot scale study on the irradiation of rice in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Razley Mohamad Nordin.

    1986-08-01

    A semi-pilot scale study of milled-rice preservation using gamma irradiation project was started in 1984. The project was aimed to study the possibility of using irradiation in reducing losses during storage. Rice samples were subjected to doses ranging from 0.2 to kGy and stored in stack under conditions similar to a typical rice godown. Rice sampling was done every three to six months to determine the effect of gamma irradiation over 2 years of storage. After 9 months storage, radiation was found to reduce insect infestation with no effect on nutritional value (P 0.05) i.e. reducing sugar, water content, amino acid profile and fat acidity. However gel viscosity was markedly reduced with increase in radiation dose and storage time. Packaging materials (gunny sack, heavy duty plastic, woven laminated and woven non-laminated plastic) did not influence both chemical and physical quality of irradiated stored rice. (author)

  17. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities

  18. Pilot scale intensification of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil via chemical interesterification using hydrodynamic cavitation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Awais; Yusup, Suzana; Chuah, Lai Fatt; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Asif, Saira; Ali, Basit; Akbar, Majid Majeed; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik M

    2017-10-01

    Chemical interesterification of rubber seed oil has been investigated for four different designed orifice devices in a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) system. Upstream pressure within 1-3.5bar induced cavities to intensify the process. An optimal orifice plate geometry was considered as plate with 1mm dia hole having 21 holes at 3bar inlet pressure. The optimisation results of interesterification were revealed by response surface methodology; methyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 14:1, catalyst amount of 0.75wt.% and reaction time of 20min at 50°C. HC is compared to mechanical stirring (MS) at optimised values. The reaction rate constant and the frequency factor of HC were 3.4-fold shorter and 3.2-fold higher than MS. The interesterified product was characterised by following EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 international standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Air purification from a mixture VOCs in the pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor (TBB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzyński, Rafał; Gąszczak, Agnieszka; Janecki, Daniel; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of the air bio-purification from the mixture of two volatile organic compounds (styrene and p-xylene) was studied. The process was carried out in a pilot-scale trickle-bed bioreactor installation designed to purify ˜200 m3h-1 of the polluted air. The bioreactor operated at concurrent flow of gas and liquid (mineral salt solution) through packing (polypropylene Ralu rings) covered with a thin layer of microorganisms (bacterial consortium of Pseudomonas sp. E-022150 and Pseudomonas putida mt-2). The experiments, carried out for various values of a reactor load with pollutant, confirmed the great efficiency of the investigated process. At the tested bed load with pollution (inlet specific pollutant load was changed within the range of 41 - 84 gm-3 h -1), styrene conversion degree changed within the range of 80-87% and p-xylene conversion degree within the range of 42-48%.

  20. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  1. Pilot scale ion exchange column study for reducing radioactivity discharges to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, S.G.; Yadav, V.K.; Sonar, N.L.; Valsala, T.P.; Narayan, J.; Sharma, S.P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dani, U.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low level liquid waste (LLW) is generated during operation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Chemical co-precipitation is the treatment method used for decontamination of this waste with respect to radionuclide prior to discharge to environment. Further polishing of effluent from the treated LLW was planned using ion exchange column to reduce the discharges to the environment In view of this ion exchange column study was carried out in the laboratory using in-house prepared cobalt ferrocyanide (COFC) based composite resin. Based on the encouraging results obtained in the lab studies, pilot scale study was carried out in the plant. Decontamination factor (DF) of 14-15 was obtained with respect to Cs isotopes and overall DF of 2-5 was obtained with respect to gross beta activity. (author)

  2. Pilot-scale Biogas Plant for the Research and Development of New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simeonov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper describes a new pilot-scale biogas plant of the Institute of Microbiology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The equipment includes: a 100 L pilot bioreactor, a 200 L metal gasholder, sensors, actuators, a two-level automatic process monitoring and control system, a fire and explosion protection system and two web cameras. The monitoring and control system is composed on the lower level of a controller Beckhoff, and on the higher level - of a PC with specialized software (under development. The pilot biogas plant is designed to work out and scale up various anaerobic digestion (AD technologies based on different types of feedstock. All the data will be stored on the PC for quick reference and possibly data mining, parameter identification and verification of different AD mathematical models.

  3. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function...... of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling bed mode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel particle size and shape, fuel particle density, rotary kiln fill degree and rotational speed. Large fuel particles and low-density fuel particles appeared more on top...... of the bed than smaller particles and high-density fuel particles. Fuel particle dimensions and sphericity were important parameters for the percentage of visible particles. Increasing bed fill degree and/or increasing rotational speed decreased the percentage of particles visible on top of the bed...

  5. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  6. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  7. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  8. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  10. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  11. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Impacts of Residual Surfactant on Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Degradation Following Pilot-Scale SEAR Treatment at a Chloroethene-Impacted Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.; Pennell, K. D.; Löffler, F. E.; Gamache, M.; Petrovskis, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    A pilot-scale surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) demonstration was completed during the summer of 2000 at the Bachman Road site (Oscoda, MI USA). For this test, an aqueous solution of 60 g/L Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) was used to recover tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a suspected source zone, located underneath a former dry-cleaning facility. Tween 80 was selected for use based upon its demonstrated capacity to solubilize PCE, “food-grade” status, and biodegradative potential. Hydraulic control was maintained throughout the test, with 95% of the injected surfactant mass recovered by a single extraction well. Source-zone monitoring conducted 15 months after SEAR treatment revealed the presence of previously undetected volatile fatty acids (acetate and formate) and PCE degradation products (trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichlorethene, and vinyl chloride), in conjunction with PCE concentration reductions of approximately two orders-of-magnitude. The detection of volatile fatty acids is relevant, as they are likely fermentation products of residual Tween 80. Microbial reductive dechlorination is limited by available electron donors, and microcosm studies demonstrated that both acetate and formate support reductively dechlorinating populations present at the oligotrophic Bachman Road site aquifer. Surfactant transport simulations, using a regional flow model developed for the site, were employed to determine appropriate down-gradient monitoring locations. Drive point samples taken 15 months post-treatment in the vicinity of the simulated residual surfactant plume, contained elevated concentrations of acetate and PCE daughter products. Ongoing efforts include continued site-monitoring, and microcosm studies to corroborate a causal relationship between Tween 80 fermentation and PCE dechlorination.

  13. Characterization and modelling of the heat transfers in a pilot-scale reactor during composting under forced aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia, A. de; Petiot, C.; Benoist, J.C.; Druilhe, C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focused on the modelling of the heat transfers during composting in a pilot-scale reactor under forced aeration. The model took into account the heat production and the transfers by evaporation, convection between material and gas crossing the material, conduction and surface convection between gas and material in bottom and upper parts of the reactor. The model was adjusted thanks to the measurements practised during fifteen composting experiments in which five organic wastes were, each, composted under three constant aeration rates. Heat production was considered proportional to oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy per mole oxygen consumed was assumed constant. The convective heat transfer coefficients were determined on basis of the continuous measurements of the temperatures of both the lid and the bottom part of the reactor. The model allowed a satisfying prediction of the temperature of the composting material. In most cases, the mean absolute discard between the experimental and the simulated temperatures was inferior to 2.5 °C and the peaks of temperature occurred with less than 8 h delay. For the half of the experiments the temperature discard between the simulated peak and the experimental one was inferior to 5 °C. On basis of the calculation of a stoichiometric production of water through oxidation of the biodegradable organic matter, the simulation of water going out from material as vapour also allowed a rather satisfying prediction of the mass of water in final mixture. The influence of the aeration rate on every type of heat loss was characterized. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the impacts on material temperature caused by the change of the insulation thickness, the ambient temperature, take the lid away, the increase or the decrease of the mass of waste to compost.

  14. Nutrient Removal and Biomass Production in an Outdoor Pilot-Scale Phototrophic Biofilm Reactor for Effluent Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Janssen, M.; Temmink, H.; Shrestha, R.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m2/day. The areal nitrogen and

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  17. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  18. Effect of biomass concentration on the productivity of Tetraselmis suecica in a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor using natural sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.H.A.; Slegers, P.M.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of biomass concentration on the net volumetric productivity, yield on light and nightly biomass loss rate of Tetraselmis suecica was studied using a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor (PBR) under outdoor light conditions. The net average productivity and yield on light of Tetraselmis

  19. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  20. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) during

  1. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  2. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  3. [Legal statutes on sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, K

    1980-01-01

    Sterilization in Yugoslavia is no population policy measure. Decision about the birth of children is free, a private problem of any individual, a basic right guaranteed by the Constitution. However, according to certain laws in Slovenia and Croatia, sterilization is allowed as a family planning method in persons over 35 year old. Only exceptionally can sterilization be applied in persons younger than 35 years: according to the Slovenian law, in cases when a person lacks the capacity of reasoning and also when there are medical indications, and according to the Croatian law, when there are medical and eugenic reasons (if the child is supposed to be born with negative congenital properties).

  4. Materials Surfaces and sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2001-04-01

    A question of great interest in sterile and clean room technology is how can we devise a standard for the guarantee of sterility? Sterility is of widespread importance: it gives the life-time of our daily milk or yogurt, dominates the nature of food packing, and determines the feasibility of the miniaturization of biotechnology plants. All these phenomena are based on the principle of bioadhesion. Bioadhesion is also the basis of the biomimetic material technologies, like the attachment of selected protein layers that can be used for nanomasking. (orig.)

  5. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  6. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  7. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  8. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  9. Radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  11. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  12. Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters.

  13. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-09-14

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  14. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Titer Ethanol and Lignosulfonate Production from SPORL Pretreated Poplar at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Haifeng [Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Zhu, J. Y., E-mail: jzhu@fs.fed.us; Gleisner, Roland [Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States); Qiu, Xueqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Horn, Eric [BioPulping International, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L.) wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH 1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS). An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) of 3.3 was used to scale the sulfite pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L{sup -1} with a yield of 247 L tonne wood{sup -1} was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL)-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH) content, though it was less sulfonated and had a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing. The conversion efficiency achieved through process integration and simplification, demonstrated here, has significant importance to the entire supply chain of biofuel production from woody biomass.

  16. Optimization of design and operating parameters in a pilot scale Jameson cell for slime coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacifazlioglu, Hasan; Toroglu, Ihsan [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Karaelmas, 67100 (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    The Jameson flotation cell has been commonly used to treat a variety of ores (lead, zinc, copper etc.), coal and industrial minerals at commercial scale since 1989. It is especially known to be highly efficient at fine and ultrafine coal recovery. However, although the Jameson cell has quite a simple structure, it may be largely inefficient if the design and operating parameters chosen are not appropriate. In this study, the design and operating parameters of a pilot scale Jameson cell were optimized to obtain a desired metallurgical performance in the slime coal flotation. The optimized design parameters are the nozzle type, the height of the nozzle above the pulp level, the downcomer diameter and the immersion depth of the downcomer. Among the operating parameters optimized are the collector dosage, the frother dosage, the percentage of solids and the froth height. In the optimum conditions, a clean coal with an ash content of 14.90% was obtained from the sample slime having 45.30% ash with a combustible recovery of 74.20%. In addition, a new type nozzle was developed for the Jameson cell, which led to an increase of about 9% in the combustible recovery value.

  17. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  18. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained

  19. Pilot-scale incineration testing of an oxygen-enhanced combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterland, L.R.; Lee, J.W.; Staley, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System performed under the Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. This system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a hazardous coal tar waste (decanter tank tar sludge form coking operations - K087). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was tested. Test results show that compliance with the hazardous waste incinerator performance standards of 99.99 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7 percent O 2 was achieved for all tests. The Pyretron oxygen-enhanced combustion system allowed in-compliance operation at double the mixed waste feedrate possible with conventional incineration, and with a 60 percent increase in charge weight than possible with conventional incineration

  20. Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Ines J P; Andrys, Anna; Grundelius, Andrea; Lemmens, Lien; Löfgren, Anders; Buggenhout, Sandy Van; Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc Van

    2011-01-01

    Tomatoes are often processed into shelf-stable products. However, the different processing steps might have an impact on the product quality. In this study, a model tomato soup was prepared and the impact of pilot-scale aseptic processing, including heat treatment and high-pressure homogenization, on some selected quality parameters was evaluated. The vitamin C content, the lycopene isomer content, and the lycopene bioaccessibility were considered as health-promoting attributes. As a structural characteristic, the viscosity of the tomato soup was investigated. A tomato soup without oil as well as a tomato soup containing 5% olive oil were evaluated. Thermal processing had a negative effect on the vitamin C content, while lycopene degradation was limited. For both compounds, high-pressure homogenization caused additional losses. High-pressure homogenization also resulted in a higher viscosity that was accompanied by a decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility. The presence of lipids clearly enhanced the lycopene isomerization susceptibility and improved the bioaccessibility. The results obtained in this study are of relevance for product formulation and process design of tomato-based food products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  2. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-03-30

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building's quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility

  4. Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building`s quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility.

  5. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotreatability and pilot-scale study for remediation of Arctic diesel at 10 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Rowsell, S. [HydroQual Laboratories Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Chimera Consultants Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); MacDonald, A. [Inuvialuit Environmental and Geotechnical Inc., NT (Canada); Hetman, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A series of environmental programs were initiated at a former petroleum tank site on the west channel of the Mackenzie River following concerns of fuel odours in the soil. A biotreatability study was conducted for the silty soil contaminated with Arctic diesel fuel. The treatment included a bioslurry test that could quickly determine the hydrocarbon biodegradation endpoint under optimum conditions. The treatment also involved a modified soil pan test to monitor real-time oxygen uptake. The test included abiotic, control, nutrient-amended and nutrient/high moisture treatments. CCME and USEPA methods were used to analyze for petroleum hydrocarbons. The response of the bacterial community to different treatments was also examined. Higher degradation rates were observed in the soil pan test than in the slurry test, despite optimum conditions of the slurry test. Higher than expected volatile losses also occurred, suggesting that bioremediation may be possible in the field. These initial field pilot-scale studies offer insight into the challenges of remediating diesel contaminated soils in cold climates. 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H.; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m 2 . The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures

  8. Characterisation of community structure of bacteria in parallel mesophilic and thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, T; Berta, Brigitta; Székely, Anna J; Gyarmati, I; Kékesi, Katalin; Márialigeti, K; Tóth, Erika M

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the microbial communities of a mesophilic and a thermophilic pilot scale anaerobe sludge digester. For studying the communities cultivation independent chemotaxonomical methods (RQ and PLFA analyses) and T-RFLP were applied. Microbial communities of the mesophilic and thermophilic pilot digesters showed considerable differences, both concerning the species present, and their abundance. A Methanosarcina sp. dominated the thermophilic, while a Methanosaeta sp. the mesophilic digester among Archaea. Species diversity of Bacteria was reduced in the thermophilic digester. Based on the quinone patterns in both digesters the dominance of sulphate reducing respiratory bacteria could be detected. The PLFA profiles of the digester communities were similar though in minor components characteristic differences were shown. Level of branched chain fatty acids is slightly lower in the thermophilic digester that reports less Gram positive bacteria. The relative ratio of fatty acids characteristic to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia shows differences between the two digesters: their importance generally decreased under thermophilic conditions. The sulphate reducer marker (15:1 and 17:1) fatty acids are present in low quantity in both digesters.

  9. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Kim, Jung Eun; Johir, Mohammad AH; Hong, Seungkwan; Li, Zhenyu; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  10. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  11. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  13. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft 2 area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI 2 /day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs

  16. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  17. A pilot scale demonstration of the DWPF process control and product verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designed and constructed to immobilize Savannah River Site high level liquid waste within a durable borosilicate glass matrix for permanent storage. The DWPF will be operated to produce a glass product which must meet a number of product property constraints which are dependent upon the final product composition. During actual operations, the DWPF will control the properties of the glass product by the controlled blending of the waste streams with a glass-forming frit to produce the final melter feed slurry. The DWPF will verify control of the glass product through analysis of vitrified samples of slurry material. In order to demonstrate the DWPF process control and product verification strategy, a pilot-scale vitrification research facility was operated in three discrete batches using simulated DWPF waste streams. All of the DWPF process control methodologies were followed and the glass produce from each experiment was leached according to the Product Consistency Test. Results of the campaign are summarized

  18. Hydrodynamic Modelling of Municipal Solid Waste Residues in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW gasification in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. A multiphase 2-D numerical model following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach within the FLUENT framework was implemented. User defined functions (UDFs were coupled to improve hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena, and to minimize deviations between the experimental and numerical results. A grid independence study was accomplished through comparison of the bed volume fraction profiles and by reasoning the grid accuracy and computational cost. The standard deviation concept was used to determine the mixing quality indexes. Simulated results showed that UDFs improvements increased the accuracy of the mathematical model. Smaller size ratio of the MSW-dolomite mixture revealed a more uniform mixing, and larger ratios enhanced segregation. Also, increased superficial gas velocity promoted the solid particles mixing. Heat transfer within the fluidized bed showed strong dependence on the MSW solid particles sizes, with smaller particles revealing a more effective process.

  19. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.F.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNO 3 ), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with outside dimensions of 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m (4 x 4 x 4 ft) operated in an up-flow mode. The units were configured in parallel during the first eight months and then reconfigured to two parallel systems of two units in series. Air flux values ranged from 0.29 to 1.0 m 3 /m 2 per min. Inlet total petroleum hydrogen hydrocarbon (TPH gas ) concentrations ranged from 310 to 2,700 mg/m 3 . The average empty bed contact time was 2.2 min. Following start-up, performance of the individual biofilters varied considerably for a seven-month period. The principal factor affecting performance appeared to be bed moisture content. Overall TPH gas removals reached 90% for short periods in one unit, and BTEX removals were typically above 90%. Drying resulted in channeling and loss of bed activity. Management of bed moisture content improved over the study period, and recovery of system performance was achieved without replacement of bed media. Overall TPH gas removals exceeded 90% during the final 50 days of the study

  4. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination.

  5. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-02-20

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  6. Pilot-Scale Removal Of Fluoride From Legacy Plutonium Materials Using Vacuum Salt Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000°C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition

  7. Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Lan, Bing Yan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the decomposition of ozone. Furthermore, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (formed from natural organic matter in the wastewater) and ozone enhances the oxidation capacity of the ozonation process. The monitoring of pH, redox potential (ORP), UV absorbance (254 nm), polyphenol content and ozone consumption was correlated with the oxidation of the organic species in the water. The ozonation of winery wastewater in the bubble column was analysed in terms of a mole balance coupled with ozonation kinetics modeled by the two-film theory of mass transfer and chemical reaction. It was determined that the ozonation reaction can develop both in and across different kinetic regimes: fast, moderate and slow, depending on the experimental conditions. The dynamic change of the rate coefficient estimated by the model was correlated with changes in the water composition and oxidant species.

  8. Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Martin, P.F.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout

  9. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community dynamics in a pilot-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP. During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days of AOB community structures was 10% ± 8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO, effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification.

  10. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Pacheco, J.; Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors

  13. A pilot scale demonstration of the DWPF process control and product verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been designed and constructed to immobilize Savannah River Site high level liquid waste within a durable borosilicate glass matrix for permanent storage. The DWPF will be operated to produce a glass product which must meet a number of product property constraints which are dependent upon the final product composition. During actual operations, the DWPF will control the properties of the glass product by the controlled blending of the waste streams with a glass-forming frit to produce the final melter feed slurry. The DWPF will verify control of the glass product through analysis of vitrified samples of slurry material. In order to demonstrate the DWPF process control and product verification strategy, a pilot-scale vitrification research facility was operated in three discrete batches using simulated DWPF waste streams. All of the DWPF process control methodologies were followed and the glass product from each experiment was leached according to the Product Consistency Test. In this paper results of the campaign are summarized

  14. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  15. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Jeong, Sanghyun; Amy, Gary L.; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  16. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  17. Trends in sterilization since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavell, Valerie I; Abdallah, Mazen E; Shade, George H; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate trends in sterilization in women at the Detroit Medical Center, Michigan (DMC), since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient surgery center and university teaching hospitals. Women who underwent interval sterilization procedures at the DMC (Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center) and postpartum sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Permanent sterilization procedures including minilaparotomy tubal ligation, laparoscopic sterilization, Essure hysteroscopic sterilization, and postpartum tubal ligation performed at the time of cesarean section or after vaginal delivery. In all, 5509 permanent sterilization procedures were performed in the 6 years between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007, at the DMC facilities analyzed: 2484 interval sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center, and 3025 postpartum tubal ligations at Hutzel Women's Hospital. From 2002 through 2007, the decrease in laparoscopic sterilizations from 97.9% to 48.5% of all interval sterilization procedures corresponded significantly with the increase in Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations from 0.0% to 51.3% (p Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations increased significantly from 0.0% to 51.3% of all procedures. Since the approval of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization in November 2002, this minimally invasive method of hysteroscopic sterilization has increased in popularity at the DMC.

  18. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  19. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  20. Production of specific-structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot continuous enzyme bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Balchen, Steen; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Production of specific-structured lipids (interesterified lipids with a specific structure) by enzymatic interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed pilot scale reactor. Commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM) was used and investigations of acyl migration, pressure drop...

  1. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic......Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced....... The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  2. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  3. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  4. Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, John M.; Harrington, Gregory W.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammon...

  5. Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of groundwater in a mining area: results for a pilot-scale project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Belen Martinez-Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina-Ruiz, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union is located in the Region of Murcia, Southeast of Spain. This zone presents high levels of heavy metals due to natural, geogenic reasons. In addition, the prolonged mining activity, and subsequent abandonment of farms, has had consequences on the environment, including severe affectation of the groundwater in the area. To remediate this situation, the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) technology was assayed, which required in addition to the hydro-geological study of the zone, a careful optimization study for the design and construction of PRBs. For such a purpose a pilot-scale project was developed, and this communication reports some of the most relevant findings obtained after a four-years monitorization period. The selected reactive material for the PRBs was limestone filler. The filler is a waste material produced in many factories in the zone. These residues have good adsorption properties, high alkalinity, low cost and high availability, which make them suitable for use in remediation. The PRB was constituted by a 50% limestone filler and 50% sand, a proportion optimized by means of independent batch experiments. A layer of gravel was placed at the top, and on it a layer of natural soil. The barrier was designed in the form of a continuous trench, because the level of the contaminated groundwater was not very deep. In this way, the barrier could be prepared with standard excavation equipment. Parallel to the barrier, 6 wells where arranged downstream for sample collection. The pH and conductivity of the samples was measured directly in situ, and the content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory. All the samples collected after the PRB was constructed had basic pH values between 7.5 and 8. The conductivity was between 5 and 11 mS / cm except for the well 4, which had a value of 3.70 mS / cm. The concentration values of trace elements were below the detection limit (atomic absorption measurement) in

  6. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  8. Safeguardability assessment on pilot-scale advanced spent fuel conditioning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Li, T.K.; Pickett, S.E.; Miller, M.C.; Ko, W.I.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In South Korea, approximately 6,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactor operation has been accumulated with the expectation of more than 30,000 metric tons, three times the present storage capacity, by the end of 2040. To resolve these challenges in spent fuel management, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a dry reprocessing technology called Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). This is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent fuel into a metallic form, and the electrolytic reduction (ER) technology developed recently is known as a more efficient concept for spent fuel conditioning. The goal of the ACP study is to recover more than 99% of the actinide elements into a metallic form with minimizing the volume and heat load of spent fuel. The significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected to lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety, and economics. In the framework of R and D collaboration for the ACP safeguards, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and KAERI. The purpose of this study is to address the safeguardability of the ACP technology, through analysis of material flow and development of a proper safeguards system that meet IAEA's comprehensive safeguards objective. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot-scale ACP facility were analyzed, and subsequently the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. The uncertainties in material accounting were also estimated with international target values, and design requirements for the material accounting systems were derived

  9. Mitigation of trichloroethylene contaminated air streams through biofiltration: a pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, L.W.; Gamble, J.R.; Boles, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of abundant usage and improper disposal practices, trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most prevalent groundwater contaminants. Traditional cleanup methods of aquifers contaminated with TCE include pumping the water to the surface and treating with stripper technology, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging. As a result of each of these mitigation schemes, TCE is transferred from the aqueous to the gas phase. As regulations associated with air emission tighten, development of technologies both technically feasible and cost effective for remediating TCE laden gas streams becomes imperative. This project demonstrated the use of biofiltration technology to mitigate TCE contaminated air streams. A pilot-scale biofilter system was designed, constructed, and subsequently installed at the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Anniston, AL. The system was inoculated with a propane-oxidizing microbial consortium that had previously been shown to degrade TCE as well as other short-chained chlorinated aliphatics and a variety of one-and two-ring aromatic compounds. Critical process variables were identified and their effects on system performance analyzed. Results indicated that the process scheme used to introduce propane into the biofiltration system had a significant impact on the observed TCE removal efficiency. The inlet contaminant concentration as well as the loading rate also had an impact on observed TCE degradation rates. Results suggest that biofilter performance and economics are generally improved by manipulating a specific waste stream so as to increase the TCE concentration and decrease the volumetric flow rate of the contaminated air fed to the biofilter. Through manipulation of process variables, including the empty bed contact time, TCE degradation efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent were sustained. No microbial inhibition was observed at inlet TCE concentrations as high as 87 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv). (author)

  10. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Regeneration of pilot-scale ion exchange columns for hexavalent chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, Julie A; Huggins, Richard; Arias-Paic, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage. A conventional 1-Stage regeneration using 2 N sodium chloride (NaCl) was compared to 1) a 2-Stage process with 0.2 N NaCl followed by 2 N NaCl and 2) a mixed regenerant solution with 2 N NaCl and 0.2 N sodium bicarbonate. All methods eluted similar cumulative amounts of chromium with 2 N NaCl. The 2-Stage process eluted an additional 20-30% of chromium in the 0.2 N fraction, but total resin capacity is unaffected if this fraction is recycled to the ion exchange headworks. The 2-Stage approach selectively eluted bicarbonate and sulfate with 0.2 N NaCl before regeneration using 2 N NaCl. Regeneration approach impacted the elution efficiency of both uranium and vanadium. Regeneration without co-eluting sulfate and bicarbonate led to incomplete uranium elution and potential formation of insoluble uranium hydroxides that could lead to long-term resin fouling, decreased capacity and render the resin a low-level radioactive solid waste. Partial vanadium elution occurred during regeneration due to co-eluting sulfate suppressing vanadium release. Waste production and salt usage were comparable for the 1- and 2-Stage regeneration processes with similar operational setpoints with respect to chromium or nitrate elution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Radioisotope tracer study in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, H.J.; Pendharkar, A.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Applications Div, Bombay (India); Prasad, J.S.; Maiti, R.N.; Chawla, R.; Lahri, R.N.; Ram Babu, D. [Engineers India Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Berne, Ph. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/SAT, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Trickle bed reactor (TBR) is a reactor in which a liquid and a gas phase flow concurrently downwards through a fixed bed of catalyst particles while the reaction takes place. The trickle bed reactors find a number of applications in petroleum refining, chemical. petro-chemical and bio-chemical processes due to their suitability for hydro-processing operations.The knowledge of radial distribution, mean residence time (MRT). liquid holdup and degree of axial mixing is a basic requirement to evaluate the reactor performance of a TBR, its optimal size, the physical and chemical interactions and the pumping requirements. Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase facilitate the determination of these parameters. This paper describes the measurement of RTD of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor operating at high pressure. Kerosene and nitrogen were used as liquid and gas phase, respectively. Porous alumina catalyst particles were used as packing. Bromine-82 as para-di-bromo benzene was used as a tracer to measure RTD of organic liquid phase. The RTD of kerosene was measured as a function of liquid and gas flow rates and pressure. The axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones was proposed and used to simulate the measured RTD data and model parameters i.e mean residence time ({tau}), Peclet Number (Pe), dynamic fraction of the liquid ({phi}) and the number of transfer units (N) were obtained. The results of the simulations indicated intermediate degree of axial mixing of liquid phase. The RTD predicted by the axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones fits well to the experimentally measured RTD data and thus is a suitable model to describe the dynamics of the liquid phase in TBRs filled with porous catalyst particles. (authors)

  13. Development of a modified equilibrium model for biomass pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier performance predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Alejandro, David A.; Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Aguilera-Alvarado, Alberto F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a thermodynamic model considering non-stoichiometric restrictions. The model validation was done from experimental works using a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier with wood chips, dairy manure, and sorghum. The model was used for a further parametric study to predict the performance of a pilot-scale fluidized biomass gasifier. The Gibbs free energy minimization was applied to the modified equilibrium model considering a heat loss to the surroundings, carbon efficiency, and two non-equilibrium factors based on empirical correlations of ER and gasification temperature. The model was in a good agreement with RMS <4 for the produced gas. The parametric study ranges were 0.01 < ER < 0.99 and 500 °C < T < 900 °C to predict syngas concentrations and its LHV (lower heating value) for the optimization. Higher aromatics in tar were contained in WC gasification compared to manure gasification. A wood gasification tar simulation was produced to predict the amount of tars at specific conditions. The operating conditions for the highest quality syngas were reconciled experimentally with three biomass wastes using a fluidized bed gasifier. The thermodynamic model was used to predict the gasification performance at conditions beyond the actual operation. - Highlights: • Syngas from experimental gasification was used to create a non-equilibrium model. • Different types of biomass (HTS, DM, and WC) were used for gasification modelling. • Different tar compositions were identified with a simulation of tar yields. • The optimum operating conditions were found through the developed model.

  14. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  15. Energy performance evaluation of ultrasonic pretreatment of organic solid waste in a pilot-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasapoor, Mazdak; Adl, Mehrdad; Baroutian, Saeid; Iranshahi, Zeynab; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2018-04-30

    It has been proven that ultrasonic pretreatment (UP) has positive effect on biogas generation from previous lab-scale studies. However, that is not always the case in larger scale processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of UP to biogas generation in terms of anaerobic digestion process and energy efficiency. Parameters including total solids (TS) and ultrasonic treatment operational parameters of organic solid waste (OSW) resulted from our past lab scale UP studies were applied in this study. OSW with 6-10% TS was treated using a lab-scale ultrasonic processor using various power densities (0.2-0.6 W/mL) at different time periods up to 30 min. Results of lab scale confirmed that OSW with 6% TS sonicated with 0.2 W/mL power density in 30 min gave the best outcome for the pilot scale experiment. To simulate the condition of an actual scale, in addition to energy analysis, two different organic loading rates (OLR), namely 500 and 1500 gVS/m 3 day were examined. The pilot digester was fed with OSW with or without the pretreatment based on the aforementioned specifications. The results showed that UP effectively improves biogas generation in terms of quantity and quality (CH 4 /CO 2 ). Furthermore, it decreases the time to reach the maximum cumulative biogas volume comparing to the untreated feed. The key achievement of this research has confirmed that although the relative increase in the energy gain by the influence of UP was more remarkable under the 500 gVS/m 3 day OLR, energy analysis showed a better energy gain and energy benefit as well as jumping in biogas yield up to 80% for UP treated OSW under 1500 gVS/m 3 day OLR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Tom [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  17. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  18. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Audits of radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Prabhakar M.

    2001-01-01

    Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities

  20. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  1. Short-Term Operations Plan for Collection of Bulk Quantity CBP Liquid in Support of a Pilot-Scale Treatabilty Evaluation with Water Recovery Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    June 3, 2011 work plan for a pilot-scale treatability evaluation with a commercial wastewater treatment facility, Water Recovery Inc. (WRI) located in Jacksonville, Florida. Region ID: 04 DocID: 10749927, DocDate: 06-03-2011

  2. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancu, Dan [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wood, Benjamin [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Genovese, Sarah [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Perry, Robert [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Spiry, Irina [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Farnum, Rachael [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wilson, Paul [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Chen, Wei [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Doherty, Mark [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rainka, Matt [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Miebach, Barbara [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-08-03

    GE Global Research has developed, over the last 8 years, a platform of cost effective CO2 capture technologies based on a non-aqueous aminosilicone solvent (GAP-1m). As demonstrated in a previous funded DOE project (DE-FE0007502), the GAP-1m solvent has increased CO2 working capacity, lower volatility and corrosivity than the benchmark aqueous amine technology. The current report describes the cooperative program between GE Global Research (GE GRC), and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to design, construct, and operate a pilot-scale process using GAP-1m solvent to demonstrate its performance at 0.5 MWe. (i) Performance of the GAP-1m solvent was demonstrated in a 0.5 MWe pilot with real flue gas for over 900 hrs. of operation using two alternative desorption designs: a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), and a Steam Stripper Column (SSC). The CSTR is a one-stage separation unit with reduced space requirements, and capital cost. The alternative is a multi-stage separation column, with improved desorption efficiency. Testing the two desorber options allowed us to identify the most cost effective, and space efficient desorber solution. (ii) CSTR Campaign: The CSTR desorber unit was designed, fabricated and integrated with the pilot solvent test unit (PSTU), replacing the PSTU Steam Stripper Column at NCCC. Solvent management and waste water special procedures were implemented to accommodate operation of the non-aqueous solvent in the PSTU. Performance of the GAP-1m solvent with the CSTR was demonstrated for over 500 hrs. while varying temperature of the desorption (230 – 265 oF), solvent circulation rate (GAP-1m : CO2 (molar) = 1.5 – 4), and flue gas flow rates (0.2 – 0.5 MWe). Solvent carry-over in the CO2 product was minimized by maintaining water content below 5 wt.%, and desorption pressure at 7 psig. CO2 capture efficiency achieved was 95% at 0.25 MWe (GAP-1m : CO2 = 4 (molar

  3. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  4. Large Pilot Scale Testing of Linde/BASF Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology at the Abbott Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Kevin C. [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-08-18

    The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact at the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together

  5. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  6. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  7. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  8. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration, a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice

  9. Pilot scale production of highly efficacious and stable enterovirus 71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7-10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30-43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37 °C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4 °C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and non-human primates. These

  10. Multiphasic Reaction Modeling for Polypropylene Production in a Pilot-Scale Catalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel multiphasic model for the calculation of the polypropylene production in a complicated hydrodynamic and the physiochemical environments has been formulated, confirmed and validated. This is a first research attempt that describes the development of the dual-phasic phenomena, the impact of the optimal process conditions on the production rate of polypropylene and the fluidized bed dynamic details which could be concurrently obtained after solving the model coupled with the CFD (computational fluid dynamics model, the basic mathematical model and the moment equations. Furthermore, we have established the quantitative relationship between the operational condition and the dynamic gas–solid behavior in actual reaction environments. Our results state that the proposed model could be applied for generalizing the production rate of the polymer from a chemical procedure to pilot-scale chemical reaction engineering. However, it was assumed that the solids present in the bubble phase and the reactant gas present in the emulsion phase improved the multiphasic model, thus taking into account that the polymerization took place mutually in the emulsion besides the bubble phase. It was observed that with respect to the experimental extent of the superficial gas velocity and the Ziegler-Natta feed rate, the ratio of the polymer produced as compared to the overall rate of production was approximately in the range of 9%–11%. This is a significant amount and it should not be ignored. We also carried out the simulation studies for comparing the data of the CFD-dependent dual-phasic model, the emulsion phase model, the dynamic bubble model and the experimental results. It was noted that the improved dual-phasic model and the CFD model were able to predict more constricted and safer windows at similar conditions as compared to the experimental results. Our work is unique, as the integrated developed model is able to offer clearer ideas

  11. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  12. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  13. Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Charlotte; Mench, Michel; Jani, Yahya; Kaczala, Fabio; Notini, Peter; Hijri, Mohamed; Hogland, William

    2018-03-15

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10%C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  15. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  16. Semi-pilot scale production of citric acid in cane molasses by gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.S.; Begum, R.; Choudhury, N.

    1986-08-01

    Utilizing cane molasses as substrate, semi-pilot scale production of citric acid was investigated in fermentation trays (40 x 35 cm) with several gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger. Of the mutants tested, two were found to have high yield efficiency (14/20, 51.06%; 79/20, 50.35%) of sugar to citric acid. The yield of other mutants (HB3, 10/20, 164/20, 277/30 and 112/40) ranged between 30 to 42%. The prospect of utilizing the high yielding mutants for commercial production of citric acid has been discussed.

  17. Semi-pilot scale production of citric acid in cane molasses by gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.s.; Begum, R.; Choudhury, N.

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing cane molasses as substrate, semi-pilot scale production of citric acid was investigated in fermentation trays (40 x 35 cm) with several gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger. Of the mutants tested, two were found to have high yield efficiency (14/20, 51.06%; 79/20, 50.35%) of sugar to citric acid. The yield of other mutants (HB3, 10/20, 164/20, 277/30 and 112/40) ranged between 30 to 42%. The prospect of utilizing the high yielding mutants for commercial production of citric acid has been discussed. (author)

  18. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project

  19. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  20. Pilot-scale application of an online VFA sensor for monitoring and control of a manure digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A volatile fatty acids (VFA) sensor based on headspace chromatography was tested for online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale manure digester. The sensor showed satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring of the digester. The online VFA and biogas production data...... parameter for optimization, it could not distinguish between the decreases of biogas production from inhibition and from lower organic content in the substrate, which resulted in undesired decreasing of the control gas setpoint when the substrate was diluted. It was necessary to adjust the yield parameter...

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit

  2. A process combining hydrothermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis for sewage sludge dewatering and co-production of biogas and biochar: Pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guangwei; Wang, Yin

    2018-04-01

    To fully dispose of/utilize sewage sludge, a process combing hydrothermal pretreatment (HTPT), anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis was developed and tested at the pilot scale. First, the improvement in sludge dewaterability by HTPT at 180 °C for 30 min was verified, and the water content decreased from 85 to 33 wt% after filter pressing. Then, the resulting filtrate underwent continuous mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) AD in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for producing biogas to compensate for the energy required for HTPT. Meanwhile, the filter cake was pyrolyzed in a rotary furnace (600 ± 50 °C) to generate biochar, and heavy metals were well immobilized in the biochar. Finally, the material/energy balance made according to the pilot data showed that the proposed process was effective for full resource reuse of sewage sludge. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  4. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters.

  6. Pilot scale study of a chemical treatment process for decontamination of aqueous radioactive waste of pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, F.; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, S.S.; Aslam, M.; Haq, E.U.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical treatment process for the low level liquid radioactive waste generated at PINSTECH was previously optimized on lab-scale making use of coprecipitation of hydrous oxides of iron in basic medium. Ferrous sulfate was used as coagulant. Batch wise application of this procedure on pilot scale has been tested on a 1200 L batch volume of typical PINSTECH liquid waste. Different parameters and unit operations have been evaluated. The required data for the construction of a small size treatment plant envisioned can be used for demonstration/teaching purpose as well as for the decontamination of the waste effluents of the Institute. The lab-scale process parameters were verified valid on pilot scale. It was observed that reagent doses can further be economized with out any deterioration of the Decontamination Factors (DF) achieved or of any other aspect of the process. This simple, cost- effective, DF-efficient and time-smart batch wise process could be coupled with an assortment of other treatment operations thus affording universal application. Observations recorded during this study are presented. (author)

  7. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  8. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  10. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  11. Pyrolysis as a technique for separating heavy metals from hyperaccumulators. Part III: pilot-scale pyrolysis of synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppolu, Lakshmi; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Davis Clements, L.

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic hyperaccumulator biomass (SHB) feed impregnated with Ni, Zn or Cu was used to conduct six experiments in a pilot-scale, spouted bed gasifier. Two runs each using corn stover with no metal added (blank runs) were also conducted. The reactor was operated in an entrained mode in an oxygen free (N 2 ) environment at 873 K and 1 atm. The apparent gas residence time in the heated zone of the pilot-scale reactor was 1.4 s at 873 K. The material balance closure for the eight experiments on an N 2 -free basis varied between 79% and 92%. Nearly 99% of the metal recovered in the product stream was concentrated in the char formed by pyrolyzing the SHB in the reactor. The metal concentration in the char varied between 6.6% and 16.6%, depending on the type of metal and whether the char was collected in the cyclone or ashbox. The metal component was concentrated by 3.2-6 times in the char, compared to the feed

  12. Pilot-scale biopesticide production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndao, Adama; Sellamuthu, Balasubramanian; Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Valero, Jose R

    2017-09-02

    Pilot-scale Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide production (2000 L bioreactor) was conducted using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material using optimized operational parameters obtained in 15 L and 150 L fermenters. In pilot scale fermentation process the oxygen transfer rate is a major limiting factor for high product yield. Thus, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K L a) remains a tool to determine the oxygen transfer capacity [oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR)] to obtain better bacterial growth rate and entomotoxicity in new bioreactor process optimization and scale-up. This study results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer rate in 2000 L bioreactor was better than 15 L and 150 L fermenters. The better oxygen transfer in 2000 L bioreactor augmented the bacterial growth [total cell (TC) and viable spore count (SC)] and delta-endotoxin yield. Prepared a stable biopesticide formulation for field use and its entomotoxicity was also evaluated. This study result corroborates the feasibility of industrial scale operation of biopesticide production using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

  13. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  14. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  15. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  16. Laparoscopic female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filshie, G M

    1989-09-01

    An overview of laparoscopic sterilization techniques from a historical and practical viewpoint includes instrumentation, operative techniques, mechanical occlusive devices, anesthesia, failure rates, morbidity and mortality. Laparoscope was first reported in 1893, but was developed simultaneously in France, Great Britain, Canada and the US in the 1960s. There are smaller laparoscopes for double-puncture procedures, and larger, single-puncture laparoscopes. To use a ring or clip, a much larger operating channel, up to 8 mm is needed. Insufflating gas may be CO2, which does not support combustion, but is more uncomfortable, NO2, which is also an anesthetic, and room air often used in developing countries. Unipolar electrocautery is now rarely used, in fact most third party payers do not allow it. Bipolar cautery, thermal coagulation and laser photocoagulation are safer methods. Falope rings, Hulka-Clemens, Filshie, Bleier, Weck and Tupla clips are described and illustrated. General anesthesia, usually a short acting agent with a muscle relaxant, causes 33% of the mortality of laparoscope, often due to cardiac arrest and arrhythmias, preventable with atropine. Local anesthesia is safer and cheaper and often used in developing countries. Failure rates of the various laparoscopic tubal sterilization methods are reviewed: most result from fistula formation. Mortality and morbidity can be caused by bowel damage, injury or infection, pre- existing pelvic infection, hemorrhage, gas embolism (avoidable by the saline drip test), and other rare events.

  17. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  18. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  19. A pilot-scale study of the precursors leading to the formation of mixed bromo-chloro dioxins and furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Stewart, E.S. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA). Office of Research & Development

    2004-02-01

    Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator, where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected flyash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products of incomplete combustion (PICs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PXDDs/Fs). A statistical analysis of the data has been performed so that variability in the PCDDs/Fs can be accounted for by variation in the semivolatile PICs, particularly the chlorobenzenes (CBz) and chlorophenols (CPh). In addition, a statistical analysis was performed to investigate the variability of the PXDDs/Fs as a function of the concentrations of the semivolatile chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromo-chloro organics.

  20. GROWTH KINETIC STUDY OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS USING LAB-SCALE AND PILOT-SCALE PHOTOBIOREACTOR: EFFECT OF CO2 CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAN KEE LAM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, growth kinetic of Chlorella vulgaris was performed when the microalgae was cultivated with different concentrations of CO2 . The experiments were carried out using lab-scale and pilot-scale photobioreactors, and the growth results were analyzed using POLYMATH 6.0 with different growth kinetic models. The growth of the microalgae was found fitted well to the Richards growth model with attainable high R2 values as demonstrated in all studied cases, in concert with low values of root mean squares deviation (RMSD and variance. In addition, the output from the plots of experimental values versus predicted values and residual plots further confirmed the good fit of Richards model. The predicted specific growth rate from Richards model was similar to the experimental specific growth rate with deviation lesser than 5%. The attained results paved a preliminary prediction of microalgae growth characteristic when the cultivation is scaled-up to commercial scale.

  1. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  2. Evaluation of Two Biosorbents in the Removal of Metal Ions in Aqueous Using a Pilot Scale Fixed-bed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gadelha Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the adsorption of toxic metal ions copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions using low cost natural biomass (sugar cane bagasse and green coconut fiber in pilot scale fixed-bed system. The Hydraulic retention time (HRT was 229 minutes and the lowest adsorbent usage rate (AUR found was 0.10 g.L-1 for copper using green coconut fibers. The highest values of adsorption capacities founded were 1.417 and 2.772 mg.g-1 of Cu(II ions for sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fibers, respectively. The results showed that both sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fiber presented potential in the removal of metal ions copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution and the possible use in wastewater treatment station.

  3. Large Pilot-Scale Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Using Aminosilicone Solvent.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancu, Dan [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-12-21

    GE Global Research has developed, over the last 8 years, a platform of cost effective CO2 capture technologies based on a non-aqueous aminosilicone solvent (GAP-1m). As demonstrated in previous funded DOE projects (DE-FE0007502 and DEFE0013755), the GAP-1m solvent has increased CO2 working capacity, lower volatility and corrosivity than the benchmark aqueous amine technology. Performance of the GAP-1m solvent was recently demonstrated in a 0.5 MWe pilot at National Carbon Capture Center, AL with real flue gas for over 500 hours of operation using a Steam Stripper Column (SSC). The pilot-scale PSTU engineering data were used to (i) update the techno-economic analysis, and EH&S assessment, (ii) perform technology gap analysis, and (iii) conduct the solvent manufacturability and scale-up study.

  4. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  5. Energy generation by air gasification of two industrial plastic wastes in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests

  6. The impact of manufacturing variables on in vitro release of clobetasol 17-propionate from pilot scale cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzee, Ayeshah Fateemah Beebee; Khamanga, Sandile Maswazi; Walker, Roderick Bryan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of different homogenization speeds and times, anchor speeds and cooling times on the viscosity and cumulative % clobetasol 17-propionate released per unit area at 72 h from pilot scale cream formulations. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design for four independent variables were investigated. Thirty pilot scale batches of cream formulations were manufactured using a Wintech® cream/ointment plant. The viscosity and in vitro release of CP were monitored and compared to an innovator product that is commercially available on the South African market, namely, Dermovate® cream. Contour and three-dimensional response surface plots were produced and the viscosity and cumulative % CP released per unit area at 72 h were found to be primarily dependent on the homogenization and anchor speeds. An increase in the homogenization and anchor speeds appeared to exhibit a synergistic effect on the resultant viscosity of the cream whereas an antagonistic effect was observed for the in vitro release of CP from the experimental cream formulations. The in vitro release profiles were best fitted to a Higuchi model and diffusion proved to be the dominant mechanism of drug release that was confirmed by use of the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The research was further validated and confirmed by the high prognostic ability of response surface methodology (RSM) with a resultant mean percentage error of (±SD) 0.17 ± 0.093 suggesting that RSM may be an efficient tool for the development and optimization of topical formulations.

  7. Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Katherine E; Lew, Julia; Dickenson, Eric R V; Wert, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 μg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 μg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of HLRs on Nitrogen Removal by Using a Pilot-scale Aerated Steel Slag System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discharge from domestic wastewater treatment plant amongst the main sources of nitrogen pollution in the environment. However, to remove nitrogen conventionally in domestic wastewater require high cost and complex chemical treatment method. Vertical flow aerated rock filter emerged as one of attractive alternative wastewater treatment method due to simplicity and compactness of the system. However, the application is yet to be developed in warm climate countries in particular Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR to the performance of a pilot-scale Vertical Flow Aerated Rock Filter (VFARF in removing nitrogen from domestic wastewater using pilot-scale VFARF systems with steel slag as the filter media. Furthermore, this study has been designed to focus on the effects of two HLRs; 2.72 and 1.04 m3/m3.day. Influent and effluent of the filter systems were monitored biweekly basis for 11 weeks and analyzed for selected parameters. Results from this study shows that the VFARF with HLR 1.04 m3/m3.day has performed better in terms of removal ammonium-nitrogen and TKN as the system able to remove 90.4 ± 6.9%, 86.2 ± 10.7%, whilst the VFARF with 2.72 m3/m3.day remove 87.4 ± 9.9%, 80 ± 11.7%, respectively. From the observation, it can be concluded that nitrogen removal does affect by HLR as the removal in lower HLR system was higher due to high DO level in the VFARF system with 1.04 m3/m3.day which range from 4.5 to 5.1 mg/L whilst the DO level was slightly lower in the VFARF system with 2.72 m3/m3.day in the range of 3.7 to 4.5 mg/L.

  9. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O'Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994

  10. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  11. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  12. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  13. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  14. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  15. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  16. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  17. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    accordance with ISO 11137-1:2006, Clause 12. Follo wing establishment of the sterilization dose, sterilization dose audits are performed routinely to confirm that the sterilization dose continues to achieve the desired SAL

  20. Cosmological lepton asymmetry, primordial nucleosynthesis and sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork; Bell, Nicole F.; Fuller, George M.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2005-09-01

    We study post weak decoupling coherent active-sterile and active-active matter-enhanced neutrino flavor transformation in the early Universe. We show that flavor conversion efficiency at Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances is likely to be high (adiabatic evolution) for relevant neutrino parameters and energies. However, we point out that these resonances cannot sweep smoothly and continuously with the expansion of the Universe. We show how neutrino flavor conversion in this way can leave both the active and sterile neutrinos with nonthermal energy spectra, and how, in turn, these distorted energy spectra can affect the neutron-to-proton ratio, primordial nucleosynthesis, and cosmological mass/closure constraints on sterile neutrinos. We demonstrate that the existence of a light sterile neutrino which mixes with active neutrinos can change fundamentally the relationship between the cosmological lepton numbers and the primordial nucleosynthesis He4 yield.

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  2. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  3. Real-Time Quantitative Operando Raman Spectroscopy of a CrOx/Al2O3 Propane Dehydrogenation Catalyst in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.; Mens, Ad M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Combined operando UV/vis-Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the deactivation of CrOx/Al2O3 catalyst extrudates in a pilot scale propane dehydrogenation reactor. For this purpose, UV/vis and Raman optical fiber probes have been designed, constructed and tested. The light absorption measured by

  4. Results of a Pilot-Scale Disinfection Test using Peracetic Acid (PAA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a small pilot-scale test using PAA to disinfect a side stream of the effluent from the ORNL STP. These results provide the basis for requesting approval for full-scale use of PAA at the ORNL STP.

  5. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO3) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO2 gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO3 recovery in the Alkali...

  6. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: A pilot-scale evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; M. Subhosh Chandra; Feng Gu; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs; Johnway Gao; Dwight Anderson

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid–liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the...

  7. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  8. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  9. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  10. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  11. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  12. Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William; Smerjac, Suzanne; Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    TDA Research, Inc., (TDA) is developing a portable system to generate chlorine dioxide, which can be used for biodecontamination of small items and to sterilize medical and dental instruments in austere environments...

  13. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  14. Pilot scale test and commercialization of sago hydrogel for face mask and wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization of sago hydrogel as facial mask could be considered as one of the successful story of the radiation processing of natural polymer. However, the process of bringing the product from laboratory to market is not an easy task. The commercialization of new product through entrepreneur requires tremendous energy and funding if compare through company that is already in the same business. Hence, it would require an entrepreneur that is resilient, has certain quality such as hard working, flexible, persistence etc. In addition, the continuous support and 'follow through' from laboratory to market, by the inventor and government agency are equally important for the success of the commercialization of the product or technology. (author)

  15. Pilot scale experiment with MBR operated in intermittent aeration condition: analysis of biological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, M; Di Bella, G; Di Trapani, D; Torregrossa, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of intermittent aeration (IA) on a MBR system was investigated. The study was aimed at analyzing different working conditions and the influence of different IA cycles on the biological performance of the MBR pilot plant, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal as well as extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production. The membrane modules were placed in a separate compartment, continuously aerated. This configuration allowed to disconnect from the filtration stage the biological phenomena occurring into the IA bioreactor. The observed results highlighted good efficiencies, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal. It was noticed a significant soluble microbial products (SMPs) release, likely related to the higher metabolic stress that anoxic conditions exerted on the biomass. However, the proposed configuration, with the membranes in a separate compartment, allowed to reduce the EPSs in the membrane tank even during the non-aerated phase, thus lowering fouling development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Interfacial Characteristics on Foam Structure: Study on Model Fluids and at Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezdour Samir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foams represent an important area of research because of their relevance to many industrial processes. In continuous foaming operations, foaming ability depends on the process parameters and the characteristics of the raw materials used for foamed products. The effects of fluid viscosity and equilibrium surface tension on foam structure have been studied extensively. Furthermore, as surface active agents diffuse to the interface, they can modify other interface properties through their adsorption, such as interfacial rheology and surface tension kinetics. In order to better understand how these two interfacial properties influence foam structuring, we formulated model foaming solutions with different interface viscoelasticity levels and adsorption rates, but all with the same equilibrium surface tension and viscosity. The solutions were made up of a surface active agent and glucose syrup, so as to maintain a Newtonian behaviour. Five surface active agents were used: Whey Protein Isolate (WPI, sodium caseinate, saponin, cetyl phosphate and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS, at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1%. Their molecular characteristics, and their interaction with the glucose syrup, made it possible to obtain a range of interface viscoelasticities and surface tension kinetics for these model solutions. The solutions were whipped in a continuously-operating industrial foaming device in order to control process parameters such as shearing and overrun, and to ensure that the experiment was representative of industrial production. The structure of the foams thus obtained foams was then determined by characterising bubble size using image analysis. For all the model solutions, both the viscoelastic moduli and apparent diffusion coefficient were linked to foam structure. The results showed that both high interface viscoelasticity and rapid diffusion kinetics induced a foam structure containing small bubbles. Both effects, as well as the impact of

  17. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  18. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  19. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed. PMID:29466289

  20. Effects of Sterilization Cycles on PEEK for Medical Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Yap, Wai Teng; Foo, Soo Leong; Lee, Teck Kheng

    2018-02-21

    The effects of the sterilization process have been studied on medical grade thermoplastic polyetheretherketone (PEEK). For a reusable medical device, material reliability is an important parameter to decide its lifetime, as it will be subjected to the continuous steam sterilization process. A spring nature, clip component was selected out of a newly designed medical device (patented) to perform this reliability study. This clip component was sterilized for a predetermined number of cycles (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20…100) at 121 °C for 30 min. A significant decrease of ~20% in the compression force of the spring was observed after 30 cycles, and a ~6% decrease in the lateral dimension of the clip was observed after 50 cycles. No further significant change in the compression force or dimension was observed for the subsequent sterilization cycles. Vickers hardness and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to characterize the effects of sterilization. DSC results exhibited no significant change in the degree of cure and melting behavior of PEEK before and after the sterilization. Hardness measurement exhibited an increase of ~49% in hardness after just 20 cycles. When an unsterilized sample was heated for repetitive cycles without the presence of moisture (121 °C, 10 and 20 cycles), only ~7% of the maximum change in hardness was observed.

  1. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  2. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  3. Evaluation and thermodynamic calculation of ureolytic magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation from UASB effluent at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmidt, E; Ghyselbrecht, K; Monballiu, A; Verstraete, W; Meesschaert, B D

    2012-01-01

    The removal of phosphate as magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP, struvite) has gained a lot of attention. A novel approach using ureolytic MAP crystallization (pH increase by means of bacterial ureases) has been tested on the anaerobic effluent of a potato processing company in a pilot plant and compared with NuReSys(®) technology (pH increase by means of NaOH). The pilot plant showed a high phosphate removal efficiency of 83 ± 7%, resulting in a final effluent concentration of 13 ± 7 mg · L(-1) PO(4)-P. Calculating the evolution of the saturation index (SI) as a function of the remaining concentrations of Mg(2+), PO(4)-P and NH(4)(+) during precipitation in a batch reactor, resulted in a good estimation of the effluent PO(4)-P concentration of the pilot plant, operating under continuous mode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the presence of struvite in the small single crystals observed during experiments. The operational cost for the ureolytic MAP crystallization treating high phosphate concentrations (e.g. 100 mg · L(-1) PO(4)-P) was calculated as 3.9 € kg(-1) P(removed). This work shows that the ureolytic MAP crystallization, in combination with an autotrophic nitrogen removal process, is competitive with the NuReSys(®) technology in terms of operational cost and removal efficiency but further research is necessary to obtain larger crystals.

  4. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  5. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a pilot-scale sequential-baffled column photobioreactor for biomass and biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sequential baffled photobioreactor was developed to cultivate microalgae. • Organic fertilizer was used as the main nutrients source. • Negative energy balance was observed in producing microalgae biodiesel. - Abstract: Pilot-scale cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a 100 L sequential baffled photobioreactor was carried out in the present study. The highest biomass yield attained under indoor and outdoor environment was 0.52 g/L and 0.28 g/L, respectively. Although low microalgae biomass yield was attained under outdoor cultivation, however, the overall life cycle energy efficiency ratio was 3.3 times higher than the indoor cultivation. In addition, negative energy balance was observed in producing microalgae biodiesel under both indoor and outdoor cultivation. The minimum production cost of microalgae biodiesel was about RM 237/L (or USD 73.5/L), which was exceptionally high compared to the current petrol diesel price in Malaysia (RM 3.6/L or USD 1.1/L). On the other hand, the estimated production cost of dried microalgae biomass cultivated under outdoor environment was RM 46/kg (or USD 14.3/kg), which was lower than cultivation using chemical fertilizer (RM 111/kg or USD 34.4/kg) and current market price of Chlorella biomass (RM 145/kg or USD 45/kg)

  6. Using Combined Processes of Filtration and Ultraviolet Irradiation for Effluent Disinfection of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant in Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the secondary effluent disinfection of the Isfahannorth municipal wastewater treatment plant using filtration and UV technology in current operational condition. The combined system was used in series in pilot scale including: Pressure Sand Filter + Low Pressure (LP + Medium Pressure (MP UV Lamps. The UV dose varied according to the initial intensity of lamp, flow rate and influent transmittance. Total coliform (TC, fecal coliform (FC and fecal streptococcus (FS were analyzed as microbiological parameters in all effluent samples. TSS, BOD5, COD, VSS, pH and transmittance (UVT percentage were tested as physicochemical parameters, before and after the units. Results showed that the filtration with loading of 1050 lit/m2.hr, followed by MP lamp with dose of 230 mW.s/cm2 is an effective alternative to reduce the TC/FC and FS in the secondary effluent. The combined disinfection processes that were used in this study, could be met the standards of 1000 TC, and 400FC/100ml for effluent discharge to receiving waters or restricted reuses in the agriculture. This process can also inactivate the FS down to 6-log.Using low-pressure lamps due to low dose radiation for disinfection is not cost-effective. In this study, parasite egg counts due to lack of access to accurate identification techniques for alive cyst detection was not examined.

  7. Trial production of low protein irradiated natural rubber latex by low energy electron beam in pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utama, Marga; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2006-01-01

    Three importance factors for producing low protein by low energy electron beam (250 keV/10 mA) irradiation in pilot scale (20 liters per bath) with 1,9-nonediol diacrylate (NDA) namely: maturation time of natural rubber latex before irradiation, treatment of irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) before and after centrifugation, and standard irradiation method has been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation time for producing INRL with 5 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber) of NDA as sensitize agent, and with the rotation speed of agitation 210 rpm (rotation per minutes) was between 20-30 minutes. By using this condition tensile strength of the INRL film was 26 MPa. The maturation of natural rubber latex before irradiation is the key for driving the quality of INRL. Water extractable protein content of INRL after leaching in 1% ammonia solution for 30 minutes at room temperature was around 47 μ/g, and after adding with 1 phr of PVA (poly vinyl alcohol) or 0.1 phr CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose) the water extractable protein content decrease less than 6 μ/g. (author)

  8. Coupling digestion in a pilot-scale UASB reactor and electrochemical oxidation over BDD anode to treat diluted cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey (CW) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated cheese whey was evaluated. The diluted cheese whey, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 6 g/L, was first treated in a 600-L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB process, which was operated for 87 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, led to a COD removal efficiency between 66 and 97 %, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 9 and 18 A and in the presence of NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 3-4 h of reaction. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organochlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, alongside free chlorine, are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina.

  9. An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Pilot-scale comparison of two hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems operated in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Sean; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems employ active pretreatment to remove dissolved inorganic constituents and decrease the oxygen demand of the leachate prior to treatment in a passive system. In a 1-year pilot-scale study, two passive treatment systems - a peat and wood shaving biological trickle filter and a sand and gravel constructed wetland - were installed to treat leachate from the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Leachate was pretreated in a fixed-film aerobic reactor, which provided reductions in COD (26%), and masses of ammonia (21%), Al (69%), Ca (57%), Fe (73%) and Sr (37%). A comparison of the performance of the hybrid-passive treatment systems indicated different extents of heterotrophic nitrification; the peat and wood shaving filter removed 49% of the ammonia and nitrified 29%, while the constructed wetland removed 99% of the ammonia and nitrified 90%. Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment was determined to be feasible in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  12. Vacuum Exhaust Process in Pilot-Scale Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption for Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and treatment of methane from coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM with cost-effective technologies have been an ongoing challenge due to low methane concentrations. In this study, a type of coconut shell-based active carbon was employed to enrich VAM with a three-bed vacuum pressure swing adsorption unit. A new vacuum exhaust step for the VPSA process was introduced. The results show that the vacuum exhaust step can increase the methane concentration of the product without changing adsorption and desorption pressure. Under laboratory conditions, the concentration of product increased from 0.4% to 0.69% as the vacuum exhaust ratio increased from 0 to 3.1 when the feed gas concentration was 0.2%. A 500 m³/h pilot-scale test system for VAM enrichment was built rendering good correlation with the laboratory results in terms of the vacuum exhaust step. By using a two-stage three-bed separation unit, the VAM was enriched from 0.2% to over 1.2%.

  13. Co-Fuelling of Peat with Meat and Bone Meal in a Pilot Scale Bubbling Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Orjala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m3 limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO2 emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m3, while in all trials NOx emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m3. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m3. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 °C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications.

  14. The study of a pilot-scale aerobic/Fenton/anoxic/aerobic process system for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyong; Zhou, Yu; Min, Xiaobo; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Mao, Qiming; Chai, Liyuan; Zhou, YaoYu

    2017-06-29

    In this study, a combined aerobic-Fenton-anoxic/aerobic system was designed for the remediation of raw landfill leachate in a pilot-scale experiment. This system included (i) a granular sludge biological oxidation procedure that achieves the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen ([Formula: see text]) under aerobic conditions; (ii) a Fenton process that improves the biodegradability of the biotreated leachate and (iii) an activated sludge biological oxidation component under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, a shortcut nitrification and denitrification pathway was achieved. The effects of free ammonia, temperature and pH on nitrite accumulation were discussed. The change in the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio of the effluent after shortcut nitrification was also analysed. The microbial community in the reactor were also investigated. The problem of the lack of carbon source in the denitrification process can be solved by the Fenton reagent method. Moreover, it was beneficial to achieving nitrogen removal as well as the more extensive removal of organic matter. The treatment strategy employed in this study exhibited good results and provided the potential practical application for treating landfill leachate.

  15. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization and pilot-scale testing of modified atmosphere packaging of irradiated fresh 'Carabao' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaptenco, K. F.; Lacao, M.A.J.; Esguerra, E.B.; Serrano, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh 'Carabao' mango was optimized with respect to the number of pinholes needed for a fixed respiration rate, fill weight, oxygen transmission rate (OTR), and bag surface area. Computer simulations showed that 38-mm polyethylene or 20-mm Zeolite film with 52 or 44 pinholes, respectively, could be used for packing 5 kg of fruit in a bag with a surface area of approximately 0.80 sq m if held at 12.5 deg C. Subsequent laboratory trials using fruits irradiated at 150-250 Gy showed that 50 pinholes made with a 26-gauge cold needle could be used for both films; O2 levels during storage were close to the recommended levels of 3-5%. Pilot-scale trials using fruits harvested during the on and off-season show that both irradiation at 150-250 Gy and MAP could retard ripening and reduce softening. After 4 wk of storage at 12.5 deg C, MAP fruits were at a half-ripe and slightly-firm stage of ripeness, with minimal development of disease. Sensory tests at the table-ripe stage showed that irradiated MAP-stored fruits were acceptable

  17. Fast Startup of Semi-Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste Acid Hydrolysate for Biogas Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Zhao, Cheng; Guo, Hai-Jun; Wang, Can; Luo, Mu-Tan; Xiong, Lian; Li, Hai-Long; Chen, Xue-Fang; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-12-27

    In this study, a fast startup of semi-pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of food waste acid hydrolysate for biogas production was carried out for the first time. During the period of fast startup, more than 85% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be degraded, and even more than 90% of COD can be degraded during the later stage of anaerobic digestion. During this anaerobic digestion process, the biogas yield, the methane yield, and the CH 4 content in biogas were 0.542 ± 0.056 m 3 /kg COD consumption , 0.442 ± 0.053 m 3 /kg COD consumption , and 81.52 ± 3.05%, respectively, and these values were high and stable. Besides, the fermentation pH was very stable, in which no acidification was observed during the anaerobic digestion process (outlet pH was 7.26 ± 0.05 for the whole anaerobic digestion). Overall, the startup of this anaerobic digestion can be completed in a short period (the system can be stable 2 days after the substrate was pumped into the bioreactor), and anaerobic digestion of food waste acid hydrolysate is feasible and attractive for industrial treatment of food waste and biogas production.

  18. Influence of the seasonal variation of environmental conditions on biogas upgrading in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, David; Posadas, Esther; Cano, Patricia; Pérez, Víctor; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the daily and seasonal variations of environmental conditions on the quality of the upgraded biogas was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond (HRAP) interconnected to an external absorption column (AC) via a conical settler. The high alkalinity in the cultivation broth resulted in a constant biomethane composition during the day regardless of the monitored month, while the high algal-bacterial activity during spring and summer boosted a superior biomethane quality. CO 2 concentrations in the upgraded biogas ranged from 0.1% in May to 11.6% in December, while a complete H 2 S removal was always achieved regardless of the month. A limited N 2 and O 2 stripping from the scrubbing cultivation broth was recorded in the upgraded biogas at a recycling liquid/biogas ratio in the AC of 1. Finally, CH 4 concentration in the upgraded biogas ranged from 85.6% in December to 99.6% in August. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  20. Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial communities in a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John M; Harrington, Gregory W; Noguera, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammonia oxidizers, 16S rDNA-targeted T-RFLP indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas in each of the distribution systems, with a considerably smaller peak attributable to Nitrosospira-like AOB. Sequences of AOB amplification products aligned within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster and were closely related to N. oligotropha and Nitrosomonas ureae. The nitrite-oxidizing communities were comprised primarily of Nitrospira, although Nitrobacter was detected in some samples. These results suggest a possible selection of AOB related to N. oligotropha and N. ureae in chloraminated systems and demonstrate the presence of NOB, indicating a biological mechanism for nitrite loss that contributes to a reduction in nitrite-associated chloramine decay.

  1. Rate of hexabromocyclododecane decomposition and production of brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion in a pilot-scale incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuichi; Tokumura, Masahiro; Wang, Qi; Amagai, Takashi; Horii, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    Here, we examined the incineration of extruded polystyrene containing hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a pilot-scale incinerator under various combustion temperatures (800-950°C) and flue gas residence times (2-8sec). Rates of HBCD decomposition ranged from 99.996% (800°C, 2sec) to 99.9999% (950°C, 8sec); the decomposition of HBCD, except during the initial stage of combustion (flue gas residence timepolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BrPAHs) were detected as unintentional by-products. Of the 11 BrPAHs detected, 2-bromoanthracene and 1-bromopyrene were detected at the highest concentrations. The mutagenic and carcinogenic BrPAHs 1,5-dibromoanthracene and 1-bromopyrene were most frequently detected in the flue gases analyzed. The total concentration of BrPAHs exponentially increased (range, 87.8-2,040,000ng/m 3 ) with increasing flue gas residence time. Results from a qualitative analysis using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry suggest that bromofluorene and bromopyrene (or fluoranthene) congeners were also produced during the combustion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  3. Pilot-scale technology development, nutritional and consumer assessment of whole-multigrain cookies as influenced by fructan inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Chanu; Goomer, Sangeeta; Siddhu, Anupa

    2011-04-01

    The benefits of wholegrain finger millet and sorghum were combined with that of fructan in form of fructoligosaccharide in the pilot-scale production (10 kg) of cookies. Complete nutritional analysis of the cookies was carried out to provide nutritional information to the consumers. Whole-multigrain cookies with fructan can be categorized as "High Fiber" as they suffice 21% daily value (DV) of fiber and a "Good Source" of iron as they suffice 12.8% DV of iron. A total of 300 consumers (M=110 and F=190), aged between 8 and 66 y evaluated cookies. The overall acceptability (OAA) score of 300 consumers was 8.0±0.58 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Females rated cookies significantly (Pconsumers signified ample scope for viability and marketability of cookies at the commercial scale.   Consumers are looking at snack and convenience foods to provide increased fiber in their diet and there is a tremendous interest in low-calorie and low-sugar foods. The demand of whole and multigrain products is also on the rise because of the Government's emphasis. The present study would assist in assessing feasibility of commercial production of such novel health foods. Together with this, it will ascertain the marketability and commercial viability of the product by means of the consumer preference trials. Availability of such cookies in the market would offer consumers "health" with "convenience" and "taste."

  4. Application of Bacillus sp. TAT105 to reduce ammonia emissions during pilot-scale composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Furuhashi, Kenich; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2017-12-01

    Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH 3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m 3 ) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH 3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments. Concentration of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacteria in the compost increased in both treatments at the initial stage of composting. In the TAT105-added treatment, bacterial concentration reached ~10 9 colony-forming units per gram of dry matter, several-fold higher than that in the control and stayed at the same level until the end. These results suggest that TAT105 grows during composting and reduces NH 3 emissions in TAT105-added treatment.

  5. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined impact of quorum quenching and backwashing on biofouling control in a semi-pilot scale mbr treating real wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, G.; Khan, S.J.; Arshad, M.Z.; Abdullah, H.Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combined effect of quorum quenching (QQ) and backwashing on biofouling control in MBR treating real wastewater. The quorum quenching mechanism is an emerging biological technique using Rhodococcus sp. entrapped in polymer coated sodium alginate beads whereas, backwashing is a distinguished physical technique for biofouling control. Two parallel semi-pilot scale MBRs i.e., QQ-MBR (quorum quenching MBR) with cell-entrapping beads (CEBs) and C-MBR (conventional MBR) with vacant CEBs at 0.5% effective volume of the bioreactor, were monitored for comparative performance evaluation. In the first phase, both the MBRs were operated without backwashing having operational cycle of eight min filtration and two min relaxation and in the second phase; MBRs were operated with backwashing having operation cycle of eight min filtration, one min relaxation and one min backwashing. QQ-MBR-with backwashing exhibited greater biofouling control capability and elongated filtration duration with respect to QQ-MBR without backwashing. Comparatively less soluble EPS concentrations were detected in QQ-MBR as compare to C-MBR in both modes of operation while backwashing contributed to retard the rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) also known as TMP jump. Study reveals the novelty of successful application of combined influence of permeate backflushing technique and QQ (anti-biofouling) strategy in MBR and potential use for full scale applications. (author)

  7. Dynamic simulation of a pilot scale vacuum gas oil hydrocracking unit by the space-time CE/SE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadighi, S.; Ahmad, A. [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Shirvani, M. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This work introduces a modified space-time conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method for the simulation of the dynamic behavior of a pilot-scale hydrocracking reactor. With this approach, a four-lump dynamic model including vacuum gas oil (VGO), middle distillate, naphtha and gas is solved. The proposed method is capable of handling the stiffness of the partial differential equations resulting from the hydrocracking reactions. To have a better judgment, the model is also solved by the finite difference method (FDM), and the results from both approaches are compared. Initially, the absolute average deviation of the cold dynamic simulation using the CE/SE approach is 8.98 %, which is better than that obtained using the FDM. Then, the stability analysis proves that for achieving an appropriate response from the dynamic model, the Courant number, which is a function of the time step size, mesh size and volume flow rate through the catalytic bed, should be less than 1. Finally, it is found that, following a careful selection of these parameters, the CE/SE solutions to the hydrocracking model can produce higher accuracy than the FDM results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Enhanced reduction of excess sludge and nutrient removal in a pilot-scale A2O-MBR-TAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J S; Seo, S; Chung, I; Yeom, I; Kim, H; Oh, Y; Jahng, D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a pilot scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) process with submerged membrane (MBR) in the oxic tank was coupled with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) reactor and was operated for longer than 600 days to treat real domestic wastewater. Regardless of the varying conditions of the system, the A2O-MBR-TAD process removed MLSS, TCOD, BOD, TN, TP, and E. coli about 99%, 96%, 96%, 70%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The additional TP removal of the system was due to the precipitating agent directly added in the oxic reactor, without which TP removal was about 56%. In the TAD reactor, receiving MLSS from the oxic tank (MBR), about 25% of TSS and VSS were solubilized during 2 days of retention. The effluent of the TAD reactor was recycled into the anoxic tank of A2O-MBR to provide organic carbon for denitrification and cryptic growth. By controlling the flowrate of wasting stream from the MBR, sludge production decreased to almost zero. From these results, it was concluded that the A2O-MBR-TAD process could be a reliable option for excellent effluent quality and near zero-sludge production.

  9. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot-scale multistage membrane process for the separation of CO2 from LNG-fired flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a multistage pilot-scale membrane plant was constructed and operated for the separation of CO2 from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)-fired boiler flue gas of 1000 Nm3/day. The target purity and recovery of CO2 were 99 vol.% and 90%, respectively. For this purpose, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibers membranes has been developed in our previous work and has evaluated the effects of operating pressure and feed concentration of CO2 on separation performance. The operating and permeation data obtained were also analyzed in relation with the numerical simulation data using countercurrent flow model. Based on these results, in this study, four-staged membrane process including dehumidification process has been designed, installed, and operated to demonstrate the feasibility of multistage membrane systems for removing CO2 from flue gases. The operation results using this plant were compared to the numerical simulation results on multistage membrane process. The experimental results matched well with the numerical simulation data. The concentration and the recovery of CO2 in the permeate stream of final stage were ranged from 95-99 vol.% and 70-95%, respectively, depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrated the applicability of the membrane-based pilot plant for CO2 recovery from flue gas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the restoration succession of PFU microbial communities in a pilot-scale microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Shen, Yun-Fen

    2007-06-01

    In order to imitate the restoration succession process of natural water ecosystem, a laboratory microcosm system of constant-flow-restoration was designed and established. A eutrophycation lake, Lake Donghu, was selected as the subject investigated. Six sampling stations were set on the lake, among which the water of station IV was natural clean water, and others were polluted with different degrees. Polyurethane foam unit microbial communities, which had colonized in the stations for a month, were collected from these stations and placed in their respective microcosms, using clean water of station IV to gradually replace the water of these microcosms. In this process, the healthy community in clean water continuously replaced the damaged communities in polluted water, the restoration succession of the damaged communities was characterized by weekly determination of several functional and structural community parameters, including species number (S), diversity index (DI), community pollution value (CPV), heterotrophy index (HI), and similarity coefficient. Cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient was used to compare the succession discrepancies of these microbial communities from different stations. The ecological succession of microbial communities during restoration was investigated by the variable patterns of these parameters, and based on which, the restoration standards of these polluted stations were suggested in an ecological sense. That was, while being restored, the water of station 0 (supereutrophycation) should be substituted with natural clean water by 95%; station I (eutrophycation), more than 90%; station II (eutrophycation), more than 85%; station III (eutrophycation), about 85%; station V (mesoeutrophycation), less than 50%. The effects of the structural and functional parameters in monitoring and assessing ecological restoration are analyzed and compared.

  12. A novel pilot-scale stacked microbial fuel cell for efficient electricity generation and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xuechen; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Jiang, Yong; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-01

    A novel stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) which had a total volume of 72 L with granular activated carbon (GAC) packed bed electrodes was constructed and verified to present remarkable power generation and COD removal performance due to its advantageous design of stack and electrode configuration. During the fed-batch operation period, a power density of 50.9 ± 1.7 W/m(3) and a COD removal efficiency of 97% were achieved within 48 h. Because of the differences among MFC modules in the stack, reversal current occurred in parallel circuit connection with high external resistances (>100 Ω). This reversal current consequently reduced the electrochemical performance of some MFC modules and led to a lower power density in parallel circuit connection than that in independent circuit connection. While increasing the influent COD concentrations from 200 to 800 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 1.25 h in continuous operation mode, the power density of stacked MFC increased from 25.6 ± 2.5 to 42.1 ± 1.2 W/m(3) and the COD removal rates increased from 1.3 to 5.2 kg COD/(m(3) d). This study demonstrated that this novel MFC stack configuration coupling with GAC packed bed electrode could be a feasible strategy to effectively scale up MFC systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hancu, Dan; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    This report presents system and economicanalysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO₂ capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. Forcomparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO₂ for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO₂ as compared to $60.25/ton of CO₂ when MEA is used. The aminosilicone- based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO₂ decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higherthermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lowervapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lowerheat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages overconventional systems using MEA.

  14. Qualitative dosimetric system for radiation processing. Technology for pilot scale preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraru, R.

    1998-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice for radiation processing requires a very strictly tracking of the processed products. A method of labelling and identification of the irradiated and nonirradiated products is required. The qualitative dosimetric system provides a fast method for monitoring the product flow. Such dosimeters are attached on each product box, usually as labels, and offer a YES/NO information about the passing of products through the radiation field. Usually, this information consists in a change of colour. The qualitative dosimetric system that we realised is based on the degradation of polyvinylchloride (PVC) under radiation field. An amount of hydrochloric acid is released in this reaction. A pH indicator, included in the system, changes its colour at different absorbed dose. The changes of colour happened in a certain pH interval called turning range. We used as pH indicator the RED CONGO colorant with turning range of pH = 3 to 5 (from blue to red). A schematic view of the qualitative dosimeter is given. The initial colour is red and it continuously changes to brown, at 1 kGy absorbed dose, and to blue-green, for 5-100 kGy. The main features of this qualitative dosimetric system are: - Quick and easy to read information about product passing through radiation field; - Absorbed dose range, 1-300 kGy; - Independence of absorbed dose rate in the interval 5-100 kGy/h; - Stability, 3 year in the dark and 1 year in sun light; - Good reproducibility. The preparation technology consists in the following steps: 1. Preparation of the solutions: a) PVC in cyclohexanone solution b) RED CONGO in water solution; 2. Preparation of the system support consisting in dropping the PVC solution on adhesive labels; 3. Sample preparation consists in dropping the colorant solution on the system support; 4. Batch trial tests. The trial test was performed at IETI 10000 irradiation plant belonging to IFIN-HH and the reference absorbed dose was determined by Fricke dosimetry. The

  15. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling

  16. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  17. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  18. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  19. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Life Sciences, Radiation Biology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-12-15

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market.

  20. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification technology for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-11-01

    This plan summarizes the activities to be performed during FY 1990 and FY 1991 for the tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test. This test is the second step in evaluating ISV as a remedial action for the pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A previous test used nonradioactive tracers for cesium and strontium. This new test will again use a one-half-scale model of trench 7 and the pilot-scale ISV equipment of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A small and precisely known amount of waste from a liquid waste disposal pit will be used for the test. An actually contaminated waste site cannot be used for this test because of the necessity to use an exactly known inventory of radionuclides so that a precise measurement of the volatilization of various constituents to the off-gas can be determined

  1. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  2. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation)

  3. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Djelal , Hayet; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen dem...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and for various stress conditions when corticosteroids are required while the animal is being treated... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881 Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each...

  5. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  6. Sensitivity of viruses to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic Goclawska; A

    1999-01-01

    The hazard of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts is a major concern in tissue banking practice. Microorganisms can be introduced into grafts during tissue collection, processing and storage, but even when all these procedures are performed under a septic conditions, the possibility of fungal, bacterial or viral disease transmission of donor origin can not be excluded. Therefore, in order to minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, several steps should be undertaken, including a careful donor screening, proper tissue processing and sterilization of tissue allografts. The risk of transmission of viral infections such as hepatitis B, C, other viruses and particularly HIV with tissue allografts is of great significance and the search for sterilizing methods which inactivate and/or highly reduce viral infectivity continues. Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation (introduced in the mid of 1950s) is increasingly used in tissue banking practice. The effectiveness of the radiation-sterilization procedure depends on the amount of energy transferred, the number of contaminating microorganisms and their resistance to ionizing radiation (initial contamination, bioburden). Usually, spores are more resistant than vegetative forms of bacteria, some fungi may be as resistant as bacterial spores, and viruses are, in general, more resistant than bacteria. Dita concerning effectiveness of ionizing radiation to inactivate viruses (e.g. such as HBV, HCV or HIV) in tissue allografts collected from cadavers are scarce. It has been found that the dose of irradiation needed to reduce HIV load by I log10 unit (D10) is about 4.0 kGy or even 5.6 kGy. The level of infectious HIV in plasma is usually evaluated by titration of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/ml). Taking into consideration the recommended sterility assurance level (SAL) 10-6, assuming the HIV bioburden to be 103 TCID50/ml for the state of acute infection and D10 value of 4

  7. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J L; van Overbeek, L S; Nierop Groot, M N; van der Zouwen, P S; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2018-03-23

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during processing on the reduction of Escherichia coli in the PWW and on processed fresh-cut 'Lollo Rossa' lettuce. The objective was to have a residual target concentration of either 5 or 3 mg/L ClO 2 in the washing tank (3.5 m 3 ) before and during 800 kg of lettuce processing (90 min). After 90 min., a nonpathogenic, non-Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli inoculum from an overnight culture broth (37 °C) was added to the tank resulting in an approximate final level of 10 6  CFU/mL. PWW and lettuce samples for microbiological and chemical analyses were taken before and after the input and supply halted. ClO 2 concentrations quickly decreased after ClO 2 input halted, yet a residual concentration of ≥2.5 mg/L and ≥2.1 mg/L ClO 2 , respectively for 5 and 3 mg/L pilots, was present 12 min after the supply halted. No detectable levels of E. coli (limit of detection 5 log) were determined in the water within 1 min after E. coli was added to the ClO 2 containing wash water. Results demonstrated that ClO 2 use at the semi-commercial pilot scale was able to reduce the E. coli peak contamination in the PWW. After storage (5 days, 4 °C), background microbial communities (i.e., fluorescent Pseudomonads and total heterotrophic bacteria) grew out on lettuce. Overall, ClO 2 decreased the potential for cross-contamination between batches compared to when no sanitizer was used. Chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled before entering the wash water ranged from 7.3-11.6 μg/kg. The chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled after being washed in the ClO 2 containing wash water, as well as after rinsing and centrifugation, ranged from 22.8-60.4

  8. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  9. Control of membrane fouling during hyperhaline municipal wastewater treatment using a pilot-scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmei Sun; Jiangxiu Rong; Lifeng Dai; Baoshan Liu; Wenting Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Membrane fouling limits the effects of long-term stable operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR).Control of membrane foulin can extend the membrane life and reduce water treatment cost effectively.A pilot scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR,40 L/hr) was used to treat the hyperhaline municipal sewage from a processing zone of Tianjin,China.Impact factors including mixed liquid sludge suspension (MLSS),sludge viscosity (μ),microorganisms,extracellular polymeric substances (EPS),aeration intensity and suction/suspended time on membrane fouling and pollution control were studied.The relationships among various factors associated with membrane fouling were analyzed.Results showed that there was a positive correlation among MLSS,sludge viscosity and trans-membrane pressure (TMP).Considering water treatment efficiency and stable operation of the membrane module,MLSS of 5 g/L was suggested for the process.There was a same trend among EPS,sludge viscosity and TMP.Numbers and species of microorganisms affected membrane fouling.Either too high or too low aeration intensity was not conducive to membrane fouling control.Aeration intensity of 1.0 m3/hr (gas/water ratio of 25:1) is suggested for the process.A long suction time caused a rapid increase in membrane resistance.However,long suspended time cannot prevent the increase of membrane resistance effectively even though a suspended time was necessary for scale off particles from the membrane surface.The suction/suspended time of 12 min/3 min was selected for the process.The interaction of various environmental factors and operation conditions must be considered synthetically.

  10. Treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by reverse osmosis membranes: From lab-scale to pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combernoux, Nicolas; Schrive, Luc; Labed, Véronique; Wyart, Yvan; Carretier, Emilie; Moulin, Philippe

    2017-10-15

    The recent use of the reverse osmosis (RO) process at the damaged Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant generated a growing interest in the application of this process for decontamination purposes. This study focused on the development of a robust RO process for decontamination of two kinds of liquid effluents: a contaminated groundwater after a nuclear disaster and a contaminated seawater during a nuclear accident. The SW30 HR membrane was selected among other in this study due to higher retentions (96% for Cs and 98% for Sr) in a true groundwater. Significant fouling and scaling phenomenon, attributed to calcium and strontium precipitation, were evidenced in this work: this underscored the importance of the lab scale experiment in the process. Validation of the separation performances on trace radionuclides concentration was performed with similar retention around 96% between surrogates Cs (inactive) and 137 Cs (radioactive). The scale up to a 2.6 m 2 spiral wound membrane led to equivalent retentions (around 96% for Cs and 99% for Sr) but lower flux values: this underlined that the hydrodynamic parameters (flowrate/cross-flow velocity) should be optimized. This methodology was also applied on the reconstituted seawater effluent: retentions were slightly lower than for the groundwater and the same hydrodynamic effects were observed on the pilot scale. Then, ageing of the membrane through irradiation experiments were performed. Results showed that the membrane active layer composition influenced the membrane resistance towards γ irradiation: the SW30 HR membrane performances (retention and permeability) were better than the Osmonics SE at 1 MGy. Finally, to supplement the scale up approach, the irradiation of a spiral wound membrane revealed a limited effect on the permeability and retention. This indicated that irradiation conditions need to be controlled for a further development of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaolia, Popi; Michael, Irene; García-Fernández, Irene; Agüera, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-01-15

    The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity

  12. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day −1 in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day −1 in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were

  13. Sequential treatment of diluted olive pomace leachate by digestion in a pilot scale UASB reactor and BDD electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-06-15

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of olive pomace leachate (OPL) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. Daily and cumulative biogas production was measured during the operational period. The maximum biogas flowrate was 65 L/d, of which 50% was methane. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment method for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated OPL was evaluated. The diluted OPL, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 5 g/L, was first treated in a 600 L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 71 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) in a temperature-controlled environment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days, and organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.33 and 1.67 g COD/(L.d). The UASB process led to a COD removal efficiency between 35 and 70%, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 18 A and in the presence of 0.17% NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 7 h of treatment predominantly through total oxidation reactions. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organo-chlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, along with the residual chlorine are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Model-based design of a pilot-scale simulated moving bed for purification of citric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Peng, Qijun; Arlt, Wolfgang; Minceva, Mirjana

    2009-12-11

    One of the conventional processes used for the recovery of citric acid from its fermentation broth is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work an innovative benign process, which comprises simulated moving bed (SMB) technology and use of a tailor-made tertiary poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) resin as a stationary phase is proposed. This paper focuses on a model-based design of the operation conditions for an existing pilot-scale SMB plant. The SMB unit is modeled on the basis of experimentally determined hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and mass transfer characteristics in a single chromatographic column. Three mathematical models are applied and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough and elution profiles of citric acid and the main impurity component (glucose). The transport dispersive model was selected for the SMB simulation and design studies, since it gives a satisfactory prediction of the elution profiles within acceptable computational time. The equivalent true moving bed (TMB) and SMB models give a good prediction of the experimentally attained SMB separation performances, obtained with a real clarified and concentrated fermentation broth as a feed mixture. The SMB separation requirements are set to at least 99.8% citric acid purity and 90% citric acid recovery in the extract stream. The complete regeneration in sections 1 and 4 is unnecessary. Therefore the net flow rates in all four SMB sections have been considered in the unit design. The influences of the operating conditions (the flow rate in each section, switching time and unit configuration) on the SMB performances were investigated systematically. The resulting SMB design provides 99.8% citric acid purity and 97.2% citric acid recovery in the extract. In addition the citric acid concentration in the extract is a half of its concentration in the pretreated fermentation broth (feed).

  15. Implementation and process analysis of pilot scale multi-phase anaerobic fermentation and digestion of faecal sludge in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Justin; Fanyin-Martin, Ato; Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-11-06

    Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana.  Methods.  A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly's Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase.  The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets.  The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4 .  Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions.  This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more

  16. Organics and nitrogen removal from textile auxiliaries wastewater with A2O-MBR in a pilot-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Hu, Jian; He, Yangyang; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot-scale A 2 O-MBR system treating textile auxiliaries wastewater was assessed. • Organic matter and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. • GC/MS analysis found some refractory organics in the MBR permeate. • Combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds caused membrane fouling. - Abstract: The removal of organic compounds and nitrogen in an anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic membrane bioreactor process (A 2 O-MBR) for treatment of textile auxiliaries (TA) wastewater was investigated. The results show that the average effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + –N) and total nitrogen (TN) were about 119, 3 and 48 mg/L under an internal recycle ratio of 1.5. The average removal efficiency of COD, NH 4 + –N and TN were 87%, 96% and 55%, respectively. Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer analysis indicated that, although as much as 121 different types of organic compounds were present in the TA wastewater, only 20 kinds of refractory organic compounds were found in the MBR effluent, which could be used as indicators of effluents from this kind of industrial wastewater. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that bacterial foulants were significant contributors to membrane fouling. An examination of foulants components by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence showed that the combination of organic foulants and inorganic compounds enhanced the formation of gel layer and thus caused membrane fouling. The results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of wastewater treatment system in the textile industry

  17. Pilot Scale Testing of Adsorbent Amended Filters under High Hydraulic Loads for Highway Runoff in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monrabal-Martinez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation of the service life of three filters composed of sand and three alternative adsorbents for stormwater treatment according to Norwegian water quality standards for receiving surface waters. The study conducted pilot scale column tests on three adsorbent amended filters for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates under high hydraulic loads. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high hydraulic loads and the application of deicing salts on the performance of these filters. From previous theoretical and laboratory analysis granulated activated charcoal, pine bark, and granulated olivine were chosen as alternative adsorbent materials for the present test. Adsorption performance of the filters was evaluated vis-à-vis four commonly found hazardous metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in stormwater. The results showed that the filters were able to pass water at high inflow rates while achieving high removal. Among the filters, the filters amended with olivine or pine bark provided the best performance both in short and long-term tests. The addition of NaCl (1 g/L did not show any adverse impact on the desorption of already adsorbed metals, except for Ni removal by the charcoal amended filter, which was negatively impacted by the salt addition. The service life of the filters was found to be limited by zinc and copper, due to high concentrations observed in local urban runoff, combined with moderate affinity with the adsorbents. It was concluded that both the olivine and the pine bark amended filter should be tested in full-scale conditions.

  18. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-10-01

    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  20. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-03-01

    A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO ₄⁻ and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (∼250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO₄⁻ reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO₄⁻ reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO₄⁻ in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO₄⁻ of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  4. Economical aspects of radiation sterilization with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has been introduced in Poland in the early seventies. Since then continuous progress is observed in quantity of sterilized products. The commercial irradiation facility was built in 1993 to fulfill growing demands for radiation service. The real costs of running this plant were shown. The share of the cost of investment and the cost of maintenance and spare parts in accelerator exploitation, as well as the cost of one hour accelerator exploitation against time of one year accelerator exploitation were taken into account

  5. Prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry in Egypt is continually expanding its activity and each year marks new accomplishments and additions which enable the companies to apply the most modern scientific means in the production of pharmaceutical preparations and consequently to improve their market potentialities. The certainty of expansion and the possibility of increasing exports of sterilized medical products, particularly to Arab and African countries, indicate a need for a gamma-sterilization plant. This technology permits the introduction of the latest practices with regard to used disposables, thus greatly reducing the chances of cross-contamination which usually results in serious complications enhanced by local environmental conditions. This paper reviews the current state and future prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues in connection with other related industrial radiation processings. Moreover, the paper reviews the Egyptian scientific and technical experience with irradiation facilities and the parameters underlying the choice of Egypt's first industrial gamma and electron-beam irradiators designed for more than a single-purpose use, with hygienic measures taken to avoid biological contamination of sterilized medical packages throughout the sterilization process. In addition, the paper deals with the policy set up for establishing the Egyptian National Centre for Radiation Technology with a view to introducing irradiation techniques in the sterilization of medical products, and to improving the properties and increasing the competitiveness of Egyptian fabrics. Apart from medical sterilization, certain industrial processes have been mentioned to show how a multi-purpose irradiation facility may be utilized in a developing country to justify significantly the large investment required. (author)

  6. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  7. Plasma Sterilizer with Ultrasonic Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Panasko, T.A.; Shvets, O.M.; Semenova, O.T.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A sterilizer consists of ozone generator based on a barrier glow discharge with the flat electrodes covered with dielectric with a high-voltage pulsed power supply of up to 250 W (1). The sterilization camera is equipped with ultrasonic source with the power of 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. Ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 6 mg/liter with ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator 30 mg/liter. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min

  8. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  9. Optimization of high free fatty acid reduction in mixed crude palm oils using circulation process through static mixer reactor and pilot-scale of two-step process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somnuk, Krit; Niseng, Suhdee; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing FFA in MCPO was circulated through static mixer alone in the lab-scale. • Methanol and sulfuric acid were varied in the esterification reaction. • RSM was employed to optimize the acid-catalyzed esterification in lab-scale. • 60 L of pilot-scale was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. - Abstract: High free fatty acid (FFA) reduction in mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed with methanol (MeOH) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as acid catalyst using the circulation process through static mixer reactor. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize the acid value in esterified oil after esterification process (first-step) in lab-scale. The results showed that acid value was reduced from 30 mgKOH g −1 to 2 mgKOH g −1 , when 19.8 vol.% MeOH, 2.0 vol.% H 2 SO 4 , reaction temperature 60 °C, 40 L h −1 of MCPO, 50 min reaction time, and 5-m of static mixer in length, were used in the lab-scale. This recommended condition was used to develop the pilot-scale process in which the scaling up of the FFA reduction from 5 L MCPO of lab-scale to 60 L MCPO of pilot-scale, which was designed on the basis of a simple operation and maintenance. In the pilot-scale process, the lower 1 mgKOH g −1 of acid value was achieved when it was conducted at the reaction time of 50 min. In the base-catalyzed transesterification (second-step) of pilot-scale process, the 98.65 wt.% of methyl ester purity was achieved when the following condition: 20 vol.% MeOH, 8 gKOH L −1 oil, and 60 min reaction time at 60 °C, was used to produce biodiesel

  10. Plant's sterilization rule for fertile women cited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The American Cyanamid Corporation has been cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for violating federal law by requiring female employees of childbearing age to be sterilized in order to continue working in areas of the plant where they would be exposed to high levels of airborne lead. High levels of airborne lead can cause damage to workers' reproductive systems and be responsible for birth defects in fetuses. The OSHA charged that American Cyanamid's policy constituted a "willful violation" of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Act requires employers to provide employment that is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or physical harm. According to OSHA, the Act does not allow an employer to eliminate the hazard by compelling employees to choose between losing their jobs and undergoing sterilization. The reproductive health of workers is considered a valid part of OSHA's regulatory concern. The citation, which carries a $10,000 fine, grew out of a complaint that was filed by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union on behalf of 5 female workers working in the lead pigment division of the company's Willow Island, West Virginia plant. The 5 employees alleged that they had themselves sterilized to avoid being transferred to other and possibly lower paying janitorial jobs or losing thier jobs completely. The company is appealing the citation. The union has also filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging American Cyanamid with sex discrimination, since only the women workers are at risk of being transferred to lower paying jobs.

  11. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangan, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  12. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  13. Establishment of a sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    Factors that impact on product bioburden (population of diable microorganisms on or in product and/or sterile barrier system) are: Raw materials, components, product design and size, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing environment and manufacturing location. Presented lecture describes all these factors in details

  14. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  15. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  16. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  17. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  18. Sterilization can change properties of bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bioceramics made of bioinert alumina or zirconia and bioactive hydroxyapatite are well established implant materials. Implants have to be cleaned and sterilized. When sterilized some bioceramics change their color. This may effect their properties. No decrease of mechanical strength is observed when sterilizing alumina and the novel ceramic biocomposite AMC (Alumina Matrix Composite) with steam or Co 60 Gamma irradiation. When sterilizing Y-TZP zirconia with steam a decrease of strength is observed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  19. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  20. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  1. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  2. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production For The Purpose of Rnewable Fuel Generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in A Pilot Scale CSTR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabraeil Taghinazhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM and corn straw residue (CSR were experimentally investigated using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR under semi- continuously feeding circumstance at mesophilic (35°C±2 temperature. The pilot-scale digester with 180 L in volume was employed under experimental protocol to examine the effect of the change in organic loading rate on efficiency of biogas production and to report on its steady-state performance. An average organic loading rates of 2 and 3 kg VS. (m-3.d-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 25 days was examined with respect to two different CM to CSR mixing ratios of 100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The results showed both organic loading rates at co-digestion of CM+ CSR gave better methane yields than single digestion of cow manure. The biogas production efficiency was obtained 0.242, 0.204, 0.311 0.296, 259.5 and 235 m3.(kg VS input-1 for 2 and 3 kg VS.(m-3.d-1 at CM to CSR mixing ratios of100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The reactor showed stable performance with VS reduction between 55-74% during different runs. With increment of loading rate, the VS degradation and biogas yield decreased. Modified Gompertz and logistic plot equation was employed to model the methane production at different organic loading rates and substrate concentrations. The equations gave a good approximation of the maximum methane production (rm and the methane yield potential (P with correlation coefficient (R2 over 0.99. Keywords: Biogas; cow manure; corn straw; Kinetic; semi-continuously Article History: Received Oct 25th 2016; Received in revised form Dec 19th 2016; Accepted 2nd January 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Taghinazhad. J., Abdi, R. and Adl, M. (2017. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production for the purpose of renewable fuel generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in a Pilot Scale CSTR System. Int Journal of Renewable

  3. Compodock, a new device for sterile docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; Biekart, F. T.; Pietersz, R. N.; Rebers, S. P.; Reesink, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new device for sterile docking, the Compodock (Fresenius NPBI Transfusion Technology), was developed for connecting PVC tubing for medical use while maintaining sterility. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sterility of the connections was assessed by welding tubing with a heavy exterior

  4. Effects of recirculation in a three-tank pilot-scale system for pharmaceutical removal with powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårelid, Victor; Larsson, Gen; Björlenius, Berndt

    2017-05-15

    The removal of pharmaceutically active compounds by powdered activated carbon (PAC) in municipal wastewater is a promising solution to the problem of polluted recipient waters. Today, an efficient design strategy is however lacking with regard to high-level overall, and specific, substance removal in the large scale. The performance of PAC-based removal of pharmaceuticals was studied in pilot-scale with respect to the critical parameters; contact time and PAC dose using one PAC product selected by screening in bench-scale. The goal was a minimum of 95% removal of the pharmaceuticals present in the evaluated municipal wastewater. A set of 21 pharmaceuticals was selected from an initial 100 due to their high occurrence in the effluent water of two selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Sweden, whereof candidates discussed for future EU regulation directives were included. By using recirculation of PAC over a treatment system using three sequential contact tanks, a combination of the benefits of powdered and granular carbon performance was achieved. The treatment system was designed so that recirculation could be introduced to any of the three tanks to investigate the effect of recirculation on the adsorption performance. This was compared to use of the setup, but without recirculation. A higher degree of pharmaceutical removal was achieved in all recirculation setups, both overall and with respect to specific substances, as compared to without recirculation. Recirculation was tested with nominal contact times of 30, 60 and 120 min and the goal of 95% removal could be achieved already at the shortest contact times at a PAC dose of 10-15 mg/L. In particular, the overall removal could be increased even to 97% and 99%, at 60 and 120 min, respectively, when the recirculation point was the first tank. Recirculation of PAC to either the first or the second contact tank proved to be comparable, while a slightly lower performance was observed with recirculation to

  5. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  6. Improved production of cytotoxic thailanstatins A and D through metabolic engineering of Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB43 and pilot scale fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thailanstatin A (TST-A is a potent antiproliferative natural product discovered by our group from Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB43 through a genome-guided approach. The limited supply of TST-A, due to its low titer in bacterial fermentation, modest stability and very low recovery rate during purification, has hindered the investigations of TST-A as an anticancer drug candidate. Here we report the significant yield improvement of TST-A and its direct precursor, thailanstatin D (TST-D, through metabolic engineering of the thailanstatin biosynthetic pathway in MSMB43. Deletion of tstP, which encodes a dioxygenase involved in converting TST-A to downstream products including FR901464 (FR, resulted in 58% increase of the TST-A titer to 144.7 ± 2.3 mg/L and 132% increase of the TST-D titer to 14.6 ± 0.5 mg/L in the fermentation broth, respectively. Deletion of tstR, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in converting TST-D to TST-A, resulted in more than 7-fold increase of the TST-D titer to 53.2 ± 12.1 mg/L in the fermentation broth. An execution of 90 L pilot-scale fed-batch fermentation of the tstP deletion mutant in a 120-L fermentor led to the preparation of 714 mg of TST-A with greater than 98.5% purity. The half-life of TST-D in a phosphate buffer was found to be at least 202 h, significantly longer than that of TST-A or FR, suggesting superior stability. However, the IC50 values of TST-D against representative human cancer cell lines were determined to be greater than those of TST-A, indicating weaker antiproliferative activity. This work enabled us to prepare sufficient quantities of TST-A and TST-D for our ongoing translational research.

  7. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    -based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

  8. A preliminary evaluation of a reusable digital sterilization indicator prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaiah, R; Griggs, J; D'Onofrio, M

    2014-09-01

    in an autoclave. In this study, the final batch of the DS1922F prototype data logger was found to be robust in withstanding the challenge of 600 autoclave cycles, with a mean lifetime of more than 450 cycles, multiple times more than prescribed number of cycles. Instrument reprocessing is among the important aspects of infection control. While stringent procedures are followed in instrument reprocessing within the clinic in assuring patient safety, regular use of sterilization process indicators and periodic biological validation of the sterilizer's performance is necessary. Chemical indicators for use in Autoclaves provide information on whether the particular cycle's parameters were achieved but do not provide at what specific point in time or temperature the failure occurred. Data loggers and associated reader software as the tested prototype in this evaluation (DS1922F), are designed to provide continuous information on time and temperature of the prescribed cycle. Data loggers provide immediate information on the process as opposed to Biological Indicators that take from days to a week in obtaining a confirmatory result. Further, many countries do not have the sterilization monitoring service infrastructure to meet the demands of the end users. In the absence of sterilization monitoring services, use of digital data loggers for each sterilization cycle is more pragmatic.

  9. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmbold, J.

    1994-01-01

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  10. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F 1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)

  11. Retrofit design of rice husk feeding system in the production of amorphous silica ash in a pilot scale fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.; Rozainee, M.; Anwar, J.; Wan Alwi, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice husk is among the most important recovery resources for silica that is produced annually in huge quantities in many countries such as Malaysia which produces 2.38 (MT) of rice paddy. Rice husks accounts for 14-35 % of the weight of the paddy harvested, depending on the paddy variety and because of its abundance it poses serious environmental problems in the rice producing countries. Therefore, the thermo-chemical conversion of rice husks to useful silica ash by fluidized bed combustion is the proven and cost-effective technology for converting the renewable waste husks by making commercial use of this rice husk ash because of its self sustaining ability. However, feeding of rice husk into the reactor bed has become a difficult problem hindering the production of amorphous silica. This is due to the poor penetration and low bulk density as well as the flaky, abrasive and joined nature of rice husk. Most of the researches into fluidized bed combustion are on laboratory or bench scale and none had discussed pilot scale combustion of rice husk into amorphous silica. A recent attempt to solve this feeding problem from an experimental investigation in a bench-scale culminates into a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor designed with a combined screw conveyor and an inclined pneumatic feeding by direct injection, yet the problem persists. This paper presents a retrofit design of the existing 0.5 m internal diameter pilot scale fluidized bed combustor by the use of combined screw feeding system. It is envisaged that at the end of the experimental investigation the retrofit design will address the problem associated with rice husk feeding in bubbling fluidized bed combustors. (author)

  12. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  13. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  14. Mirror model for sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Narayan, Mohan; Vissani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos are studied as subdominant contribution to solar neutrino physics. The mirror-matter neutrinos are considered as sterile neutrinos. We use the symmetric mirror model with gravitational communication between mirror and visible sectors. This communication term provides mixing between visible and mirror neutrinos with the basic scale μ=v EW 2 /M Pl =2.5x10 -6 eV, where v EW =174 GeV is the vacuum expectation value of the standard electroweak group and M Pl is the Planckian mass. It is demonstrated that each mass eigenstate of active neutrinos splits into two states separated by small Δm 2 . Unsuppressed oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos (ν a ↔ν s ) occur only in transitions between each of these close pairs ('windows'). These oscillations are characterized by very small Δm 2 and can suppress the flux and distort spectrum of pp-neutrinos in detectable way. The other observable effect is anomalous seasonal variation of neutrino flux, which appears in LMA solution. The considered subdominant neutrino oscillations ν a ↔ν s can reveal itself as big effects in observations of supernova neutrinos and high-energy (HE) neutrinos. In the case of HE neutrinos they can provide a very large diffuse flux of active neutrinos unconstrained by the e-m cascade upper limit

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 ?s were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The ...

  16. Combustion behaviour and deposition characteristics of Cynara Cardunculus/Greek lignite co-firing under various thermal shares in a thermal pilot-scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Aaron; Maier, Joerg; Scheffknecht, Guenter [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Combustion and Power Plant Technology; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering and Fluid Mechanics; Karampinis, Emmanouil; Grammelis, Panagiotis; Kakaras, Emmanuel [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Ptolemais (Greece). Chemical Process and Energy Resources Inst.; National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants

    2013-06-01

    The combustion of herbaceous biomass in industrial boilers, either as co-firing fuel or in dedicated combustion units, possess significant operating challenges due to increased risks for corrosion and slagging/fouling. The present work aims at investigating the combustion behaviour of Cynara Cardunculus (cardoon) in a range of thermal shares (0 to 100 %) with a Greek lignite. Combustion tests were performed in a 0.5 MW thermal input pulverised fuel pilot-scale test facility. Deposits were characterised in terms of morphological and ash fusion behaviour, and slagging/fouling tendencies were determined. (orig.)

  17. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  18. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power

  19. Practices of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations: egyptian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sterilization involves the application of sufficient ionizing energy furnished by either x-rays, gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams, to render an article free of viable micro-organisms. The method offers a number of advantages which makes it an attractive choice in a number of situations: It is a suitable means of sterilizing many many materials.. Radiation causes no significant temperature rise, thus permits sterilization of heat-sensitive drugs and low melting-point plastics. It is certainly the best, and often the only method of sterilizing biological tissues and preparations of biological origin. due to its high penetrating ability, gamma-radiation reaches all parts of the object to be sterilized. The radiation sterilized products are not subjected to touching or exposure to the outside environment except by the and users. The chemical reactivity of radiation is relatively low as compared with the highly reactive gases. Radiation can be easily adapted for continuous processing as compared with batch operations currently in use with gas sterilization. The radiation process is the most reliable of all competing sterilization methods due to the obsolete certainty that the radiation source emits radiation of known energy and power.

  20. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  1. Regret following female sterilization in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becner, Anja; Turkanović, Anela Bečić; But, Igor

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the regret rate and risk factors for regret among women who have undergone sterilization. A retrospective study was conducted among all women who underwent a sterilization procedure at the University Medical Center Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, in 2008-2012. Identified women were contacted and asked to complete an online questionnaire assessing regret and symptoms associated with depression. Among 714 identified women, 308 (43.1%) completed the questionnaire. Four (1.3%) participants reported regret, and 9 (2.9%) reported that they would not opt for sterilization again, all of whom had post-sterilization problems. Such problems were significantly associated with participants reporting that they would not opt for sterilization again (P=0.003). Additionally, women who would not choose sterilization again had significantly higher scores on the depressive scale used than did those who would undergo sterilization again (P=0.028). Few women report regret after tubal sterilization in Slovenia. However, an additional consultation on post-sterilization problems and depressive disorder before sterilization might minimize the risk of regret. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Women plan condom use after sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Sexual sterilization is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). People who accept sterilization as their method of family planning therefore need to be encouraged to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and STDs even after they have been sterilized. Since women return less often to family planning providers following their sterilization procedure, they need to be advised to protect themselves against HIV and STDs before the sterilization is performed. 42% of the 2782 women who underwent tubal sterilizations at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during 1991-96 indicated their intention in a cross-sectional study to use condoms after sterilization. 20% of all respondents, aged 18-51 years, had a known risk factor for HIV, and almost 25% reported regular condom use for contraception or disease protection during the 3 months before sterilization. Planned condom use increased from 32% in 1991 to 51% in 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background. Of the 646 women who used condoms before being sterilized, almost half indicated no plans to do so after the procedure. The following factors were associated with condom use: relatively younger age, black ethnicity, unmarried status, history of previous STD, no steady partner, having a higher number of previous sex partners, past use of condoms to prevent disease transmission, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to undergo sterilization.

  3. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  4. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  5. Pilot-Scale Production and Thermostability Improvement of the M23 Protease Pseudoalterin from the Deep Sea Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoalterin is the most abundant protease secreted by the marine sedimental bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 and is a novel cold-adapted metalloprotease of the M23 family. Proteases of the M23 family have high activity towards peptidoglycan and elastin, suggesting their promising biomedical and biotechnological potentials. To lower the fermentive cost and improve the pseudoalterin production of CF6-2, we optimized the fermentation medium by using single factor experiments, added 0.5% sucrose as a carbon source, and lowered the usage of artery powder from 1.2% to 0.6%. In the optimized medium, pseudoalterin production reached 161.15 ± 3.08 U/mL, 61% greater than that before optimization. We further conducted a small-scale fermentation experiment in a 5-L fermenter and a pilot-scale fermentation experiment in a 50-L fermenter. Pseudoalterin production during pilot-scale fermentation reached 103.48 ± 8.64 U/mL, 77% greater than that before the medium was optimized. In addition, through single factor experiments and orthogonal tests, we developed a compound stabilizer for pseudoalterin, using medically safe sugars and polyols. This stabilizer showed a significant protective effect for pseudoalterin against enzymatic thermal denaturation. These results lay a solid foundation for the industrial production of pseudoalterin and the development of its biomedical and biotechnological potentials.

  6. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances.

  7. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment

  8. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3).

  9. Transitory powder flow dynamics during emptying of a continuous mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Ammarcha , Chawki; Gatumel , Cendrine; Dirion , Jean-Louis; Cabassud , Michel; Mizonov , Vadim; Berthiaux , Henri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the emptying process of a continuous powder mixer, from both experimental and modelling points of view. The apparatus used in this work is a pilot scale commercial mixer Gericke GCM500, for which a specific experimental protocol has been developed to determine the hold up in the mixer and the real outflow. We demonstrate that the dynamics of the process is governed by the rotational speed of the stirrer, as it fixes characteristic values of th...

  10. Birth planning and sterilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Linmao, M; Wentao, Y

    2000-11-01

    Sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception in China. Approximately half of all women of reproductive age report that they or their husbands are sterilized. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey we describe patterns of sterilization in eight Chinese provinces. With a discrete-time event history model we investigate the link between characteristics of local birth planning policy and the risk of sterilization. After controlling for parity, the risk of sterilization is highest in communities where birth planning policy is least strong as measured by exceptions to the one-child policy. These results suggest that couples with more flexibility in family building may have less control over contraceptive method use. Other factors affecting the risk of sterilization are a woman's age, parity, and whether or not she has a son. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account multiple dimensions of reproductive behaviour when assessing one-child policy changes.

  11. [Assessment of decontamination processes: cleaning, disinfection and sterilization in dental practice in Poland in the years 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Chojecka, Agnieszka; Zmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Effective decontamination of instruments is a key element of infection control and the provision of high quality in dental care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of decontamination procedures including cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of re-usable instruments in dental practices in Poland. The efficiency of disinfection and sterilization processes have been evaluated on the results of the questionnaires. The following information were taken into account: setting where disinfection and sterilization had been performed, preparation of dental equipment for sterilization (disinfection, washing and cleaning, packaging), the types of autoclaves and used types of sterilization cycles, routine monitoring and documentation of sterilization processes, treatment of handpieces and the frequency of surface decontamination. Data were collected from 43 dental practices (35 dental offices and 8 clinics). Disinfection and cleaning processes were performed manually in 63% of dental offices and ultrasonic baths were used in 53% of settings. Washer disinfectors were used in 23% of dental practices: in every researched clinic and in a few dental offices. All sterilization processes were performed in steam autoclaves, mainly in small steam sterilizers (81%). Dental handpieces were sterilized in 72% of practices, but only 33% of them performed sterilization in recommended cycle B. Sterilization processes were monitored with chemical indicators in 33% of practices. Biological monitoring of the processes was carried out at different intervals. Incorrect documentation of instruments and surfaces decontamination was recorded in several settings. There is still a need for improvement of decontamination processes in dental practice in Poland. Areas for improvement include: replacement of manual cleaning and disinfection processes with automatic processes, sterilization of dental handpieces after each patient, monitoring of a sterilization process with chemical and

  12. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated. Sterilization did not result in a release of heparin or heparin fragments from heparinized Cuprophan. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan by means of EtO exposure and gamma irradiation induced a slight, i...

  13. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  14. Cryoradiation sterilization - contemporary state and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The new approach of radiation sterilization -cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing - was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc. (Author)

  15. Probabilistic model for sterilization of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurko, V.V.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    The probabilistic model for radiation sterilization is proposed based on the followng suppositions: (1) initial contamination of a volume unit of the sterilized product m is described by the distribution of the probabilities q(m), (2) inactivation of the population from m of microorganisms is approximated by Bernoulli test scheme, and (3) contamination of unit of the sterilized product is independent. The possibility of approximation q(m) by Poisson distribution is demonstrated. The diagrams are presented permitting to evaluate the dose which provides the defined reliability of sterilization of food for chicken-gnotobionts

  16. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  17. Currently available devices for female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.

  18. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  19. Study of sexual functioning and disorder in women before and after tubal sterilization (tubectomy)

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkeri, Shweta Patil; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual relationship is a basis for mental health and continuity of the healthy generation. There are very few studies on the female sexual functioning, especially in India. Sterilization being the most common contraceptive method, sexual functioning in women undergoing this surgical intervention has not been adequately explored. Available studies have found conflicting results; some have reported that sterilization has positive effects on sexual functioning since anxiety of gett...

  20. MR imaging of ''sterilized'' lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.; Fishman, E.K.; Jones, R.; Siegelman, S.S.; Soulen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Residual masses are commonly observed after effective therapy in patients with lymphoma. These masses may be sterile but their presence poses a management problem, inasmuch as there is no adequate means of distinguishing sterile from active masses. The potential role of MR imaging in this context was evaluated by studying a group of 15 patients with stable, residual, presumably inactive masses (as determined from CT) and comparing the MR imaging findings in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated or recently treated lymphoma. All patients underwent an MR imaging examination consisting of one short repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) (T1-weighted) sequence and one long TR, long TE(T2-weighted) sequence. The signal intensity of the masses was compared with that of fat in each patient, for each sequence. In selected patients, sequential examinations showed a progressive evolution toward the inactive pattern over a period of several weeks. Active and inactive disease are well depicted on T1-weighted sequences but are not distinguishable from each other. On T2-weighted sequences active disease is poorly demonstrated because the lesions are isointense with fat, whereas inactive masses remain clearly identifiable because they are of much lower signal intensity than fat

  1. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Hernández, Axel; Ortega-Larrocea, Ximena; Sánchez-Bermúdez, Gustavo; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Cantón, Virgilio Morales; Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were used. Three patients showed a transient elevation of intraocular pressure. Only 50% of the patients regained a visual acuity equal or better to the baseline visual acuity on file. Conclusion The increasing number of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab applied every day, due to its widespread acceptance, might be one reason why the number of cases of sterile endophthalmitis is rising. Fast

  2. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping (Cathleen)

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  3. The thermodynamic approach of the pilot-scale purification of refractory metals; Application de la thermodynamique a la mise au point des methodes de purification industrielle des metaux et semi-metaux refractaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The author shows how the thermodynamic can be applied to the prediction of the evolution of impurities from a metal or an alloy being melted and cast at the pilot-scale using electron bombardment and continuous casting in a water cooled copper. He studies this possibility on two examples: - the melting vanadium, - the melting of the uranium monocarbide. He shows using only the constants available in the literature and a few special runs in the pilot-equipment itself it is possible to determine: - the possibility of elimination of anyone impurity by keeping the material in the melting state under vacuum as well as the limit of purification which is achievable under given technological conditions, - the proportion of an impure metal which should be vaporized in order to bring the level of a given impurity down to a predetermined level and the necessary duration of heating. (author) [French] L'auteur montre comment la thermodynamique peut etre appliquee a la prevision de l'evolution d'un metal ou d'un alliage fondu a l'echelle pilote par bombardement d'electrons et coule en continu dans un creuset de cuivre refroidi. Il etudie cette possibilite sur deux cas particuliers: - la fusion de vanadium, - la fusion du monocarbure d'uranium. Il montre que, grace aux constantes disponibles dans la litterature et a des essais simples faits a l'aide de l'appareillage pilote lui-meme, on peut determiner: - la possibilite d'eliminer une impurete par maintien a l'etat fondu ainsi que la limite de purification dans des conditions technologiques donnees, - la proportion d'un metal brut qu'il faut evaporer pour amener sa teneur en une impurete a un niveau donne ainsi que la duree de chauffage necessaire, - la nature des additions propres a favoriser le depart d'une impurete et l'efficacite comparee des additions possibles. (auteur)

  4. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  5. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile ...

  6. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  7. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  8. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  9. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  10. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  11. The Sterile Insect Technique:Current and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALRubeai, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Key insect pests and their potential for economic and environmental impact, such species are the targets for area-wide approaches including in some cases the use of SIT. At the heart of the SIT is genetic sterility that is introduced into the target population by releasing large numbers of sterile insects . The development of an SIT package for a Key pest, involving mass rearing and aerial dispersion, as well as field monitoring and a suppression system. Losses caused by insect pests throughout the developing world will continue to be unacceptably high in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the economic feasibility of non-chemical pest control tools, including biologically -based methods such as SIT, will become increasingly apparent . This study include an overview of the basic scientific principles of SIT , is successful applications and related mass rearing and irradiation facilities over the world. (author)

  12. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  13. Safety assessment for the proposed pilot-scale treatability tests for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 groundwater operable units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This safety assessment provides an analysis of the proposed pilot-scale treatability test activities to be and conducted within the 200 Area groundwater operable units on the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units are located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. These tests will evaluate an ion exchange (IX) water purification treatment system and granular activated carbon (GAC). A detailed engineering analysis of (GAC) adsorption for remediation of groundwater contamination. A detailed engineering analysis of the IX treatment system. The principal source of information for this assessment, states that the performance objective of the treatment systems is to remove 90% of the uranium and technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from the extracted groundwater at the 200-UP-1 site. The performance objective for 200-ZP-1 is to remove 90% of the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the extracted groundwater

  14. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  15. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  16. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  17. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emission of NO and SO{sub 2} in a 300 kW pilot scale O{sub 2}/RFG Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tai; Liu, Zhaohui; Huang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jingzhang; Wang, Dingbang; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    The present work was addressed toward the NO and SO{sub 2} emission results on a 300 kW pilot scale facility, and discussed the impact of the different flue gas recycle ratios on the O{sub 2}/RFG coal combustion. In this study, a Chinese lean coal was burned with air and three kinds of O{sub 2}/RFG conditions in the pilot scale oxy-fuel coal combustion facility. The composition of the flue gas was sampled and analyzed by the FT/IR gas analyzer. The ashes were sampled in different place and analyzed to study the burnout rate and the mineral transformation. And in-furnace limestone injection under the air and oxy-fuel condition was used to study the desulfurization efficiency. The comparison was made between the air combustion and O{sub 2}/RFG combustion. It can be seen that NOx emissions decrease significantly (296 mg/MJ for air-firing, 80-145 mg/MJ for oxy-firing), compared with the air condition and three kind of oxy-fuel condition. It can be seen that the low NO{sub x} characteristic of the Oxy-fuel combustion causes lower emission of NO compared with the air combustion. For the emission of SO{sub 2}, Fuel-S to SO{sub 2} conversion rate dropped from 77% in air to 50% under O{sub 2}/RFG condition. And the desulfurization efficiencies of the air combustion and O{sub 2}/RFG combustion were 28.4 and 59.1%, respectively. The contribution of SO{sub 2} enriched in the flue gas to the desulfurization efficiency was more than the contribution of increased reactivity of the limestone. By the analyzing of the ash, it was the similar between the air combustion and O{sub 2}/RFG combustion.

  19. Enriched-air fluidized bed gasification using bench and pilot scale reactors of dairy manure with sand bedding based on response surface methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Enriched-air gasification was performed in fluidized bed reactors using the processed dairy manure which was mixed with sand bedding. The effects of temperature, modified equivalence ratio (ER_m), and oxygen concentration on the gas products were investigated based on the statistical models using a bench-scale reactor in order to obtain empirical correlations. Then, the empirical equations were applied to compare the produced gases from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The empirical and actual H_2 and CH_4 compositions were within a 10% error, while the sum of produced CO and CO_2 gases showed similar composition within 3% error. The most influential factors for the syngas heating value were temperature followed by the oxygen concentration and ER (equivalence ratio). The composition of H_2 (2.1–11.5%) and CO (5.9–20.3%) rose with an increase in temperature and oxygen concentration. The variation of CO_2 (16.8–31.6%) was mainly affected by the degree of oxygen concentration in the gasifying agent. The ranges of the LHV (lower heating value), carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were discussed. An economic review showed favorable indications for on-site dairy manure gasification process for electric power based on the depreciable payback period and the power production costs. - Highlights: • Sand mixed dairy manure obtained directly from a dairy farm was processed and used. • Response surface methodology was used to investigate the enriched-air gasification. • Syngas results from bench and pilot scale gasifiers were compared and reviewed. • A highest LVH of 8 MJ/Nm"3 was obtained from the enriched-air gasification. • The power production costs were determined to be $0.053/kWh

  20. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  1. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  2. Ultra scale-down device to predict dewatering levels of solids recovered in a continuous scroll decanter centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A G; Keshavarz-Moore, E

    2013-01-01

    During centrifugation operation, the major challenge in the recovery of extracellular proteins is the removal of the maximum liquid entrapped within the spaces between the settled solids-dewatering level. The ability of the scroll decanter centrifuge (SDC) to process continuously large amounts of feed material with high concentration of solids without the need for resuspension of feeds, and also to achieve relatively high dewatering, could be of great benefit for future use in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, for reliable prediction of dewatering in such a centrifuge, tests using the same kind of equipment at pilot-scale are required, which are time consuming and costly. To alleviate the need of pilot-scale trials, a novel USD device, with reduced amounts of feed (2 mL) and to be used in the laboratory, was developed to predict the dewatering levels of a SDC. To verify USD device, dewatering levels achieved were plotted against equivalent compression (Gtcomp ) and decanting (Gtdec ) times, obtained from scroll rates and feed flow rates operated at pilot-scale, respectively. The USD device was able to successfully match dewatering trends of the pilot-scale as a function of both Gtcomp and Gtdec , particularly for high cell density feeds, hence accounting for all key variables that influenced dewatering in a SDC. In addition, it accurately mimicked the maximum dewatering performance of the pilot-scale equipment. Therefore the USD device has the potential to be a useful tool at early stages of process development to gather performance data in the laboratory thus minimizing lengthy and costly runs with pilot-scale SDC. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  4. Seeking sterile neutrinos in Finslerian cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, to search for sterile neutrinos in the framework of Finler geometry, we constrain four cosmological models using the most stringent constraint we can provide so far. We find that the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model can, respectively, give a better cosmological fit to data and alleviate the current H{sub 0} tension more effectively than the other three models. For the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraint N{sub eff} = 3.237{sup +0.092}{sub -0.185}, which is consistent with ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.03σ confidence level (CL). This gives a very weak hint of massless sterile neutrinos and may imply the non-existence of massless sterile neutrinos in the Finslerian cosmological setting. For the Finslerian massive sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraints N{sub eff} = 3.143{sup +0.064}{sub -0.066}, which favors ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.47σ CL, and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.121 eV at the 2σ CL which is much tighter than the Planck results. This very tight restriction appears to indicate the massive sterile neutrinos are also non-existent in the Finslerian scenarios. Consequently, one may conclude that the sterile neutrinos are possibly non-existent in the Finslerian universe. Our results are compatible with the recent results of the neutrino oscillation experiments implemented by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations and the cosmic ray one carried out by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  5. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  6. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  7. Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that for the control of Lepidopterous populations, release of fully competitive partially sterile males would be more advantageous than the release of completely sterile males. This suggestion is based on the fact, elucidated in many studies, that partially sterilized males mated to normal females produce totally sterile or partially sterile progeny. In Hemiptera too, F 1 progeny of partially sterile males has been shown to inherit sterility. Individual impact of sterility inherited by either sex of the F 1 progeny on population growth has been studied in an hemipteran insect Dysdercus koenigii. A dose of 7 krad induces near-complete sterility in males. When males irradiated with substerilizing doses of 1,2 and 3 krad were crossed with normal females, F 1 progeny of both sexes was partially sterile : the female being more sterile than the males. When the F 1 progeny was intercrossed, there was enhanced reduction in progeny production. (auth.)

  8. Predicting bulk powder flow dynamics in a continuous mixer operating in transitory regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ammarcha , Chawki; Gatumel , Cendrine; Dirion , Jean-Louis; Cabassud , Michel; Mizonov , Vadim; Berthiaux , Henri

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Over recent years there has been increasing interest in continuous powder mixing processes, due mainly to the development of on-line measurement techniques. However, our understanding of these processes remains limited, particularly with regard to their flow and mixing dynamics. In the present work, we study the behaviour of a pilot-scale continuous mixer during transitory regimes, in terms of hold-up weight and outflow changes. We present and discuss experimental resu...

  9. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  10. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Raffelt, G.G.; Tamborra, I.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range.

  11. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  12. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  13. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  14. Gamma-sterilization-induced radicals in biodegradable drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, K.; Swartz, H.M.; Domb, A.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (1.2 and 9.25 GHz, 25 o C) was used to characterize free radicals in gamma-ray sterilized biodegradable polymers of the type which are in clinical use. Free radicals were detected in all irradiated polymer samples. The temperature of irradiation (25 o vs dry ice temperature) had only a minor influence on the yield of radicals and the shape of the EPR spectra. In contrast, the composition of the polymers and the drugs incorporated in them did strongly influence the amount of radiation-induced free radicals and their reactivity. In general, polymers with high melting points and crystallinity had the highest yields of radicals observable at room temperature. We were able to use the free radicals induced by the usual sterilization procedures to follow the penetration of water and the degradation of the polymers in vitro and in vivo. The ability of in vivo EPR to follow drug delivery noninvasively and continuously in vivo, using the free radicals induced in the usual sterilization process indicates that this approach could be applied immediately for the characterization of these drug delivery systems in experimental animals and in the near future should be able to be used in human subjects. (author)

  15. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  16. A review: radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    The literature on the effects of γ-radiation on drugs, relevant to their sterilization or decontamination, is reviewed. This literature survey essentially covers the past 7 yr, although relevant reports not covered in previous reviews have been included. (author)

  17. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  18. Determination of sterilizing dose of lincocine drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawi, M.A.; Shamma, M.; Al-Mousa, A.

    1998-01-01

    There are too many antibiotics that have been studied on their dry solid state to determine their safe sterilizing dose by decreasing their bio burden in order to reach the sterility assurance level (SAL) needed. The sterilizing radiating dose of lincocine was determined according to information about their bio burden and radiating sensitivity at the sterility assurance level 10-6. The study of bio burden has shown that the contamination was fungal (Pemicillium sp.) and by applying the same tests to the raw materials of lincocine it came out that the cause of contamination was bad storage and that the radiating dose required to decrease the bio burden was 5.5 kGy. (author)

  19. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Ashley [Manchester U.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  20. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.

    2015-01-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  2. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjendbo Joergensen, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Noehr, K. [Odense Technical College, Dept. of Metal, Odense (Denmark); Boisen, F. [The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Funen, Dept. of Microbiology, Odense (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem because chemical methods can no longer be recommended and wood fuel is becoming more and more scarce. Thus, it seemed obvious to try to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. The solar oven was tested by physical, chemical, and microbiological methods. A mathematical model for the sterilization effect was developed and programmed into a microprocessor that was connected to a thermocouple. The microprocessor switches on a green light when the sterilization is completed. After successful testing, the oven was built into the west-facing wall of a rural health clinic and used daily for sterilization. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 deg. C. On all days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization because no growth could be detected from any of the test bacteria spores. The chemical indicators Brownes tubes types 3 and 5 also changed colours. The solar oven was easy to use for the clinic staff, but during the seasons with low sun position (in Tanzania, December and June) it was difficult to achieve a high enough temperature for sterilization. Therefore, if the method is to be used throughout the year the oven must be moved to collect the sun's rays from several directions, or the clinic must have more than one solar oven facing in different directions. We conclude that the solar oven is a realistic method for sterilization of instruments. (au)

  3. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  4. Application of radiation sterilization to bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Li Baoxing; Sun Shiquan

    2003-01-01

    With prominent features of high penetration, no temperature increases, no harm residues and easy dose control, radiation sterilization technology is widely used in the sterilization of bone allografts. During the radiation sterilization of bone allografts, the irradiation dose should be optimized to ensure sterilization of grafts and preservation of biological properties of bone. The immunogenicity of allografts is decreased by irradiation. IAEA devoted great efforts to generalization of the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts in developing countries since 1986. Tissue Bank of China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) was initially established in 1988 with the support of IAEA, afterwards restructured into Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank (SPTB). The SPTB, as the first manufacturer of the irradiated bone allografts in the country, was granted production license by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The SPTB sponsored IAEA/RCA Training Courses, National Symposium on Bone Grafting, and National Training Course on Bone Banking. Technique of radiation sterilization for bone grafts has become popularized in China after these activities. (authors)

  5. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  6. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  7. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  8. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  9. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kose, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Mafumi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m −3 and < 0.5–68 μg kg −1 . Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of OPFRs and

  10. Design considerations for a farm-scale biogas plant based on pilot-scale anaerobic digesters loaded with rice straw and piggery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussoline, Wendy; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet; Garuti, Gilberto; Giordano, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Two pilot-scale (1 m 3 ) digesters filled with untreated rice straw and co-digested with raw pig wastewater were operated to obtain design parameters for a farm-scale biogas plant. Both digesters contained 50 kg of dry straw mixed with diluted pig wastewater to create dry digestion conditions (20% TS) and operated for 189 days with leachate recirculation. Digester A was designed for optimum performance (150 L of pig wastewater and mesophilic temperatures) while Digester B was designed to establish minimum inputs (60 L of pig wastewater at ambient temperatures). The pig wastewater provided sufficient buffering capacity to maintain appropriate pH values (between 7.0 and 8.1) and nutrient balances (TOC to TKN ratios of 20 in Digester A and 32 in Digester B). Total biogas production was 22,859 L in Digester A and 1420 L from Digester B, resulting in specific methane yields of 231 and 12 L CH 4 /kgVS added, respectively. Gas production in Digester A was directly correlated with temperature, but the overall lack of methanogenic activity was caused primarily by the reduced wastewater volume. Two theoretical farm-scale scenarios (considering both untreated and pretreated rice straw) were developed for a 100-ha rice farm. Either scenario can produce 100,000 m 3 CH 4 per year, yielding 328 MWh. Major differences including heat input, space requirements, loading frequency, digester volume, engine size, wastewater quantities, and additives are quantitatively defined. The appropriate choice for a farm-scale operation is the simplest model using untreated rice straw without additives, although six times more heat and twice as much reactor volume is required. -- Highlights: ► The co-digestion of untreated rice straw and piggery wastewater is investigated. ► Gas production increases with the volume of pig wastewater added and temperature. ► Pig wastewater alone can provide appropriate buffering capacity and nutrient balance. ► Pilot-scale results are used to establish

  11. Effective cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production: a pilot-scale evaluation of a novel oleaginous microalga Graesiella sp. WBG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaobin; Du, Kui; Wang, Zhongjie; Peng, Xinan; Luo, Liming; Tao, Huanping; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Dan; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2016-01-01

    Commercial production of microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically viable, largely because of low storage lipid yield in microalgae mass cultivation. Selection of lipid-rich microalgae, thus, becomes one of the key research topics for microalgal biodiesel production. However, the laboratory screening protocols alone cannot predict the ability of the strains to dominate and perform in outdoor ponds. Comprehensive assessment of microalgae species should be performed not only under the laboratory conditions, but also in the fields. Laboratory investigations using a bubbled column photobioreactor indicated the microalga Graesiella sp. WBG-1 to be the most productive species among the 63 Chlorophyta strains. In a 10 L reactor, mimicking the industrial circular pond, Graesiella sp. WBG-1 produced 12.03 g biomass m(-2) day(-1) and 5.44 g lipids (45.23 % DW) m(-2) day(-1) under 15 mol m(-2) day(-1) artificial light irradiations. The lipid content decreased to ~34 % DW when the microalga was cultured in 30 L tank PBR under natural solar irradiations, but the decline of lipid content with scaling up was the minimum among the tested strains. Based on these results, the microalga was further tested for its lipid production and culture competitiveness using a pilot-scale raceway pond (200 m(2) illuminated area, culture volume 40,000 L). Consequently, Graesiella sp. WBG-1 maintained a high lipid content (33.4 % DW), of which ~90 % was storage TAGs. Results from the outdoor experiments indicated the nice adaptability of the Graesiella sp. WBG-1 to strong and fluctuating natural solar irradiance and temperature, and also demonstrated several other features, such as large cell size (easy for harvest and resistant to swallow by protozoa) and tolerance to high culture pH (helpful to CO2 fixation). Graesiella sp. WBG-1 was a promising strain capable of accumulating large amount of storage lipid under nature solar irradiance and temperature. The high lipid content

  12. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  13. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  14. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of an Advanced Carbon Sorbent-Based Process for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to achieve the DOE’s goal to develop advanced CO2 capture and separation technologies that can realize at least 90% CO2 removal from flue gas steams produced at a pulverized coal (PC) power plant at a cost of less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. The principal objective is to test a CO2 capture process that will reduce the parasitic plant load by using a CO2 capture sorbent that will require a reduced amount of steam. The process is based on advanced carbon sorbents having a low heat of adsorption, high CO2 adsorption capacity, and excellent selectivity. While the intent of this project was to produce design and performance data by testing the sorbent using a slipstream of coal-derived flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) under realistic conditions and continuous long-term operation, the project was terminated following completion of the detailing pilot plant design/engineering work on June 30, 2016.

  15. Enhanced Production of carboxymethylcellulase by a marine bacterium, Bacillus velezensis A-68, by using rice hulls in pilot-scale bioreactor under optimized conditions for dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wa; Kim, Hye-Jin; Chung, Chung-Han; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2014-09-01

    The optimal conditions for the production of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by Bacillus velezensis A-68 at a flask scale have been previously reported. In this study, the parameters involved in dissolved oxygen in 7 and 100 L bioreactors were optimized for the pilot-scale production of CMCase. The optimal agitation speed and aeration rate for cell growth of B. velezensis A-68 were 323 rpm and 1.46 vvm in a 7 L bioreactor, whereas those for the production of CMCase were 380 rpm and 0.54 vvm, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) implied that the highly significant factor for cell growth was the aeration rate, whereas that for the production of CMCase was the agitation speed. The optimal inner pressures for cell growth and the production of CMCase by B. velezensis A-68 in a 100 L bioreactor were 0.00 and 0.04 MPa, respectively. The maximal production of CMCase in a 100 L bioreactor under optimized conditions using rice hulls was 108.1 U/ml, which was 1.8 times higher than that at a flask scale under previously optimized conditions.

  16. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  17. Pilot-scale demonstration of the OSCAR process for high-temperature multipollutant control of coal combustion flue gas, using carbonated fly ash and mesoporous calcium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, H.; Thomas, T.J.; Park, A.H.A.; Iyer, M.V.; Gupta, P.; Agnihotri, R.; Jadhav, R.A.; Walker, H.W.; Weavers, L.K.; Butalia, T.; Fan, L.S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A pilot-scale study of the Ohio State Carbonation Ash Reactivation (OSCAR) process was performed to demonstrate the reactivity of two novel calcium-based sorbents toward sulfur and trace heavy metal (arsenic, selenium, and mercury) capture in the furnace sorbent injection (FSI) mode on a 0.365 m{sup 3}/s slipstream of a bituminous coal-fired stoker boiler. The sorbents were synthesized by bubbling CO{sub 2} to precipitate calcium carbonate (a) from the unreacted calcium present in the lime spray dryer ash and (b) from calcium hydroxide slurry that contained a negatively charged dispersant. The heterogeneous reaction between these sorbents and SO{sub 2} gas occurred under entrained flow conditions by injecting fine sorbent powders into the flue gas slipstream. The reacted sorbents were captured either in a hot cyclone (about 650{sup o}C) or in the relatively cooler downstream baghouse (about 230{sup o}C). The baghouse samples indicated about 90% toward sulfation and captured arsenic, selenium and mercury to 800 ppmw, 175 ppmw and 3.6 ppmw, respectively.

  18. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.