WorldWideScience

Sample records for pilot scale tests

  1. Vertimill™ pilot scale tests simulated by perfect mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Minas-Rio Project, Anglo American property, located in Brazil, considers Vertimill™ to make the particle size distribution adequate to feed slurry pipeline. A pilot test campaign was carried out at Metso's pilot plant facility located in York city, Pennsylvania State, USA, to provide information to scale up the industrial grinding circuit. The perfect mixing model, normally used to simulate ball mills, was used to compare the direct and reverse circuit configurations. The simulations were based on the appearance function determined from the laboratory tests using a batch tube mill. The combined breakage rate/discharge rate function (r/d was determined from Vertimill™ feed and product particle size distributions obtained from pilot tests. The residence time was estimated considering the mill hold-up and solids flow rate. The simulation results show that there are no significant differences between direct and reverse circuits for the sample tested.

  2. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  3. Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

    2003-09-30

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

  4. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2

  5. Data for pilot-scale low level hydrogen peroxide tests using humidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset includes data from each experiment conducted in the pilot-scale testing. Each sheet of the Excel file pertains to each test. A data dictionary is included in...

  6. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  7. Pilot unit testing of scale inhibitors at geopressured energy well sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouche, R.J.; Matson, M.L.; Matson, J.V.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The skid-mounted pilot unit is a smaller version of the main surface equipment used at geothermal geopressured well sites. It will be used to monitor the effectiveness of scale and corrosion inhibitors for the preventing of scaling and corrosion in the main surface equipment. The pilot unit will model the main surface equipment with respect to pressure, flow velocities, and scale inhibitor injection. The pilot unit will also operate under other conditions for optimization determination. Scaling tendencies will be monitored by specially shaped mild steel coupons placed at critical locations throughout the pilot unit. The coupons will be checked at regular intervals, and analysis will include visual, weight and EDAX-SEM analysis. Various scale inhibitors will be tested over a large range of dosage levels in order to screen inhibitors and their effectiveness for water with particular quality parameters.

  8. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  9. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  10. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  11. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  12. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  13. Optimizing the configuration of a clearwell by integrating pilot and full-scale tracer testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjun; DU Zhipeng; JIN Junwei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the main factors impacting the plug flow pattern of a clearwell were investigated by integrating pilot-scale,full-scale clearwell tracer testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.It was found that pilot tracer testing,full-scale tracer testing and CFD simulation all demonstrated that the correlation between the ratio of t10/T and L/W can be approximately expressed by:t10/T= 0.189 41n(L/W)-0.049 4.This study confirmed that the installation of baffles within clearwells is an efficient way to optimize their configuration.In addition,the inlet velocity has a minimal contribution to the ratio of t10/T.However,the ratio of turning channel width to charmel width (d/W)significantly contributes to the ratio of t10/T.The optimal ratio of d/W is 0.8-1.2 for maintaining better plug flow pattern.The number of turning channels is one of the main factors that impact the ratio of t10/T.When increasing the number of turning channels,a lower ratio of t10/T is obtained.

  14. Scale up and simulation of Vertimill™ pilot test operated with copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertimill™ has been used in regrind circuits during the past years due to its greater efficiency when compared to the conventional tube ball mill. This paper presents the Vertimill™ pilot grinding tests with a sample of copper ore carried out in closed circuit with a high frequency screen. The sample was crushed 100% to <6 mm. All operating variables were measured under controlled conditions to produce a mass balance of the test. A laboratory batch ball mill was used to characterize the sample in order to determine the energy specific selection function and the breakage function. Previous studies have shown that the Vertimill™ produces larger values of the selection function and a constant scaling factor can be used to simulate the product particle size distribution of the Vertimill™ from the batch ball mill grinding tests. The results of the simulations showed that it is possible to estimate the product particle size distribution of the Vertimill™ pilot scale from breakage parameters determined from a lab-scale batch ball mill. These results confirm that the Vertimill™ and the conventional ball mill use similar mechanisms of impact and that the main difference between them is the intensity and frequency of the impacts.

  15. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  16. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  17. Pilot-Scale Test of Dephosphorization in Steelmaking Using Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    Bayer red mud is characterized by its highly oxidizing nature and high alkalinity. It can act as an ideal flux and dephosphorizer in steelmaking. In this study, pilot-scale tests applying the Bayer red mud-based flux in steelmaking have been conducted in a 200-kg, medium-frequency induction furnace. Good slag fluidity and no rephosphorization phenomena are observed. High dephosphorization rates ( 90%) and low final [P] (red mud-based slag can reach as high as 34.05 wt.%, far higher than the 6.73 wt.% in ordinary industrial slag. This suggests that the Al2O3, TiO2 in Bayer red mud can enhance the solid solubility of phosphorus in the P-rich phase. The data obtained are important for promoting the large-scale application of red mud in steelmaking.

  18. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  19. A pilot scale test of ozonization treatment of ethene wastewater for reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A pilot scale test of advanced treatment of ethene wastewater by ozonization was carried out for industrial water reuse.Effects of different operating conditions on COD degradation,such as wastewater flow rate,ozonized gas flow rate,operating voltage of ozonizer and two ozone generation means,using pure oxygen or air,was investigated.The results show that the increase of ozonizer operating voltage,the decrease of wastewater flow rate and the suitable ozonized gas flow rate improve the removal of COD in wastewater and that ozone generated respectively from air and pure oxygen can effectively remove COD of ethene wastewater to meet the industrial water reuse criterion.

  20. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  2. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  3. Pilot-Scale Test of Dephosphorization in Steelmaking Using Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-07-01

    Bayer red mud is characterized by its highly oxidizing nature and high alkalinity. It can act as an ideal flux and dephosphorizer in steelmaking. In this study, pilot-scale tests applying the Bayer red mud-based flux in steelmaking have been conducted in a 200-kg, medium-frequency induction furnace. Good slag fluidity and no rephosphorization phenomena are observed. High dephosphorization rates ( 90%) and low final [P] (<0.02%) are obtained in the situation of high [C] of 2.0-3.0%, which are of great importance for the production of clean steel. The P2O5 content in the P-rich phase in the red mud-based slag can reach as high as 34.05 wt.%, far higher than the 6.73 wt.% in ordinary industrial slag. This suggests that the Al2O3, TiO2 in Bayer red mud can enhance the solid solubility of phosphorus in the P-rich phase. The data obtained are important for promoting the large-scale application of red mud in steelmaking.

  4. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...

  5. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  6. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.;

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (< 50 mg/l). To obtain...... of water to the wash processes. Reuse of the permeate in all rinsing steps requires additional treatment through reverse osmosis....

  7. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M; Kristensen, G H; Brynjolf, M; Grüttner, H

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (treatment, addition of nitrogen was necessary. The biodegradability of the permeate was very low (BOD5 treatment through reverse osmosis.

  8. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  9. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Mumba, Grace Tembo; Gill, Michelle M.; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider’s perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  10. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine D Shelley

    Full Text Available Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015 elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16 was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19. While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into

  11. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Katharine D; Ansbro, Éimhín M; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Gill, Michelle M; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  12. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  13. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities.

  14. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...... which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...... was conducted outside on a limestone masonry. The duration of the experiments was 4-8 month. Chloride concentrations were measured in drilling powder from the masonry before and after experiments. In all three masonries, the average concentrations decreased. The transport numbers for chloride was between 0...

  15. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  16. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  17. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  18. Development of a pilot-scale kinetic extruder feeder system and test program. Phase II. Verification testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-12

    This report describes the work done under Phase II, the verification testing of the Kinetic Extruder. The main objective of the test program was to determine failure modes and wear rates. Only minor auxiliary equipment malfunctions were encountered. Wear rates indicate useful life expectancy of from 1 to 5 years for wear-exposed components. Recommendations are made for adapting the equipment for pilot plant and commercial applications. 3 references, 20 figures, 12 tables.

  19. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  20. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

    1999-12-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  2. The kinetics of sulfides oxidation in the coal mine spoils of the Upper Silesian coal basin. Pilot scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witczak, S.; Postawa, A. (University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland). Department of Hydrogeology, Engineering and Mining Geology)

    1993-01-01

    Presents results of six years of pilot-scale geochemical tests into sulfide oxidation. Environmental impacts of oxidized sulfides contained in coal mine waste are investigated. Materials and methods used for investigations are described. Kinetics of sulfides oxidation and the effect of ambient temperature and precipitation are studied. High sulfate contents were found in the leachate of a 1.5 m high column of coal mine waste. Values of pH changed during the test from 2.64 to 4.4 in the end without any visible changes in sulfide oxidation rate. Total amount of reactive sulfides at the beginning of tests was estimated at 0.192 wt % of sulfide sulfur. Half-decomposition time was found to be 2,735 days. It is concluded that the detrimental effect of the mine waste tested can have an environmental impact for about 33 years. 6 refs.

  3. Results of a Pilot-Scale Disinfection Test using Peracetic Acid (PAA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a small pilot-scale test using PAA to disinfect a side stream of the effluent from the ORNL STP. These results provide the basis for requesting approval for full-scale use of PAA at the ORNL STP.

  4. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  5. Pilot-scale field tests of high-gradient magnetic filtration. Final report, September 1977-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooding, C.H.

    1980-03-01

    The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to characterize the performance of the pilot plant and to demonstrate its practicality under long-term operation. Analysis of the results indicates that high-efficiency collection can be achieved economically if HGMF is applied to steel industry dusts that are more homogeneous and more strongly magnetic than the tested sinter dust. The report describes laboratory pilot-plant work that demonstrated collection efficiencies greater than 99% with basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace dusts. The development of a filter cleaning system and the design and construction of the pilot plant are discussed. Experimental data are reported.

  6. Development of a pilot-scale kinetic extruder feeder system and test program. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    This report describes the work done under Phase I, the moisture tolerance testing of the Kinetic Extruder. The following coals were used in the test program: Western Bituminous (Utah), Eastern Bituminous (Pennsylvania), North Dakota Lignite, Sub-Bituminous (Montana), and Eastern Bituminous coal mixed with 20-percent Limestone. The coals were initially tested at the as-received moisture level and subsequently tested after surface moisture was added by water spray. Test results and recommendations for future research and development work are presented.

  7. TESTING OF BASELINE AND LAMINATED FILTER DISKS USING MST AND MMST WITH A PILOT SCALE ROTARY FILTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    2001-12-19

    Testing was completed to compare the filtration performance of modified monosodium titanate (mMST) with that of monosodium titanate (MST) with the rotary microfilter. In addition, the performance of the new laminated filter disk was compared to that of the original baseline welded filter disk. Results showed that flux rates for mMST exceeded that of MST with both the baseline and laminated filter disks in deployment concentrations of 0.2 g/L of mMST and 0.4 g/L of MST. The filtration rate of the mMST with the laminated filter disk exceeded that of the baseline filter disk. However, the baseline filter disk filtration rate for MST was greater than that of the laminated disk. The measured sample turbidity for all tests was 1.06 NTU or less. A contract was established with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disks and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of laminated filter disks using the same 0.5 micron filter disks. The membrane used for both disk sets was manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected and measured for turbidity.

  8. Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery - results from pilot scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Klintenberg, Patrik; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Suhonen, Anssi; Laatikainen, Reino; Hakalehto, Elias

    2016-09-02

    A novel biorefinery concept was piloted using protein-rich slaughterhouse waste, chicken manure and straw as feedstocks. The basic idea was to provide a proof of concept for the production of platform chemicals and biofuels from organic waste materials at non-septic conditions. The desired biochemical routes were 2,3-butanediol and acetone-butanol fermentation. The results showed that hydrolysis resulted only in low amounts of easily degradable carbohydrates. However, amino acids released from the protein-rich slaughterhouse waste were utilized and fermented by the bacteria in the process. Product formation was directed towards acidogenic compounds rather than solventogenic products due to increasing pH-value affected by ammonia release during amino acid fermentation. Hence, the process was not effective for 2,3-butanediol production, whereas butyrate, propionate, γ-aminobutyrate and valerate were predominantly produced. This offered fast means for converting tedious protein-rich waste mixtures into utilizable chemical goods. Furthermore, the residual liquid from the bioreactor showed significantly higher biogas production potential than the corresponding substrates. The combination of the biorefinery approach to produce chemicals and biofuels with anaerobic digestion of the residues to recover energy in form of methane and nutrients that can be utilized for animal feed production could be a feasible concept for organic waste utilization.

  9. Second test campaign of a pilot scale latent heat thermal energy storage - Durability and operational strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Rougé, Sylvie; Nivelon, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    A Phase Change Material (PCM) thermal energy storage module was tested in the framework of the Alsolen Sup project. Test results prove not only that the equivalent thermal resistance deduced from the first test campaign does not vary after several months and tens of melting and solidification cycles, but also that our modelling approach is valid both for design and non-nominal power rates, even if the model has to be improved to take into account varying water level and temperature stratification.

  10. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling

  11. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors' designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550[degree]F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100[degree]F lower.

  12. Full scale plant with membrane based concentration of blackcurrant juice on the basis of laboratory and pilot scale tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, K. V.; Andresen, R.

    2012-01-01

    distillation and water removal by reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and direct contact membrane distillation. It has been combined with optimization of membrane performance and juice quality in mind. The annual production scale is 17,283 ton of 66 degrees Brix out of single strength juice. The operation cost...... is 0.40 (sic)/kg BCJC, which is lower than the price of a traditional operation by about 43%. Therefore, the economical potential of the process is very promising and could supersede conventional evaporators. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  14. Test of electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue in pilot scale: focus on reduced metal and salt leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    In this study a pilot plant for electrodialytic treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air pollution control (APC) residue was tested and proposed as a treatment method which can lead to reuse of this otherwise hazardous waste. The pilot plant was developed based on a design...... was carbonated by reaction with CO2 under moist conditions prior to electrodialytic treatment. The carbonation alone reduced the leaching of some heavy metals. However, it was not sufficient to reduce the heavy metal or salt leaching to meet the Danish Category 3 guideline levels for waste material reuse...... and could not stand as a treatment method alone. Leaching of both heavy metals and salts were significantly reduced by the electrodialytic treatment for both the raw and carbonated APC residue. In the electrodialytically treated carbonated APC residue only Cr exceeded the Category 3 levels while...

  15. Pilot Testing of Triage Coding System in Home-based Palliative Care Using Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiliwal, Sunil; Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayitha; Rao, Raghavendra; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Home-based palliative care is an essential model of palliative care that aims to provide continuity of care at patient's own home in an effective and timely manner. This study was a pilot test of triage coding system in home-based palliative care using Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) scale. Objective of the study was to evaluate if the triage coding system in home-based palliative care: (a) Facilitated timely intervention, (b) improved symptom control, and (c) avoided hospital deaths. Homecare services were coded as high (Group 1 - ESAS scores ≥7), medium (Group 2 - ESAS scores 4-6), and low (Group 3 - ESAS scores 0-3) priority based on ESAS scores. In high priority group, patients received home visit in 0-3 working days; medium priority group, patients received home visit in 0-10 working days; and low priority group, patients received home visit in 0-15 working days. The triage duration of home visit was arbitrarily decided based on the previous retrospective audit and consensus of the experts involved in prioritization and triaging in home care. "High priority" patients were visited in 2.63 ± 0.75 days; "medium priority" patients were visited in 7.00 ± 1.5 days, and "low priority" patients were visited in 10.54 ± 2.7 days. High and medium priority groups had a statistically significant improvement in most of the ESAS symptoms following palliative home care intervention. Intergroup comparison showed that improvement in symptoms was the highest in high priority group compared to medium and low priority group. There was an 8.5% increase in home and hospice deaths following the introduction of triage coding system. There was a significant decrease in deaths in the hospital in Group 1 (6.3%) (χ (2) = 27.3, P testing triaging coding system in home-based palliative care showed, triage coding system: (a) Facilitated early palliative home care intervention, (b) improved symptom control, (c) decreased hospital deaths, predominantly in high priority group

  16. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion...... of the fermentation effluent in a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor. Operation of the 770 liter UASB reactor was tested under both mesophilic (38ºC) and thermophilic (53ºC) conditions with increasing loading rates of the liquid fraction of the effluent from ethanol fermentation. At an OLR of 3.5 kg...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  17. Effect of operating parameters on the testing of new industrial titania catalysts at solar pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Campos, A.; Caceres, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Ctra. Senes Km. 4, Tabernas, 04200 Almeria (Spain); Guillard, C.; Herrmann, J.M. [Laboratoire d' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement, LACE-CNRS-UMR5634, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43 Blvd. du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fernandez-Alba, A.R. [Pesticide Residue Research Group, University of Almeria, 04071 Almeria (Spain)

    2003-06-10

    A new granulated version of the well-known P-25 titanium dioxide (VP AEROPERL P-25/20 (Aeroperl)) has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification and to find out if it can be separated from water more easily than its well-known homologue, powdered Degussa P-25, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. Furthermore, a new commercial catalyst (PC-100 from Millennium Inorganic Chemicals), having a surface area and structure that are both different from Degussa P-25, has also been studied. All the experiments were carried out in sunlight in the pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Three different substrates were chosen as model molecules for this study: dichloracetic acid, phenol and the pesticide imidacloprid. Results show that Degussa Aeroperl is not a good alternative to powdered Degussa P-25 because of its spontaneous sedimentation during photocatalysis. Millennium PC-100 efficiency seems to be in the same range as that of Degussa P-25. In this work we also attempt to demonstrate that the comparison of efficiencies of different photocatalysts is not a trivial matter. Many factors are involved and interfere in the testing of photocatalyst behaviour during the degradation of a contaminant. A thorough comparison of photocatalyst activity should include reactions with several different substrates under varied experimental conditions.

  18. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  19. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  1. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  2. Polyhydroxyalkanoate as a slow-release carbon source for in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers: From laboratory investigation to pilot-scale testing in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Lucia; Matturro, Bruna; Rossetti, Simona; Sagliaschi, Marco; Sucato, Salvatore; Alesi, Eduard; Bartsch, Ernst; Arjmand, Firoozeh; Papini, Marco Petrangeli

    2016-11-27

    A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Prior to field testing, PHB was experimentally verified as a suitable electron donor for biological reductive dechlorination processes at the investigated site by microcosm studies carried out on site aquifer material and measuring the quantitative transformation of detected CAHs to ethene. Owing to the complex geological characteristics of the aquifer, the use of a groundwater circulation well (GCW) was identified as a potential strategy to enable effective delivery and distribution of electron donors in less permeable layers and to mobilise contaminants. A 3-screened, 30-m-deep GCW coupled with an external treatment unit was installed at the site. The effect of PHB fermentation products on the in situ reductive dechlorination processes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results from the first 4 months of operation clearly demonstrated that the PHB fermentation products were effectively delivered to the aquifer and positively influenced the biological dechlorination activity. Indeed, an increased abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (up to 6.6 fold) and reduced CAH concentrations at the installed monitoring wells were observed.

  3. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  4. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  5. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

  6. Pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced PCE solubilization at the Bachman Road site. 1. Site characterization and test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriola, Linda M; Drummond, Chad D; Hahn, Ernest J; Hayes, Kim F; Kibbey, Tohren C G; Lemke, Lawrence D; Pennell, Kurt D; Petrovskis, Erik A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Rathfelder, Klaus M

    2005-03-15

    A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) was conducted to recover dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a sandy glacial outwash aquifer underlying a former dry cleaning facility at the Bachman Road site in Oscoda, MI. Part one of this two-part paper describes site characterization efforts and a comprehensive approach to SEAR test design, effectively integrating laboratory and modeling studies. Aquifer coring and drive point sampling suggested the presence of PCE-DNAPL in a zone beneath an occupied building. A narrow PCE plume emanating from the vicinity of this building discharges into Lake Huron. The shallow unconfined aquifer, characterized by relatively homogeneous fine-medium sand deposits, an underlying clay layer, and the absence of significant PCE transformation products, was judged suitable for the demonstration of SEAR. Tween 80 was selected for application based upon its favorable solubilization performance in batch and two-dimensional sand tank treatability studies, biodegradation potential, and regulatory acceptance. Three-dimensional flow and transport models were employed to develop a robust design for surfactant delivery and recovery. Physical and fiscal constraints led to an unusual hydraulic design, in which surfactant was flushed across the regional groundwater gradient, facilitating the delivery of concentrations of Tween 80 exceeding 1% (wt) throughout the treatment zone. The potential influence of small-scale heterogeneity on PCE-DNAPL distribution and SEAR performance was assessed through numerical simulations incorporating geostatistical permeability fields based upon available core data. For the examined conditions simulated PCE recoveries ranged from 94to 99%. The effluent treatment system design consisted of low-profile air strippers coupled with carbon adsorption to trap off-gas PCE and discharge of treated aqueous effluent to a local wastewater treatment plant. The

  7. Short-term pilot cooling tower tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, D.F.; Miller, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two major problems are associated with the use of cooled geothermal water as coolant for the 5 MW(e) pilot plant at Raft River. They are: (1) a scaling potential owing to the chemical species present in solution, and (2) the corrosive nature of the geothermal water. Tests were conducted to obtain data so that methods can be devised to either reduce or eliminate effects from these problems. Data show that scaling can be prevented, but only by using a high concentration of dispersant. Pitting data, however, are not as conclusive and seem to indicate that pitting control cannot be realized, but this result cannot be substantiated without additional experimentation. Results also demonstrate that chromate can be removed by using either chemical destruction or ion exchange. Whichever method is used, EPA discharge limits for both chromate and zinc can be achieved. A preliminary economic analysis is presented.

  8. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  9. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  11. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  12. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-03-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw.

  13. Modular Hydropower Engineering and Pilot Scale Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL

    2017-09-01

    Emrgy has developed, prototyped and tested a modular hydropower system for renewable energy generation. ORNL worked with Emrgy to demonstrate the use of additive manufacturing in the production of the hydrofoils and spokes for the hydrokinetic system. Specifically, during Phase 1 of this effort, ORNL printed and finished machined patterns for both the hydrofoils and spokes that were subsequently used in a sand casting manufacturing process. Emrgy utilized the sand castings for a pilot installation in Denver, CO, where the parts represented an 80% cost savings from the previous prototype build that was manufactured using subtractive manufacturing. In addition, the castings were completed with ORNL’s newly developed AlCeMg alloy that will be tested for performance improvements including higher corrosion resistance in a water application than the 6160 alloy used previously

  14. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  15. Development and pilot testing the Family Conference Rating Scale: A tool aimed to assess interprofessional patient-centred communication and collaboration competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojeiji, Sue; Byszewski, Anna; Wood, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence-based literature on the essential communication and collaboration skills to guide health care teams in conducting and assessing their performance in the Family Conference (FC). The authors developed and collected validity evidence for a rating scale of team FC performance, the Family Conference Rating Scale (FCRS). In phase 1, essential FC communication and collaboration skills were identified through a review of existing communication tools and literature on team functioning; a draft 34-item scale was developed. In phase 2, the scale was narrowed to a 6-category, 9-point scale with descriptors of expected behaviours through an iterative process: testing of the scale on 10 FC transcripts by two experts, soliciting feedback from a focus group of seven health care providers, and testing by non-experts on 49 live FCs. In phase 3, scores on the revised scale were validated by 10 health care providers from different disciplines by rating three videos of FCs of variable quality. Raters were able to detect inter-video variation in FC quality. The reliability of the FCRS was 0.95 and the inter-rater reliability, 0.68. The FCRS may enhance the ability of health professions educators to teach and assess interprofessional patient-centred communication and collaboration competencies.

  16. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  17. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  18. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  19. Pilot-scale testing of a new sorbent for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S. Jr. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A new regenerable sorbent concept for SO{sub 2} and NOx removal was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater generating station at a 1.5 to 2-MW(e) level. A radial panel-bed filter of a new dry, granular sorbent was exposed to flue gas and regenerated in an experimental proof-of-concept program. The project was successful in demonstrating the new sorbent`s ability to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal, 30% NOx removal, and over 80% removal of residual particulates with realistic approach temperatures and low pressure drops. Based on the results of this project, the retrofit cost of this technology is expected to be on the order of $400 per ton of SO{sub 2} and $900 per ton of NOx removed. This assumes that gas distribution is even and methane regeneration is used for a 30% average utilization. For a 2.5%-sulfur Ohio coal, this translates to a cost of approximately $17 per ton of coal. Two by-product streams were generated in the process that was tested: a solid, spent-sorbent stream and a highly-concentrated SO{sub 2} or elemental-sulfur stream. While not within the scope of the project, it was found possible to process these streams into useful products. The spent sorbent materials were shown to be excellent substrates for soil amendments; the elemental sulfur produced is innocuous and eminently marketable.

  20. Pilot test specific test plan for the removal of arsenic Socorro, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sue S.; Aragon, Malynda Jo; Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Aragon, Alicia R.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Marbury, Justin Luke

    2006-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting pilot scale evaluations of the performance and cost of innovative drinking water treatment technologies designed to meet the new arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 {micro}g/L (effective January 2006). As currently envisioned, pilots tests may include multiple phases. Phase I tests will involve side-by-side comparisons of several commercial technologies primarily using design parameters suggested by the Vendors. Subsequent tests (Phase II) may involve repeating some of the original tests, testing the same commercial technologies under different conditions and testing experimental technologies or additional commercial technologies. This Pilot Test Specific Test Plan (PTSTP) was written for Phase I of the Socorro Springs Pilot. The objectives of Phase I include evaluation of the treatment performance of five adsorptive media under ambient pH conditions (approximately 8.0) and assessment of the effect of contact time on the performance of one of the media. Addenda to the PTSTP may be written to cover Phase II studies and supporting laboratory studies. The Phase I demonstration began in the winter of 2004 and will last approximately 9 months. The information from the test will help the City of Socorro choose the best arsenic treatment technology for the Socorro Springs well. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Research Foundation, SNL, and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development).

  1. 14 CFR 21.37 - Flight test pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part....

  2. Development of a Korean family attitude scale: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Schepp, Karen G; Jung, Young-Mi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and pilot test a Korean version of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS). We developed the Korean FAS using the translation/back-translation method. Two English monolinguals assessed its translation validity by comparing the original with a back-translated English version. Translation equivalence of the FAS and the refined Korean FAS was evaluated in a convenience sample of 56 bilingual Korean college students. The internal consistency of the Korean FAS and the FAS was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. Mean scores on the two versions did not differ (t = -0.14, p = 0.89). The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.37 (p < .001). Although the Korean FAS needs further refinement and psychometric testing, it was translated to reflect the original version and was a reliable instrument for the Korean population.

  3. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  4. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  5. Test Pilots with P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    Langley test pilots (from left) Mel Gough, Herb Hoover, Jack Reeder, Steve Cavallo and Bill Gray stand in front of a P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter in this 1945 photo. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz (page 44). Also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 498).

  6. A pilot investigation of the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC): An observational rating scale of effort towards testing for baseline sports-concussion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Merritt, Victoria; Arnett, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Baseline neuropsychological testing is commonly used in the management of sports-related concussion. However, underperformance due to poor effort could lead to invalid conclusions regarding postconcussion cognitive decline. We designed the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC) as an observational rating scale to assess effort towards baseline neuropsychological testing. Here we present preliminary data in support of its reliability and validity. MBC items were generated based on the consensus of a panel of graduate students, undergraduates, and a clinical neuropsychologist who conduct neuropsychological evaluations for a sports concussion management program. A total of 261 college athletes were administered a standard neuropsychological test battery in addition to the MBC. A subset of evaluations (n= 101) was videotape and viewed by a second rater. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to refine the scale, and reliability and validity were evaluated. EFA revealed that the MBC items represent four latent factors-Complaints, Poor Focus, Psychomotor Agitation, and Impulsivity. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the MBC has good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .767) and internal consistency (α = .839). The construct validity of the MBC is supported by large correlations with examiners' ratings of effort (ρ = -.623) and medium-sized relationships with cognitive performance and self-ratings of effort (|ρ| between .263 and .345). Discriminant validity was supported by nonsignificant correlations with measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (ρ = .056 and .082, respectively). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the MBC could be a useful adjunct to baseline neuropsychological evaluations for sports-concussion management.

  7. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-09-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of filter cake increases linearly with filtration velocity. Residual pressure drop is almost constant, independent of upper pressure drop limit. The cake resistance at constant velocity fits to a second degree polynomial whereas it increases linearly with the velocity. A linear relation is reported here for all the cases. The resistance of filter cake decreases at higher upper pressure drop limit.

  8. Laboratory to pilot scale: Microwave extraction for polyphenols lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périno, Sandrine; Pierson, Jean T; Ruiz, Karine; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2016-08-01

    Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technique has been applied to pilot-scale solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of polyphenols from Lettuce sativa. Following the dictates of green extraction and with the aim to save time and energy, the lab-scale knowledge on SFME was exploited for the development of a pilot-scale process. The investigation entailed the optimization of all main parameters (temperature, time, extracted water volume, etc.) and we showed that the polyphenols composition profile under SFME was similar to the classic methods though a bit lower in total content. The energy consumption in the optimized procedure (30min) was 1W/g of fresh matrix.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  10. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver-panel test-requirements document: Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-10

    Plans are presented for insolation testing of a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally the design planned for the 10 MWe pilot plant. Testing includes operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. A brief description of the pilot plant receiver subsystem is presented, followed by a detailed description of the receiver assembly to be tested at the Solar Thermal Test Facility. Major subassemblies are described, including the receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and the structural assembly. Requirements of the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. System safety measures are described. The tests, operating conditions, and expected results are presented. Quality assurance, task responsibilities, and test documentation are also discussed. (LEW)

  11. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi-ples...

  13. design and construction of design and construction of pilot scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    36.86% when flat blade turbine impeller was operated at 84 rpm for 40 minutes contact time mpeller was ... Keywords:Neem oil, Design, Construction, Pilot Scale Process and Extraction. 1. .... mixture and ho is the outside film coefficient of air.

  14. Simplified pilot module development and testing within the ATLAS PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Drizhuk, Daniil; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at the LHC data processing scale. The PanDA pilot is one of the major components in the PanDA system. It runs on a worker node and takes care of setting up the environment, fetching and pushing data to storage, getting jobs from the PanDA server and executing them. The original PanDA Pilot was designed over 10 years ago and has since then grown organically. Large parts of the original pilot code base are now getting old and are difficult to maintain. Incremental changes and refactoring have been pushed to the limit, and the time is now right for a fresh start, informed by a decade of experience, with the PanDA Pilot 2.0 Project. To create a testing environment for module development and automated unit and functional testing for next generation pilot tasks, a simple pilot version was developed. It resembles the basic workf...

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  16. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  17. Study and Pilot Scale Development of Catalyst for Ethylebenzene Synthesis Through Transalkylation of Benzene and Polyethylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Zhang Fengmei; Li Minglin; Hao Xiaoming; Shu Xingtian; He Mingyuan

    2002-01-01

    This paper refers to the results of study and development of benzene and polyethylbenzene transalkylation catalyst (type AEB-1) for synthesis of ethylbenzene. The effect of reaction conditions on the reaction performance of the catalyst was investigated in the pressurized microreactor CDS-900. A transalkylation catalyst with high activity, good selectivity and stability was developed following a 2000-hour test on the activity and stability of the catalyst. The preparation of this catalyst was implemented in pilot scale and this catalyst was tested for activity and stability in a 150 t/a pilot unit for production of ethylbenzene. The test results have shown that this transalkylation catalyst has excellent activity, selectivity and stability. The operation of pilot test unit ran smoothly and the process scheme is viable.

  18. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement.

  19. Pilot Wave Steerage: A Mechanism and Test

    OpenAIRE

    Kracklauer, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    An intuitive, generic, physical model, or conceptual paradigm for pilot wave steerage of particle beams based on Stochastic Electrodynamics is presented. The utility of this model for understanding the Pauli Exclusion Principle is briefly considered, and a possible experimental verification for the underlying concepts is proposed. \\\\[7mm] Key words: Quantum Mechanics, Pilot Wave, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Stochastic Electrodynamics

  20. Treatment of the Cerro Prieto I brines for use in reinjection. 2. Results of the pilot plant tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado J, R. (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mexicali, Mexico); Mercado G, S.; Rocha C, E.; Gamino O, H.; Garibaldi P, F.

    1981-01-01

    Silica removal experiments have been carried out both in the laboratory and in pilot scale tests. The results obtained to date are presented, with special emphasis on the pilot tests with or without the use of flocculants. Previous studies on brine treatment are described briefly.

  1. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  2. Pilot scale direct flotation of a phosphate ore with silicate-carbonate gangue.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present pilot scale study addresses the direct flotation route for the concentration of a phosphate ore bearing a silicate-carbonate gangue. The target was to selectively separate apatite from a phosphate ore bearing silicate/carbonate gangue using flotation columns. Based on the results of a previous laboratory scale investigation, a reagents scheme was selected and tested, using, under alkaline conditions, corn starch and a natural collector extracted from the distillation of coconut oi...

  3. Kinetic Interpretation of Nitrogen Removal in Pilot Scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, Ole

    1995-01-01

    with biological and chemical phosphorus removal. Nitrification and denitrification rates have been measured in batch tests on activated sludge extracted from the pilot plants and by measuring transient concentrations during the alternating mode of operation in the aerobic and anoxic tanks. The data were......Pilot plant experiments have been performed over a period of four years in order to establish an experimental basis for the upgrading of the treatment plants of The City of Copenhagen to nutrient removal. The choice of design is the alternating mode of operating biological nitrogen removal...

  4. Kinetic Interpretation of Nitrogen Removal in Pilot Scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Sinkjær, Ole

    1995-01-01

    Pilot plant experiments have been performed over a period of four years in order to establish an experimental basis for the upgrading of the treatment plants of The City of Copenhagen to nutrient removal. The choice of design is the alternating mode of operating biological nitrogen removal...... with biological and chemical phosphorus removal. Nitrification and denitrification rates have been measured in batch tests on activated sludge extracted from the pilot plants and by measuring transient concentrations during the alternating mode of operation in the aerobic and anoxic tanks. The data were...

  5. UTILIZATION OF TREATABILITY AND PILOT TESTS TO PREDICT CAH BIOREMEDIATION (Battelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple tools have been suggested to help in the design of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation systems for CAHs: Extensive high quality microcosm testing followed by small-scale, thoroughly observed, induced flow field pilot tests (i.e. RABITT Protocol, Morse 1998) More...

  6. Two-phase methanization of food wastes in pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J P; Lee, J S; Park, S C

    1999-01-01

    A 5 ton/d pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digester was constructed and tested to treat Korean food wastes in Anyang city near Seoul. The easily degradable presorted food waste was efficiently treated in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process. The waste contained in plastic bags was shredded and then screened for the removal of inert materials such as fabrics and plastics, and subsequently put into the two-stage reactors. Heavy and light inerts such as bones, shells, spoons, and plastic pieces were again removed by gravity differences. The residual organic component was effectively hydrolyzed and acidified in the first reactor with 5 d space time at pH of about 6.5. The second, methanization reactor converted the acids into methane with pH between 7.4 and 7.8. The space time for the second reactor was 15 d. The effluent from the second reactor was recycled to the first reactor to provide alkalinities. The process showed stable steady-state operation with the maximum organic loading rate of 7.9 kg volatile solid (VS)/m3/d and the volatile solid reduction efficiency of about 70%. The total of 3.6 tons presorted MSW containing 2.9 tons of food organic was treated to produce about 230 m3 of biogas with 70% (v/v) of methane and 80 kg of humus. This process is extended to full-scale treating 15 tons of food waste a day in Euiwang city and the produced biogas is utilized for the heating/cooling of adjacent buildings.

  7. Feasibility of scaling from pilot to process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Wood, Philip; Hawes, David; Janaway, Lee; Keay, David; Sutherland, Ian

    2007-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is looking for new technology that is easy to scale up from analytical to process scale and is cheap and reliable to operate. Large scale counter-current chromatography is an emerging technology that could provide this advance, but little was known about the key variables affecting scale-up. This paper investigates two such variables: the rotor radius and the tubing bore. The effect of rotor radius was studied using identical: length, beta-value, helix angle and tubing bore coils for rotors of different radii (50 mm, 110 mm and 300 mm). The effect of bore was researched using identical: length, helix angle and mean beta-value coils on the Maxi-DE centrifuge (R=300 mm). The rotor radius results show that there is very little difference in retention and resolution as rotor radius increases at constant bore. The tubing bore results show that good retention is maintained as bore increases and resolution only decrease slightly, but at the highest bore (17.5 mm) resolution can be maintained at very high flow rates making it possible for process scale centrifuges to be designed with throughputs exceeding 25 kg/day.

  8. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  9. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  10. Pilot system development in metre-scale laboratory discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; Lehtinen, Nikolai; van Deursen, Alexander (Lex P. J.; Østgaard, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    The pilot system development in metre-scale negative laboratory discharges is studied with ns-fast photography. The systems appear as bipolar structures in the vicinity of the negative high-voltage electrode. They appear as a result of a single negative streamer propagation and determine further discharge development. Such systems possess features like glowing beads, bipolarity, different brightness of the top and bottom parts, and mutual reconnection. A 1D model of the ionization evolution in the spark gap is proposed. In the process of the nonlinear development of ionization growth, the model shows features similar to those observed. The visual similarities between high-altitude sprites and laboratory pilots are striking and may indicate that they are two manifestations of the same natural phenomenon.

  11. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-05-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  12. Economies of Scale in Air Force Undergraduate Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    LSH Chesis Feedback), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 4S433. . Did this research contribute to a current Air Force project? a. Yes b. No 2. Do you believe... coefficient relating GRADS to COST. The second model tested was a quadratic relationship between average cost and graduate pilots, COST = A + B(GRADS) + C... coefficient of GRADSSQ. In this model, the independent variables were entered into the equation in a stepwise manner. In other words, the computer program

  13. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  14. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  15. Scale effect of anaerobic digestion tests in fed-batch and semi-continuous mode for the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Roati, Chiara; Campo, Giuseppe; Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-04-01

    Methane production capacity in mesophilic conditions of waste from two food industry plants was assessed in a semi-pilot (6L, fed-batch) and pilot (300 L, semi-continuous) scale. This was carried out in order to evaluate the convenience of producing heat and electricity in a full scale anaerobic digester. The pilot test was performed in order to obtain more reliable results for the design of the digester. Methane yield, returned from the pilot scale test, was approximately 80% of that from the smaller scale test. This outcome was in line with those from other studies performed in different scales and modes and indicates the success of the pilot scale test. The net electricity produced from the digester accounted for 30-50% of the food industry plants' consumption. The available thermal energy could cover from 10% to 100% of the plant requirements, depending on the energy demand of the processes performed.

  16. Comparison of pilot-scale furnace experiments and predictions to full-scale boiler performance of compliance coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, L.S. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A series of compliance coals have been fired in the Southern Company Services and Southern Research Institute pilot-scale Combustion Research Facility, with the goal of predicting NO{sub x} emissions, unburned carbon levels, and other operating parameters. The research was financed by a tailored collaboration between Alabama Power and the Electric Power Research Institute. The coals included a South American coal, a Powder River Basin coal, and several local Alabama bituminous coals. They were fired in conventional and low NO{sub x} firing modes, where some of the coals were fired in a tangential-fired simulation, others as wall-fired, and some in both types of firing. Two of Alabama Power`s boilers were used as the plants simulated in the pilot-scale experiments, along with a Gulf Power boiler. The results of the NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon from the pilot furnace testing are presented and compared to the limited full-scale boiler data available on these coals.

  17. Testing gravity on Large Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanelli Alvise

    2013-01-01

    We show how it is possible to test general relativity and different models of gravity via Redshift-Space Distortions using forthcoming cosmological galaxy surveys. However, the theoretical models currently used to interpret the data often rely on simplifications that make them not accurate enough for precise measurements. We will discuss improvements to the theoretical modeling at very large scales, including wide-angle and general relativistic corrections; we then show that for wide and deep...

  18. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-07-01

    Strategies are being developed at Penn State to produce ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), in industrial boilers. The work is being conducted on the bench, pilot, and demonstration scale, and the emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Technical issues related to trace element emissions that are to be addressed include: (1) the effectiveness of coal cleaning; (2) the effect of fuel form (CWSF and pulverized coal); (3) partitioning between the solid and vapor phases; (4) the effect of boiler size; (5) penetration through particulate control devices; (6) the effect of sootblowing; and (7) mercury speciation. This paper discusses the results of preliminary work to determine trace element emissions when firing a raw and cleaned pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustor. A companion paper, which follows in the proceedings, gives the results of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions testing in the pilot-scale combustor and in a small industrial boiler. Results from fine particulate testing is found elsewhere in the proceedings.

  19. Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) Pilot Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Healthy Efficient New Gas Homes (HENGH) is a field study that will collect data on ventilation systems and indoor air quality (IAQ) in new California homes that were built to 2008 Title 24 standards. A pilot test was performed to help inform the most time and cost effective approaches to measuring IAQ in the 100 test homes that will be recruited for this study. Two occupied, single-family detached homes built to 2008 Title 24 participated in the pilot test. One of the test homes uses exhaust-only ventilation provided by a continuous exhaust fan in the laundry room. The other home uses supply air for ventilation. Measurements of IAQ were collected for two weeks. Time-resolved concentrations of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde were measured. Measurements of IAQ also included time-integrated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile aldehydes, and NO2. Three perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) were used to estimate the dilution rate of an indoor emitted air contaminant in the two pilot test homes. Diagnostic tests were performed to measure envelope air leakage, duct leakage, and airflow of range hood, exhaust fans, and clothes dryer vent when accessible. Occupant activities, such as cooking, use of range hood and exhaust fans, were monitored using various data loggers. This document describes results of the pilot test.

  20. Testing gravity on Large Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raccanelli Alvise

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how it is possible to test general relativity and different models of gravity via Redshift-Space Distortions using forthcoming cosmological galaxy surveys. However, the theoretical models currently used to interpret the data often rely on simplifications that make them not accurate enough for precise measurements. We will discuss improvements to the theoretical modeling at very large scales, including wide-angle and general relativistic corrections; we then show that for wide and deep surveys those corrections need to be taken into account if we want to measure the growth of structures at a few percent level, and so perform tests on gravity, without introducing systematic errors. Finally, we report the results of some recent cosmological model tests carried out using those precise models.

  1. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  2. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  4. Pilot-scale study of biomass reduction in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunhui; Ai, Hengyu; Li, Xuesong; Liu, Haitao; Xie, Weimin

    2007-05-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were continuously carried out for more than 9 months to study the excess biomass reduction effect using a biophase-separation bioreactor, which was designed based on food-chain theory. By separating the biophase in the wastewater treatment system, bacteria, protozoa, and metazoa could be separated from each other and dominated in different microbial communities. After degrading organic matter, bacteria were consumed by protozoa or metazoa in the following process in such a reactor. Thus, both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass were reduced. During the process of treating restaurant wastewater, the excess biomass yield in this biophase-separation technique varied from 0.13 to 0.22 kg/kg COD removed, 50% lower than that from the reference system. Apart from low biomass production, this biophase-separation technique can simultaneously achieve a high COD removal efficiency and improve settleability of biosolids at a hydraulic retention time of 6 to 13 hours.

  5. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  6. DIALANG and pilot testing / Sirje Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Sirje

    2002-01-01

    Hollandi haridus-, kultuuri- ja teadusministeeriumi poolt keelteaasta raames korraldatud Euroopa keeleprojekte tutvustavast konverentsist ning kultuuri- ja haridusprojektist DIALANG, mis koostab diagnostilisi teste 14 euroopa keeles

  7. DIALANG and pilot testing / Sirje Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Sirje

    2002-01-01

    Hollandi haridus-, kultuuri- ja teadusministeeriumi poolt keelteaasta raames korraldatud Euroopa keeleprojekte tutvustavast konverentsist ning kultuuri- ja haridusprojektist DIALANG, mis koostab diagnostilisi teste 14 euroopa keeles

  8. The Driver Concept for Projecting Resource Requirements: Two Pilot Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    fashion. ~orecasin DD I’w 73 1413 EDtInOP4OF INOV 65IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wheni Data Entered) _ 11’NCT .A RR’"T IRT...are self explanatory and some may be skipped because of previous familiarity with the material . 1. CERCOM Pilot Test, Materiel Management C-3. See

  9. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  10. Inactivation of airborne Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Xin, H.

    2014-01-01

    High microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. A pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic (UV-PCO) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized Enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Mic

  11. Latent Profile Analyses of Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Mata, Andrea D.; Segool, Natasha; Scott, Emma-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In an era of test-based accountability, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the relationship between test anxiety and test performance. The development and validation of test anxiety scales have grown with the rise of test anxiety research. Research is needed to critically examine the psychometric properties of these scales prior to…

  12. Laboratory and pilot-scale bioremediation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Li; Gui, Lai; Gillham, Robert W; Landis, Richard C

    2014-01-15

    PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate), a munitions constituent, is commonly encountered in munitions-contaminated soils, and pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. This study investigated anaerobic remediation of PETN-contaminated soil at a site near Denver Colorado. Both granular iron and organic carbon amendments were used in both laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The laboratory results showed that, with various organic carbon amendments, PETN at initial concentrations of between 4500 and 5000mg/kg was effectively removed within 84 days. In the field trial, after a test period of 446 days, PETN mass removal of up to 53,071mg/kg of PETN (80%) was achieved with an organic carbon amendment (DARAMEND) of 4% by weight. In previous laboratory studies, granular iron has shown to be highly effective in degrading PETN. However, for both the laboratory and pilot-scale tests, granular iron was proven to be ineffective. This was a consequence of passivation of the iron surfaces caused by the very high concentrations of nitrate in the contaminated soil. This study indicated that low concentration of organic carbon was a key factor limiting bioremediation of PETN in the contaminated soil. Furthermore, the addition of organic carbon amendments such as the DARAMEND materials or brewers grain, proved to be highly effective in stimulating the biodegradation of PETN and could provide the basis for full-scale remediation of PETN-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Results from a pilot cell test of cermet anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Strachan, D M; Henager, Jr, C H; Greenwell, E N [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Alcorn, T R [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.

    1992-08-01

    Goal was to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes for Hall-Heroult cells used to produce Al metal. The anodes were made from a ceramic/metal composite consisting of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and a Cu/Ni metal phase. Thirteen cermet anodes were tested at Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL. All anodes corroded severely during the pilot test. Electrolyte components were found deep within the anodes. However, there were many deficiencies in the pilot cell test, mainly the failure to maintain optimal operating conditions. It is concluded that there is a variety of fabrication and operational considerations that need to be addressed carefully in any future testing. 118 figs, 16 tabs, 17 refs.(DLC)

  14. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Ackerson; Lisa Stines Doane; Robert McNutt; Yuanyuan Shao

    2014-01-01

    This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS) due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ) was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89) and cogni...

  15. Bioelectrochemical hydrogen production from urban wastewater on a pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Juan A.; Martínez-Miró, Àlex; Guerrero, Javier; Ruiz, Yolanda; Guisasola, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical hydrogen production has been successfully achieved in laboratory-scale conditions with different substrates. However, scaling up microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) is not straightforward, and reported attempts have not been completely successful. This work presents the design, building, start-up and operation of an MEC pilot plant (130 L) based on a cassette configuration. The plant was started up in batch mode with acetate and glucose as substrates and operated for five months with different substrates (i.e. glucose, diluted raw glycerol and real urban wastewater). The best results were obtained in the last period with primary effluent from real urban wastewater. The hydrogen production increased to values higher than 4 L d-1 with a gas purity of 95%, a cathodic gas recovery of 82% and an energy recovery of 121% with respect to the electrical input. The organic matter removal efficiency was approximately 25% for a hydraulic retention time of 2 d with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.25 gCOD·L-1·d-1. It should be possible to achieve removal efficiencies around 75% with OLRs lower than 0.05 gCOD·L-1·d-1. These results are promising and represent an important step towards the industrial implementation of these systems.

  16. Electrochemical removal of salts from masonry - Experiences from pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Villumsen, Arne

    2008-01-01

    A pilot experiment with newly developed electrodes was tested for removal of contaminating salts from brick masonry where plaster peeling was a problem. A high concentration of sulfate was found at the height where the paint peeling was most pronounced. The concentrations of chloride and nitrate...... were smaller, though in dangerous concentrations at some points. In the applied electric field, chloride and nitrate were efficiently removed. Sulfate, on the other hand, was less mobile, due to lower solubility of sulphate salts and thus lower percentage in ionic form and mobile for electromigration....... The mean concentration of sulfate was decreased from 0.68 wt% to 0.46 wt% during the approx. 4 months of treatment. The removal rate for sulphate did not decrease significantly during the treatment period and it is expected that reduction in sulphate concentration could continue over longer duration...

  17. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  18. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP pilot-scale pulsed columns: column profile and holdup studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, A. F.

    1980-11-01

    Experimental studies were conducted on pilot-scaled pulsed columns for the purpose of obtaining data for verification of contactor computer programs. This work is in support of safeguards programs related to determination of near real-time inventories in pulsed columns. Holdup tests were performed resulting in the derivation of an empirical equation for estimation of the dispersed phase holdup in a column. Uranium solvent extraction mass-transfer tests were conducted in which all four process cycles were simulated under coprocessing flowsheet conditions. Extensive data were obtained during these tests on uranium profiles and inventories within the columns. Transient profile data were also determined between selected runs under the tested operating conditions. No concentration peaks could be observed during the transient period. Based on the extensive inventory data taken, empirical equations were developed for relating uranium inventory in a column to the test parameters. These equations were found useful for predicting and estimating the column inventory under the known run conditions.

  20. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  1. Pilot scale test on autoclaved brick production by semi-dry desulfurization by-products%半干法脱硫灰生产蒸压砖中试试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松涛; 陈传敏; 赵毅; 卢林; 王涛; 杨艳芬

    2011-01-01

    The semi-dry desulfurization by-products are difficult to be utilized. Pilot scale study on the production technology of autoclaved brick which was mixed with semi-dry desulfurization by-products, slag and quicklime. The results show that autoclaved brick mixed with 50% semi-dry desulfurization ash and 10% quicklime dosage can meet the mechanical properties of MU20 strength grade. The mineral, such as hydrated calcium silicate, hydrated calcium aluminate and hydration sulphoaluminate, formed in autoclaved process can strengthen the strength of autoclaved brick.%为了解决半干法脱硫灰难以利用的问题,用脱硫灰、炉渣和CaO进行了蒸压砖生产的中试试验研究.研究表明:生产强度等级为MU20的脱硫灰蒸压砖,脱硫灰的掺量可控制在50%左右,CaO的掺量控制在10%左右.蒸压过程中形成的水化硅酸钙、水化铝酸钙和水化硫铝酸钙等矿物有利于增强蒸压砖强度.

  2. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot

  3. 77 FR 18793 - Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Pilot Program, 73 FR 76,002 (Dec. 15, 2008). \\3\\ The final Phase I test plan and additional information... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed Pilot... conduct in Phase II/III of the Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed pilot program to assess...

  4. 76 FR 3485 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ..., Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain... first of the two scale tests between January 1 and June 30 of the calendar year. The remaining scale test must be completed between July 1 and December 31 of the calendar year. In addition, a...

  5. 76 FR 50881 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ..., Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain... January 20, 2011, and on April 4, 2011, concerning required scale tests. Those documents defined ``limited...), concerning required scale tests. Those documents incorrectly defined limited seasonal basis in Sec....

  6. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendments... Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests. That document incorrectly defined... packer using such scales may use the scales within a 6-month period following each test. * * * * * Alan...

  7. Making the pilot fly: Trusted Communications Pilot tests security of wellsite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.

    2002-11-01

    Development of a secure communications system for the oil industry, called 'Trusted Communications Pilot', is discussed. The system was created by Malibu Engineering and Software Ltd., and Non-Elephant Encryption Inc., (NE2) at the initiative of a group of oil companies led by Talisman Energy. The objective in creating the system is to securely collect and distribute encrypted wellsite data to entitled company staff and well partners. The heart of the system is Wellcore, Malibu's flagship product, used to capture, store and report well data, augmented by a new module designed expressly for geological data. The encryption was provided by Non-Elephant Encryption Inc. The Pilot was designed to avoid problems with the aging existing system by encrypting all well data, regardless of well type or conditions. (In the 'old' system whether or not to encrypt was decided on a case by case basis by individual employees). By encrypting all data, identification of critical data by unauthorized personnel is rendered more difficult. The Pilot contains a protocol for generating an encryption key without transmitting it over the network. The key is a unique random number that enables its holders to encrypt and decrypt data. The key can be changed at regular intervals to better defeat attempts to crack it. As for user-authentication, the pilot system authenticates the computer, rather than the user. It also requires a password. Although this means that anyone able to access an entitled computer and associated password could download secure data, the first phase of testing the Trusted Communication Pilot has been considered a success; it provides a fairly high level of security for a relatively modest cost.

  8. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  9. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  10. Biological Nitrate Removal from Groundwater by Filamentous Media at Pilot Scale, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Keshtgar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The compounds which contain nitrogen entering the environment can cause some problems, such as eutrophication for water resources and potential risk for human health because of methemoglobinemia and cancer. Biological techniques are effective in removing nitrate. The aim of this study was to remove nitrate from groundwater using denitrification. The main objectives of this research were determining the reduction of water nitrate based on different retention time and also the effect of using grape extract as organic matter and electron acceptor in biological nitrate removal from water. Methods: In this experimental study, the effect of heterotrophic Pseudomonas separated from Shiraz wastewater treatment plant on removing nitrate from groundwater was investigated at pilot scale using grape extract as carbon source and filamentous media at constant pH (7±0.1 and temperature (20±1 °C. During this study, 2 pilots were made. Pilot number 1 was used for separation and growth of the above mentioned bacteria (Pseudomonas that are able to remove nitrate. Pilot number 2 was also used for surveying the removal of nitrate by these bacteria. At least, 13 samples were examined in every retention time and each test was repeated for 2 or 3 times. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS (ver.19 software using one-way repeated measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni tests. Results: According to the results, nitrate removal rates were 49%, 55%, 67% and, 67% at retention times of 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 hours, respectively. The best retention time was 2 hours with 67% removal rate (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that using grape extract as the carbon source and proper growth of bacteria in filamentous media led to a significant increase in the removal rate

  11. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  12. Pressurised coal combustion in a pilot scale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Prassas, I.; Taylor, A.M.K.P.; Whitelaw, J.H. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Flux, velocity and the temperature characteristics of burning coal particles were measured simultaneously in the primary combustion zone of the swirl-stabilised burner of the pilot-scale furnace constructed at Imperial College. The furnace was designed to operate at pressures up to 5 bar and at thermal loadings up to 150 kW, and provision was made for optical access in the near-burner region of the combustor. The combined instrument used a novel technique for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size, as well as the angle between the trajectory of the particle and an axis of reference, of particles of arbitrary shape, the so-called Shadow Doppler Velocimeter; and a two-colour pyrometer, for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, size and temperature of burning pulverised coal particles. The experiments performed consisted of: measurement of the gaseous phase as a function of the swirl number; measurement of the size, velocity, and temperature of burning coal particles as a function of the swirl number; and measurement of the size and velocity of burning coal particles inside the pressurised coal combustor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were to evaluate and improve and further develop existing instrumentation with potential to be used in pressurised combustors; provide a database of accurate measurements for the needs of numerical models; and improve the understanding of the fluid mechanics and combustion processes at atmospheric pressures. Results obtained using the optical instrumentation showed that in an open flame, evidence of particle centrifuging existed downstream of the quarl entry. The temperature of volatile flames was about 2250 K and that of the char below 2000 K. Measurements along radial profiles inside the coal combustor showed that the axial and tangential velocity of the particles was almost independent of size. 19 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of the headspace Family and Friends Satisfaction Scale: Findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Angela; Holloway, Erin; Telford, Nic; Rickwood, Debra

    2017-04-19

    The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine the psychometric properties of the 18-item headspace Family and Friends Satisfaction Scale (hFAFSS). During August 2015, staff from 22 headspace centres approached family members and friends of young people attending headspace to complete the hFAFSS. Principal components analysis with oblique Promin rotation and polychoric correlations were used to assess the factor structure of the hFAFSS. There were 277 usable responses. Satisfaction was high, resulting in little variance. Parallel analyses suggested that the scale items tapped a single factor (68% of variance). This study is one of the first attempts to measure the satisfaction of family and friends with primary care-based youth mental health services. Satisfaction of family members and friends was shown to be high, but limited variance restricts the usability of the hFAFSS as an evaluation measure, and revision and further testing is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were......Torrefaction is a mild thermal treatment (200-300 °C) in an inert atmosphere, known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporation of water and a proportion of the volatiles. In this work a "two-step reaction in series" model was used to describe the thermal degradation kinetics of pine...... the temperature along the reactor and the biomass feeding rate in combination with the kinetic parameters obtained from the tests in the TGA. Together with results from a laboratory scale, batch torrefaction reactor that was used to determine the higher heating value (HHV) and mass loss (y) of the same material...

  15. Bioventing pilot test results at the low point drain area, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F T; Walters, J E; Keefer, G B

    1997-11-21

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the application of bioventing technology at the LPD site at Offutt AFB, Nebraska and present the results of the 15-month pilot test. The preliminary tests indicated sufficient hydrocarbon contamination was present with the necessary soil characteristics to warrant an extended bioventing pilot test. The six month in situ respiration test indicated that progress was being made in reducing the TVH concentrations and biological activity was still occurring. Laboratory analysis of the final soil samples confirmed the reduction in TRPH and BTEX concentrations indicating that the site is close to complete remediation. However, owing to reduced air flow at greater distances from the VW, more biodegradation is still needed near MPB. The reduced biodegradation at MPB could also be due to the high water tables resulting from heavy rains during the summer and fall of 1993. The local water table was above the VW and MP screens for several months. The operation of the blower will continue until the site is completely remediated. The single VW pilot test at the LPD site at Offutt AFB has proven the effectiveness of bioventing in reducing TRPH and BTEX contamination in the subsurface. The installation, operation and maintenance costs were minimal. The effectiveness of this application has resulted in three additional bioventing applications at Offutt AFB including the first, full-scale system located in the state of Nebraska.

  16. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  17. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hayet Djelal; Abdeltif Amrane

    2013-01-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger,Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater.The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L),at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP).The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent.Indeed,chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75%for model medium,diluted milk.While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000L pilot plant,the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L)to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L.In addition,there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP.It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium,and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi.An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in WWTP.

  18. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  19. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  20. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  1. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  2. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  3. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sarghini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel and food production (liquid whey waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of waste treatment, obtaining a final product with a higher economical value, combining the two processing lines. Although an edible film production procedure based on pectin extracted from fennel matrix and whey proteins has already been published in literature, the scale-up process highlighted several critical issues, in particular related to the fennel matrix. Nonetheless, the pilot plant configuration allowed an edible film to be produced that is suitable for use as a direct coating to improve the shelf-life of food products.

  4. Army Enlisted Personnel Competency Assessment Program: Phase III Pilot Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Their contributions and active input played a significant role in the production of the final product and they share credit for the outcome. Of...Chain of Command 2 1 1 1 50% 100% Troop Leading Procedures 2 1 1 0 50% 0% Risk Management 2 1 1 1 50% 100% Principles of Discipline 2 1 2 1 100% 100...will make it easier to embed new items into an operational test to collect the necessary pilot data. Finally, we used a relatively unsystematic

  5. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based deNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Michelsen, Poul

    The NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments at two industrial power plants running on natural gas (Ringsted) and biomass (Haslev). Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx of 1.56. Fourier transform infrared....... Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. An optimized oxidation scheme for NOx reduction processes with time dependent combustion, such as the biomass power plants, was developed. Ozone production by micro-hollow and capillary discharges at atmospheric pressures was investigated...

  6. Developing an ICAO Criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for CAAC Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Since the ICAO new aviation language requirement comes into being in 2003, several tester organizations try to develop tests for pilots. Recently CAAC has tried to develop ICAO criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for Pilots. But, does Chinese pilots' language proficiency satisfy the ICAO requirements? How to test a pilot's language ability? How to develop ICAO standard test? To explore the keys to these questions, the paper has applied the theoretical framework in development of the test, in construction of the tests and in scoring.

  7. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment.

  8. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  9. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  10. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass...

  11. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation.

  12. Development and piloting the Woman Centred Care Scale (WCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susannah; Bogossian, Fiona; Gibbons, Kristen

    2017-06-01

    In midwifery we espouse a woman centred care approach to practice, yet in midwifery education no valid instrument exists with which to measure the performance of these behaviours in midwifery students. To develop and validate an instrument to measure woman centred care behaviours in midwifery students. We identified four core concepts; woman's sphere, holism, self-determination and the shared power relationship. We mapped 18 individual descriptive care behaviours (from the Australian National Competency Standards for the Midwife) to these concepts to create an instrument to articulate and measure care behaviours that are specifically woman centred. Review by expert midwifery clinicians ensured face, content and construct validity of the scale and predictive validity and reliability were tested in a simulated learning environment. Midwifery students were video recorded performing a clinical skill and the videos were reviewed and rated by two expert clinicians who assessed the woman centred care behaviours demonstrated by the students (n=69). Test and re-test reliability of the instrument was high for each of the individual raters (Kappa 0.946 and 0.849 respectively pcentred care behaviours (Kappa 0.470, pstudents who had repeated exposures to higher levels of simulation fidelity demonstrated higher levels of woman centred care behaviours. The WCCS has implications for education and the wider midwifery profession in recognising and maintaining practice consistent with the underlying philosophy of woman centred care. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States). Environmental Measurement Lab.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sengupta, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  14. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  15. Development and Testing of the Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J; Titler, Marita G

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure nurse manager competencies regarding evidence-based practice (EBP). The Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale consists of 16 items for respondents to indicate their perceived level of competency on a 0 to 3 Likert-type scale. Content validity was demonstrated through expert panel review and pilot testing. Principal axis factoring and Cronbach's alpha evaluated construct validity and internal consistency reliability, respectively. Eighty-three nurse managers completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 16-item scale with two subscales, EBP Knowledge ( n = 6 items, α = .90) and EBP Activity ( n = 10 items, α = .94). Cronbach's alpha for the entire scale was .95. The Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale is a brief measure of nurse manager EBP competency with evidence of validity and reliability. The scale can enhance our understanding in future studies regarding how nurse manager EBP competency affects implementation.

  16. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics.

  17. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  18. Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Roland D; Bryan, Bill; Parker, Denny S; Merrill, Matthew D; Mehanna, Maha; Kiely, Patrick D; Liu, Guangli; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA/SCOD ≥ 0.5) and by raising the wastewater temperature (31 ± 1°C). Once enriched, SCOD removal (62 ± 20%) was consistent at a hydraulic retention time of 1 day (applied voltage of 0.9 V). Current generation reached a maximum of 7.4 A/m(3) by the planned end of the test (after 100 days). Gas production reached a maximum of 0.19 ± 0.04 L/L/day, although most of the product gas was converted to methane (86 ± 6%). In order to increase hydrogen recovery in future tests, better methods will be needed to isolate hydrogen gas produced at the cathode. These results show that inoculation and enrichment procedures are critical to the initial success of larger-scale systems. Acetate amendments, warmer temperatures, and pH control during startup were found to be critical for proper enrichment of exoelectrogenic biofilms and improved reactor performance.

  19. Syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor: design and process considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-05-01

    Fermentation of syngas offers several advantages compared to chemical catalysts such as higher specificity of biocatalysts, lower energy costs, and higher carbon efficiency. Scale-up of syngas fermentation from a bench scale to a pilot scale fermentor is a critical step leading to commercialization. The primary objective of this research was to install and commission a pilot scale fermentor, and subsequently scale-up the Clostridium strain P11 fermentation from a 7.5-L fermentor to a pilot scale 100-L fermentor. Initial preparation and fermentations were conducted in strictly anaerobic conditions. The fermentation system was maintained in a batch mode with continuous syngas supply. The effect of anaerobic fermentation in a pilot scale fermentor was evaluated. In addition, the impact of improving the syngas mass transfer coefficient on the utilization and product formation was studied. Results indicate a six fold improvement in ethanol concentration compared to serum bottle fermentation, and formation of other compounds such as isopropyl alcohol, acetic acid and butanol, which are of commercial importance.

  20. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  1. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  2. Development of a social skills assessment screening scale for psychiatric rehabilitation settings: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Bhola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. Aims: This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. Materials and Methods: The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS. Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS for a subset of 94 inpatients. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t-tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. Results: The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The “psychosis” group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the “mood disorder” group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. Conclusions: The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  3. Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Eva M., E-mail: eva.seeger@ufz.de [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Hoelderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tuebingen (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m{sup 2}/d, 97/112 mg/m{sup 2}/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m{sup 2}/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique. - Highlights: > BTEX compounds contaminated groundwater can be efficiently treated by CWs. > The removal efficiency depended on CW type, season and contaminant. > The plant root mat revealed better treatment results than the gravel filter CW. > Best results achieved by the plant root mat (99% benzene concentration decrease). > Stable isotope analysis and MPN indicated high benzene remediation potential. - Gravel bed constructed wetlands and a plant root mat system efficiently eliminated fuel hydrocarbons (benzene, MTBE) and ammonia-N from groundwater at a pilot-scale.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725 L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (⩾ 3.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)) was used.

  5. Pilot testing of a membrane system for postcombustion CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Wei, Xiaotong [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Carlisle, Trevor [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); White, Steve [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Pande, Saurabh [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Watson, Robert [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Hoffman, Thomas [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States); Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Incorporated, Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This final report summarizes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) to scale up an efficient post-combustion CO2 capture membrane process to the small pilot test stage (award number DE-FE0005795). The primary goal of this research program was to design, fabricate, and operate a membrane CO2 capture system to treat coal-derived flue gas containing 20 tonnes CO2/day (20 TPD). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Babcock and Wilcox (B&W), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), WorleyParsons (WP), the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC), Enerkem (EK), and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). In addition to the small pilot design, build and slipstream testing at NCCC, other project efforts included laboratory membrane and module development at MTR, validation field testing on a 1 TPD membrane system at NCCC, boiler modeling and testing at B&W, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) by EPRI/WP, a case study of the membrane technology applied to a ~20 MWe power plant by ISTC, and an industrial CO2 capture test at an Enerkem waste-to-biofuel facility. The 20 TPD small pilot membrane system built in this project successfully completed over 1,000 hours of operation treating flue gas at NCCC. The Polaris™ membranes used on this system demonstrated stable performance, and when combined with over 10,000 hours of operation at NCCC on a 1 TPD system, the risk associated with uncertainty in the durability of postcombustion capture membranes has been greatly reduced. Moreover, next-generation Polaris membranes with higher performance and lower cost were validation tested on the 1 TPD system. The 20 TPD system also demonstrated successful operation of a new low-pressure-drop sweep module that will reduce parasitic energy losses at full scale by as much as 10 MWe. In modeling and pilot boiler testing, B&W confirmed the

  6. Pilot-Scale Investigation of Forward/Reverse Osmosis Hybrid System for Seawater Desalination Using Impaired Water from Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was focused on the investigation of a forward osmosis- (FO- reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process to cotreat seawater and impaired water from steel industry. By using this hybrid process, seawater can be diluted before desalination, hence reducing the energy cost of desalination, and simultaneously contaminants present in the impaired water are prevented from migrating into the product water through the FO and RO membranes. The main objective of this work was to investigate on pilot-scale system the performance of the combined FO pretreatment and RO desalination hybrid system and specifically its effects on membrane fouling and overall solute rejection. Firstly, optimization of the pilot-scale FO process to obtain the most suitable and stable operating conditions for practical application was investigated. Secondly, pilot-scale RO process performance as a posttreatment to FO process was evaluated in terms of water flux and rejection. The results indicated that the salinity of seawater reduced from 35000 to 13000 mg/L after 3 hrs using FO system, while after 6 hrs it approached 10000 mg/L. Finally, FO/RO system was tested on continuous operation for 15 hrs and it was demonstrated that no pollutant was detected neither in draw solution nor in RO permeate after the end of operating time.

  7. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  8. Performance of evaluation of methanogenic microbial inoculant and its effect of biogas production in pilot scale test%产甲烷复合菌剂的性能评价及中试试验产气效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渝昆; 袁月祥; 李东; 胡亚东; 黄显波; 昊深; 刘晓风; 彭绪亚; 闫志英

    2014-01-01

    constructed based on the physiological, biochemical characteristics and antagonisms of strain RY3, SH4, G1, G2 and G3. The performances of the inoculant under different pH values, temperatures and application rates of the methanogenic microbial inoculant were evaluated. It showed that the 5 strains had different physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as complementary roles. There were no antagonisms among 5 strains. The methanogenic microbial inoculant grew at pH value 5.5-10.5. Methane productions were 1 706.7-2 026.7μmols at pH value 5.5-9.5 after 3 days’ culture, that of different pH values showed no significant difference respectively. The results indicated that the methanogenic microbial inoculant is resistant to acid and alkali changes. The inoculant grew at 15-70℃ and methane productions were 1 906.9-2 028 μmols at 30-60℃ after 3 days’ culture, that of different temperatures treatment showed no significant difference respectively. The results indicated that the methanogenic microbial inoculant is adapted to a wide temperature range. At 20℃, total biogas yield of treatments 2%, 5%, 10% before 14 day were 234, 422 and 950 mL, and the methane concentration of treatments 2%, 5%, 10% on the 14th day were 46.9%, 51.2% and 58.9%respectively corresponding the treatments with 2%, 5%and 10%inoculation dosages of the methanogenic microbial inoculant. At 50℃, total biogas yield before 14 d were 2728, 3291 and 3 832 mL and the methane concentration on 14th day were 62.7%, 63.1%and 63.8%respectively corresponding the treatments with 2%, 5%and 10%inoculation dosages of the methanogenic microbial inoculant. The results indicated that the inoculation could shorten the starting time for methane production compared to the controls without inoculant at 20 and 50℃. Pilot tests by kinetic analysis indicated that inoculant could still shorten the starting time for methane production compared to the control using anaerobic active sludge as inoculant. At 20

  9. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions: Phase 1 -- Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing and Phase 2 -- Solubilization test and partitioning and interwell tracer tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km{sup 2} in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation.

  10. Optimisation of biogas production from manure through serial digestion: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Ellegaard, Lars; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the possibility of optimizing biogas production from manure by serial digestion was investigated. In the lab-scale experiments, process performance and biogas production of serial digestion, two methanogenic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) connected in series, was compared to a conventional one-step CSTR process. The one-step process was operated at 55 degrees C with 15d HRT and 5l working volume (control). For serial digestion, the total working volume of 5l was distributed as 70/30%, 50/50%, 30/70% or 13/87% between the two methanogenic reactors, respectively. Results showed that serial digestion improved biogas production from manure compared to one-step process. Among the tested reactor configurations, best results were obtained when serial reactors were operated with 70/30% and 50/50% volume distribution. Serial digestion at 70/30% and 50/50% volume distribution produced 13-17.8% more biogas and methane and, contained low VFA and residual methane potential loss in the effluent compared to the one-step CSTR process. At 30/70% volume distribution, an increase in biogas production was also noticed but the process was very unstable with low methane production. At 13/87% volume distribution, no difference in biogas production was noticed and methane production was much lower than the one-step CSTR process. Pilot-scale experiments also showed that serial digestion with 77/23% volume distribution could improve biogas yields by 1.9-6.1% compared to one-step process. The study thus suggests that the biogas production from manure can be optimized through serial digestion with an optimal volume distribution of 70/30% or 50/50% as the operational fluctuations are typically high during full scale application. However, process temperature between the two methanogenic reactors should be as close as possible in order to derive the benefits of serial coupling.

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6

  12. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  13. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  14. Pilot scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with biodiesel waste glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D; Malik, Shahid; Katalambula, Hassan

    2013-04-01

    The effect on process performance of adding increasing proportions of biodiesel waste glycerin (BWG) to municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) was studied using two 1300 L pilot-scale digesters under mesophilic conditions at 20 days SRT. The highest proportion of BWG that did not cause a process upset was determined to be 23% and 35% of the total 1.04 kg VS/(m(3)d) and 2.38 kg COD/(m(3)d) loadings, respectively. At this loading, the biogas and methane production rates in the test digester were 1.65 and 1.83 times greater than of those in the control digester which received only MWS, respectively. The COD and VS removal rates at this loading in the test digester were 1.82 and 1.63-fold those of the control digester, respectively. Process instability was observed when the proportion of BWG in the test digester feed was 31% and 46% of the 1.18 kg VS/(m(3)d) and 2.88 kg COD/(m(3)d) loadings, respectively.

  15. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community dynamics in a pilot-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP. During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days of AOB community structures was 10% ± 8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO, effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification.

  16. Testing Asteroseismic Scaling Relations with Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum oscillation power, vmax, and the large frequency separation, Δν, provide an easy way to directly determine the masses and radii of stars with detected solar-like oscillations. With the vast amount of data available from the CoRoT and Kepler missions, the convenience of the scaling relations has resulted in their wide-spread use. But how valid are the scaling relations when applied to red giants, which have a substantially different structure than the Sun? Verifying the scaling relations empirically requires independent measurements. We report on the current state and future prospects of interferometric tests of the scaling relations.

  17. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  18. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  19. A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

  20. Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada, E-mail: ortizi@unican.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m{sup 2} was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted.

  1. Suppression of dioxins by S-N inhibitors in pilot-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Fu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-08-01

    S-N inhibitors like thiourea and sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG) are relatively novel dioxins suppressants and their efficiencies are proven in numerous lab-scale experiments. In this study, the suppression effects of both thiourea and SDG on the formation of dioxins are systematically tested in a pilot-scale system, situated at the bypass of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, a flue gas recirculation system is used to get high dioxin suppression efficiencies. Operating experience shows that this system is capable of stable operation and to keep gaseous suppressant compounds at a high and desirable molar ratio (S + N)/Cl level in the flue gas. The suppression efficiencies of dioxins are investigated in flue gas both without and with addition of S-N inhibitors. A dioxin reduction of more than 80 % is already achieved when the (S + N)/Cl molar ratio is increased to ca. 2.20. When this (S + N)/Cl molar ratio has augmented to 4.18 by applying suppressant recirculation, the residual PCDD/Fs concentration in the flue gas shrank from 1.22 to 0.08 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Furthermore, the congener distribution of dioxins is analysed to find some possible explanation or suppression mechanism. In addition, a correlation analysis between (S + N)/Cl molar ratios and PCDD/Fs is also conducted to investigate the chief functional compounds for dioxin suppression.

  2. Real-Time Quantitative Operando Raman Spectroscopy of a CrOx/Al2O3 Propane Dehydrogenation Catalyst in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328235601; Mens, Ad M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2014-01-01

    Combined operando UV/vis-Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the deactivation of CrOx/Al2O3 catalyst extrudates in a pilot scale propane dehydrogenation reactor. For this purpose, UV/vis and Raman optical fiber probes have been designed, constructed and tested. The light absorption measured by

  3. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  4. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...

  5. Real Scale test and analysis of the skin friction on a pile in rock; Ensayo a escala real e interpretacion del comportamiento de un pilote por fuest en roca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, D. del; Melentijevic, S.; Prieto, L.; Olalla, C.

    2011-07-01

    The skin friction behaviour of a pile in a flysch rock in San Sebastian (Guipuzcoa) has been studied. The static load test was performed on a pile of 1 meter diameter, on the 5 meter length segment of the pile between 12 and 17 meters depth- Two Osterberg cells were embedded into the pile segment to apply the load on the pile-rock system. The mechanism of the load transfer between the pile and the rock has been analyzed by laboratory tests on rock samples, load test results and a finite element method calculus. the results have also been compared to the existing formations of world wide published standards. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Operational and field test results from the 500 kw direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinak, A.J.; Lobach, J.L.; Nichols, K.E.

    1981-10-01

    A 500 kw geothermal powerplant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between geothermal brine and an isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is currently operating at the East Mesa test facility. The pilot plant program was initiated to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct contact heat exchange and associated plant operations. In addition to verifying the design performance of the DCHX itself, test efforts to date have (1) quantified the effect of dissolved gases (primarily CO/sub 2/) transferred from the brine to the IC/sub 4/ loop on the pressure elevation in the unvented power condenser and demonstrated a viable scheme to control this pressure elevation, (2) evaluated the potential of flash extraction and recovery of dissolved IC/sub 4/ from the spent brine, and (3) demonstrated control of fouling in critical components by pretreating the brine with small amounts of a chemical additive (FLOCON 247, Pfizer, Inc.).

  7. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Sasha B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR. This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05 between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05. Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device is capable of moving the hand's digits through

  8. YMP Engineered Barrier Systems Scaled Ventilation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Dunn; B. Lowry; B. Walsh; J.D. Mar; C. Howard; R. Johnston; T. Williams

    2002-11-22

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been selected as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high level nuclear waste. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is currently developing the design for the underground facilities. Ventilation is a key component of the design as a way to maintain the desired thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts prior to closure. As a means of determining the effects of continuous ventilation on heat removal from the emplacement drifts two series of scaled ventilation tests have been performed. Both test series were performed in the DOE/North Las Vegas Atlas facility. The tests provided scaled (nominally 25% of the full scale emplacement drift design) thermal and flow process data that will be used to validate YMP heat and mass transport codes. The Phase I Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of ambient ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow and input power conditions. The Phase II Ventilation Test series evaluated the ability of pre-conditioned ventilation air to remove energy under varying flow, input temperature and moisture content, and simulated waste package input power conditions. Twenty-two distinct ventilation tests were run.

  9. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  10. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  11. A pilot scale comparison of advanced oxidation processes for estrogenic hormone removal from municipal wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešoutová, Radka; Stříteský, Luboš; Hlavínek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the oxidation of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) during ozonation and advanced oxidation of biologically treated municipal wastewater effluents in a pilot scale. Selected estrogenic substances were spiked in the treated wastewater at levels ranging from 1.65 to 3.59 μg · L(-1). All estrogens were removed by ozonation by more than 99% at ozone doses ≥1.8 mg · L(-1). At a dose of 4.4 · mg L(-1) ozonation reduced concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol and 17α-ethinylestradiol by 99.8, 99.7, 99.9 and 99.7%, respectively. All tested advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) achieved high removal rates but they were slightly lower compared to ozonation. The lower removal rates for all tested advanced oxidation processes are caused by the presence of naturally occurring hydroxyl radical scavengers - carbonates and bicarbonates.

  12. 14 CFR 91.1065 - Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1065 Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements. (a) No... following areas— (1) The appropriate provisions of parts 61 and 91 of this chapter and the management... beginning of the 12th month before that service, that pilot has passed a competency check given by...

  13. Mixtures Equation Pilot Program to Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the start of a pilot program to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a mathematical tool (the GHS Mixtures Equation), which is used in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS).

  14. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  15. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  16. Acoustic conditions in open plan offices – Pilot test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main source of noise in open plan office are conversations. Office work standards in such premises are attained by applying specific acoustic adaptation. This article presents the results of pilot tests and acoustic evaluation of open space rooms. Material and Methods: Acoustic properties of 6 open plan office rooms were the subject of the tests. Evaluation parameters, measurement methods and criterial values were adopted according to the following standards: PN-EN ISO 3382- 3:2012, PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010, PN-B-02151-4:2015-06 and PN-B-02151-3:2015-10. Results: The reverberation time was 0.33– 0.55 s (maximum permissible value in offices – 0.6 s; the criterion was met, sound absorption coefficient in relation to 1 m2 of the room’s plan was 0.77–1.58 m2 (minimum permissible value – 1.1 m2; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, distraction distance was 8.5–14 m (maximum permissible value – 5 m; none of the rooms met the criterion, A-weighted sound pressure level of speech at a distance of 4 m was 43.8–54.7 dB (maximum permissible value – 48 dB; 2 out of 6 rooms met the criterion, spatial decay rate of the speech was 1.8–6.3 dB (minimum permissible value – 7 dB; none of the rooms met the criterion. Conclusions: Standard acoustic treatment, containing sound absorbing suspended ceiling, sound absorbing materials on the walls, carpet flooring and sound absorbing workplace barriers, is not sufficient. These rooms require specific advanced acoustic solutions. Med Pr 2016;67(5:653–662

  17. Translation and pilot testing of a measure to assess hypertension self-care activities among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Coffman, Maren J; Karp, Celia A

    2017-01-17

    Hispanics in the US have high rates of uncontrolled hypertension in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. This pilot study reports on the translation of a validated measure, the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE), for use with Spanish speakers. The H-SCALE assesses Hispanics' adherence to lifestyle activities that contribute to primary and secondary risk reduction of high blood pressure. Cross-sectional data were collected from Hispanic primary care patients attending a free health clinic in Charlotte, NC. We performed basic psychometric tests and calculated descriptive statistics to assess adherence rates to recommended hypertension self-care behaviors. Participants were primarily female, under age 50 and had a high-school education or less; 48% were from Mexico. Internal consistency of all H-SCALE subscales was acceptable to good. Most participants were non-smokers (80%) and alcohol abstainers (85%). Participants had low adherence to weight management practices, physical activity and healthy eating habits. One-third of those with hypertension were adherent to medication regimens. The Spanish version of the H-SCALE is a reliable and useful tool for clinicians working with Hispanic adults. Based on these findings, all adult Hispanics need lifestyle behavior counseling for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension and other chronic diseases. The H-SCALE can provide valuable information to clinical and public health practitioners focused on chronic disease prevention and management.

  18. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  19. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  20. Six-Phase Heating(trademark) Pilot-Scale Test. Technology Performance Report, Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid, Eastern Parking Lot Groundwater Plume. Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    AUI Un, TIc . 78711 , 800 803 9202 EXT. g 1) OWNER USAFILMTA$ ADORESS P.O, BOX 748 FORT WORTH TX 78101 ( INAME) (Slreet or AFD) IClty ) (Stata) IZlp...tnstalled [Rula 338.44(2)(A)) -- Specil1ed Steal Sleeva Installed [ Aula 339.44(3)(A)1 -14) WELL TESTS: Nt A - Pille .. Adapter Used [ Aula 338.44(3)(bll...COMPLETION -Oepth to pump bowts. cylinder, jtl, tic ., II . - Specllied Surface Stab Installed (Aule 338.44(2)(A)] :: Specified Steel Sleeve Installed

  1. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of an Innovative Treatment for Vapor Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Andrew S; Magrini, Kimberly A; Carlson, Lynnae E; Wolfrum, Edward J; Larson, Sheldon A; Roth, Christine; Glatzmaier, Greg C

    1999-11-01

    Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently conducted a pilot-scale study at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in Sacramento, CA. The objective of the test was to determine the effectiveness of an ambient-temperature, solar-powered photocatalytic oxidation treatment unit for destroying emissions of chlorinated organic compounds from an air stripper. This paper reports test results and discusses applications and limitations of the technology. A 10-standard-cubic-foot-per-minute (SCFM) (28.3 L/min) slip stream of air from an air stripper at Operative Unit 29-31 at McClellan AFB was passed through a reactor that contained a lightweight, perforated, inert support coated with photoactive titanium dioxide. The reactor faced south and was tilted at a 45° angle from vertical so that the light-activated catalyst received most of the available sunlight. An online portable gas chro-matograph with two identical columns simultaneously analyzed the volatile organic compounds contained in the reactor inlet and outlet air streams. Summa canister grab samples of the inlet and outlet were also collected and sent to a certified laboratory for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-14 analysis and verification of our field analyses. Three weeks of testing demonstrated that the treatment system's destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) are greater than 95% at 10 SCFM with UV intensities at or greater than 1.5 milliwatts/square centimeter (mW/cm(2)). DREs greater than 95% at 20 SCFM were obtained under conditions where UV irradiation measured at or greater than 2 mW/cm(2). In Sacramento, this provided 6 hours of operation per clear or nearly clear day in April. A solar tracking system could extend operating time. The air stream also contained trace amounts of benzene. We observed no loss of system performance during testing.

  2. Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, M.H.P.; Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Jansen, S.; Simkens, H.M.F.; Snik, A.F.M.; Broek, P. van den

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and results of a pilot study with a recently developed auditory test battery for 4-6-year-old Dutch children. The test battery consisted of a sustained auditory attention (SAA) test, a dichotic words (DW) test, a binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) test,

  3. Predictions of full-scale NO{sub x} emissions and LOI from coal and coal blends in pilot combustion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, L.S. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A research program designed to predict the NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels from low sulfur CAAA compliance coals in low NO{sub x} firing is continuing. Sponsored by Alabama Power and EPRI, the program is performed in the Southern Company and Southern Research Institute pilot-scale combustion facility. The coals are tested in the pilot furnace and predictions for the full-scale plants are made from the pilot data. In this paper, results relating to predicting NO{sub x} emissions and LOI for a coal blend from results on the parent coals are presented. Also, five different grinds of a Venezuelan coal, known to be particularly difficult to burn out, were burned with a low NO{sub x} burner. The LOI and NO{sub x} results for the various grinds are shown.

  4. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with a pilot-scale bioaugmented biological treatment system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In solving the deterioration of biological treatment system treating petrochemical wastewater under low temperatures,bioaugmentation technology was adopted by delivering engineering bacteria into a pilot-scale two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O)process based on previous lab-scale study. Experimental results showed that when the concentrations of COD and NH4+-N of the influent were 370~910 mg/L and 10~70 mg/L, the corresponding average concentrations of those of effluent were about 80 mg/L and 8 mg/L respectively, which was better than the Level I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996). According to GC-MS analysis of the effluents from both the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the pilot system, there were 68 kinds of persistent organic pollutants in the WWTP effluent, while there were only 32 in that of the pilot system. In addition, the amount of the organics in the effluent of the pilot system reduced by almost 50% compared to that of the WWTP. As a whole, after bioaugmentation, the organic removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment system obviously increased.

  5. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH)2. The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH)2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Manilla, Edmundo; Davila, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale investigations are needed; nevertheless, the complex patterns of chemical reactions and physical phenomena can best be studied in pilot-scale investigations. After studying the chemical and mineralogical properties, the strength and the melting behavior of Mn-nodules, presented in a previous paper, the process behavior of the ore is studied in a pilot scale experiment. The industrial process is simulated in a top-and bottom-electrode furnace operated at about 150 kW. The high-strength, low-melting Mn-nodules produced by Autlan were the main raw material mixed with Comilog ore and some lime. It was shown that the Mn-nodules behave in principle like other commercial Mn-raw materials. The ore will at the border of the high-temperature area produce a liquid in coexistence with a MnO phase. As the ore is reaching the cokebed zone, the ore is already fully reduced. The ore will not be reduced much more in the cokebed area. The slag will be tapped at the composition close to the liquidus composition, as observed for other Mn-raw materials, and thus, also follow the well-known rule of lower MnO content in the slag with higher basicity.

  7. Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Manilla, Edmundo; Davila, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale investigations are needed; nevertheless, the complex patterns of chemical reactions and physical phenomena can best be studied in pilot-scale investigations. After studying the chemical and mineralogical properties, the strength and the melting behavior of Mn-nodules, presented in a previous paper, the process behavior of the ore is studied in a pilot scale experiment. The industrial process is simulated in a top-and bottom-electrode furnace operated at about 150 kW. The high-strength, low-melting Mn-nodules produced by Autlan were the main raw material mixed with Comilog ore and some lime. It was shown that the Mn-nodules behave in principle like other commercial Mn-raw materials. The ore will at the border of the high-temperature area produce a liquid in coexistence with a MnO phase. As the ore is reaching the cokebed zone, the ore is already fully reduced. The ore will not be reduced much more in the cokebed area. The slag will be tapped at the composition close to the liquidus composition, as observed for other Mn-raw materials, and thus, also follow the well-known rule of lower MnO content in the slag with higher basicity.

  8. Testing the νmax scaling relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two key global seismic quantities are relevant to estimate the fundamental properties of a star: the frequency of maximum power (νmax and the large frequency separation (Δν. The focus of this work is to test the νmax scaling relation in order to ascertain it’s level of accuracy. Here we report our results using artificial data and real Kepler data, based on a grid-modelling approach.

  9. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-09-14

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  10. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  11. Anoxic phosphorus removal in a pilot scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxun HOU; Shuying WANG; Yongzhen PENG; Zhiguo YUAN; Fangfang YIN; Wang GAN

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch (A2/O OD) process is popularly used to eliminate nutrients from domestic wastewater. In order to identify the existence of denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB), evalu-ate the contribution of DPB to biological nutrient removal,and enhance the denitrifying phosphorus removal in the A2/O OD process, a pilot-scale A2/O OD plant (375 L)was conducted. At the same time batch tests using sequence batch reactors (12 L and 4 L) were operated to reveal the significance of anoxic phosphorus removal. The results indicated that: The average removal efficiency of COD, NH4+, pO3-4, and TN were 88.2%, 92.6%, 87.8%,and 73.1%, respectively, when the steady state of the pilotscale A2/O OD plant was reached during 31-73d,demonstrating a good denitrifying phosphorus removal performance. Phosphorus uptake took place in the anoxic zone by poly-phosphorus accumulating organisms NO2- could be used as electron receptors in denitrifying phosphorus removal, and the phosphorus uptake rate with NO2- as the electron receptor was higher than that with NO3- when the initial concentration of either NO2- or NO3 was 40 mg/L.

  12. Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick Wingerson

    2004-12-15

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

  13. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  14. Pilot-scale study of removal effect on Chironomid larvae with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chironomid larvae propagated excessively in eutrophic water body and could not be effectively inactivated by the conventional disinfection process like chlorination due to its stronger resistance to oxidation. In this paper, a pilot-scale study of chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperating with routine clarification process for Chironomid larvae removal was conducted in Shenzhen Waterworks in Guangdong Province, China. The experimental results were compared with that of the existing prechlorination process in several aspects, including the Chironomid larvae removal efficiencies of water samples taken from the outlets of sedimentation tank, sand filter, the security of drinking water and so on. The results showed that chlorine dioxide might be more effective to inactivate Chironomid larvae than chlorine and Chironomid larvae could be thoroughly removed from water by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide process. The GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the sort and amount of organic substance in the treated water by chlorine dioxide preoxidation were evidently less than that ofprechlorination and the mutagenicity of drinking water treated by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide was substantially reduced compared with prechlorination.

  15. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  17. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  18. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  19. Paresev on lakebed with Mercury astronaut Gus Grissom and Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center Paresev 1-A with Mercury Astronaut Gus Grissom (left) and NASA test pilot Milton Thompson. Do you suppose they are wondering if all those clouds will mean a canceled flight?

  20. Significant Progress in Pilot Test of Polymer Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Heng; Fu Dewu

    1994-01-01

    @@ Daqing oilfields have been developed with water injection for over thirty years. Currently,the pilot tests of polymer flooding for enhanced oil recovery are being conducted and significant progress has been made.

  1. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2006-08-01

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

  2. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  3. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  4. Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

    1981-08-01

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

  5. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Simulated control in Aspen Dynamics for the production of limonene epoxide at pilot scale

    OpenAIRE

    Yeison Agudelo Arenas; Rolando Barrera Zapata

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution is reported the study and analysis of the control system (simulated) for the process of obtaining limonene epoxide. The modelling of the process at pilot scale was implemented in the software Aspen Plus from literature reports. Aspen Dynamics was used for the study of the process control. The model allows observing the behavior of the variables of interest in the process such as outflows from the distillation tower, heat duty, operating temperaturas and purity of the fina...

  7. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiane R.; Ruggeri,Giacommo; Paoli,Marco-A. De

    2003-01-01

    The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units). The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Th...

  8. Research Note-Testing for Gerontological Competencies: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Colleen; Curl, Angela L.; Woodbury, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the pilot delivery of an evaluation method to gauge student learning of gerontological competencies. Using a pretest and posttest design, data were collected on 46 students over 3 classes. Results indicated significant improvement in how students rated or perceived their competencies skill level between pretest and posttest…

  9. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Stuart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  10. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  11. Correlations between visual test results and flying performance on the advanced simulator for pilot training (ASPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, R; Regan, D; Beverley, K I; Longridge, T

    1981-08-01

    Looking for visual differences in pilots to account for differences in flying performance, we tested five groups of subjects: Air Force primary student jet pilots, graduating (T38 aircraft) students, Air Force pilot instructors, and two control groups made up of experienced nonpilot aircrew and nonflying civilians. This interim report compares 13 different visual test results with low-visibility landing performance on the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory ASPT simulator. Performance was assessed by the number of crashes and by the distance of the aircraft from the runway threshold at the time of the first visual flight correction. Our main finding was that, for student pilots, landing performance correlated with tracking performance for a target that changed size (as if moving in depth) and also with tracking performance for a target that moved sideways. On the other hand, landing performance correlated comparatively weakly with psychophysical thresholds for motion and contrast. For student pilots, several of the visual tests gave results that correlated with flying grades in T37 and T38 jet aircraft. Tracking tests clearly distinguished between the nonflying group and all the flying groups. On the other hand, visual threshold tests did not distinguish between nonflying and flying groups except for grating contrast, which distinguished between the nonflying group and the pilot instructors. The sideways-motion tracking task was sensitive enough to distinguish between the various flying groups.

  12. Staff views of an opportunistic chlamydia testing pilot in a primary health organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernon S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Auckland chlamydia pilot was one of three pilots funded by the Ministry of Health to trial implementation of the 2008 Chlamydia Management Guidelines prior to national roll-out. AIM: To assess what elements in the testing programme pilot worked best for staff and to determine how an opportunistic testing programme could be better configured to meet staff needs and preferences. METHODS: A staff survey listed key chlamydia testing tasks in chronological order, and service interventions supporting these tasks. Staff were asked to rate each task on its difficulty prior to the pilot, and then on the difference the pilot had made to each task. They were also asked to rate service interventions on their usefulness during the pilot implementation. RESULTS: The survey had a response rate of 94%. The testing tasks posing the greatest difficulties to staff were those involving patient interactions (41% and management of follow-up (52%. About 70% of staff felt tasks were improved by the pilot. Staff considered the three most useful service interventions to be a chlamydia-specific template created for the practice management system, provision of printed patient resources, and regular team discussions with other staff. DISCUSSION: A significant proportion of staff reported difficulties with routine tasks required for opportunistic testing for chlamydia, highlighting the need to involve staff during programme design. Practice nurse-led approaches to future opportunistic testing programmes should be considered as nurses had a more positive response to the pilot and nurse-led approaches have been shown to be successful overseas.

  13. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  14. Start up and operation of a pilot scale aerobic granular SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, N.; Figueroa, M.; Val del Rio, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    The development of biomass in the form of aerobic granules is being recently under study as an improvement of conventional activated sludge system. Aerobic granules have been formed treating synthetic, municipal and industrial wastewaters in lab scale reactors, achieving good performances. The aim of this work is the study of the development and operation of aerobic granules in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR with a working volume of 100 L, an internal diameter of 30 cm and a useful height of 150 cm was used. (Author)

  15. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  16. Pilot-scale application of an online VFA sensor for monitoring and control of a manure digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    parameter for optimization, it could not distinguish between the decreases of biogas production from inhibition and from lower organic content in the substrate, which resulted in undesired decreasing of the control gas setpoint when the substrate was diluted. It was necessary to adjust the yield parameter...... in order to get this control approach to function properly, which is not suitable for the full-scale biogas plant where the organic content of waste streams can vary. An alternative approach could be a modified rule-based algorithm that includes VFA parameters to help distinguish between different process......A volatile fatty acids (VFA) sensor based on headspace chromatography was tested for online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale manure digester. The sensor showed satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring of the digester. The online VFA and biogas production data...

  17. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  18. A pilot study to test the effectiveness of an innovative interprofessional education assessment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Michelle Christine; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this quasi-experimental pilot study were to test an assessment tool designed to evaluate students' teamwork skills, and to assess the effectiveness of an interprofessional education (IPE) course. Participants were health professional students (physical therapy, pharmacy, dental and osteopathic medicine), 24 of whom were second-year students who had previously taken part in an IPE course (experimental group), and 22 of whom were third years that had not (control group). Students interacted with a standardized patient and her son during an asynchronous Team Objective Structured Clinical Exam (TOSCE), after which they were scored on their teamwork skills using newly designed teamwork rating scales. Cronbach Alpha calculations suggest that the rating scales are reliable when rater scores are aggregated (0.81). Pearson coefficient calculations determined that teamwork scores of live raters and video raters were significantly correlated (p teamwork skills. The results of this study contribute to the much needed IPE assessment literature, and suggest that teamwork skills can be taught and effectively assessed using this new rating scale.

  19. Coconut husk-fueled pilot plant put to test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A pilot electric-power plant, running on coconut husks, was successfully demonstrated in Laguna, Philippines. This 30-kW biomass-fed plant provides electricity for 50 remote households and a wood-carving shop using a motor. The system involves: burning coconut husks to obtain producer gas; filtering this gas and driving a generator with the power of the combusted gas. The village is saving 65 to 75% of their diesel fuel consumption with this system.

  20. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  1. Test results from the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.; Olander, R.G.; Lobach, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A 500 kW power plant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is being operated at the East Mesa test facility. The power plant incorporates a 40-inch-diameter direct-contactor approximately 35 feet tall. The purpose of the pilot plant is to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct-contact heat exchange and power plant operation with the DCHX. The binary cycle offers higher conversion factors (heat energy transformed to electrical energy) than the flashed steam approach for geothermal brines in the 300 to 400/sup 0/F range and preliminary results indicate the DCHX system may have higher performance than the conventional tube-and-shell binary approach. This performance advantage results from the absence of any fouling and the very close pinch temperatures achieved in the DCHX itself. The baseline performance tests for the plant were completed in January 1980. The results of these tests and follow-on testing are covered.

  2. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  3. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Caridad; González, Domingo; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Lastre, Miriam; González, Elizabeth; Romeu, Belkis; Cuello, Maribel; Balboa, Julio; Cabrera, Osmir; Guilherme, Luisa; Pérez, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m² area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated.

  4. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Pilot project wind power - Large scale wind power in northern Sweden; Pilotprojekt vindkraft - Storskalig vindkraft i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency granted 2009-04-20 Svevind AB financial aid to implement {sup P}ilot project wind power- Large scale wind power in northern Sweden{sup .} The purpose of the aid is to implement pilot sub-projects in wind power, to to increase knowledge for the larger establishments. The Energy Agency said in its decision that the projects Dragaliden and Gabriel Mountain is of 'great importance for future large-scale development of wind power in Sweden'. The special conditions prevailing in the project, forest environment and cold climate, gives the possibility of studies of wind turbines on birds, reindeer herding and hunting and the more technical aspects, such as de-icing and obstacle lighting. The objectives of the project, in addition to the construction and operation of 32 wind turbines, has been to include evaluating the permit process, studying the social effects around the wind power, to study the impact on small game hunting, perform tests of the de-icing system, investigate impacts on reindeer herding and explain the outcome of the project-generated rural funds. Some of the above sub-projects have been completed, which are reported in this report. For the sub-projects still in progress, the report presents the results to date, until the completion.

  6. Long term test of buffer material. Final Report on the pilot parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Sanden, Torbjoern; Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Eriksen, Trygve E; Jansson, Mats; Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten; Motamedi, Mehrdad [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Rosborg, Bo [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    processes, with respect to buffer performance, were found in the major part of the bentonite as a consequence of the water saturation process and heating for one year. Bentonite plugs containing {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co, with an activity of 1 MBq, respectively, were placed at defined positions in the bentonite in order to study cation diffusion. Transport in unsaturated bentonite was confirmed to be minimal. The apparent diffusivity of cobalt in the saturated bentonite was measured to be about 2x10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s, which is in good agreement with previous experiments. The caesium results, on the other hand, were not possible to accommodate to a diffusion profile, and further investigation will therefore be made. Large numbers of microorganisms, in the range of 10{sup 7} - 10{sup 9} cells/gdw clay, were introduced into two blocks as starting concentrations. The material was analysed immediately after mixing, after 72 hours, and after termination of the experiment. All bacteria except for the spore-forming species were eliminated below the detection limits in the exposed parcel material. Small well-characterised copper coupons were placed in the bentonite at a few locations. The coupons were of the same copper quality as proposed for the KBS3 canisters. The mean corrosion rate was calculated to be 3x10{sup -6} m per year, which is well in accordance with previous modeling results for oxic conditions. Optical and SEM analyses did not reveal any signs of pitting. A higher copper content was noticed in the bentonite in the vicinity of the copper coupons. Valuable experiences concerning the construction and handling of the test system have been gained during the pilot tests, which are now used in the long-term tests and in the planning of the full-scale tests at Aespoe HRL.

  7. A pilot-scale trial of an improved galvanic deoxidation process for refining molten copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soral, P.; Pal, U.; Larson, H. R.; Schroeder, B.

    1999-04-01

    A laboratory-scale galvanic deoxidation technology developed by earlier workers has been improved, with the aim of developing a prototype pilot-scale deoxidation unit. Each deoxidation cell consists of a one end-closed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube coated with a Ni-YSZ cermet anode on the inner walls. The YSZ tube is immersed, with its closed end in the metallic melt, and an oxygen-chemical-potential gradient across the tube is established by passing a reducing gas through the tube. The melt is then deoxidized by short circuiting it with the anode. Through laboratory experimentation, the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface adhesion was identified to be an important factor in obtaining enhanced deoxidation kinetics. The kinetics of oxygen removal from the melt was increased by an order of magnitude with an improved anode/electrolyte interface. A pilot-scale refining unit consisting of 53 cells with the improved anode/electrolyte interface was manufactured, and a field evaluation of the galvanic deoxidation of copper was conducted. The deoxidation-process model was modified to include multiple deoxidation cells, which were required for the pilot-scale trials, and to analyze the effect of electrolyte/electrode adhesion on deoxidation kinetics. Preliminary studies on process component lifetimes were conducted by investigating the thermal cycling, corrosion behavior of the electrolyte, and stability of the cermet anode structure. Based on the results of the field trial and the analyses of the process component lifetime, future work needed toward commercializing the technology is discussed.

  8. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre;

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  9. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon

  10. X-15 test pilots - Thompson, Dana, and McKay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    NASA pilots Milton O. Thompson, William H. 'Bill' Dana, and John B. 'Jack' McKay are seen here in front of the #2 X-15 (56-6671) rocket-powered research aircraft. Among them, the three NASA research pilots made 59 flights in the X-15 (14 for Thompson, 16 for Dana, and 29 for McKay). The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the

  11. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  12. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  14. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... and R2 reactors were 0.01571 and 0.01195 1/d, respectively. The correlation between the model and the experimental parameters was more than 95%, showing the good fit of the model....

  15. Report on Tier-0 Scaling Tests

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Branco; L. Goossens; A. Nairz

    To get prepared for handling the enormous data rates and volumes during LHC operation, ATLAS is currently running so-called Tier-0 Scaling Tests, which were started beginning of November and will last until Christmas. These tests are carried out in the context of LCG (LHC Computing Grid) Service Challenge 3 (SC3), a joint exercise of CERN IT and the LHC experiments to test the infrastructure of computing, network, and data management, in particular for its architecture, scalabilty and readiness for LHC data taking. ATLAS has adopted a multi-Tier hierarchical model to organise the workflow, with dedicated tasks to be performed at the individual levels in the Tier hierarchy. The Tier-0 centre located at CERN will be responsible for performing a first-pass reconstruction of the data arriving from the Event Filter farm, thus producing Event Summary Data (ESDs), Analysis Object Data (AODs) and event Tags, for processing calibration and alignment information, for archiving both raw and reconstructed data, and for ...

  16. Research-scale melter test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.F.; Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Higginson, J.J.; Mahoney, L.A.; Powell, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment (MPA) activity in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Technology Development (PHTD) effort is intended to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference HWVP melter. As a part of this activity, a parametric melter test was completed using a Research-Scale Melter (RSM). The RSM is a small, approximately 1/100-scale melter, 6-in.-diameter, that allows rapid changing of process conditions and subsequent re-establishment of a steady-state condition. The test matrix contained nine different segments that varied the melter operating parameters (glass and plenum temperatures) and feed properties (oxide concentration, redox potential, and noble metal concentrations) so that the effects of these parameters on noble metal agglomeration on the melter floor could be evaluated. The RSM operated for 48 days and consumed 1,300 L of feed, equating to 153 tank turnovers. The run produced 531 kg of glass. During the latter portion of the run, the resistance between the electrodes decreased. Upon destructive examination of the melter, a layer of noble metals was found on the bottom. This was surprising because the glass residence time in the RSM is only 10% of the HWVP plant melter. The noble metals layer impacted the melter significantly. Approximately 1/3 of one paddle electrode was melted or corroded off. The cause is assumed to be localized heating from short circuiting of the electrode to the noble metal layer. The metal layer also removed approximately 1/2 in. of the refractory on the bottom of the melter. The mechanism for this damage is not presently known.

  17. The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

  18. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; García Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  19. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.

    2012-12-21

    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, L.; Castle, J.W.; Rodgers, J.H. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) was designed and built to decrease the concentration and toxicity of constituents of concern in ash basin water from coal-burning power plants. The CWTS was designed to promote the following treatment processes for metals and metalloids: precipitation as non-bioavailable sulfides, co-precipitation with iron oxyhydroxides, and adsorption onto iron oxides. Concentrations of Zn, Cr, Hg, As, and Se in simulated ash basin water were reduced by the CWTS to less than USEPA-recommended water quality criteria. The removal efficiency (defined as the percent concentration decrease from influent to effluent) was dependent on the influent concentration of the constituent, while the extent of removal (defined as the concentration of a constituent of concern in the CWTS effluent) was independent of the influent concentration. Results from toxicity experiments illustrated that the CWTS eliminated influent toxicity with regard to survival and reduced influent toxicity with regard to reproduction. Reduction in potential for scale formation and biofouling was achieved through treatment of the simulated ash basin water by the pilot-scale CWTS.

  1. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-12-06

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird{reg_sign} sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method.

  2. X-15 #3 with test pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson stands next to the X-15 #3 ship after a research flight. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the Flight Research Facility on March 19, 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on May 25, 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on October 29, 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on August 8, 1993. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, andunique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudders on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable

  3. X-15 mock-up with test pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson is seen here with the mock-up of X-15 #3 that was later installed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the flight research facility on 19 March 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on 25 May 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on 29 October 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. (On a different flight, he reached a Mach number of 5.48 but his mph was only 3712.) Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on 8 August 1993. The X-15 was a rocket powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense

  4. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  5. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  6. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  7. 石灰软化-絮凝法处理地下水硬度动态中试试验研究%A dynamic pilot-scale test on treatment of hardness of groundwater by lime softening-flocculation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文婷; 陈涛; 唐友尧

    2013-01-01

    Lime softening-flocculation process was used to treat hardness of groundwater of a water supply plant in southern China,a dynamic pilot-scale test equipped with integrated device on the treatment of the said kind of water was carried out with the aim of investigating the operation effect of lime-softening process and exploring the influence of lime and PAC dosage on water treatment effect.The results of the test showed that,when the dosage of Ca(OH)2 and PAC were 299.1-361.3 and 43.6-48.7mg/L respectively,a satisfying treatment effect could be obtained.The total hardness (calculated by CaCO3) and total alkalinity decreased to 110 and 80 mg/L respectively,which met the requirement of GB 5749-2006 Standards for drinking water quality.According to the analysis from aspects of infrastructure,equipment investment and running cost,it could be found that,the water producing cost of lime softening process was 0.457 yuan/t lower than that of the ion exchange process.%采用石灰软化-絮凝法处理华南地区某水厂地下水硬度.动态中试试验采用一体化处理装置,考察石灰软化工艺运行效果,并进一步探索石灰投加量和PAC投加量对试验效果的影响.试验结果表明,Ca(OH)2投加量为299.1 ~ 361.3 mg/L、PAC投加量为43.6~48.7 mg/L,处理效果较佳.处理后总硬度(以CaCO3计)降到110mg/L,总碱度(非碳酸盐碱度)降到80 mg/L,符合GB 5749-2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》要求.基于基础设施、设备投资和运行成本的分析表明,石灰软化工艺较离子交换工艺的制水成本减少0.457元/t.

  8. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  9. TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER USING A CONTINUOUS FLOW ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM AT PILOT-SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ABOULHASSAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry wastewaters contain high concentrations of organic matter, toxic substances and dyes and pigments, and are harmful to receiving environment. Activated sludge system at pilot scale with continuous feeding, was used for the treatment of a dyeing unit effluent. The results showed that treatment allows a removal rate of 40-56 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD, and 13 to 30 % of color. The adsorption on sludge appears to be the main process responsible for the color removal of wastewater generated by textile industry.

  10. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  11. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  12. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  13. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  14. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deru, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Trenbath, Kim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  15. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon

  16. Removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages during drinking water treatment at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaud, Nicolas; Machinal, Claire; David, Fabienne; Fréval-Le Bourdonnec, Armelle; Jossent, Jérôme; Bakanga, Fanny; Arnal, Charlotte; Jaffrezic, Marie Pierre; Oberti, Sandrine; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-05-15

    The removal of MS2, Qβ and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Qβ surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than 1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of

  17. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  18. A pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) for woolen mill dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale(10 m3/d) anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor(A/O MBR) was tested for dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen millwithout wasting sludge in 125 days operation. Results showed that the effluent quality was excellent, i.e. effluent COD less than 25 mg/L,BOD5 under 5 mg/L, turbidity lower than 0.65 NTU, and colour less than 30 DT, and met with the reuse water standard of Cb. ina. The removalrates of COD, BOD5, colour, and turbidity were 92.4%, 98.4%, 74% and 98.9%, respectively. Constant-flux operation mode was carriedout in this study, and backwash was effective for reducing membrane fouling and maintaining constant flux. Membrane fouling had heavy impacton energy consumption. More attention should be paid on pipe selection and design for the sidestream MBR system, too.

  19. Evaluation of the finger wrinkling test : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Barneveld, S.; van der Palen, J.; van Putten, M. J. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tilt table testing mainly evaluates the systemic cardiovascular part of the autonomic nervous system, while it is assumed that the finger wrinkling test assesses the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system. In this study we explored whether the finger wrinkling test could be a useful test fo

  20. Wireless Roadside Inspection Phase II Tennessee Commercial Mobile Radio Services Pilot Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program is researching the feasibility and value of electronically assessing truck and bus driver and vehicle safety at least 25 times more often than is possible using only roadside physical inspections. The WRI program is evaluating the potential benefits to both the motor carrier industry and to government. These potential benefits include reduction in accidents, fatalities and injuries on our highways and keeping safe and legal drivers and vehicles moving on the highways. WRI Pilot tests were conducted to prototype, test and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of electronically collecting safety data message sets from in-service commercial vehicles and performing wireless roadside inspections using three different communication methods. This report summarizes the design, conduct and results of the Tennessee CMRS WRI Pilot Test. The purpose of this Pilot test was to demonstrate the implementation of commercial mobile radio services to electronically request and collect safety data message sets from a limited number of commercial vehicles operating in Tennessee. The results of this test have been used in conjunction with the results of the complimentary pilot tests to support an overall assessment of the feasibility and benefits of WRI in enhancing motor carrier safety (reduction in accidents) due to increased compliance (change in motor carrier and driver behavior) caused by conducting frequent safety inspections electronically, at highway speeds, without delay or need to divert into a weigh station

  1. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation.

  2. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  3. Second-order chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation in a pilot-scale water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Yu, Jieze; Zhang, Tu-qiao; Mao, Xinwei; Shao, Weiyun

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments were run to investigate the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of trihalomethanes (THMs) in pilot-scale water distribution systems. Experimental results show that the rate constants of chlorine decay, including wall decay and bulk decay, increasing with temperature. Moreover, the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of THMs describe experiment data of pilot-scale water distribution systems. The effect of different piping material on chlorine decay and THMs formation were also investigated. The rate constants of chlorine decay are ranked in order: stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because wall decay is the largest in stainless steel pipe than that in other piping material. Correspondingly, the rate of THMs formation follows the order of stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because of less chlorine in bulk water reacting with the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP).

  4. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  6. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  7. Pilot scale thin film plate reactors for the photocatalytic treatment of sugar refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, S; Kamalraj, G; Arunkumar, P; Devipriya, S P

    2016-09-01

    Pilot scale thin film plate reactors (TFPR) were fabricated to study the solar photocatalytic treatment of wastewater obtained from the secondary treatment plant of a sugar refinery. Silver-impregnated titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by a facile chemical reduction method, characterized, and immobilized onto the surface of ceramic tiles used in the pilot scale reactors. On 8 h of solar irradiation, percentage reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater by Ag/TiO2, pure TiO2, and control (without catalyst) TFPR was about 95, 86, and 22 % respectively. The effects of operational parameters such as, flow rate, pH, and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were optimized as they influence the rate of COD reduction. Under 3 h of solar irradiation, 99 % COD reduction was observed at an optimum flow rate of 15 L h(-1), initial pH of 2, and addition of 5 mM of H2O2. The results show that Ag/TiO2 TFPR could be effectively used for the tertiary treatment of sugar refinery effluent using sunlight as the energy source. The treated water could be reused for industrial purposes, thus reducing the water footprint of the industry. Graphical Abstract Sugar refinery effluent treatment by solar photocatalytic TFPR.

  8. Pilot-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by physicochemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K

    2013-01-01

    The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  10. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg;

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function...... of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling bed mode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel particle size and shape, fuel particle density, rotary kiln fill degree and rotational speed. Large fuel particles and low-density fuel particles appeared more on top.......Results can be up-scaled to industrial conditions in cement rotary kilns and show that even relatively large fuel particles will predominantly be covered by raw material after less than 30s in the rotary kiln. This affects the heating and combustion mechanisms for the fuel particles....

  11. Two Massive Hydraulic Tests Completed in Deep KTB Pilot Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A. Shapiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTBboreholes in Windischeschenbach, Bavaria, Germany have revealed a wealth of geoscientific data during the years of pre-drilling surveys (1984–1986, the drilling phase (1987–1994, and the subsequent deep-crustal laboratory phase (1995–2000, e.g. Emmermann & Lauterjung, 1997. In 2001, a new series of experiments were launched within and around the two KTB boreholes, the 4.0-km-deep pilot hole (KTBVB, and the 9.1-km-deep main hole (KTB-HB; Fig. 1. Theseexperiments address the spatial extension of fluid flow and fluid systems in the Earth's crystalline crust, their impact on physical rock parameters, rheology, the dynamics and mechanical stability of the crust, and the transport of soluble matter. Studies of these parameters under in situ conditions are of fundamental geoscientific and societal interest in areas such as the optimal use of fluid and thermal reservoirs, the safe disposal of critical wastes, and understanding seismogenesis, particularly in connection with large lake reservoirs.

  12. Testing and Commissioning of Lillgrund Wind Farm. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake; Jeppsson, Joakim; Toernkvist, Mattias (ed.) (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    This report gives an overview of the tests carried out in the Lillgrund project. The report covers factory tests, site tests and the performance tests, which can be carried out during the defects liability period. The report describes tests relevant for the wind turbine generators, the electrical system and the foundations. On the whole, the Lillgrund test results have been satisfactory. One of the more problematic issues experienced were when the foundation interface verification showed that the bolts were not meeting the height requirements. Since this shortcoming was detected relatively early in the project life, it was possible to correct the misalignment and keep the additional costs to a minimum. From a management point of view, this highlighted the importance of clear and unambiguous interface specifications and to make sure that the project has a proper interface management function. According to the Contract, Vattenfall has the right to verify a number of performance parameters during the 5-year defect liability period. The performance tests include availability, power curve, electrical system losses and acoustic noise levels. The contract specifies the test criteria, the test methods and procedures and the penalty if the tests result in undesirable levels. In some cases, there is a financial incentive for the supplier if the tests show that the wind farm is performing better than stipulated in the contract. Lillgrund has performed very well thus far and Vattenfall has determined that the contractual performance requirements are being met. Vattenfall has, therefore, not requested to carry out any of these elective Performance Tests

  13. Evaluation of the finger wrinkling test: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barneveld, van S.; Palen, van der J.; Putten, van M.J.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tilt table testing mainly evaluates the systemic cardiovascular part of the autonomic nervous system, while it is assumed that the finger wrinkling test assesses the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system. In this study we explored whether the finger wrinkling test could be a usefu

  14. Testing and Commissioning of Lillgrund Wind Farm. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Poul Erik; Larsson, Aake; Jeppsson, Joakim; Toernkvist, Mattias (ed.) (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    This report gives an overview of the tests carried out in the Lillgrund project. The report covers factory tests, site tests and the performance tests, which can be carried out during the defects liability period. The report describes tests relevant for the wind turbine generators, the electrical system and the foundations. On the whole, the Lillgrund test results have been satisfactory. One of the more problematic issues experienced were when the foundation interface verification showed that the bolts were not meeting the height requirements. Since this shortcoming was detected relatively early in the project life, it was possible to correct the misalignment and keep the additional costs to a minimum. From a management point of view, this highlighted the importance of clear and unambiguous interface specifications and to make sure that the project has a proper interface management function. According to the Contract, Vattenfall has the right to verify a number of performance parameters during the 5-year defect liability period. The performance tests include availability, power curve, electrical system losses and acoustic noise levels. The contract specifies the test criteria, the test methods and procedures and the penalty if the tests result in undesirable levels. In some cases, there is a financial incentive for the supplier if the tests show that the wind farm is performing better than stipulated in the contract. Lillgrund has performed very well thus far and Vattenfall has determined that the contractual performance requirements are being met. Vattenfall has, therefore, not requested to carry out any of these elective Performance Tests

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPORTS SPECIFIC AEROBIC CAPACITY TEST FOR KARATE - A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an aerobic fitness assessment test for competitive Karate practitioners and describe the preliminary findings. Five well-trained, competitive Karate practitioners participated in this study. A protocol simulating common attack strikes used in competition Karate sparring was developed from video analysis. In addition, pilot testing established a specific sequence of strikes and timings to be used in the test. The time to perform the strike sequence remai...

  16. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  17. Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Conventional value-added assessment requires that achievement be reported on an interval scale. While many metrics do not have this property, application of item response theory (IRT) is said to produce interval scales. However, it is difficult to confirm that the requisite conditions are met. Even when they are, the properties of the data that…

  18. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing.

  19. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations...

  20. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  1. Motion simulation of transport aircraft in extended envelopes : Test pilot assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Wentink, M.; Smaili, H.; Zaichik, L.; Groen, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The European research project SUPRA (“Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation”) produced an extended aerodynamic model for simulation of a generic transport aircraft, capturing the key aircraft behavior beyond aerodynamic stall. As described in the current paper, a group of 11 test pilots with

  2. Pilot scale treatment of chromite ore processing residue using sodium sulfide in single reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Hernández, Sergio; Schmidt, Winfried; Revah, Sergio

    2012-03-15

    Single Cr(VI) reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization (R/S) processes were evaluated at pilot scale to determine their effectiveness to treat chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Sodium sulfide was used as the reducing agent and cement, gypsum and lime were tested as the stabilizing agents. The pilot experiments were performed in a helical ribbon blender mixer with batches of 250 kg of COPR and mixing time up to 30 min. Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratios of 4.6, 5.7 and 6.8 were evaluated in the single reduction process to treat COPR with Cr(VI) concentration of ≈4.2 g/kg. The R/S process was tested with a Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratio of 5.7 and including stabilizing agents not exceeding 5% (w/w(COPR)), to treat COPR with a Cr(VI) content of ≈5.1g/kg. The single reduction process with a ratio of 6.8, reached Cr(VI) reduction efficiencies up to 97.6% in the first days, however these values decreased to around 93% after 380 days of storage. At this point the total Cr level was around 12.5 mg/L. Cr(VI) removal efficiencies exceeding 96.5% were reached and maintained during 380 days when the coupled R/S process was evaluated. Total Cr levels lower than 5 mg/l were attained at the initials days in all R/S batch tested, however after 380 days, concentrations below the regulatory limit were only found with gypsum (2%) as single agent and with a blend of cement (4%) and lime (1%). These results indicated that the coupled R/S process is an excellent alternative to stabilize COPR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Palafox, Lorena; Hernandez, Jorge; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-04-18

    Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user's arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0.009). Subjects did not report

  4. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  5. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  6. DEBATES SCALING UP HIV TESTING IN RESOURCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    undergo a diagnostic test.5 The requirements for valid consent ... settings, where the need for knowledge of HIV status for both prevention and care is critical. ... in Africa, access to HIV testing and to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) has been very limited, .... testing, in which health care workers make a point of offering.

  7. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole.

  8. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  9. Optimization of a catchment-scale coupled surface-subsurface hydrological model using pilot points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danapour, Mehrdis; Stisen, Simon; Lajer Højberg, Anker

    2016-04-01

    Transient coupled surface-subsurface models are usually complex and contain a large amount of spatio-temporal information. In the traditional calibration approach, model parameters are adjusted against only few spatially aggregated observations of discharge or individual point observations of groundwater head. However, this approach doesn't enable an assessment of spatially explicit predictive model capabilities at the intermediate scale relevant for many applications. The overall objectives of this project is to develop a new model calibration and evaluation framework by combining distributed model parameterization and regularization with new types of objective functions focusing on optimizing spatial patterns rather than individual points or catchment scale features. Inclusion of detailed observed spatial patterns of hydraulic head gradients or relevant information obtained from remote sensing data in the calibration process could allow for a better representation of spatial variability of hydraulic properties. Pilot Points as an alternative to classical parameterization approaches, introduce great flexibility when calibrating heterogeneous systems without neglecting expert knowledge (Doherty, 2003). A highly parameterized optimization of complex distributed hydrological models at catchment scale is challenging due to the computational burden that comes with it. In this study the physically-based coupled surface-subsurface model MIKE SHE is calibrated for the 8,500 km2 area of central Jylland (Denmark) that is characterized by heterogeneous geology and considerable groundwater flow across topographical catchment boundaries. The calibration of the distributed conductivity fields is carried out with a pilot point-based approach, implemented using the PEST parameter estimation tool. To reduce the high number of calibration parameters, PEST's advanced singular value decomposition combined with regularization was utilized and a reduction of the model's complexity was

  10. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR has had a strong drive in fluidised bed technology for over two decades. During this period collaboration has been fostered with numerous partners and clients. By being able to draw on their resources, skills, test and other facilities...

  11. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships...... shows that small-scale tests applied with overburden pressure are preferable....

  12. Thermal composting of faecal matter as treatment and possible disinfection method--laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, Björn; Björklund, Anders; Jönsson, Håkan

    2003-05-01

    When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for dry thermal composting was a mix of faeces, food waste and amendment. The urine was collected separately by use of urine-diverting toilets. A new method was developed to mathematically evaluate and estimate the safety margins of pathogen inactivation during thermal composting. The method is based upon a mathematical calculation of the number of times total inactivation (at least 12log(10) reduction) of the organisms is achieved. In a pilot-scale experiment, the disinfection of a faeces/food waste mix was performed with a calculated safety margin of more than 37 times the total die-off of Enteroviruses and some 550 times that of Ascaris. Thus, well functioning composting seems to be effective for disinfection of faecal matter. To get a high temperature in all of the material, the reactor has to have sufficient insulation. A major disadvantage is the initial need for handling the raw un-disinfected material. The degradation of the organic matter in the compost was almost 75%, resulting in a small final volume that could safely be recycled.

  13. Photocatalysis with solar energy at a pilot-plant scale. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian; Vidal, Alfonso [CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Crta. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Richter, Christoph [DLR-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Crta. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2002-04-08

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting the high reactivity of OH radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving the complete abatement and through mineralization of even less reactive pollutants. This paper reviews the use of sunlight to produce (.)OH radicals. The experimental systems necessary for performing pilot-plant scale solar photocatalytic experiments are described. It outlines the basic components of these pilot plants and the fundamental parameters related to solar photocatalysis reactions. This paper summarizes also most of the research carried out at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) related with solar photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants. A description is given of how solar photocatalysis could become a significant segment of the wastewater treatment technologies related with the degradation of very persistent toxic compounds. It outlines also the decomposition of organic and inorganic contaminants and different examples are also shown for better comprehension of the ability of solar energy for carrying out oxidation and reduction processes. These examples include chlorophenols, chlorinated solvents, pesticides and cyanide. Besides, the possibility of using the photo-Fenton reaction illuminated with solar light opens the boundary where solar photocatalysis could be applied.

  14. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  15. easyCBM CCSS Math Item Scaling and Test Form Revision (2012-2013): Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to document the piloting and scaling of new easyCBM mathematics test items aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and to describe the process used to revise and supplement the 2012 research version easyCBM CCSS math tests in Grades 6-8. For all operational 2012 research version test forms (10…

  16. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150.

  17. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Mills, Melissa Marie; Matteo, Edward N

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the first stage in a collaborative effort by Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories to design a small-diameter borehole heater test in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). The intention is to complete test design during the remainder of fiscal year 2017 (FY17), and the implementation of the test will begin in FY18. This document is the result of regular meetings between the three national labs and the DOE-NE, and is intended to represent a consensus of these meetings and discussions.

  18. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  19. Antibacterial and enzymatic activity of microbial community during wastewater treatment by pilot scale vermifiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sudipti; Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Pruthi, Vikas; Bhatia, Akansha; Kazmi, A A

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated microbial community diversity and antibacterial and enzymatic properties of microorganisms in a pilot-scale vermifiltration system during domestic wastewater treatment. The study included isolation and identification of diverse microbial community by culture-dependent method from a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional geofilter (GF) without earthworms. The results of the four months study revealed that presence of earthworms in VF could efficiently remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and other pathogens. Furthermore, the burrowing activity of earthworms promoted the aeration conditions in VF which led to the predominance of the aerobic microorganisms, accounting for complex microbial community diversity. Antibacterial activity of the isolated microorganisms revealed the mechanism behind the removal of pathogens, which is reported for the first time. Specifically, cellulase, amylase and protease activity is responsible for biodegradation and stabilization of organic matter.

  20. Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment of Detergent Industry Using Coagulation Procession Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surfactant or surface active agents are slightly soluble in water and cause foaming in waste treatment plants and also in the surface waters into which the waste effluent is discharged. During aeration of wastewater, these compounds collect on the surface of the water bubbles and create some problems in waste treatment. Methods: In this study, surfactant, turbidity and COD in the industrial wastewater of the company, Paksan was studied. Study was done at pH ranging between 2 and 13 in a pilot scale process. Results: The results showed that ferric chloride has higher efficiency in removal and it is possible to decrease the surfactant, turbidity and COD Conclusion: The efficiency of ferric chloride in coagulation process for removal of surfactant, turbidity and COD from industrial wastewater is better than ALUM, Lime and Ferric Sulfate,

  1. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50–65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect...... on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other......Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature...

  2. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  3. A pilot-scale study of selective desulfurization via urea addition in iron ore sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hong-ming; Wu, Xue-jian; Chun, Tie-jun; Di, Zhan-xia; Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min

    2016-11-01

    The iron ore sintering process is the main source of SO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. In our previous research, we proposed a novel technology for reducing SO2 emissions in the flue gas in the iron ore sintering process by adding urea at a given distance from the sintering grate bar. In this paper, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out in a commercial sintering plant. The results showed that, compared to the SO2 concentration in flue gas without urea addition, the SO2 concentration decreased substantially from 694.2 to 108.0 mg/m3 when 0.10wt% urea was added. NH3 decomposed by urea reacted with SO2 to produce (NH4)2SO4, decreasing the SO2 concentration in the flue gas.

  4. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation.

  5. Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Hussain, Irshad; Khalid, Zafar M

    2008-10-01

    Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.

  6. Pilot Test of an Innovative Interprofessional Education Assessment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Michelle Christine

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test an innovative way of assessing students' teamwork skills in a controlled environment. Twenty-four second year students from Western University of Health Sciences (WesternU) participated in the experimental group and 22 third year students from WesternU participated in the control group. Students in the…

  7. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  8. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  10. Scaling Flight Tests of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    historical perspective, the concept of scaling goes back to 1638, when Galileo first introduced “scaling” and “physics” in his treatise Disclosures...Vertical Field of View,VFOV (degrees):5.16897 103 Bibliography 1. G. Galilei , Disclosure and Mathematic Demonstrations Concerning Two Sciences

  11. Test Review: Anger Regulation and Expression Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavlazoglu, Baki; Erdogan, Niyazi; Paine, Taylor; Jones, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the Anger Regulation and Expression Scale (ARES) which was developed by DiGiuseppe and Tafrate (2011) and published by Multi-Health Systems Inc. The ARES was designed to be a self-report measure of anger expression and regulation in youth aged 10 to 17 years and was intended to be used in screening, individual assessment,…

  12. Schedule of factors influencing access to psychiatric treatment in persons with schizophrenia: Validity and pilot testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shanivaram Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A substantial proportion of patients with severe mental disorders remain untreated in India. Qualitative research has highlighted the complex interplay of multiple factors that preclude schizophrenia patients in rural Indian settings from accessing treatment. Aims: (a To establish the face and content validities of an interview schedule titled "Schedule of Factors Influencing Access (SOFIAc to Psychiatric Treatment in Persons with Schizophrenia," which comprehensively assesses the factors that prevent schizophrenia patients from accessing psychiatric treatment. (b To assess the feasibility of its administration. Materials and Methods: SOFIAc contains 15 items. This schedule involves three phases of interviewing patients and family members. This was given to 12 experts. They used Likert scales (1=not at all satisfactory to 5=very much satisfactory to rate each item of the schedule. In addition, the experts rated (the same way as above the following five dimensions of the schedule (as a whole separately: A (comprehensiveness of the factors, B (scoring system, C (interviewing method, D (general instructions given to the raters, E (overall schedule. Later on, 10 persons with schizophrenia were interviewed with SOFIAc to test the feasibility of administration. Results: Thirteen items were rated as either satisfactory (score=4 or very much satisfactory (score=5 by all 12 experts; remaining two were rated as 4 or 5 by 11 experts. Regarding comprehensiveness of the factors, scoring methods and general instructions given to the interviewers, all provided scores >4; regarding the method of interviewing, 11 provided the score of >4; with regard to overall interview schedule, all experts provided scores >4. Pilot testing revealed that it took 60 min to administer SOFIAc. Conclusion: SOFIAc has satisfactory face and content validities. It is also feasible to administer SOFIAc.

  13. High titer ethanol and lignosulfonate production from SPORL pretreated poplar at pilot-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyong (J.Y. eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poplar NE222 (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh × P. nigra L. wood chips were pretreated in a 390 L pilot-scale rotating wood-pulping digester using a dilute sulfite solution of approximately pH  1.8 at 160°C for 40 min for bioconversion to ethanol and lignosulfonate (LS. An estimated combined hydrolysis factor (CHF of 3.3 was used to scale the pretreatment temperature and time from laboratory bench scale experiments, which balanced sugar yield and inhibitor formation to facilitate high titer ethanol production through fermentation using S. cerevisiae YRH400 without detoxification. A terminal ethanol titer of 43.6 g L-1 with a yield of 247 L tonne wood-1 was achieved at total solids loading of 20%. The relatively low ethanol yield compared with yield from SPORL-pretreated softwoods was due to inefficient utilization of xylose. The LS from SPORL has a substantially higher phenolic group (Ph-OH content although it is less sulfonated and has a lower molecular weight than a purified commercial softwood LS, and therefore has potential for certain commercial markets and future novel applications through further processing.

  14. Experimental proof of concept of a pilot-scale thermochemical storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescari, Stefania; Singh, Abhishek; de Oliveira, Lamark; Breuer, Stefan; Agrafiotis, Christos; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian; Marcher, Johnny; Pagkoura, Chrysa; Karagiannakis, George; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.

    2017-06-01

    The present study presents installation and operation of the first pilot scale thermal storage unit based on thermochemical redox-cycles. The reactive core is composed of a honeycomb ceramic substrate, coated with cobalt oxide. This concept, already analyzed and presented at lab-scale, is now implemented at a larger scale: a total of 280 kg of storage material including 90 kg of cobalt oxide. The storage block was implemented inside an existing solar facility and connected to the complete experimental set-up. This experimental set-up is presented, with focus on the measurement system and the possible improvement for a next campaign. Start-up and operation of the system is described during the first complete charge-discharge cycle. The effect of the chemical reaction on the stored capacity is clearly detected by analysis of the temperature distribution data obtained during the experiments. Furthermore two consecutive cycles show no evident loss of reactivity inside the material. The system is cycled between 650°C and 1000°C. In this temperature range, the total energy stored was about 50 kWh, corresponding to an energy density of 630 kJ/kg. In conclusion, the concept feasibility was successfully shown, together with a first calculation on the system performance.

  15. Relationships Between Gum Chewing and Stroop Test: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Y; Takeda, T; Konno, M; Suzuki, Y; Kawano, Y; Ozawa, T; Kondo, Y; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function tends to decrease with aging, therefore maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. The role of chewing in nutrition is important. Although several studies indicate that gum chewing is thought to improve cognitive function, it remains debatable whether gum-chewing does in fact improve cognitive function. The Stroop test is a psychological tool used to measure cognition. A shorter reaction time indicates a mean higher behavioral performance and higher levels of oxy-Hb concentration. fNIRS is a powerful, non-invasive imaging technique offering many advantages, including compact size, no need for specially equipped facilities, and the potential for real-time measurement. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be mainly involved in the Stroop task.The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that gum-chewing changes cerebral blood flow in the left DLPFC during the Stroop test, and also changes the reaction time. Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age 26.9 years) participated in this study after providing written informed consent. A piece of tasteless gum weighing 1.0 g was used. Each session was designed in a block manner, i.e. 4 rests (30 s) and 3 blocks of task (30 s). A computerized Stroop test was used (including both congruent and incongruent Stroop tasks) which calculates a response time automatically. The Binominal test was used for comparisons (p gum chewing significantly increases responses/oxy-Hb concentration and significantly shortens the reaction time.

  16. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  17. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  18. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  19. Nutrient Removal and Biomass Production in an Outdoor Pilot-Scale Phototrophic Biofilm Reactor for Effluent Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Janssen, M.; Temmink, H.; Shrestha, R.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m2/day. The areal nitrogen and p

  20. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

  1. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  2. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic...

  3. Wave Pressures and Loads on a Small Scale Model of the Svåheia SSG Pilot Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccino, Mariano; Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, Francesco;

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG. Th...

  4. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  5. Performance of a pilot scale microbial electrolysis cell fed on domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures for a 12 month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Elizabeth S; Edwards, Stephen R; Dolfing, Jan; Cotterill, Sarah E; Curtis, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    A 100-L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was operated for a 12-month period fed on raw domestic wastewater at temperatures ranging from 1°C to 22°C, producing an average of 0.6 L/day of hydrogen. Gas production was continuous though decreased with time. An average 48.7% of the electrical energy input was recovered, with a Coulombic efficiency of 41.2%. COD removal was inconsistent and below the standards required. Limitations to the cell design, in particular the poor pumping system and large overpotential account for many of the problems. However these are surmountable hurdles that can be addressed in future cycles of pilot scale research. This research has established that the biological process of an MEC will to work at low temperatures with real wastewater for prolonged periods. Testing and demonstrating the robustness and durability of bioelectrochemical systems far beyond that in any previous study, the prospects for developing MEC at full scale are enhanced. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of radiocesium from low level radioactive effluents by hexacyanoferrate loaded synthetic zeolite. Laboratory to pilot plant scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dayamoy; Rao, Manjula A.; Khot, Shantinath A.; Shah, Jayesh G.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Pawaskar, Chandrahas S.; Gangadharan, Anand; Rao, Shankar N.; Jain, Savita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-06-01

    Present paper reports removal of radiocesium from low level waste using a modified sorbent (13X-CFC) prepared by in-situ precipitation of potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) inside the macropores of a synthetic zeolite. The Cs exchange isotherm of the sorbent is established and it found to follow Fruendlich absorption isotherm equation. It is varified that presence of hexacyanoferrate on zeolite facilitates rapid Cs uptake performance. This is further confirmed in laboratory scale column tests, wherein excellent Cs removal performance from low level waste simulant was observed even at higher flow rates (40 bed volumes per hour). The utility of the sorbent is established through successful demonstration in a pilot scale (50 L) trial with almost complete removal of {sup 137}Cs from more than 14,000 bed volumes of actual low level waste. The sorbent, owing to its low cost and excellent {sup 137}Cs removal performance, is expected to find application in treatment of very low active waste streams.

  7. Development and pilot testing of a vitiligo screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vaneeta M; Gunasekera, Nicole S; Silwal, Sujeeta; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the pathology, genetics, and therapeutic response of vitiligo rely on asking a single question about 'physician-diagnosed' vitiligo on surveys to identify subjects for research. However, this type of self-reporting is not sufficient. Our objective was to determine if the patient-administered Vitiligo Screening Tool (VISTO) is a sensitive and specific instrument for the detection of vitiligo in an adult population. The VISTO consists of eight closed-ended questions to assess whether the survey participant has ever been diagnosed with vitiligo by a healthcare worker and uses characteristic pictures and descriptions to inquire about the subtype and extent of any skin lesions. 159 patients at the Brigham and Women's Hospital dermatology clinic with or without a diagnosis of vitiligo were recruited. A board-certified dermatologist confirmed or excluded the diagnosis of vitiligo in each subject. 147 completed questionnaires were analyzed, 47 cases and 100 controls. The pictorial question showed 97.9% sensitivity and 98% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. Answering "yes" to being diagnosed with vitiligo by a dermatologist and choosing one photographic representation of vitiligo showed 95.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of vitiligo. We conclude that VISTO is a highly sensitive and specific, low-burden, self-administered tool for identifying vitiligo among adult English speakers. We believe this tool will provide a simple, cost-effective way to confirm vitiligo prior to enrollment in clinical trials as well as for gathering large-scale epidemiologic data in remote populations. Future work to refine the VISTO is needed prior to use in genotype-phenotype correlation studies.

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment.

  9. High-Power Ultrasound for Disinfection of Graywater and Ballast Water: A Beaker-Scale and Pilot-Scale Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    sonication medium was a mineral salts base (50% strength phosphate buffered saline, PBS) with starch, gelatin , and laundry detergent. Variations on this...DRED were determined in the same way as for the beaker-scale tests. Plankton Phytoplankton experiments were carried out by the Center for Applied Aquatic

  10. Pilot test for the implementation of RDA cataloging standard in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ernesto Tuso González

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Library of Colombia, as the guiding agency in the formulation, coordination and execution of policies, plans and programs related to technical processing of Colombian bibliographic and documentary heritage, led the pilot test for implementing of the RDA cataloging standard in Colombia. This pilot test, currently has the participation of different information units in the country, such as the Luis Ángel Arango Library, the Pilot Public Library of Medellín, the Caro and Cuervo Institute, the SENA, Corpoica, the Rafael Carrillo Luquez Library Corporation, the University Foundation of Health Sciences, the University of Antioquía, the University of “El Bosque”, The University of “Del Valle”, the Javeriana University, the National University of Colombia (Manizales, the “Pontificia Bolivariana” University, and the “Santo Tomás” University, all of them interested in studying the norm and establishing implementation policies in a consensual way, in addition to recognize the changes and impacts of its implementation. In this sense, for the RDA pilot test, there have been carried out meetings, both face-to-face and virtual, with the objective of working on RDA records creation, to be applicable to all resources and content types, especially to those coming from the digital environment. The experience of this pilot test represents a reference for the implementation of RDA standard in Latin America, to the extent that it has generated some outcomes: free software adaptation, as well as the configuration of ILS (Integrated Library System of participating entities for the metadata model, MARC fields and fixed-length data elements, that are necessary for the creation of RDA records (work, expression, manifestation, as well as personal, corporate and family authorities; establishment of a specialized forum to exchange, publish, make advances, and finally, develop manuals related to records creation. Considering the importance of

  11. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts returning from the International Space Station are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. METHODS: The first test in the PFT battery sequence, and also the least demanding one from the sensorimotor perspective, was a Sit-to-Stand test. Test subjects were seated in the chair and had to stand up on command and remain standing for ten seconds. The subjects were instructed to stand up unassisted as quickly as they were able to, while maintaining postural control. Synchronized wireless inertial sensors mounted on the head, chest, lower back, wrists, and ankles were used to continuously log body kinematics. Crewmembers' blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded with the Portapres and Polar systems. Each session was recorded with a digital video camera. During data collections occurring within the 24-hour postflight period, crewmembers were also asked to (1) evaluate their perceived motion sickness symptoms on a 20-point scale before and after completion of the test and (2) estimate how heavy they felt compared to their normal (preflight) body weight. Consent to participate in PFT was obtained from 18 crewmembers (11 US Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 7

  12. Testing the low scale seesaw and leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Marco; Garbrecht, Björn; Gueter, Dario; Klarić, Juraj

    2017-08-01

    Heavy neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale can simultaneously generate the light neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis. The requirement to explain these phenomena imposes constraints on the mass spectrum of the heavy neutrinos, their flavour mixing pattern and their CP properties. We first combine bounds from different experiments in the past to map the viable parameter regions in which the minimal low scale seesaw model can explain the observed neutrino oscillations, while being consistent with the negative results of past searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We then study which additional predictions for the properties of the heavy neutrinos can be made based on the requirement to explain the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. Finally, we comment on the perspectives to find traces of heavy neutrinos in future experimental searches at the LHC, NA62, BELLE II, T2K, SHiP or a future high energy collider, such as ILC, CEPC or FCC-ee. If any heavy neutral leptons are discovered in the future, our results can be used to assess whether these particles are indeed the common origin of the light neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. If the magnitude of their couplings to all Standard Model flavours can be measured individually, and if the Dirac phase in the lepton mixing matrix is determined in neutrino oscillation experiments, then all model parameters can in principle be determined from this data. This makes the low scale seesaw a fully testable model of neutrino masses and baryogenesis.

  13. Testing the low scale seesaw and leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, Marco; Gueter, Dario; Klaric, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Heavy neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale could simultaneously generate the light neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism and the baryon asymmetry of the universe via leptogenesis. The requirement to explain both imposes constraints on the mass spectrum of the heavy neutrinos, their flavour mixing pattern and CP properties. If any heavy neutral leptons are discovered in the future, it will be possible to use a combination of different observables in order to assess whether these are indeed the common origin of the light neutrino masses and the baryon asymmetry of the universe.

  14. Basic competence in intensive and critical care nursing: development and psychometric testing of a competence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Perttilä, Juha; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-03-01

    To develop a scale to assess basic competence in intensive and critical care nursing. In this study, basic competence denotes preliminary competence to practice in an intensive care unit. There is a need for competence assessment scales in intensive care nursing practice and education. The nursing care performed in the intensive care unit is special by its nature and needs to be assessed as such. At this moment, however, there is no tested, reliable and valid scale in this field. A multi-phase, multi-method development and psychometric testing of the scale was conducted. The scale was developed in three phases. First, following a literature review and Delphi study, the items were created. Second, the scale was pilot tested twice by nursing students (n1 = 18, n2 = 56) and intensive care nurses (n1 = 12, n2 = 54), and revisions were made. Third, reliability and construct validity were tested by graduating nursing students (n = 139) and intensive care nurses (n = 431). The Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale (ICCN-CS-1) is a self-assessment test consisting of 144 items. Basic competence is divided into patient-related clinical competence and general professional competence. In addition, basic competence is comprised of knowledge base, skill base, attitude and value base and experience base. ICCN-CS-1 is a reliable and tolerably valid scale. The ICCN-CS-1 is a promising scale for use among nursing students and nurses. Future research is needed to evaluate its construct validity further and to assess its suitability for completion during intensive care unit's orientation programmes and nursing students' clinical practice in an intensive care unit. The ICCN-CS-1 can be used for basic competence assessment in professional development discussions in intensive care units, in mentor evaluation situations during nursing students' clinical practice and in intensive care nursing education. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  16. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  17. Full Scale Explosive Tests in Woomera, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA A; MENDIS P; LUMANTARNA R; NGO T

    2006-01-01

    Two large explosion trials (5 000 kg TNT and 500 kg ANFO) were conducted in Woomera,Australia in April/May 2006.Advance Protective Technologies for Engineering Structures (APTES) group tested 2 large single-storey concrete modules with individual components such as doors,windows and tiled panels.A description of the trial and details of various modules tested in these trials are presented in the paper.Numerical modelling and simulations are performed using computer programs,CONWEP,AIR3D and AUTODYN.A comparison of the pressure time histories obtained using these codes is made along with the concluding remarks.

  18. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Lessons learned in pilot testing specialty consultations to benefit individuals with lower limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnitsky, Christine; Latlief, Gail; Gavin-Dreschnack, Deborah; Harris, Melanie; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Telerehabilitation technologies enable the delivery of rehabilitation services from providers to people with disabilities as well as specialty care consultations. This article discusses the barriers experienced when planning and pilot testing a telerehabilitation multi-site specialty consultation for specialists in their medical centers, and the lessons learned. The barriers included integration and participation, coordination across organizational units, and privacy and information security. Lessons learned included the need for collaboration across multiple departments, telerehabilitation equipment back-ups, and anonymous and private communication protocols. Despite delays resulting from coordination at multiple levels of a national organization, we developed a program plan and successfully implemented a pilot test of the southeast region program. Specialty consultation using telerehabilitation delivery methods requires identifying provider preferences for technological features. Lessons learned could inform development of outpatient telerehabilitation for patients with amputations and studies of patients and providers involved in telerehabilitation.

  20. Lessons Learned in Pilot Testing Specialty Consultations to Benefit Individuals with Lower Limb Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation technologies enable the delivery of rehabilitation services from providers to people with disabilities as well as specialty care consultations. This article discusses the barriers experienced when planning and pilot testing a telerehabilitation multi-site specialty consultation for specialists in their medical centers, and the lessons learned. The barriers included integration and participation, coordination across organizational units, and privacy and information security. Lessons learned included the need for collaboration across multiple departments, telerehabilitation equipment back-ups, and anonymous and private communication protocols. Despite delays resulting from coordination at multiple levels of a national organization, we developed a program plan and successfully implemented a pilot test of the southeast region program.  Specialty consultation using telerehabilitation delivery methods requires identifying provider preferences for technological features. Lessons learned could inform development of outpatient telerehabilitation for patients with amputations and studies of patients and providers involved in telerehabilitation.

  1. Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan.

  2. Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers’ Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbro, Éimhín M.; Gill, Michelle M.; Reynolds, Joanna; Shelley, Katharine D.; Strasser, Susan; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Mabey, David

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis affects 1.4 million pregnant women globally each year. Maternal syphilis causes congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies, leading to early foetal loss, pregnancy complications, stillbirth and neonatal death. Syphilis is under-diagnosed in pregnant women. Point-of-care rapid syphilis tests (RST) allow for same-day treatment and address logistical barriers to testing encountered with standard Rapid Plasma Reagin testing. Recent literature emphasises successful introduction of new health technologies requires healthcare worker (HCW) acceptance, effective training, quality monitoring and robust health systems. Following a successful pilot, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) adopted RST into policy, integrating them into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in four underserved Zambian districts. We compare HCW experiences, including challenges encountered in scaling up from a highly supported NGO-led pilot to a large-scale MoH-led national programme. Questionnaires were administered through structured interviews of 16 HCWs in two pilot districts and 24 HCWs in two different rollout districts. Supplementary data were gathered via stakeholder interviews, clinic registers and supervisory visits. Using a conceptual framework adapted from health technology literature, we explored RST acceptance and usability. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Key themes in qualitative data were explored using template analysis. Overall, HCWs accepted RST as learnable, suitable, effective tools to improve antenatal services, which were usable in diverse clinical settings. Changes in training, supervision and quality monitoring models between pilot and rollout may have influenced rollout HCW acceptance and compromised testing quality. While quality monitoring was integrated into national policy and training, implementation was limited during rollout despite financial support and mentorship. We illustrate that new

  3. Introduction of Syphilis Point-of-Care Tests, from Pilot Study to National Programme Implementation in Zambia: A Qualitative Study of Healthcare Workers' Perspectives on Testing, Training and Quality Assurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éimhín M Ansbro

    Full Text Available Syphilis affects 1.4 million pregnant women globally each year. Maternal syphilis causes congenital syphilis in over half of affected pregnancies, leading to early foetal loss, pregnancy complications, stillbirth and neonatal death. Syphilis is under-diagnosed in pregnant women. Point-of-care rapid syphilis tests (RST allow for same-day treatment and address logistical barriers to testing encountered with standard Rapid Plasma Reagin testing. Recent literature emphasises successful introduction of new health technologies requires healthcare worker (HCW acceptance, effective training, quality monitoring and robust health systems. Following a successful pilot, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH adopted RST into policy, integrating them into prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in four underserved Zambian districts. We compare HCW experiences, including challenges encountered in scaling up from a highly supported NGO-led pilot to a large-scale MoH-led national programme. Questionnaires were administered through structured interviews of 16 HCWs in two pilot districts and 24 HCWs in two different rollout districts. Supplementary data were gathered via stakeholder interviews, clinic registers and supervisory visits. Using a conceptual framework adapted from health technology literature, we explored RST acceptance and usability. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Key themes in qualitative data were explored using template analysis. Overall, HCWs accepted RST as learnable, suitable, effective tools to improve antenatal services, which were usable in diverse clinical settings. Changes in training, supervision and quality monitoring models between pilot and rollout may have influenced rollout HCW acceptance and compromised testing quality. While quality monitoring was integrated into national policy and training, implementation was limited during rollout despite financial support and mentorship. We

  4. Sequential Tests for Large Scale Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korattikara, A.; Chen, Y.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    We argue that when faced with big data sets, learning and inference algorithms should compute updates using only subsets of data items. We introduce algorithms that use sequential hypothesis tests to adaptively select such a subset of data points. The statistical properties of this subsampling proce

  5. Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A

    2015-04-01

    A pilot-scale process was operated over 22 months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55 °C) produced centrate (6-9.4 gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42 °C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39 gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5 gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities.

  6. Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 μg/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 μg Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale.

  7. Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

    2005-09-01

    Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species.

  8. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  9. Personal abilities in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. A pilot study using the existence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.

  10. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  11. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-02-20

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  12. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption.

  13. Scale reliability and construct validity: a pilot study among primary school children in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seha, A M; Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S

    1994-12-01

    Based on the World Health Organization's standardized survey inventories assessing AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) for adolescents, a written questionnaire was developed and pilot tested among primary school children in Northern Tanzania. Subjects included 472 fifth and sixth graders at four schools in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions. Results indicated that the large majority of the students understood the questions and were able and willing to complete the survey. Non-response patterns did not seem to be related to the sensitivity of included questions. AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward engaging in sexual behavior had acceptable reliability and construct validity when compared with similar surveys in Western countries, while perceived social norms and self-efficacy need further development. KABP questionnaires may serve as a useful method in AIDS-related surveys and evaluation studies among school children in Tanzania if survey instruments are adapted to reflect the local social and cultural context.

  14. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.C. [POWER International, Inc., Coeur d`Alene, ID (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  15. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  16. Predicting Pilot Behavior in Medium Scale Scenarios Using Game Theory and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Agogino, Adrian; Brat, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Effective automation is critical in achieving the capacity and safety goals of the Next Generation Air Traffic System. Unfortunately creating integration and validation tools for such automation is difficult as the interactions between automation and their human counterparts is complex and unpredictable. This validation becomes even more difficult as we integrate wide-reaching technologies that affect the behavior of different decision makers in the system such as pilots, controllers and airlines. While overt short-term behavior changes can be explicitly modeled with traditional agent modeling systems, subtle behavior changes caused by the integration of new technologies may snowball into larger problems and be very hard to detect. To overcome these obstacles, we show how integration of new technologies can be validated by learning behavior models based on goals. In this framework, human participants are not modeled explicitly. Instead, their goals are modeled and through reinforcement learning their actions are predicted. The main advantage to this approach is that modeling is done within the context of the entire system allowing for accurate modeling of all participants as they interact as a whole. In addition such an approach allows for efficient trade studies and feasibility testing on a wide range of automation scenarios. The goal of this paper is to test that such an approach is feasible. To do this we implement this approach using a simple discrete-state learning system on a scenario where 50 aircraft need to self-navigate using Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information. In this scenario, we show how the approach can be used to predict the ability of pilots to adequately balance aircraft separation and fly efficient paths. We present results with several levels of complexity and airspace congestion.

  17. COMPARISON OF RADIAL AND AXIAL FLOW CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING AT BENCH AND PILOT SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Demirci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axial Flow Chromatography (AFC is widely used for the purification of therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs. However, AFC columns can generate high pressure drops across the resin bed, preventing operation of the column at high flow rates especially at pilot or manufacturing-scales. Radial Flow Chromatography (RFC was developed to provide lower pressure drops during chromatographic separations. In these studies, small and pilot-scale columns were used to evaluate purification of a MAb using both AFC and RFC technologies. A bench-scale, wedge RFC column (250 mL was compared to a bench-scale AFC column at various linear velocities with resulting Residence Times (RT using Protein A resin for the recovery of a monoclonal antibody. The bench RFC column was successfully operated at 4.5 min RT for equilibration and loading steps and 2 min RT for washing, elution and cleaning steps without compromising yield. The RFC column had approximately 50% lower pressure drop than the AFC column at similar flow rates. The process was then scaled-up to 5 L using a pilot-scale RFC column. The 5-L RFC column was operated at 4.5 min RT for equilibration and loading and 2 min. RT for washing, elution and cleaning with no loss of yield. However, pressure drop across the 5 L RFC column was higher than expected, but antibody recovery yields were similar for both column types. Subsequent investigations revealed a potential design issue with the RFC column. Overall, RFC has great potential to be used for pilot or manufacturing scale without high pressure drop concerns, which will certainly improve processing efficiency.

  18. Testing general relativity: from local to cosmological scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-28

    I summarize various tests of general relativity on astrophysical scales, based on the large-scale structure of the universe but also on other systems, in particular the constants of physics. I emphasize the importance of hypotheses on the geometric structures of our universe while performing such tests and discuss their complementarity as well as their possible extensions.

  19. 30 CFR 75.211 - Roof testing and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roof testing and scaling. 75.211 Section 75.211 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.211 Roof testing and scaling. (a)...

  20. Scaling effects in direct shear tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, A.D.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of the direct shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the direct shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  2. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization.

  3. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  4. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  5. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  6. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges.

  7. Planck Scale Gravity Test with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  8. Testing Planck-Scale Gravity with Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2012-10-01

    Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement, since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.

  9. [Evaluation of the test results on hepatitis B pilot surveillance labortory in 9 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-zhen; Cui, Fu-qiang; Gong, Xiao-hong

    2010-06-01

    To assess the test quality of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM in the laboratories of Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. Blood serum from each of the Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces were collected to verify the test results. The Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immuno Assay (CMIA), ARCHITECT i2000 automatic light detector and test reagents produced by U.S.A. Abbott corporation were used in the retest. Using the Abbott reagent CMIA test results as the criteria, the domestic made ELISA reagents sensitivity, specificity, the total coincidence rate and Yoden index of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM were evaluated in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. In the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) reported Hepatitis B cases, the proportion of detecting HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM was 98.53% and 39.49% respectively. Through the verification test to the reported cases in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces, the original and veritication diagnosis 01 the reported eases was quite different. Among 197 acute Hepatitis B reported cases, 56 cases were agreeable with diagnosis cretirea, accounting for 28.42%. Among 1046 chronic Hepatitis B reported cases, the verification diagnosis of 602 cases was consistent with the original diagnosis, accounting for 57.55%. By using Abbott reagent and CMIA method to test again, it was found that the verification test results using domesticmade reagent and ELISA assay were low consistency compared with the test results of Abbott reagent CMIA method. The detection result of home-made reagents by ELISA compared with the Abbott reagents CMIA, the sensitivity and the total coincidence rate of HBsAg were over 95%, Kappa value was 0.439, and specificity was only 50.00%. The sensitivity, the total coincidence rate and the specificity of Anti-HBc IgM were moderate level, Kappa value was 0.516. The sensitivity of Anti-HAV IgM were 20%, and the total coincidence and specificity were higher, Kappa value was 0

  10. Combining destination diversion decisions and critical in-flight event diagnosis in computer aided testing of pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Giffin, W. C.; Romer, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell and Giffin (1982) and Giffin and Rockwell (1983) have discussed the use of computer aided testing (CAT) in the study of pilot response to critical in-flight events. The present investigation represents an extension of these earlier studies. In testing pilot responses to critical in-flight events, use is made of a Plato-touch CRT system operating on a menu based format. In connection with the typical diagnostic problem, the pilot was presented with symptoms within a flight scenario. In one problem, the pilot has four minutes for obtaining the information which is needed to make a diagnosis of the problem. In the reported research, the attempt has been made to combine both diagnosis and diversion scenario into a single computer aided test. Tests with nine subjects were conducted. The obtained results and their significance are discussed.

  11. Implementation of Pilot Protection System for Large Scale Distribution System like The Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iigaya, Kiyohito

    A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

  12. A farm-scale pilot plant for biohydrogen and biomethane production by two-stage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Oberti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered one of the possible main energy carriers for the future, thanks to its unique environmental properties. Indeed, its energy content (120 MJ/kg can be exploited virtually without emitting any exhaust in the atmosphere except for water. Renewable production of hydrogen can be obtained through common biological processes on which relies anaerobic digestion, a well-established technology in use at farm-scale for treating different biomass and residues. Despite two-stage hydrogen and methane producing fermentation is a simple variant of the traditional anaerobic digestion, it is a relatively new approach mainly studied at laboratory scale. It is based on biomass fermentation in two separate, seuqential stages, each maintaining conditions optimized to promote specific bacterial consortia: in the first acidophilic reactorhydrogen is produced production, while volatile fatty acids-rich effluent is sent to the second reactor where traditional methane rich biogas production is accomplished. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed, manufactured and installed at the experimental farm of the University of Milano and operated using a biomass mixture of livestock effluents mixed with sugar/starch-rich residues (rotten fruits and potatoes and expired fruit juices, afeedstock mixture based on waste biomasses directly available in the rural area where plant is installed. The hydrogenic and the methanogenic reactors, both CSTR type, had a total volume of 0.7m3 and 3.8 m3 respectively, and were operated in thermophilic conditions (55 2 °C without any external pH control, and were fully automated. After a brief description of the requirements of the system, this contribution gives a detailed description of its components and of engineering solutions to the problems encountered during the plant realization and start-up. The paper also discusses the results obtained in a first experimental run which lead to production in the range of previous

  13. A Pilot Test of a Mobile App for Drug Court Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Richards, Stephanie; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Moon, Tae Joon; Curtis, Hilary; Gustafson, David H

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice system refers more people to substance abuse treatment than any other system. Low treatment completion rates and high relapse rates among addicted offenders highlight the need for better substance use disorder treatment and recovery tools. Mobile health applications (apps) may fill that need by providing continuous support. In this pilot test, 30 participants in a Massachusetts drug court program used A-CHESS, a mobile app for recovery support and relapse prevention, over a four-month period. Over the course of the study period, participants opened A-CHESS on average of 62% of the days that they had the app. Social networking tools were the most utilized services. The study results suggest that drug court participants will make regular use of a recovery support app. This pilot study sought to find out if addicted offenders in a drug court program would use a mobile application to support and manage their recovery.

  14. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  15. Assessing the Impact of a Vinasse Pilot Plant Scale-Up on the Key Processes of the Ethanol Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Ramos-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the byproducts generated in the cane sugar production is molasses, which is used for ethanol distillation. However, one of the problems of distilleries is vinasse. Vinasse is highly water pollutant and is dumped untreated in lakes or rivers and damages the environment. The company FALA developed a pilot plant that uses vinasse to produce a type of livestock feed called MD60. In this paper, the impact of the pilot plant’s scale-up in the key processes of the company’s supply chain is analyzed. With the help of a sensitivity analysis, this study finds the values that would allow the company to improve its order fulfillment indicator and to increase profits, assuming an expected demand by the introduction of this new product into the market. The results show that (1 the pilot plant fulfills 32% of the orders, (2 according to the current vinasse storage capacity, it is possible to fulfill up to 77% of the orders by scaling up the pilot plant, (3 to satisfy 100% of the orders, it is necessary to use all the vinasse generated, and (4 the highest profit is reached by processing all the vinasse and by considering the upper sale price.

  16. Pilot Test of Advanced Treatments Combination of Wastewater for Groundwater Recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成徐洲; 杨磊; 吴天宝; 甘一苹; 胡俊

    2002-01-01

    To solve the water shortage problem, an artificial groundwater recharge system will be constructed in Beijing for wastewater reuse as a demonstration and training center. Design and operating experience for the demonstration plant was gained through pilot tests of advanced treatment technologies with soil infiltration of well treated secondary effluent. The test results showed that the selected treatment technology meets the recommended water quality criteria for groundwater recharge and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis results showed significantly improved water quality.

  17. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  18. Anaerobic hydrolysis of a municipal wastewater in a pilot-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J A; Zapico, C A; Gómez, M; Presas, J; Soto, M

    2003-01-01

    Raw domestic wastewater from the city of Santiago de Compostela (Northwest Spain) was fed into a pilot-scale hydrolytic up flow sludge bed (HUSB) digester with an active volume of 25.5 m3. The total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 360 to 470 mg/l, the influent SS varied from 190 to 370 mg/l, and the temperature was between 17 degrees and 20 degrees C. The organic load rate (OLR) applied increased step by step from 1.2 to 3.9 kgCOD/m3 x d, while the hydraulic retention time (HRT) decreased from 7.1 h to 2.9 h. A high suspended solids (SS) removal of about 82-85% from the influent was reached, most of which (81 to 88%) was eliminated by hydrolysis, while the rest remained in the purge stream. The total COD removal ranged from 46 to 59%. On the other hand, a high acidification of the COD remaining in the effluent was obtained, so the percent COD in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFA(COD)) with respect to total effluent COD was about 43% for the highest HRT applied, and about 27% for the lowest HRT. The soluble to total COD ratio (CODs/CODt) increased from 25-32% for the influent to 71-86% for the effluent. The results obtained confirm the viability and interest of direct anaerobic hydrolytic pre-treatment of domestic wastewater.

  19. Membrane fouling in pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Katsuki; Yamato, Nobuhiro; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2005-08-15

    The main obstacle for wider use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is membrane fouling (i.e., deterioration of membrane permeability),which increases operating costs. For more efficient control of membrane fouling in MBRs, an understanding of the mechanisms of membrane fouling is important. However, there is a lack of information on membrane fouling in MBRs, especially information on features of components that are responsible for the fouling. We conducted a pilot-scale experiment using real municipal wastewater with three identical MBRs under different operating conditions. The results obtained in this study suggested that the food-microorganisms ratio (F/M) and membrane filtration flux were the important operating parameters that significantly influenced membrane fouling in MBRs. Neither concentrations of dissolved organic matter in the reactors nor viscosity of mixed liquor, which have been thought to have influences on fouling in MBRs, showed clear relationships with membrane fouling in this study. Organic substances that had caused the membrane fouling were desorbed from fouled membranes of the MBRs at the termination of the operation and were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. These analyses revealed that the nature of the membrane foulant changes depending on F/M. It was shown that high F/M would make the foulant more proteinaceous. Carbohydrates were dominant in membrane foulants in this study, while features of humic substances were not apparent.

  20. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shi-jun; ZHU Xiao-fan; LIU Yong-jun; JIANG Wen-ju; JIN Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4· H2 O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate(L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si,standards.

  1. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  2. Production and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell · mL(-1) at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day(-1), with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day(-1). After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.

  3. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  4. Microbial community structure of a pilot-scale thermophilic anaerobic digester treating poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ami M; Sharma, Deepak; Lappin-Scott, Hilary; Burton, Sara; Huber, David H

    2014-03-01

    The microbial community structure of a stable pilot-scale thermophilic continuous stirred tank reactor digester stabilized on poultry litter was investigated. This 40-m(3) digester produced biogas with 57% methane, and chemical oxygen demand removal of 54%. Bacterial and archaeal diversity were examined using both cloning and pyrosequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial community was dominated by phylum Firmicutes, constituting 93% of the clones and 76% of the pyrotags. Of the Firmicutes, class Clostridia (52% pyrotags) was most abundant followed by class Bacilli (13% pyrotags). The bacterial libraries identified 94 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and pyrosequencing identified 577 OTUs at the 97% minimum similarity level. Fifteen OTUs were dominant (≥2% abundance), and nine of these were novel unclassified Firmicutes. Several of the dominant OTUs could not be classified more specifically than Clostridiales, but were most similar to plant biomass degraders, including Clostridium thermocellum. Of the rare pyrotag OTUs (99% of the archaeal clones. Based on the primary methanogen, as well as digester chemistry (high VA and ammonia levels), we propose that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in this digester for the control of acetate levels.

  5. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  6. Simulated control in Aspen Dynamics for the production of limonene epoxide at pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Agudelo Arenas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution is reported the study and analysis of the control system (simulated for the process of obtaining limonene epoxide. The modelling of the process at pilot scale was implemented in the software Aspen Plus from literature reports. Aspen Dynamics was used for the study of the process control. The model allows observing the behavior of the variables of interest in the process such as outflows from the distillation tower, heat duty, operating temperaturas and purity of the final product (limonene epoxide. The performance of the controllers (level, flow and temperature was evaluated by simulating disturbances (+30% in the feedstream to the process. Sensitivity analysis and preliminary design specifications allow to conclude that according to the simulations it is possible to obtain limonene epoxide (97,5% w/w with this system. The results of this work can be used for more detailed studies of the system, including experimental study designs that help to determine the operating point for the process variables which increase limonene epoxide production.

  7. Production of Zinc Borate for Pilot-Scale Equipment and Effects of Reaction Conditions on Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek BARDAKCI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc borate (ZB was synthesized by reacting zinc oxide and boric acid in the presence of standard ZB (w/w, in terms of boric acid in order to promote crystallization. The effects of seed, H3BO3/ZnO (boric acid/zinc oxide ratio, reaction time, water volume, reaction temperature and cooling temperature on yield were investigated for pilot-scale equipment. The results indicated that the addition of seed (w/w to a saturated solution of reactants increased the yield of the reaction. The results of reaction yields obtained from either magnetically or mechanically stirred systems were compared. At various reaction times, the optimal yield was 86.78 % in a saturated aqueous solution. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Thermogravimetric / Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA. The results displayed that ZB was successfully produced under the optimized reaction conditions and the product synthesized had high thermal stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4432

  8. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  9. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yongzhen; HOU Hongxun; WANG Shuying; CUI Youwei; Zhiguo Yuan

    2008-01-01

    To achieve high efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and to investigate the rule of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phosphorus removal(SNDPR),a whole course of SNDPR damage and recovery was studied in a pilot-scale,anaerobicanoxic oxidation ditch(OD),where the volumes of anaerobic zone,anoxic zone,and ditches zone of the OD system were 7,21,and 280L,respectively.The reactor was fed with municipal wastewater with a flow rate of 336 L/d.The concept of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND)rate(rSND) was put forward to quantify SND.The results indicate that:(1)high nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were achieved during the stable SND phase,total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphate(TP) removal rates were 80%and 85%,respectively;(2)when the system was aerated excessively,the stability of SND was damaged,and rSND dropped from 80% to 20%or less;(3)the natural logarithm of the ratio of NOx to MJ4+ in the effluent had a linear correlation to oxidation-reduction potential (ORP);(4)when NO3- was less than 6 mg/L.high phosphorus removal efficiency could be achieved;(5)denitrifying phosphorus removal (DNPR) could take place in the anaerobic-anoxic OD system.The major innovation was that the SND rate was devised and quantified.

  11. Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrović, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

    2010-04-01

    In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time.

  12. Soluble microbial products in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters with acetate as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Chengsong; Gong, Song; Wei, Gu; Yu, Xin; Feng, Lin

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive study on formation and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) during drinking water biofiltration was made in four parallel pilot-scale ceramic biofilters with acetate as the substrate. Excellent treatment performance was achieved while microbial biomass and acetate carbon both declined with the depth of filter. The SMP concentration was determined by calculating the difference between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and acetate carbon. The results revealed that SMP showed an obvious increase from 0 to 100 cm depth of the filter. A rising specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) was also found, indicating that benzene or carbonyl might exist in these compounds. SMP produced during this drinking water biological process were proved to have weak mutagenicity and were not precursors of by-products of chlorination disinfection. The volatile parts of SMP were half-quantity analyzed and most of them were dicarboxyl acids, others were hydrocarbons or benzene with 16-17 carbon atoms.

  13. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  14. Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantafio, A. W.; Hagen, K. D.; Lewis, G. E.; Bledsoe, T. L.; Nunan, K. M.; Macy, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year. PMID:16535401

  15. Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Naomi J; Plumb, Jason J; Tilbury, Amanda L; Nyeboer, Hugh J; Sumich, Matt E; McKinnon, Anthony J; Franzmann, Peter D; Sutton, David C; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-04-01

    Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed. Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives but the microbial ecology and physiology of these treatment processes are poorly understood. Analysis of samples obtained from two pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and one aerobic suspended growth bioreactor (ASGB) using polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria subgroups were prominent in all three processes. Despite differing operating conditions, the composition of the microbial communities in the three reactors was conserved. MBBR2 was the only configuration that showed complete degradation of oxalate from the influent and the ASGB had the highest degradation rate of all three configurations. Several strains of the genus Halomonas were isolated from the bioreactors and their morphology and physiology was also determined.

  16. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-05-01

    The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of 94% with a limited O2 and N2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2. Process operation at a constant biomass productivity of 15gm(-2)d(-1) and the minimization of effluent generation supported high carbon and nutrient recoveries in the harvested biomass (C=66±8%, N=54±18%, P≈100% and S=16±3%). Finally, a low diversity in the structure of the microalgae population was promoted by the environmental and operational conditions imposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

  18. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  19. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  20. Production of Zinc Borate for Pilot-Scale Equipment and Effects of Reaction Conditions on Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek BARDAKCI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc borate (ZB was synthesized by reacting zinc oxide and boric acid in the presence of standard ZB (w/w, in terms of boric acid in order to promote crystallization. The effects of seed, H3BO3/ZnO (boric acid/zinc oxide ratio, reaction time, water volume, reaction temperature and cooling temperature on yield were investigated for pilot-scale equipment. The results indicated that the addition of seed (w/w to a saturated solution of reactants increased the yield of the reaction. The results of reaction yields obtained from either magnetically or mechanically stirred systems were compared. At various reaction times, the optimal yield was 86.78 % in a saturated aqueous solution. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Thermogravimetric / Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA. The results displayed that ZB was successfully produced under the optimized reaction conditions and the product synthesized had high thermal stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4432

  1. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds in pilot scale sewage treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Lee, Byoung C; Ra, Jin S; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, In S; Chang, Nam I; Kim, Hyun K; Kim, Sang D

    2008-04-01

    The removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds from effluents using pilot scale sewage treatment processes, including various treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors (MBR), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for the purpose of water reuse, were estimated and compared. The calculated estrogenic activity, expressed in ng-EEQ/l, based on the concentration detected by GC/MS, and relative potencies for each target compound were compared to those measured using the E-screen assay. The removal efficiencies for nonylphenol, was within the range of 55-83% in effluents. High removal efficiencies of approximately >70% based on the detection limits were obtained for bisphenol A, E1, EE2 and genistein with each treatment processes, with the exception of E1 ( approximately 64%) using the MBR process. The measured EEQ values for the effluents from the MBR, NF and RO processes also indicated low estrogenic activities of 0.65, 0.23 and 0.05 ng-EEQ/l, respectively. These were markedly reduced values compared with the value of 1.2 ng-EEQ/l in influent. Consequently, the removals of EDCs in terms of the EEQ value from the biological and chemical determinations were sufficiently achieved by the treatment process applied in this study, especially in the cases of the NF and RO treatments.

  3. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  4. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  5. Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Lan, Bing Yan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the decomposition of ozone. Furthermore, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (formed from natural organic matter in the wastewater) and ozone enhances the oxidation capacity of the ozonation process. The monitoring of pH, redox potential (ORP), UV absorbance (254 nm), polyphenol content and ozone consumption was correlated with the oxidation of the organic species in the water. The ozonation of winery wastewater in the bubble column was analysed in terms of a mole balance coupled with ozonation kinetics modeled by the two-film theory of mass transfer and chemical reaction. It was determined that the ozonation reaction can develop both in and across different kinetic regimes: fast, moderate and slow, depending on the experimental conditions. The dynamic change of the rate coefficient estimated by the model was correlated with changes in the water composition and oxidant species.

  6. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  7. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test...... of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements...

  8. Lexical Testing and the Reliability of the Modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbita Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the vocabulary tests available, and reports the reliability of the modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS (Rosszell, 2007. Although there is no consensus as to what actually constitutes vocabulary knowledge, the notion that it is made up of receptive knowledge (words recognised or known when seen or heard and productive knowledge (words appropriately used when we write or speak is widely accepted. Lexical testing is important for various reasons, chiefly to determine reading ability which requires the use of a size test, and to monitor overall vocabulary development which necessitates the use of a test measuring both receptive and productive knowledge (for instance, the modified VKS. The modified VKS was pilot-tested on 28 university-level Malaysian remedial English language learners and analysed for ‘reliability as stability over similar samples’. Data analyses returned values indicating the test to be reliable, thus presenting it as a feasible option for use among similar cohorts. This is of significance to scholars, researchers, language instructors and curriculum designers intending to employ the test in their own research, classrooms and literacy programmes.Keywords: lexical testing, receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge, modified Vocabulary Knowledge Scale, reliability, tertiary learners 

  9. Pilot-scale evaluation of ozone and biological activated carbon for trace organic contaminant mitigation and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Gamage, Sujanie; Holady, Janie C; Mawhinney, Douglas B; Quiñones, Oscar; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to validate the use of ozone for contaminant oxidation and disinfection in water reclamation, extensive pilot testing was performed with ozone/H(2)O(2) and biological activated carbon (BAC) at the Reno-Stead Water Reclamation Facility in Reno, Nevada. Three sets of samples were collected over a five-month period of continuous operation, and these samples were analyzed for a suite of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), total estrogenicity, and several microbial surrogates, including the bacteriophage MS2, total and fecal coliforms, and Bacillus spores. Based on the high degree of microbial inactivation and contaminant destruction, this treatment train appears to be a viable alternative to the standard indirect potable reuse (IPR) configuration (i.e., membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, UV/H(2)O(2), and aquifer injection), particularly for inland applications where brine disposal is an issue. Several issues, including regrowth of coliform bacteria in the BAC process, must be addressed prior to full-scale implementation.

  10. First-order kinetics of landfill leachate treatment in a pilot-scale anaerobic sequence batch biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrera, Ronan Cleber; da Cruz Silva, Katia Cristina; Morita, Dione Mari; Domingues Rodrigues, José Alberto; Zaiat, Marcelo; Schalch, Valdir

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the kinetics evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatment in a pilot-scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was carried out at room temperature (23.8 ± 2.1 °C) in the landfill area in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Biomass from the bottom of a local landfill leachate stabilization pond was used as inoculum. After acclimated and utilizing leachate directly from the landfill, the AnSBBR presented efficiency over 70%, in terms of COD removal, with influent COD ranging from 4825 mg L(-1) to 12,330 mg L(-1). To evaluate the kinetics of landfill leachate treatment, temporal profiles of CODFilt. concentration were performed and a first-order kinetics model was adjusted for substrate consumption, obtaining an average k1 = 4.40 × 10(-5) L mgTVS(-1) d(-1), corrected to 25 °C. Considering the temperature variations, a temperature-activity coefficient θ = 1.07 was obtained. Statistical "Randomness" and "F" tests were used to successfully validate the model considered. Thus, the results demonstrate that the first-order kinetic model is adequate to model the anaerobic treatment of the landfill leachate in the AnSBBR.

  11. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  12. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  13. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  14. Intermittent aeration to improve wastewater treatment efficiency in pilot-scale constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I; Trabi, Christophe L; Hawes, Patrick; Puigagut, Jaume; García, Joan

    2016-07-15

    Forced aeration of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) is nowadays a recognized method to improve treatment efficiency, mainly in terms of ammonium removal. While numerous investigations have been reported testing constant aeration, scarce information can be found about the efficiency of intermittent aeration. This study aims at comparing continuous and intermittent aeration, establishing if there is an optimal regime that will increase treatment efficiency of HSSF CWs whilst minimizing the energy requirement. Full and intermittent aeration were tested in a pilot plant of three HSSF CWs (2.64m(2) each) fed with primary treated wastewater. One unit was fully aerated; one intermittently aerated (i.e. by setting a limit of 0.5mg/L dissolved oxygen within the bed) with the remaining unit not aerated as a control. Results indicated that intermittent aeration was the most successful operating method. Indeed, the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic conditions promoted by the intermittent aeration resulted in the highest COD (66%), ammonium (99%) and total nitrogen (79%) removals. On the other hand, continuous aeration promotes ammonium removal (99%), but resulted in nitrate concentrations in the effluent of up to 27mg/L. This study demonstrates the high potential of the intermittent aeration to increase wastewater treatment efficiency of CWs providing an extreme benefit in terms of the energy consumption.

  15. In situ stabilization/solidification pilot testing of coal tar contaminated sediment focusing on air quality testing program, Sydney, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, A. [AECOM, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hilchey, J. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a pilot-scale demonstration project conducted to test air quality contaminant emissions at a remediation project in Sydney, Nova Scotia. In situ sediment solidification/stabilization (S/S) was selected as a remedial solutions for sediments in an estuarine pond contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of the air monitoring program was to determine the emission rates of sediment contaminants that became airborne during remediation activities and to monitor the off-site environmental impacts of the emissions. The pilot project included driving interlocking steel sheet pile (SSP) through the sediment into the underlying natural soils, removing overlying water, homogenizing the sediment, and mixing S/S reagents into the sediment over a period of 4 days at 2 different sites. Air sampling equipment was used to monitor volumetric flow rates, benzene, naphthalene and particulate matter concentrations. Continuous real-time monitoring was used at downwind fence line perimeters and by time-weighted ambient air sampling at 6 community stations near the sites. Results of the study showed that the site-specific benzene and naphthalene emission rates were significantly lower than emission rates calculated using theoretical models. No exceedances of established community air quality limits were observed. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  17. Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTA K.; LANGRISH T.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the diffusional and mixed (diffusional and inertial) regimes, but the experimental results suggested that the particle deposition was mainly in the inertial regime. Therefore, using the pipe correlations for predicting deposition in a pilot-scale spray dryer suggests that they do not sufficiently represent the actual deposition behaviour. This outcome indicates that a further study of particle flow patterns needs to be carried out using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics,CFD) in view of the additional geometrical complexity of the spray dryer.

  18. Evaluation of flow hydrodynamics in a pilot-scale dissolved air flotation tank: a comparison between CFD and experimental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of dissolved air flotation (DAF) have shown formation of stratified flow (back and forth horizontal flow layers at the top of the separation zone) and its impact on improved DAF efficiency. However, there has been a lack of experimental validation of CFD predictions, especially in the presence of solid particles. In this work, for the first time, both two-phase (air-water) and three-phase (air-water-solid particles) CFD models were evaluated at pilot scale using measurements of residence time distribution, bubble layer position and bubble-particle contact efficiency. The pilot-scale results confirmed the accuracy of the CFD model for both two-phase and three-phase flows, but showed that the accuracy of the three-phase CFD model would partly depend on the estimation of bubble-particle attachment efficiency.

  19. Pilot-scale road subbase made with granular material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and stabilized APC fly ash: environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Prieto, M; Nadal, R; Niubó, M; Chimenos, J M

    2014-02-15

    A granular material (GM) to be used as road sub-base was formulated using 80% of weathered bottom ash (WBA) and 20% of mortar. The mortar was prepared separately and consisted in 50% APC and 50% of Portland cement. A pilot-scale study was carried on by constructing three roads in order to environmentally evaluate the performance of GM in a real scenario. By comparing the field results with those of the column experiments, the overestimations observed at laboratory scale can be explained by the potential mechanisms in which water enters into the road body and the pH of the media. An exception was observed in the case of Cu, whose concentration release at the test road was higher. The long-time of exposure at atmospheric conditions might have favoured oxidation of organic matter and therefore the leaching of this element. The results obtained showed that immobilization of all heavy metals and metalloids from APC is achieved by the pozzolanic effect of the cement mortar. This is, to the knowledge of the authors, the only pilot scale study that is considering reutilization of APC as a safe way to disposal.

  20. Solar photocatalitycal treatment of carbofuran at lab and pilot scale: effect of classical parameters, evaluation of the toxicity and analysis of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarez, Blady; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2011-07-15

    In this work the TiO(2) solar-photocatalytical degradation of the pesticide carbofuran (CBF) in water, at lab and pilot scale, was studied. At lab scale the evaluation of CBF concentration (14-282 μmol L(-1)) showed that the system followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics type. TiO(2) concentration (0.05-2 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-9) were also evaluated and optimized using the surface response methodology and the Pareto diagram. In the range of variables studied, initial pH 7.60 and 1.43 g L(-1) of TiO(2) favoured the efficiency of the process. Under optimal conditions the evolution of substrate, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, toxicity and organics by-products were evaluated. In the pilot scale tests, using direct sunlight, 55 mg L(-1) of CBF in a commercial formulation was eliminated after 420 min; while after 900 min of treatment 80% of toxicity (1/E(50) on Vibrium Fischeri), 80% of chemical oxygen demand and 60% of dissolved organic carbon were removed. The analysis and evolution of five CBF by-products, as well the evaluation of the treatment in the presence of isopropanol or using acetonitrile as a solvent suggest that the degradation is mainly carried out by OH radical attack. Finally, a schema depicting the main degradation pathway is proposed.

  1. Pilot-Scale Production and Thermostability Improvement of the M23 Protease Pseudoalterin from the Deep Sea Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoalterin is the most abundant protease secreted by the marine sedimental bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 and is a novel cold-adapted metalloprotease of the M23 family. Proteases of the M23 family have high activity towards peptidoglycan and elastin, suggesting their promising biomedical and biotechnological potentials. To lower the fermentive cost and improve the pseudoalterin production of CF6-2, we optimized the fermentation medium by using single factor experiments, added 0.5% sucrose as a carbon source, and lowered the usage of artery powder from 1.2% to 0.6%. In the optimized medium, pseudoalterin production reached 161.15 ± 3.08 U/mL, 61% greater than that before optimization. We further conducted a small-scale fermentation experiment in a 5-L fermenter and a pilot-scale fermentation experiment in a 50-L fermenter. Pseudoalterin production during pilot-scale fermentation reached 103.48 ± 8.64 U/mL, 77% greater than that before the medium was optimized. In addition, through single factor experiments and orthogonal tests, we developed a compound stabilizer for pseudoalterin, using medically safe sugars and polyols. This stabilizer showed a significant protective effect for pseudoalterin against enzymatic thermal denaturation. These results lay a solid foundation for the industrial production of pseudoalterin and the development of its biomedical and biotechnological potentials.

  2. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS) alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR) sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and moving window partial least squares (MWP...

  3. Determining the Influence of Groundwater Composition on the Performance of Arsenic Adsorption Columns Using Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, A. R.; Siegel, M.

    2004-12-01

    The USEPA has established a more stringent drinking water standard for arsenic, reducing the maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 50 μ g/L to 10 μ g/L. This will affect many small communities in the US that lack the appropriate treatment infrastructure and funding to reduce arsenic to such levels. For such communities, adsorption systems are the preferred technology based on ease of operation and relatively lower costs. The performance of adsorption media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water is dependent on site-specific water quality. At certain concentrations, co-occurring solutes will compete effectively with arsenic for sorption sites, potentially reducing the sorption capacity of the media. Due to the site-specific nature of water quality and variations in media properties, pilot scale studies are typically carried out to ensure that a proposed treatment technique is cost effective before installation of a full-scale system. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an approach to utilize rapid small-scale columns in lieu of pilot columns to test innovative technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of treatment in small communities. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) were developed to predict full-scale treatment of organic contaminants by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). This process greatly reduced the time and costs required to verify performance of GAC adsorption columns. In this study, the RSSCT methodology is used to predict the removal of inorganic arsenic using mixed metal oxyhydroxide adsorption media. The media are engineered and synthesized from materials that control arsenic behavior in natural and disturbed systems. We describe the underlying theory and application of RSSCTs for the performance evaluation of novel media in several groundwater compositions. Results of small-scale laboratory columns are being used to predict the performance of pilot-scale systems and ultimately to design full-scale

  4. A review of micro-scale abrasion testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, A J; Gee, M G [Electronics and Modelling Group, Division of Industry and Innovation, Module 9, Space G9-A5, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-23

    Micro-scale abrasion (commonly referred to as 'ball cratering') is a small-scale tribological test method which can be operated on a desktop. It offers the possibility of providing a quick, cheap, localized abrasion test that can be used with small samples. In principle its operation is simple, but in practice there are issues with wear scar measurement, wear mode and its applicability to a wide variety of monolithic materials and coatings. (topical review)

  5. Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h).

  6. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  7. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holmes, Aimee E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Kearn P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  8. Development and psychometric testing of a barriers to HIV testing scale among individuals with HIV infection in Sweden; The Barriers to HIV testing scale-Karolinska version

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiklander et al. Background: Barriers to HIV testing experienced by individuals at risk for HIV can result in treatment delay and further transmission of the disease. Instruments to systematically measure barriers are scarce, but could contribute to improved strategies for HIV testing. Aims of this study were to develop and test a barriers to HIV testing scale in a Swedish context. Methods: An 18-item scale was developed, based on an existing scale with addition of six new it...

  9. Pilot scale treatment of low turbidity water using compound bioflocculant and polymerized aluminium ferrum chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Fang; MENG Lu; PANG Chang-long; JIN Chao; YAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the application of compound bioflocculant (CBF) in drinking water treatment at pilot plant, CBF and polymerized aluminiurn ferrum chloride (PAFC) coagulant were used to treat raw water taken from Longhupao Reservoir in Heilongjiang Province for the removal of turbidity, COD, UV254 and residual A1.Coagulation test shows that the coagulation enhanced by CBF and PAFC exhibits more effective performance than that enhanced by the individual of them, and the total combination dosage is lower than that of the individual. The residual AI from PAFC can be removed efficiently by CBF. The removal efficiency of turbidity reaches 76. 6% by combining CBF of 2 mg/L and PAFC of 15 mg/L, COD is decreased from 3. 80 mg/L to 1.62 mg/L, and the concentration of residual AI is only 0. 033 mg/L in the product water. It can be speculated that adsorption-bridging and sweep-coagulation processes are predominant in the flocculation process by the combination of CBF and PAFC.

  10. Pilot Test of Survey to Assess Dental and Dental Hygiene Student Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions, and Clinical Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkoski, Holdunn; Fowler, Brynn; Mooney, Ryan; Pappas, Lisa; Dixon, Barbara L; Pinzon, Lilliam M; Winkler, James; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-01-14

    This was the first study to develop and pilot test an assessment tool for the examination of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices of oral health students. An interdisciplinary team developed the tool using surveys that examined this topic in other populations. The tool was then pilot tested at two different dental programs. Results from the pilot informed revisions to the final version of the tool. Of the 46 student participants, 18 were first-year dental hygiene and 28 were first-year dental students. The majority of participants were female (N = 29, 63%) and ages 18 to 29 years old (N = 41, 89%). Four scales used in the questionnaire were analyzed for reliability. Of these, the HPV and HPV-OPC knowledge and the HPV vaccination knowledge scales had Cronbach alphas of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. Questions assessing HPV and the role of dental professionals had a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Questions assessing willingness to administer vaccines in the dental office had a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Assessing oral health students' HPV-OPC knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices are important for future assessment of possible HPV-OPC cases. Dental professionals may be optimally positioned to provide HPV patient education. The tool developed and pilot tested in this study can help schools assess their students' knowledge and guide their dental curriculum to address deficiencies. Since this topic has not been effectively examined with dental health students, the results could help improve dental education and dental care.

  11. Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

    2013-11-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5 × 10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass.

  12. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  13. Achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaolian

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is beneficial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. However, partial nitrification to nitrite has proven difficult in continuous processes treating domestic wastewater. The nitrite pathway is achieved in this study in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant (V=300 L) treating domestic wastewater by controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 0.4-0.7 mg/L. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, with over 95% of the oxidized nitrogen compounds at the end of the aerobic zone being nitrite. The nitrite pathway improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the nitrate pathway, and also reduced aeration costs by 24%. FISH analysis showed that the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population gradually reduced at low DO levels, and reached negligible levels when stable nitrite pathway was established. It is hypothesized that NOB was washed out due to its relatively lower affinity with oxygen. A lag phase was observed in the establishment of the nitrite pathway. Several sludge ages were required for the onset of the nitrite pathway after the application of low DO levels. However, nitrite accumulation increased rapidly after that. A similar lag phase was observed for the upset of the nitrite pathway when a DO concentration of 2-3 mg/L was applied. The nitrite pathway negatively impacted on the sludge settleability. A strong correlation between the sludge volume index and the degree of nitrite accumulation was observed.

  14. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS).

  15. Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Maine, M A; Bonetto, C A

    2006-06-01

    A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal. The wetland was 6 x 3 x 0.4 m. Water discharge was 1000 l d(-1) and residence time was 7d. After the wetland was rendered impermeable, macrophytes from Middle Paraná River floodplain were transplanted. Influent and effluent quality was analyzed every 15 d. TP, Cr, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves, roots and sediment (inlet and outlet) were measured monthly. Cover and biomass of predominant species were estimated. Also, greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of conductivity and pH on floating species. The variables measured in the influent were significantly higher than those in the effluent, except for HCO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). TP and metal concentrations in sediment at the inlet were significantly higher than those at the outlet. Conductivity and pH of the incoming wastewater were toxic for the floating species. Typha domingensis displaced the other species and reached positive relative cover rate and biomass greater than those at the undisturbed natural environment. T. domingensis proved to be highly efficient for the treatment of wastewater. For that reason, it is the advisable species for the treatment of wastewater of high conductivity and pH enriched with metals, characteristic of many industrial processes.

  16. A pilot-scale floating closed culture system for the multicellular cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akihiko; Kawai, Hiroshi

    Microalgae are considered to be efficient bio-resources for biofuels and bio-based chemicals because they generally have high productivity. The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has been widely used for food, feed, and nutrient supplements and is usually cultivated in open ponds. In order to extend the surface area for growing this alga, we designed a pilot-scale floating closed culture system for cultivating A. platensis on open water and compared the growth and quality of the alga harvested at both subtropical and temperate regions. The biomass productivity of A. platensis NIES-39 was ca. 9 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in summer at Awaji Island (warm temperature region) and ca. 10 and 6 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in autumn and winter, respectively, at Ishigaki Island, (subtropical region) in Japan. If seawater can be used for culture media, culture cost can be reduced; therefore, we examined the influence of seawater salt concentrations on the growth of A. platensis NIES-39. Growth rates of A. platensis NIES-39 in diluted seawater with enrichment of 2.5 g L(-1) NaNO3, 0.01 g L(-1) FeSO4·7H2O, and 0.08 g L(-1) Na2EDTA were considerably lower than SOT medium, but the biomass productivity (dry weight) was comparable to SOT medium. This is explained by the heavier cell weight of the alga grown in modified seawater media compared to the alga grown in SOT medium. Furthermore, A. platensis grown in modified seawater-based medium exhibited self-flocculation and had more loosely coiled trichomes.

  17. Pilot scale evaluation of the BABIU process--upgrading of landfill gas or biogas with the use of MSWI bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostbauer, P; Lombardi, L; Olivieri, T; Lenz, S

    2014-01-01

    Biogas or landfill gas can be converted to a high-grade gas rich in methane with the use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a reactant for fixation of CO2 and H2S. In order to verify results previously obtained at a laboratory scale with 65-90 kg of bottom ash (BA), several test runs were performed at a pilot scale, using 500-1000 kg of bottom ash and up to 9.2 Nm(3)/h real landfill gas from a landfill in the Tuscany region (Italy). The input flow rate was altered. The best process performance was observed at a input flow rate of 3.7 Nm(3)/(htBA). At this flow rate, the removal efficiencies for H2S were approximately 99.5-99%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 14 CFR 61.405 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.405 Section 61.405 Aeronautics and Space..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.405 What tests do I have to take to obtain a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? To obtain...

  19. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    as requirements for experimental facilities are very demanding and furthermore the time for performing the experimental test campaign and the cost are not well suitable for most research projects. This report deals with the advantages, disadvantages and open questions of using down-scaled testing on wind turbine...

  20. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available on Partially Confining the Blast Chamber ?Emily?, CSIR report GLBL-0BSY2-10-008 Rev 1, February 2011. De Koker, P. Test Instruction: Testing of scaled model Semily and pendulum structure at DBEL, CSIR report GLBL-0BSY2-10-009 Rev 1, February 2011. SolidWorks...

  1. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A SPORTS SPECIFIC AEROBIC CAPACITY TEST FOR KARATE - A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nunan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to develop an aerobic fitness assessment test for competitive Karate practitioners and describe the preliminary findings. Five well-trained, competitive Karate practitioners participated in this study. A protocol simulating common attack strikes used in competition Karate sparring was developed from video analysis. In addition, pilot testing established a specific sequence of strikes and timings to be used in the test. The time to perform the strike sequence remained the same, whilst the time between strike sequence performances was progressively reduced. The aim of the test was to increase intensity of exercise through a decrease in recovery. On two separate occasions, absolute and relative peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, peak ventilation (VEpeak, maximum heart rate (HRM, and time to exhaustion (TE obtained during the test were recorded. Subjective feedback provided by the participants was positive in that participants felt the test accurately simulated actions of a competitive sparring situation, and as a result athletes felt more motivated to perform well on this test. There was no significant between test difference in absolute VO2peak, relative VO2peak, HRM and TE (p > 0.05, indicating a potentially high reproducibility with the new test for these variables (test 1-test 2 difference of 0.04 L·min-1, 1 ml·kg-1·min-1, -3 beats·min-1, and 28 s; respectively. However, VEpeak displayed potentially less reproducibility due to a significant difference observed between tests (test 1- test 2 difference of -2.8 L·min-1, p < 0.05. There was a significant relationship between TE and relative VO2peak (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001. Further developments to the test will need to address issues with work rate/force output assessment/monitoring. The new test accurately simulates the actions of competitive Karate sparring

  3. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  4. A Mobile, Avatar-Based App for Improving Body Perceptions Among Adolescents: A Pilot Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Annmarie A; Amresh, Ashish; Huberty, Jennifer; Todd, Michael; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-03-02

    One barrier to effectively treating weight issues among adolescents is that they tend to use social comparison instead of objective measures to evaluate their own health status. When adolescents correctly perceive themselves as overweight, they are more likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this pilot test was to develop and assess acceptability and usability of an avatar-based, theoretically derived mobile app entitled Monitor Your Avatar (MYA). The MYA app was engineered for high school adolescents to identify, using avatars, what they thought they looked like, what they wanted to look like, and what they actually looked like based on body measurements. The MYA app was pilot-tested with male and female adolescents aged 15-18 years to assess for acceptability and usability. A total of 42 students created and viewed their avatars. The majority of the adolescents were female (28/42, 67%), age 16 years (16/42, 38%), white (35/42, 83%), non-Hispanic (36/42, 86%), in grade 10 (20/42, 48%), healthy weight for females (23/28, 82%), and obese for males (7/14, 50%). The adolescents had positive reactions to the avatar app and being able to view avatars that represented them. All but one student (41/42, 98%) indicated some level of comfort viewing the avatars and would use the app in the future to see how their bodies change over time. Avatar-based mobile apps, such as the MYA app, provide immediate feedback and allow users to engage with images that are personalized to represent their perceptions and actual body images. This pilot study adds to the increasing but limited research of using games to improve health outcomes among high school adolescents. There is a need to further adapt the MYA app and gather feedback from a larger number of high school adolescents, including those from diverse backgrounds.

  5. Pilot Field Test: Results of Tandem Walk Performance Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Tomilovskaya, E.

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated locomotion has proven to be challenging for many astronauts following long duration spaceflight. As NASA's vision for spaceflight points toward interplanetary travel and missions to distant objects, astronauts will not have assistance once they land. Thus, it is vital to develop a knowledge base from which operational guidelines can be written that define when astronauts can be expected to safely perform certain tasks. Data obtained during the Field Test experiment will add important insight to this knowledge base. Specifically, we aim to develop a recovery timeline of functional sensorimotor performance during the first 24 hours and several days after landing. A forerunner of the full Field Test study, the Pilot Field Test (PFT) comprised a subset of the tasks and measurements to be included in the ultimate set.

  6. Confirmatory tests of full-scale condensers for SBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoni, P. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Botti, S. [SIET SpA, Piacenza (Italy); Fitzsimmons, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    A full-scale isolation condenser and a full-scale passive containment cooling condenser for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) will be tested to confirm the thermal-hydraulic and structural design characteristics of these components. The condensers provide vital roles in removing heat from the reactor vessel and the containment during certain design basis events. This paper describes the condensers and the test facilities which are under construction and summarizes the test objectives, the planned instrumentation, and the conditions to be tested. The results of some pre-test performance predictions, calculated with the TRACG code are presented. The results of the testing program are expected to demonstrate that the condenser designs will provide the required heat removal capacity and will survive the design basis temperature/pressure cycles without structural damage.

  7. Reforming tuberculosis control in Ukraine: results of pilot projects and implications for the national scale-up of DOTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, A; Chechulin, Y; Raykhert, I; Osalenko, N; Svetlichnaya, S; Kovalyova, A; van der Werf, M J; Turchenko, L V; Hasker, E; Miskinis, K; Veen, J; Zaleskis, R

    2009-01-01

    The period of economic transition has had severe consequences for health and health systems in Ukraine. The tuberculosis (TB) situation illustrates this. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for TB, directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS), has the potential to provide real improvements in TB services, forming the basis of the response to the growing epidemic. In 2002, Ukraine, financially supported by USAID and the European Community (EC), began to introduce DOTS through pilot projects in Mariupol and Kyiv City. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, health service cost, patient cost, and the cost-effectiveness of these pilots, in order to inform the national scale-up of DOTS. The study finds that DOTS is feasible and has the potential to be both effective and cost-effective in Ukraine. Following this study, Ukraine adopted DOTS as a national TB control strategy in 2005. However, the pilots also found that there are several evidence-related concerns and perverse economic incentives to both providers and patients that will need to be addressed if national scale-up is to be successful. These include concerns related to the treatment of MDR-TB, economic benefits to some patients to remain hospitalized, and payments to providers and health facilities that support current practices. These will need to be addressed if Ukraine is to develop an effective response to its emerging TB epidemic.

  8. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M.; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (rs = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (rs = −0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (rs = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP. PMID:26881088

  9. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure. Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (rs=0.60 [strong positive relationship], p=0.0088, apnea-hypopnea index (rs=0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p=0.039, lowest oxygen saturation (rs=-0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p=0.048, and oxygen desaturation index (rs=0.62 [strong positive relationship], p=0.0057. Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP.

  10. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Macario; Ruoff, Chad M; Kawai, Makoto; Modi, Rahul; Arbee, Jabri; Hekmat, Anahid; Robertson, Matthew; Zaghi, Soroush; Certal, Victor; Capasso, Robson; Kushida, Clete A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index (r s = 0.60 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0088), apnea-hypopnea index (r s = 0.49 [moderate positive relationship], p = 0.039), lowest oxygen saturation (r s = -0.47 [moderate negative relationship], p = 0.048), and oxygen desaturation index (r s = 0.62 [strong positive relationship], p = 0.0057). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP.

  11. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  12. Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase.

  13. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Pilot test at the Clean Test Site Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muck, M.T.; Kearl, P.M.; Siegrist, R.L. [and others

    1998-08-01

    This report presents the results of field testing a horizontal well recirculation system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The recirculation system uses a pair of horizontal wells, one for groundwater extraction and treatment and the other for reinjection of treated groundwater, to set up a recirculation flow field. The induced flow field from the injection well to the extraction well establishes a sweeping action for the removal and treatment of groundwater contaminants. The overall purpose of this project is to study treatment of mixed groundwater contaminants that occur in a thin water-bearing zone not easily targeted by traditional vertical wells. The project involves several research elements, including treatment-process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and pilot testing at a contaminated site. The results of the pilot test at an uncontaminated site, the Clean Test Site (CTS), are presented in this report.

  14. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Dingwall, Paul A.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-09-01

    High power, phase-pure Nb-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles are synthesised using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process (production rate of 6 kg per day) in the range 0.01-2.00 at% Nb with respect to total transition metal content. EDS analysis suggests that Nb is homogeneously distributed throughout the structure. The addition of fructose as a reagent in the hydrothermal flow process, followed by a post synthesis heat-treatment, affords a continuous graphitic carbon coating on the particle surfaces. Electrochemical testing reveals that cycling performance improves with increasing dopant concentration, up to a maximum of 1.0 at% Nb, for which point a specific capacity of 110 mAh g-1 is obtained at 10 C (6 min for the charge or discharge). This is an excellent result for a high power cathode LFP based material, particularly when considering the synthesis was performed on a large pilot-scale apparatus.

  15. Pilot-plant scale separation and reuse of TiO{sub 2}- photo-catalyst in degrading reactions; Photo reacteur solaire pilote pour separation et reutilisation du catalyseur TiO{sub 2} utilise pour des reactions de degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain); Las Nieves, F.J. de [University of Almeria, Dept. of Applied Physics, Almeria (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    TiO{sub 2}-catalyst suspensions work very efficiently in photo-catalysis for waste-water treatment. Nevertheless, once photo-catalysis is complete, separation of the catalyst from solution becomes the main problem. The catalyst has been recovered by introducing accelerated sedimentation of TiO{sub 2} particles. This paper reports on the reuse of two types of TiO{sub 2} catalysts for photo-catalysis of tetra-chloro-ethylene at pilot plant scale (50L). One is the well-known Degussa P25 and the other was obtained from ENEL Labs (Italy). Two procedures for reuse were tested: the reuse of slurry after degradation without separation of the catalyst and reuse of the catalyst after it has settled to the bottom. (authors)

  16. Large-Scale Multiobjective Static Test Generation for Web-Based Testing with Integer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. L.; Hui, Siu Cheung; Fong, A. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Web-based testing has become a ubiquitous self-assessment method for online learning. One useful feature that is missing from today's web-based testing systems is the reliable capability to fulfill different assessment requirements of students based on a large-scale question data set. A promising approach for supporting large-scale web-based…

  17. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  18. OPTIMASI PROSES DEASIDIFIKASI DALAM PEMURNIAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH SKALA PILOT PLANT [Optimization of Deacidification Process in Red Palm Oil Purification on Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacidification is one of the steps in palm oil refining process which aims to separate free fatty acids formed during post-harvest handling. It is carried out using alkali solution such as NaOH (sodium hydroxide. Carotenoids in palm oil are affected by this step. Therefore, deacidification has to be controlled to minimize the destruction of carotenoids during processing. The objective of this research was to improve deacidification process in pilot plant scale so that the process can produce lower level of free fatty acids (FFA and higher recovery of carotene in high yield neutralized red palm oil (NRPO. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of crude palm oil (CPO such as moisture content, FFA and carotene contents, saponification number, iodine value, peroxide value, and color were determined before processing. Degumming was performed before deacidification process. The 17.5% excess of NaOH was obtained from the pilot plant scale deacidification trial. The optimization of deacidification time and temperature was carried out by using central composite design (CCD. Response surface method (RSM was used to observe the influence of treatments on the FFA level reduction, carotene recovery, and NRPO yield. The result showed that the optimum deacidification condition was at 61 ± 2°C in 26 minutes, and at the 16°Be NaOH strength with 17.5% excess of NaOH. In this optimum condition, the process achieved 96.35% of FFA reduction, 87.30% of carotene recovery, and 90.16% of NRPO yield.

  19. Improvement and Validation of Pilot-Scale Emerging Pathogen Removal Studies: The Effects of Spiking Concentration and Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B. L.; Harrington, G. W.; Hoffman, R. M.; Borchardt, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    The presence of waterborne enteric pathogens in domestic water supplies represents a potentially significant human health risk. To evaluate the removal of these pathogens in drinking water treatment processes, researchers have needed to spike raw water with at least 106 pathogens/L in order to reliably detect the pathogens in treated water. Unfortunately, occurrence surveys have shown that pathogen concentrations in raw waters are significantly smaller than 106 pathogens/L (LeChevallier and Norton, 1995; States et al., 1997). Since regulatory decisions are based on results from pilot-scale experiments, it is necessary to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate removal capacities based on unrealistic spike doses. Recent advances have been made in sample concentration and pathogen detection that allows removal studies to be conducted at more realistic spike concentrations. The overall goal of this project is to use continuous separation channel centrifugation (CSCC) and flow cytometry with cell sorting (FCCS) to evaluate Cryptosporidium removals in water treatment processes at concentrations nearer to those found in the aquatic environment. This project evaluates Cryptosporidium removal with a unique combination of experimental, concentration, and analytical methods. In order to characterize the removal of Cryptosporidium, pilot-scale experiments will be conducted between March and April 2004 with different initial Cryptosporidium concentrations (range from 102 to 106 Cryptosporidium/L) and sampling methods (grab versus continuous). CSCC will be used for concentration of pathogens in samples collected from the pilot plant. FCCS capability will be used for Cryptosporidium detection. These methods will achieve significantly higher pathogen recoveries and more precise pathogen counts than the methods that have traditionally been used for pilot plant studies. This research will provide the water industry with a way of validating previous removal studies and insight