WorldWideScience

Sample records for pilot fuel quantity

  1. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2000-04-01

    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  2. Theoretical study of the effects of pilot fuel quantity and its injection timing on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.; Rakopoulos, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Various solutions have been proposed for improving the combustion process of conventional diesel engines and reducing the exhaust emissions without making serious modifications on the engine, one of which is the use of natural gas as a supplement for the conventional diesel fuel, the so called dual fuel natural gas diesel engines. The most common type of these is referred to as the pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine (PINGDE). Here, the primary fuel is natural gas that controls the engine power output, while the pilot diesel fuel injected near the end of the compression stroke auto-ignites and creates ignition sources for the surrounding gaseous fuel mixture to be burned. Previous research studies have shown that the main disadvantage of this dual fuel combustion is its negative impact on engine efficiency compared to the normal diesel operation, while carbon monoxide emissions are also increased. The pilot diesel fuel quantity and injection advance influence significantly the combustion mechanism. Then, in order to examine the effect of these two parameters on the performance and emissions, a comprehensive two-zone phenomenological model is employed and applied on a high-speed, pilot ignited, natural gas diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. According to the results, the simultaneously increase of the pilot fuel quantity accompanied with an increase of its injection timing results to an improvement of the engine efficiency (increase) and of the emitted CO emissions (decrease) while it has a negative effect (increase) of NO emissions

  3. Quantities of actinides in nuclear reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breeder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium, and recycled uranium. The radioactivity levels of plutonium, americium, and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the United States nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium processed in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (U.S.)

  4. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  5. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  6. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Piloted ignition of live forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. McAllister; I. Grenfell; A. Hadlow; W. M. Jolly; M. Finney; J. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    The most unpredictable and uncontrollable wildfires are those that burn in the crowns of live vegetation. The fuels that feed these crown fires are mostly live, green foliage. Unfortunately, little is known about how live fuels combust. To understand how live fuels burn, piloted ignition experiments were performed with lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. The thermal...

  8. Effects of DME pilot quantity on the performance of a DME PCCI-DI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; He Li; Zhou Longbao; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    The combination of premixed charge compression ignition and conventional direct-injection compression ignition combustion is studied in a DME engine. This combustion mode is referred to as PCCI-DI combustion. The pilot quantity is found to be one of main variables affecting the PCCI-DI combustion. So, the main objectives of this paper are to examine the effect of different DME pilot quantities on combustion and emission characteristics in a single-cylinder direct-injection DME engine and to determine whether PCCI-DI is a viable in-cylinder NO x emissions reduction technology. In order to evaluate the characteristics of PCCI-DI combustion, the conventional direct-injection compression-ignition engine performance is supplied to make a comparison with their results. Furthermore, special emphasis is put upon the combined combustion process analysis. Results show that DME engine can operate at a wide range of speeds and loads at PCCI-DI mode. In comparison to the conventional DME CI combustion, the brake thermal efficiency slightly increases for DME PCCI-DI operation. PCCI-DI is capable to decrease NO x effectively for all loads. NO x emission shows an obviously descending tendency with an increase in DME pilot quantity at low loads, while it shows a mildly elevating tendency with an increase in DME pilot quantity at high loads. HC and CO emissions increase for DME PCCI-DI operation under various DME pilot quantities.

  9. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  10. Quantity Distortion Effect in Consumers' Perception of Different Volumes and Weights of Money: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Piper, Luigi; Prete, M Irene; Mileti, Antonio; Fonda, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Consumers tend to misunderstand the physical value of cash money by adopting improper anchors for their judgments (e.g., banknote size and shape, currency denominations, etc.). In a pilot study carried out on a sample of 242 participants (n = 116 men; M age = 29.6 year, SD = 10.8), a quantity distortion effect was demonstrated by evaluating consumers' misperceptions of different monetary quantities, either in terms of volume or weight, using banknotes of the same denomination (€50). A threshold value was found, for both volume (€876,324) and weight (€371,779), above (below) which consumers tend to overrate (underrate) monetary amounts. The theoretical and operative implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Pilot and pilot-commercial plants for reprocessing spent fuels of FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaldaev, V.S.; Sokolova, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    A review of modern state of investigations on the FBR mixed oxide uranium-plutonium fuel reprocessing abroad is given. Great Britain and France occupy the leading place in this field, operating pilot plants of 5 tons a year capacity. Technology of spent fuel reprocessing and specific features of certain stages of the technological process are considered. Projects of pilot and pilot-commercial plants of Great Britain, France, Japan, USA are described. Economic problems of the FBR fuel reprocessing are touched upon

  12. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the statutory requirement that the Commission make such determinations. Section 423(c) of the Tax...

  13. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of determination. SUMMARY: Section 423(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended (19 U.S.C...

  14. Determination of U-235 quantity in fresh fuel elements by neutron coincidence collar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de; Almeida, S.G. de; Marzo, M.A.S.; Moita, L.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The U-235 quantity per lenght of fresh fuel assemblies of the Angra-I first recharge was determined by Neutron Coincidence Collar technique (N.C.C.). This technique is well-founded in fresh fuel assemblies activation by thermal neutrons from AmLi source to generate U-235 fission neutrons. These neutrons are detected by coincidence method in polyethylene structure where 18 He-3 detectors were placed. The coincidence counting results, in active mode (AmLi), showed 0,7% to standard deviation and equal to 1,49% to mass in 1000s of counting. The accuracies of different calibration methods were evaluated and compared. The results showed that the operator declared values are consistent. This evaluation was part of technical-exchange program between Safeguards Laboratory from C.N.E.N. and Los Alamos National Lab., United States. (author)

  15. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2016-07-23

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition effects on premixed flame chemistry is important. In this study, the combustion chemistry of low-pressure, burner-stabilized, premixed flames of two gasoline fuels was investigated under stoichiometric conditions. Flame speciation was conducted using vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron photoionization time-of-flight molecular beam mass spectroscopy. Stable end-products, intermediate hydrocarbons, and free radicals were detected and quantified. In addition, several isomeric species in the reaction pool were distinguished and quantified with the help of the highly tunable synchrotron radiation. A comparison between the products of both flames is presented and the major differences are highlighted. Premixed flame numerical simulations were conducted using surrogate fuel kinetic models for each flame. Furthermore, a new approach was developed to elucidate the main discrepancies between experimental measurements and the numerical predictions by comparing quantities of interest. © 2016.

  16. Under-reactor Room 305/2 of the unit 4 of Chernobyl 1 NPP: its state, fuel quantity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoj, A.A.; Lagunenko, A.S.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.

    1997-01-01

    The question of the quantity of the used up nuclear fuel in the under-reactor room is discussed. These are given the results of direct visual observation, TV-records and photographing in this room and their connection with the date of chemical analysis of core samples and dose rate measurement. On the basis of these results the detailed model of relative petitioning of the main elements in the volume space of the former active zone of the reactor is developed. The minimum quantity evaluation of nuclear fuel in the room 305/2 is given. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  17. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 , 19.75% U 235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

  19. Process control of an HTGR fuel reprocessing cold pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1976-10-01

    Development of engineering-scale systems for a large-scale HTGR fuel reprocessing demonstration facility is currently underway in a cold pilot plant. These systems include two fluidized-bed burners, which remove the graphite (carbon) matrix from the crushed HTGR fuel by high temperature (900 0 C) oxidation. The burners are controlled by a digital process controller with an all analog input/output interface which has been in use since March, 1976. The advantages of such a control system to a pilot plant operation can be summarized as follows: (1) Control loop functions and configurations can be changed easily; (2) control constants, alarm limits, output limits, and scaling constants can be changed easily; (3) calculation of data and/or interface with a computerized information retrieval system during operation are available; (4) diagnosis of process control problems is facilitated; and (5) control panel/room space is saved

  20. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  1. Quality and Quantity of Rehabilitation Exercises Delivered By A 3-D Motion Controlled Camera: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatireddy, Ravi; Chokshi, Anang; Basnett, Jeanna; Casale, Michael; Goble, Daniel; Shubert, Tiffany

    2014-08-01

    Tele-rehabiliation technologies that track human motion could enable physical therapy in the home. To be effective, these systems need to collect critical metrics without PT supervision both in real time and in a store and forward capacity. The first step of this process is to determine if PTs (PTs) are able to accurately assess the quality and quantity of an exercise repetition captured by a tele-rehabilitation platform. The purpose of this pilot project was to determine the level of agreement of quality and quantity of an exercise delivered and assessed by the Virtual Exercise Rehabilitation Assistant (VERA), and seven PTs. Ten healthy subjects were instructed by a PT in how to perform four lower extremity exercises. Subjects then performed each exercises delivered by VERA which counted repetitions and quality. Seven PTs independently reviewed video of each subject's session and assessed repetitions quality. The percent difference in total repetitions and analysis of the distribution of rating repetition quality was assessed between the VERA and PTs. The VERA counted 426 repetitions across 10 subjects performing the four different exercises while the mean repetition count from the PT panel was 426.7 (SD = 0.8). The VERA underestimated the total repetitions performed by 0.16% (SD = 0.03%, 95% CI 0.12 - 0. 22). Chi square analysis across raters was χ 2 = 63.17 (df = 6, p<.001), suggesting significant variance in at least one rater. The VERA count of repetitions was accurate in comparison to a seven member panel of PTs. For exercise quality the VERA was able to rate 426 exercise repetitions across 10 patients and four different exercises in a manner consistent with five out of seven experienced PTs.

  2. The significance of the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willax, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    The pilot conditioning plant (PKA) is intended as a multi-purpose facility and thus may serve various purposes involved in the conditioning or disposal of spent fuel elements or radwaste. Its design as a pilot plant permits development and trial of various methods and processes for fuel element conditioning, as well as for radwaste conditioning. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Quantity and management of spent fuel from prototype and research reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Sabine; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang; Tholen, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Within the scope of an R and D project (project identification number FKZ 02 S 8679) sponsored by BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research), the current state of storage and management of fuel elements from prototype and research reactors was established, and an approach for their future storage/management was developed. The spent fuels from prototype and research reactors in Germany that require disposal were specified and were described in regard to their repository-relevant characteristics. As there are currently no casks licensed for disposal in Germany, descriptions of casks that were considered to be suitable were provided. Based on the information provided on the spent fuel from prototype and research reactors and the potential casks, a technical disposal concept was developed. In this context, concepts to integrate the spent fuel from prototype and research reactors into existing disposal concepts for spent fuel from German nuclear power plants and for waste from reprocessing were developed for salt and clay formations. (authors)

  4. The possibility of increasing the quantity of oxygenates in fuel blends with no diesel engine modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Bazaras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fuel kinds of organic origin including rapeseed methyl ester (RME and ethanol (E were selected for their different physical-chemical parameters to study the maximum apt volume of oxygenates to mix fossil diesel (D and establish expectancy to apply D–RME–E blend as a fuel for the unmodified high–speed diesel engine (a combustion chamber consists of a dished piston. The objective of the article is to provide an explicit relationship between the nature of fuel composition and diesel engine operating parameters. The results of the carried out tests on the engine oriented on dynamic and emission characteristics using various portions of the before mentioned bio-components in diesel fuel are presented. Engine behaviour seemed to be improved in the presence of ethanol additives in D–RME blend with a reduction in pollutant emissions in exhaust gases, fuel consumption, ameliorated cetane number, ignition delay time and physical-chemical characteristics of the investigated compounds. The positive and negative aspects of applying bio-based additives in fossil diesel are reported and discussed.

  5. Study on Combustion Oscillation of Premixed Flame with Pilot Fuel at Elevated Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Masaya; Yoshida, Shohei; Hirata, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Nariyoshi

    Acoustically-coupled combustion oscillation is studied for premixed flame with pilot fuel to be used in gas turbine combustors. Premixed gas is passed through swirl vanes and burnt with the centrally injected pilot fuel. The dependencies of pressure, fuel to air ratio, premixed fuel rate, inlet velocity and air temperature on the combustion oscillation are investigated. Two kinds of oscillation modes of ˜100Hz and ˜350Hz are activated according to inlet velocities. Fluctuating pressures are amplified when the premixed fuel rate is over ˜80% at elevated pressures. The fluctuating pressure peak moves to a higher premixed fuel ratio region with increased pressure or fuel to air ratio for the Helmholz type mode. Combustion oscillation occurs when the pilot fuel velocity is changed proportionally with the flame length.

  6. Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem Thruster Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion: A Failure Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2003-01-01

    Pilot operated valves (POVs) are used to control the flow of hypergolic propellants monomethylhydrazine (fuel) and nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) to the Shuttle orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thrusters. The POV incorporates a two-stage design: a solenoid-actuated pilot stage, which in turn controls a pressure-actuated main stage. Isolation of propellant supply from the thruster chamber is accomplished in part by a captive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal retained inside a Custom 455.1 stainless steel cavity. Extrusion of the pilot seal restricts the flow of fuel around the pilot poppet, thus impeding or preventing the main valve stage from opening. It can also prevent the main stage from staying open with adequate force margin, particularly if there is gas in the main stage actuation cavity. During thruster operation on-orbit, fuel valve pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by low or erratic chamber pressure or failure of the thruster to fire upon command (Fail-Off). During ground turnaround, pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by slow gaseous nitrogen (GN2) main valve opening times (greater than 38 ms) or slow water main valve opening response times (greater than 33 ms). Poppet lift tests and visual inspection can also detect pilot seal extrusion during ground servicing; however, direct metrology on the pilot seat assembly provides the most quantitative and accurate means of identifying extrusion. Minimizing PRCS fuel valve pilot seal extrusion has become an important issue in the effort to improve PRCS reliability and reduce associated life cycle costs.

  7. Separation and mass spectrometry of nanogram quantities of uranium and thorium from thorium-uranium dioxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.W.; Elliot, N.L.; Longhurst, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    A microchemical procedure was developed for the separation and isotopic analysis of U and Th from irradiated (Th,U)O 2 fuel. The separation procedure consisted of two stages; in the first a tributyl phosphate impregnated resin bead was equilibrated with the dissolved fuel in 0.08 M HF/6 M HNO 3 solution. The bead sorbed approximately 1.7 μg of U and 4.8μg of Th and provided good separation of these from the fission products. In the second stage, the U and Th were back-extracted into 0.025 M HF/8 M HNO 3 solution, which contained a small anion-exchange membrane disk. The disk adsorbed approximately 14 ng of U and 45 ng of Th, and subsequently was transferred to the ionizing filament of a thermal-ionization mass spectrometer and covered with a starch deposit. Sensitivities were sufficiently high for sequential analysis of these quantities of Th and U from a single disk. Isotopic data obtained for a combined U and Th standard showed excellent agreement with certified values: overall bias and precision were < 0.03% and 0.2% relative standard deviation, respectively, for both elements. The applicability of the procedure to uranium fuels was also demonstrated. 6 figures, 2 tables

  8. Separation and mass spectrometry of nanogram quantities of uranium and thorium from thorium-uranium dioxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L.W.; Elliot, N.L.; Longhurst, T.H

    1983-07-01

    A convenient and sensitive microchemical procedure was developed for the separation and isotopic analysis of U and Th from irradiated (Th,U)O{sub 2} fuel. The separation procedure consisted of two stages; in the first a tributyl phosphate impregnated resin bead was equilibrated with the dissolved fuel in 0.08 M HF/6 M HNO{sub 3} solution. The bead sorbed approximately 1.7 {mu}g of U and 4.8 {mu}g of Th and provided good separation of these from the fission products. In the second stage, the U and Th were back-extracted into 0.025 M HF/8 M HNO{sub 3} solution, which contained a small anion-exchange membrane disk. The disk adsorbed approximately 14 ng of U and 45 ng of Th, and subsequently was transferred to the ionizing filament of a thermal-ionization mass spectrometer and covered with a starch deposit. Sensitivities were sufficiently high for sequential analysis of these quantities of Th and U from a single disk. Isotopic data obtained for a combined U and Th standard showed excellent agreement with certified values: overall bias and precision were < -0.03% and 0.2% relative standard deviation, respectively, for both elements. The applicability of the procedure to uranium fuels was also demonstrated. (author)

  9. Quantity Distance for the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building for Solid Propellant Fueled Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Steven; Diebler, Corey; Frazier, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The NASA KSC VAB was built to process Apollo launchers in the 1960's, and later adapted to process Space Shuttles. The VAB has served as a place to assemble solid rocket motors (5RM) and mate them to the vehicle's external fuel tank and Orbiter before rollout to the launch pad. As Space Shuttle is phased out, and new launchers are developed, the VAB may again be adapted to process these new launchers. Current launch vehicle designs call for continued and perhaps increased use of SRM segments; hence, the safe separation distances are in the process of being re-calculated. Cognizant NASA personnel and the solid rocket contractor have revisited the above VAB QD considerations and suggest that it may be revised to allow a greater number of motor segments within the VAB. This revision assumes that an inadvertent ignition of one SRM stack in its High Bay need not cause immediate and complete involvement of boosters that are part of a vehicle in adjacent High Bay. To support this assumption, NASA and contractor personnel proposed a strawman test approach for obtaining subscale data that may be used to develop phenomenological insight and to develop confidence in an analysis model for later use on full-scale situations. A team of subject matter experts in safety and siting of propellants and explosives were assembled to review the subscale test approach and provide options to NASA. Upon deliberations regarding the various options, the team arrived at some preliminary recommendations for NASA.

  10. Pilot plant production at Riso of LEU silicide fuel for the Danish reactor DR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, P.; Borring, J.; Adolph, E.

    1988-01-01

    A pilot plant for fabricating LEU silicide fuel elements has been established at Riso National Laboratory. Three test elements for the Danish reactor DR3 have been fabricated, based on 19.88% enriched U 3 Si 2 powder that has been purchased elsewhere. The pilot plant has been set up and 3 test elements fabricated without any major difficulties

  11. General Atomic HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of initial sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In September 1977, the processing of 20 large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fuel elements was completed sequentially through the head-end cold pilot plant equipment. This report gives a brief description of the equipment and summarizes the results of the sequential operation of the pilot plant. 32 figures, 15 tables

  12. The experimental determination of the relationship between the energising time of the common rail injector and the set fuel quantity and rail pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of experimentally determining the relationship between the energising time of the common rail electromagnetic injector and the set fuel quantity and rail pressure. Experimental studies according to the assumed methodology were made on a test bench enabling the dynamic flow rate measurement of the injector. The fuel system mounted on the test bench was controlled by the laboratory CI engine control unit based on the original concept of one of the authors of the article. The results of the experimental studies have made it possible to determine many of the characteristics of the fuel flow rate depending on the specified rail pressure and the energising time of the injector. An analysis was then performed followed by extrapolation of the obtained results. The data obtained from these analyses are the basis for the development of the energising time control algorithm based on a set fuel quantity and rail pressure.

  13. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described

  14. Development of some operations in technological flowsheet for spent VVER fuel reprocessing at a pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Galkin, B.Ya; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Romanovskii, V.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel reprocessing pilot plants for high active materials would permit the study and development or particular processing steps and flowsheet variations; in some cases, these experimental installations realize on a small scale practically all technological chains of large reprocessing plants. Such a fuel reprocessing pilot plant with capacity of 3 kg U/d has been built at V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The pilot plant is installed in the hot cell of radiochemical compartment, and is composed of the equipments for fuel element cutting and dissolving, the preparation of feed solution (clarification, correction), extraction reprocessing and the production of uranium, plutonium and neptunium concentrates, the complex processing of liquid and solid wastes and a special unit for gas purification and analysis. In the last few years, a series of experiments have been carried out on the reprocessing of spent VVER fuel. (J.P.N.)

  15. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  16. HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.; Fields, D.E.; Kergis, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles were fractured and reburned in a fluid bed to remove the inner carbon coatings. The remaining products are ready for dissolution and solvent extraction fuel recovery

  17. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  18. Verification of criticality Safety for ETRR-2 Fuel Manufacturing pilot Plant (FMPP) at Inshas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Gadalla, A.A.; Orabi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The criticality safety of the fuel manufacturing pilot plant (FMPP) at inshas is studied and analyzed during normal and abnormal operation conditions. the multiplication factor during all stages of the manufacturing processes is determined. several accident scenarios were simulated and the criticality of these accidents were investigated. two codes are used in the analysis : MCNP 4 B code, based on monte Carlo method, and CITATION code , based on diffusion theory. the results are compared with the designer calculations and satisfactory agreement were found. the results of the study indicated that the safety of the fuel manufacturing pilot plant is confirmed

  19. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Roy, M.M. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2009-07-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N{sub 2} dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  20. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Roy, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N 2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  1. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described

  2. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  3. Performance and specific emissions contours throughout the operating range of hydrogen-fueled compression ignition engine with diesel and RME pilot fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and emissions contours of a hydrogen dual fueled compression ignition (CI engine with two pilot fuels (diesel and rapeseed methyl ester, and compares the performance and emissions iso-contours of diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME single fueling with diesel and RME piloted hydrogen dual fueling throughout the engines operating speed and power range. The collected data have been used to produce iso-contours of thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific oxides of nitrogen (NOX, specific hydrocarbons (HC and specific carbon dioxide (CO2 on a power-speed plane. The performance and emission maps are experimentally investigated, compared, and critically discussed. Apart from medium loads at lower and medium speeds with diesel piloted hydrogen combustion, dual fueling produced lower thermal efficiency everywhere across the map. For diesel and RME single fueling the maximum specific NOX emissions are centered at the mid speed, mid power region. Hydrogen dual fueling produced higher specific NOX with both pilot fuels as compared to their respective single fueling operations. The range, location and trends of specific NOX varied significantly when compared to single fueling cases. The volumetric efficiency is discussed in detail with the implications of manifold injection of hydrogen analyzed with the conclusions drawn.

  4. Simulated effect of timing and Pt quantity injected on On-line NobleChem application on total fuel liftoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, M.G.; Riddle, J.M.; Lamanna, L.S.; Gregorich, C.; Hoornik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total liftoff is a measure of fuel performance and a risk indicator for fuel reliability. Fuel operability and license limits are directly related to the expected total lifetime liftoff. AREVA's continued commitment to zero fuel failure is expressed, among other efforts, in the continued development and improvement of its fuel cladding corrosion and crud risk assessment tools. The AREVA models used to assess and predict crud deposition on BWR cores over their lifespan have been refined by the development and incorporation of the PEZOG tool in response to the move in the industry to the On-Line NobleChem TM (OLNC) technology. PEZOG models the platinum-enhanced zirconium oxide growth of fuel cladding when exposed to platinum during operation. Depending on the local chemistry and radiation condition, noble metals act as catalysts for many reactions, including but not limited to hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. OLNC's intention is to catalyze the hydrogen and oxygen recombination reaction for core internals protection. However, research has indicated that noble metals catalyze the oxygen reduction under the chemistry and radiation conditions as experienced in the pores of crud deposits, and hence, can increase the corrosion rate of zirconium alloy cladding. The developed PEZOG module calculates the oxide thickness as a function of platinum injection strategy. The stratified nature of oxide and crud layers formed on fuel cladding surfaces is reflected in the calculations as are the different platinum interaction in each of the layers. This paper presents examples of the evaluation of various aspects of the platinum injection strategies and their influence on the oxide growth enhancement as applied to conditions of a U.S. plant. (authors)

  5. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of physical quantities at critical velocities in a nuclear research reactor core channel using plate type fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Ali Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal-hydraulic study presented here relates to a channel of a nuclear reactor core. This channel is defined as being the space between two fuel plates where a coolant fluid flows. The flow velocity of this coolant should not generate vibrations in fuel plates. The aim of this study is to know the distribution of the temperature in the fuel plates, in the cladding and in the coolant fluid at the critical velocities of Miller, of Wambsganss, and of Cekirge and Ural. The velocity expressions given by these authors are function of the geometry of the fuel plate, the mechanical characteristics of the fuel plate’s material and the thermal characteristics of the coolant fluid. The thermal-hydraulic study is made under steady-state; the equation set-up of the thermal problem is made according to El Wakil and to Delhaye. Once the equation set-up is validated, the three critical velocities are calculated and then used in the calculations of the different temperature profiles. The average heat flux and the critical heat flux are evaluated for each critical velocity and their ratio reported. The recommended critical velocity to be used in nuclear channel calculations is that of Wambsganss. The mathematical model used is more precise and all the physical quantities, when using this critical velocity, stay in safe margins.

  6. The Planning of a Small Pilot Plant for Development Work on Aqueous Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeborg, T U; Haeffner, E; Hultgren, Aa

    1963-10-15

    A shielded volume (42 m{sup 3}) in the hot laboratory at Kjeller, Norway, has been used for the installation of a small pilot plant intended for studies on nuclear fuel reprocessing. During the first period of operation (1963) a plutonium separation method (the Silex process) developed at AB Atomenergi will be studied. This document is a description of the project during the stage of technical planning and chemical process development.

  7. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  8. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.; Elseaidy, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF 6 , 19.7±0.2 % U 235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  9. Electrically controlled fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with air quantity meter. Elektrisch gesteuerte Kraftstoffeinspritzeinrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen mit Luftmengenmesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, B; Soell, W

    1980-12-11

    The invention concerns an electrically controlled preferably intermittently working fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with a throttle valve, a solenoid operated injection valve and a transistor circuit, which supplies electrical pulses used to open the injection valve synchronously to the revolution of the crankshaft. The invention is characterized by the fact that an electrical control device is provided, which extends the individual opening pulses in thrust operation (with the throttle valve closed or nearly closed and with a working speed above the speed). The extension produced by the control device decreases from a value at about 20% for the maximum speed to a value of 0 for the tickover speed. Details of the transistor control are made clear by detailed circuit diagrams and 5 patent claims.

  10. Performance and emissions of a dual-fuel pilot diesel ignition engine operating on various premixed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Amin; Birouk, Madjid; Lawler, Benjamin; Gharehghani, Ayatallah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas/diesel, methanol/diesel, and hydrogen/diesel cases were investigated. • For leaner mixtures, the hydrogen/diesel case has the highest IMEP and ITE. • The methanol/diesel case has the maximum IMEP and ITE for richer mixtures. • Hydrogen/diesel case experiences soot and CO free combustion at rich regions. - Abstract: A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with chemical kinetics mechanisms was applied to investigate the effect of various premixed fuels and equivalence ratios on the combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics of a dual-fuel indirect injection (IDI) pilot diesel ignition engine. The diesel fuel is supplied via indirect injection into the cylinder prior to the end of the compression stroke. Various premixed fuels were inducted into the engine through the intake manifold. The results showed that the dual-fuel case using hydrogen/diesel has a steeper pressure rise rate, higher peak heat release rate (PHRR), more advanced ignition timing, and shorter ignition delay compared to the natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases. For leaner mixtures (Φ_P 0.32). For instance, with an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the ITE is 56.24% and 60.85% for hydrogen/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases, respectively. For an equivalence ratio of 0.15, the natural gas/diesel simulation exhibits partial burn combustion and thus results in a negative IMEP. At equivalence ratios of 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25, the methanol/diesel case experiences misfiring phenomenon which consequently deteriorates the engine performance considerably. As for the engine-out emissions, the hydrogen/diesel results display carbon monoxide (CO) free combustion relative to natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel engines; however, considerable amount of nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions are produced at an equivalence ratio of 0.35 which exceeds the Euro 6 NO_x limit. Due to the larger area exposed to high temperature regions

  11. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 1. Summary: alternatives for the back of the LWR fuel cycle types and properties of LWR fuel cycle wastes projections of waste quantities; selected glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I of the five-volume report contains executive and technical summaries of the entire report, background information of the LWR fuel cycle alternatives, descriptions of waste types, and projections of waste quantities. Overview characterizations of alternative LWR fuel cycle modes are also included

  12. Safeguardability assessment on pilot-scale advanced spent fuel conditioning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Li, T.K.; Pickett, S.E.; Miller, M.C.; Ko, W.I.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In South Korea, approximately 6,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactor operation has been accumulated with the expectation of more than 30,000 metric tons, three times the present storage capacity, by the end of 2040. To resolve these challenges in spent fuel management, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a dry reprocessing technology called Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). This is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent fuel into a metallic form, and the electrolytic reduction (ER) technology developed recently is known as a more efficient concept for spent fuel conditioning. The goal of the ACP study is to recover more than 99% of the actinide elements into a metallic form with minimizing the volume and heat load of spent fuel. The significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected to lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety, and economics. In the framework of R and D collaboration for the ACP safeguards, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and KAERI. The purpose of this study is to address the safeguardability of the ACP technology, through analysis of material flow and development of a proper safeguards system that meet IAEA's comprehensive safeguards objective. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot-scale ACP facility were analyzed, and subsequently the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. The uncertainties in material accounting were also estimated with international target values, and design requirements for the material accounting systems were derived

  13. Short-Term Operations Plan for Collection of Bulk Quantity CBP Liquid in Support of a Pilot-Scale Treatabilty Evaluation with Water Recovery Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    June 3, 2011 work plan for a pilot-scale treatability evaluation with a commercial wastewater treatment facility, Water Recovery Inc. (WRI) located in Jacksonville, Florida. Region ID: 04 DocID: 10749927, DocDate: 06-03-2011

  14. Safety concerning the alteration in fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at Ningyo Pass Mine of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety was presented to the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, which is concerned with the safety in the alteration of fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at the Ningyo Pass Mine. Its safety was confirmed. The alteration, i.e. installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant, is as follows. Intended for the overall test of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the pilot plant includes a two-storied main building of about 9,000 m 2 floor space, containing centrifuges, UF 6 equipment, etc., a uranium storage of about 1,000 m 2 floor space, and a waste water treatment facility, two-storied with about 300 m 2 floor space. The contents of the examination are safety of the facilities, criticality control, radiation control, waste treatment, and effects of accidents on the surrounding environment. (Mori, K

  15. Use of Pilot Plants for Developing Used Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Chris; Arm, Stuart [EnergySolutions LLC (United States); Banfield, Zara; Jeapes, Andrew; Taylor, Richard [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    EnergySolutions and its teaming partners are working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop processes, equipment and facilities for recycling used nuclear fuel (UNF). Recycling significantly reduces the volume of wastes that ultimately will be consigned to the National Geologic Repository, enables the re-use in new fuel of the valuable uranium and plutonium in the UNF, and allows the long-lived minor actinides to be treated separately so they do not become long term heat emitters in the Repository. A major requirement of any new UNF recycling facility is that pure plutonium is not separated anywhere in the process, so as to reduce the nuclear proliferation attractiveness of the facility. EnergySolutions and its team partner the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have developed the NUEX process to achieve this and to handle appropriately the treatment of other species such as krypton, tritium, neptunium and technetium. NUEX is based on existing successful commercial UNF recycling processes deployed in the UK, France and imminently in Japan, but with a range of modifications to the flowsheet to keep some uranium with the plutonium at all times and to minimize aerial and liquid radioactive discharges. NNL's long-term experience in developing the recycling and associated facilities at the Sellafield site in the UK, and its current duties to support technically the operation of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield provides essential input to the design of the US NUEX-based facility. Development work for THORP and other first-of-kind nuclear plants employed miniature scale fully radioactive through large scale inactive pilot plants. The sequence of development work that we have found most successful is to (i) perform initial process development at small (typically 1/5000) scale in gloveboxes using trace active materials, (ii) demonstrate the processes at the same small scale with actual irradiated fuel in hot cells and (iii

  16. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  17. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  18. Selective absorption pilot plant for decontamination of fuel reprocessing plant off-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Eby, R.S.; Huffstetler, V.C.

    1977-10-01

    A fluorocarbon-based selective absorption process for removing krypton-85, carbon-14, and radon-222 from the off-gas of conventional light water and advanced reactor fuel reprocessing plants is being developed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in conjunction with fuel recycle work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the Savannah River Laboratory. The process is characterized by an especially high tolerance for many other reprocessing plant off-gas components. This report presents detailed drawings and descriptions of the second generation development pilot plant as it has evolved after three years of operation. The test facility is designed on the basis of removing 99% of the feed gas krypton and 99.9% of the carbon and radon, and can handle a nominal 15 scfm (425 slm) of contaminated gas at pressures from 100 to 600 psig (7.0 to 42.2 kg/cm/sup 2/) and temperatures from minus 45 to plus 25/sup 0/F (-43 to -4/sup 0/C). Part of the development program is devoted to identifying flowsheet options and simplifications that lead to an even more economical and reliable process. Two of these applicative flowsheets are discussed.

  19. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian; Dunkleman, John; Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Bond, Austin; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m 3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m −3 . A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  1. Development of lean burn gas engines using pilot fuel for ignition source; Developpement d'un moteur a gaz avec pre-injection de carburant pour la source d'allumage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakonji, T.; Saito, H.; Sakurai, T. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Hirashima, T.; Kanno, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A development was conducted to investigate the performance of an open chamber gas engine with pilot fuel for ignition source. Experiments were conducted by using a gas engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Main gas fuel is supplied to the engine cylinder, and then a small quantity of diesel fuel (approximately 1 % of total fuel energy input) was injected into the main chamber for ignition. The single cylinder prototype gas engine has demonstrated superior performance, such as, a shaft-end thermal efficiency of 36.7% with NO{sub x} level of 0.4 g/kW-h, which equals those of conventional spark ignited pre-chamber lean burn gas engines. For the next step, the multi-cylinder gas engine has been developed. That has 138 mm bore, 142 mm stroke, V8 configuration and 229 kW engine output 1500 rpm. This engine can also run with only diesel fuel for Standby-Power-Concurrent Co-generation. (authors)

  2. Conditioning of spent fuel for interim and final storage in the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahr, H.; Willax, H.O.; Spilker, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, due to the change of the nuclear law in Germany, the concept of direct final disposal for spent fuel was developed as an equivalent alternative to the waste management with reprocessing. Since 1979, tests for the direct final disposal of spent fuel have been conducted in Germany. In 1985, the State and the utilities came to an agreement to develop this concept of waste management to technical maturity. Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS) was commissioned by the utilities with the following tasks: to develop and test components with regard to conditioning technology, to construct and operate the pilot conditioning plant (PKA), and to develop casks suitable for final disposal. Since 1990, the construction of the PKA has taken place at the Brennelementlager Gorleben site. The PKA has been designed as a multipurpose facility and can thus fulfil various tasks within the framework of the conditioning and management of spent fuel assemblies and radioactive waste. The pilot character of the plant allows for development and testing in the field of spent fuel assembly conditioning. The objectives of the PKA may be summarized as follows: to condition spent fuel assemblies, to reload spent fuel assemblies and waste packages, to condition radioactive waste, and to do maintenance work on transport and storage casks as well as on waste packages. Currently, the buildings of the PKA are constructed and the technical facilities are installed. The plant will be ready for service in the middle of 1999. It is the first plant of its kind in the world. (author)

  3. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  4. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  5. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection pressure of pilot fuel in dual fuel combustion (DFC) affects the engine power and exhaust emissions. • In the biodiesel–CNG DFC mode, the combustion begins and ends earlier as the pilot-fuel injection pressure increases. • The ignition delay in the DFC mode is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer than that in the diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode. • The smoke and NOx emissions are significantly reduced in the DFC mode. - Abstract: Biodiesel–compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel combustion (DFC) system is studied for the simultaneous reduction of particulate matters (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel is used as a pilot injection fuel to ignite the main fuel, CNG of DFC system. In particular, the pilot injection pressure is controlled to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is lower than that of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode at higher injection pressure. However, the combustion stability of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is increased with the increase of pilot injection pressure. At the same injection pressure, the start of combustion of biodiesel–CNG DFC is delayed compared to diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of pilot fuel. On the contrary, it is observed that as the pilot injection pressure increase, the combustion process begins and ends a little earlier for biodiesel–CNG DFC. The ignition delay in the DFC is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer compared to diesel SFC, but decreases with increases of pilot injection pressure. Smoke and NOx emissions are decreased and increased, respectively, as the pilot injection pressure increases in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. In comparison to diesel SFC, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over all the operating conditions and NOx emissions also exhibited similar

  6. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  7. Recovery Act. Demonstration of a Pilot Integrated Biorefinery for the Efficient, Direct Conversion of Biomass to Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetzle, Dennis [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Tamblyn, Greg [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Caldwell, Matt [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Hanbury, Orion [Renewable Energy Institute International, Sacramentao, CA (United States); Schuetzle, Robert [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Ramer [Greyrock Energy, Sacramento, CA (United States); Johnson, Alex [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Deichert, Fred [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Jorgensen, Roger [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States); Struble, Doug [Red Lion Bio-Energy, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Renewable Energy Institute International, in collaboration with Greyrock Energy and Red Lion Bio-Energy (RLB) has successfully demonstrated operation of a 25 ton per day (tpd) nameplate capacity, pilot, pre-commercial-scale integrated biorefinery (IBR) plant for the direct production of premium, “drop-in”, synthetic fuels from agriculture and forest waste feedstocks using next-generation thermochemical and catalytic conversion technologies. The IBR plant was built and tested at the Energy Center, which is located in the University of Toledo Medical Campus in Toledo, Ohio.

  8. French experience and prospects in the reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-06-01

    Experience acquired in France in the field of reprocessing spent fuels from fast breeder reactors is recalled. Emphasis is put on characteristics and quantities of spent fuels reprocessed in La Hague and Marcoule facilities. Then reprocessing developments with the realisation of the new pilot plant TOR at Marcoule, new equipments and study of industrial reprocessing units are reviewed [fr

  9. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fifth chapter presents the conceptual evolution, the definition procedures, the radiological quantities themselves, the relation between them, the new operational quantities and the new quantities defined in the ICRP 60 that replaced ICRP 26 and was included in the CNEN-NN-3.01 standard of 2011

  10. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  11. Investigation on the effects of pilot injection on low temperature combustion in high-speed diesel engine fueled with n-butanol–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Tianru; Zhao, Ruiqing; Wang, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of pre-injected timing and pre-injected mass were studied in CI engine. • The addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals, which delayed the ignition time. • With the increase of n-butanol, the BSFC and MPRR increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the advance of pilot injection timing, the BSFC increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the increase of pilot injection mass, NO_x increased, soot decreased then increased. - Abstract: The effect of pilot injection timing and pilot injection mass on combustion and emission characteristics under medium exhaust gas recirculation (EGR (25%)) condition were experimentally investigated in high-speed diesel engine. Diesel fuel (B0), two blends of butanol and diesel fuel denoted as B20 (20% butanol and 80% diesel in volume), and B30 (30% butanol and 70% diesel in volume) were tested. The results show that, for all fuels, when advancing the pilot injection timing, the peak value of heat release rate decreases for pre-injection fuel, but increases slightly for the main-injection fuel. Moreover, the in-cylinder pressure peak value reduces with the rise of maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), while NO_x and soot emissions reduce. Increasing the pilot injection fuel mass, the peak value of heat release rate for pre-injected fuel increases, but for the main-injection, the peak descends, and the in-cylinder pressure peak value and NO_x emissions increase, while soot emission decreases at first and then increases. Blending n-butanol in diesel improves soot emissions. When pilot injection is adopted, the increase of n-butanol ratio causes the MPRR increasing and the crank angle location for 50% cumulative heat release (CA50) advancing, as well as NO_x and soot emissions decreasing. The simulation of the combustion of n-butanol–diesel fuel blends, which was based on the n-heptane–n-butanol–PAH–toluene mixing mechanism, demonstrated that the addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals

  12. Mechanical and Instrumental Experiences from the Erection, Commissioning, and Operation of a Small Pilot Plant for Development Work on Aqueous Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, K.

    1965-05-01

    A radio chemical pilot plant for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels has been built by AB Atomenergi at Kjeller in Norway. In the report a short description of the main equipment is given as well as of the procedure during the erection of the plant. Finally the results and experiences from the cold tests, tracer tests and active runs are indicated

  13. Mechanical and Instrumental Experiences from the Erection, Commissioning, and Operation of a Small Pilot Plant for Development Work on Aqueous Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, K

    1965-05-15

    A radio chemical pilot plant for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels has been built by AB Atomenergi at Kjeller in Norway. In the report a short description of the main equipment is given as well as of the procedure during the erection of the plant. Finally the results and experiences from the cold tests, tracer tests and active runs are indicated.

  14. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  15. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  16. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    system of a natural gas engine is some what different from that of the liquid fuel ... encoder. Magnetic speed sensor. Transducer. Figure 1. Illustration of system. .... Natural gas is fumigated during the induction stroke and some quantity of pilot ...

  17. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  18. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  19. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  20. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  2. A Comparative CFD Study on Simulating Flameless Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Pilot-Scale Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Ghadamgahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a method to model the flameless oxy-fuel system, with a comparative approach, as well as validation of the predictions. The validation has been done by comparing the predicted results with previously published experimental results from a 200 kW pilot furnace. A suction pyrometer has been used to measure the local temperature and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 at 24 different locations. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed and the validity of using different submodels describing turbulence and chemical reactions was evaluated. The standard k-ε model was compared with the realizable k-ε model for turbulence, while Probability Density Function (PDF with either chemical equilibrium or the Steady Laminar Flamelet Model (SLFM was evaluated for combustion. Radiation was described using a Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM with weighted-sum-of-grey-gases model (WSGGM. The smallest deviation between predictions and experiments for temperature (1.2% was found using the realizable k-ε model and the SLFM. This improvement affects the prediction of gaseous species as well since the deviation between predictions and experiments for CO2 volume percentages decreased from 6% to 1.5%. This provides a recommendation for model selections in further studies on flameless oxy-fuel combustion.

  3. Conceptual design of the special nuclear material nondestructive assay and accountability system for the HTGR fuel refabrication pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; McNeany, S.R.; Rushton, J.E.

    1975-07-01

    The conceptual design of the fissile material assay and accountability system for the HTGR refabrication pilot plant has been established. The primary feature affecting the design is the high, time varying, gamma activity of the process material due to the unavoidable presence of uranium-232. This imposes stringent requirements for remote operation and remote maintainability of system components. At the same time, the remote operation lends itself to implementation of an automated data collection and processing system for real-time accountability. The high time-varying gamma activity of the material also precludes application of a number of techniques presently employed for light-water reactor fuel assay. The techniques selected for application in the refabrication facility are (1) active thermal neutron interrogation with fast-fission or delayed-neutron counting for fuel-rod and small-sample assay, (2) calorimetry for high-level waste assay, and (3) passive gamma scanning for low-level waste assay, and rapid on-line relative rod-loading measurements. The principal nondestructive assay subsystems are identified as (1) on-line devices for 100 percent product fuel rod assay and quality control, (2) a multipurpose device in the sample inspection laboratory for small- sample assay and secondary standards calibration, and (3) equipment for assay of high- and low-uranium content scrap and waste materials. A data processing system, which coordinates data from these subsystems with information from other process control sensors, is included to provide real-time material balance information. (U.S.)

  4. Pilot-plant testing of materials proposed for use as NWCF feed and fuel nozzle caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    Results of a series of tests performed on materials proposed for use at New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) fuel and feed nozzle caps are described. Results show that Haynes Alloys 25 and 188 and Inconel Alloys 617, 625, and 690 have acceptable corrosion and erosion rates based upon the high-temperature oxidation, erosion, and corrosion tests conducted

  5. GREENHOUSE GASES FROM BIOMASS AND FOSSIL FUEL STOVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A MANILA PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples were taken of the combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested. These were fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Ambient samples were ...

  6. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  7. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  8. Quantities for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is recommended that if measurements are made with the objective of monitor radiation levels in the environment to elucidate long-term changes in these levels, then air kerma should be used. If the objective is to give an indication that levels from man-made sources are acceptable within specified limits for the exposure of people, then ambient dose equivalent should be used. It should be noted that radiation risks to individuals are best expressed by the quantity effective dose equivalent. If this latter quantity is to be accurately assessed, it may be necessary to obtain details of the quality of the environmental radiation that cannot be described adequately by simple measurements of either air kerma or ambient dose equivalent. If the above objectives pertain, the measurements should record both air kerma and ambient dose equivalent. If neutrons are measured in the environment then ambient dose equivalent is the appropriate quantity for both the above objectives. (author)

  9. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

    1980-05-01

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions

  11. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  12. General features of conceptual design for the pilot plant to manufacture fuel rods from mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, C.A.; Adelfang, P.; Esteban, A.; Aparicio, G.; Friedenthal, M.; Orlando, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper conceptually describes: 1) the processes in the manufacturing lines; 2) the distribution of quality controls and glove boxes in manufacturing lines; 3) the Control and Radiological Safety Room; 4) the Dressing Room; 5) the requirements of the ventilation system. The plant will be located in the first floor of the Radiochemical Processes Laboratory building, occupying a surface of 600 m 2 . The necessary equipment for the following manufacturing lines will be provided: a) conversion from Pu(NO3)4 to PuO 2 (through Pu(III)oxalate); b) manufacture of homogeneous of mixed oxides of U and Pu; c) manufacture of (U,Pu)O 2 pellets; d) manufacture of fuel rods of mixed uranium and plutonium oxides. (Author)

  13. Pilot studies of an extraction process for reprocessing of spent fuel from fast reactors: Hardware and process details of extractor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, V.I.; Pavlovich, V.B.; Smetanin, E.Ya.; Glazunov, N.V.; Shklyar, L.I.; Dubrovskii, V.G.; Serov, A.V.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Konorchenko, V.D.; Korotkov, I.A.; Neumoev, N.V.; Renard, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    While acknowledging the bold and persistent efforts of U.S. and Russian specialists to develop the concept of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from fast reactors on remote-controlled equipment for removal of actinides from the fission products one should recognize that the tasks of reprocessing such fuel can be handled only by using water-extraction technology, especially since the known Purex process continues to be improved to the point that a single-cycle scheme may be developed. This article presents results of pilot studies conducted in hot cells using multistage extractors in continuous counterflow operation; data on various extractor types used in reprocessing spent mixed oxide nuclear fuel; advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal and pulsed column extractor; comparison of column-type and centrifugal extractors; and extraction process

  14. Military Solid Waste Reformer: A Pilot Study to Convert Military Waste to Logistics Fuel in the Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Duane

    2004-01-01

    .... Our approach to solve the military waste disposal and fuel supply problems was to convert the waste to a liquid fuel that can be used in place of or blended with conventional logistic fuels, particularly JP-8...

  15. A novel pilot-scale stacked microbial fuel cell for efficient electricity generation and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xuechen; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Jiang, Yong; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-01

    A novel stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) which had a total volume of 72 L with granular activated carbon (GAC) packed bed electrodes was constructed and verified to present remarkable power generation and COD removal performance due to its advantageous design of stack and electrode configuration. During the fed-batch operation period, a power density of 50.9 ± 1.7 W/m(3) and a COD removal efficiency of 97% were achieved within 48 h. Because of the differences among MFC modules in the stack, reversal current occurred in parallel circuit connection with high external resistances (>100 Ω). This reversal current consequently reduced the electrochemical performance of some MFC modules and led to a lower power density in parallel circuit connection than that in independent circuit connection. While increasing the influent COD concentrations from 200 to 800 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 1.25 h in continuous operation mode, the power density of stacked MFC increased from 25.6 ± 2.5 to 42.1 ± 1.2 W/m(3) and the COD removal rates increased from 1.3 to 5.2 kg COD/(m(3) d). This study demonstrated that this novel MFC stack configuration coupling with GAC packed bed electrode could be a feasible strategy to effectively scale up MFC systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters. (author)

  17. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters

  18. Pilot-benchmarking of the WENRA safety reference levels for the spent fuel intermediate storage facility Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Roeder, Markus; Brandt, Klaus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association (WENRA) has 2007 issued the draft of the 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage Safety Reference Levels'. The objective of WENRA is to strive for a harmonized safety level of nuclear facilities within the European Community and these Reference Levels are a benchmark method to demonstrate the achieved level for the regulatory system and the implementation as well. Safety Reference Levels exist at the moment for Reactor Safety, Waste Storage and Decommissioning in different stages of development. ENISS, the European Nuclear Installations Safety Standards Initiative, a FORATOM based special organisation of nuclear operators, has discussed these Safety Reference Levels very intensively with WENRA and the agreement was to make a implementation benchmark-exercise for the storage facilities before the authorities finally agree on the Reference Levels. This benchmark was scheduled for the year 2008. Because of the special situation in Germany where a large number of storage facilities is in operation the German authorities felt that it would be useful to initiate a Pilot-Benchmark to get first results on the feasibility of the Reference Levels and the burden imposed to authorities and operators by these benchmark-exercises. GNS, a subsidiary company of the utilities, agreed to step into this process on a voluntary basis with its storage facility for spent fuel in Ahaus. The exercise was done in a very efficient way and in good co-operation between the authorities, local and federal, and the operator. The results in terms of safety assessments have been very satisfactory showing the high degree of safety. Although the facility was for the first time licensed already in 1987 the compliance with nearly all Reference Levels from 2007 could be demonstrated. It became also clear that newer facilities would fulfil the desired safety standard too. Nevertheless, in spite of the good results the exercise revealed some weak

  19. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  20. Forage quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Felix, Nancy A.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd has traditionally used the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, for calving. Availability of nutritious forage has been hypothesized as one of the reasons the Porcupine caribou herd migrates hundreds of kilometers to reach the coastal plain for calving (Kuropat and Bryant 1980, Russell et al. 1993).Forage quantity and quality and the chronology of snowmelt (which determines availability and phenological stages of forage) have been suggested as important habitat attributes that lead calving caribou to select one area over another (Lent 1980, White and Trudell 1980, Eastland et al. 1989). A major question when considering the impact of petroleum development is whether potential displacement of the caribou from the 1002 Area to alternate calving habitat will limit access to high quantity and quality forage.Our study had the following objectives: 1) quantify snowmelt patterns by area; 2) quantify relationships among phenology, biomass, and nutrient content of principal forage species by vegetation type; and 3) determine if traditional concentrated calving areas differ from adjacent areas with lower calving densities in terms of vegetation characteristics.

  1. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  2. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    illustrate that this result does not generalise to a search fishery, where marginal costs are allowed to depend on harvest. Hansen et al (2008) study a fishery where non-compliance with regulations is a problem. When the regulator is uncertain about non-compliance (compliance uncertainty), then landing fees......Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... are the preferred type of regulation, and Hansen et al (2008) find that this result does generalise to a search fishery where marginal costs depend on harvest. In this paper, we simulate a stochastic stock-recruitment model for the Danish cod fishery in the Kategat capturing both ecological and compliance...

  3. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  4. Fuel Subsystems Flight Test Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    detailed, accessible .-ltand complete test records for his own protection and for the benefit of his successor in case of promotion, transfer or...and pilot display of fuel quantity, low level warning and a " Bingo " fudl warning. 3.0 TEST OBJECT1VES: ACTION Orriclc. On POUTION•’PHONWE [ DATE PCR...TIS No. 46, paragraph 3.11 3.6 To demonstrate that the low level and bingo warning system are consistent L •and meet the requirements of paragraph

  5. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  6. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  7. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  8. Ethanol-fueled low temperature combustion: A pathway to clean and efficient diesel engine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Kumar, Raj; Zheng, Ming; Tjong, Jimi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concept of ethanol–diesel fueled Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC). • Ultra-low NOx and soot with diesel-like thermal efficiency across the load range. • Close to TDC pilot injection timing for direct combustion phasing control. • Minimum pilot quantity (15% of total energy input) for clean, stable operation. • Defined heat release profile distribution (HRPD) to optimize pilot-ethanol ratio. - Abstract: Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers the benefits of ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions but suffers from lowered energy efficiency due to the high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel. Ethanol from renewable biomass provides a viable alternate to the petroleum based transportation fuels. The high resistance to auto-ignition (low reactivity) and its high volatility make ethanol a suitable fuel for low temperature combustion (LTC) in compression-ignition engines. In this work, a Premixed Pilot Assisted Combustion (PPAC) strategy comprising of the port fuel injection of ethanol, ignited with a single diesel pilot injection near the top dead centre has been investigated on a single-cylinder high compression ratio diesel engine. The impact of the diesel pilot injection timing, ethanol to diesel quantity ratio and exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions and efficiency are studied at 10 bar IMEP. With the lessons learnt, successful ethanol–diesel PPAC has been demonstrated up to a load of 18 bar IMEP with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions across the full load range. The main challenge of PPAC is the reduced combustion efficiency especially at low loads; therefore, the authors have presented a combustion control strategy to allow high efficiency, clean combustion across the load range. This work entails to provide a detailed framework for the ethanol-fueled PPAC to be successfully implemented.

  9. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....... manufacturer, and BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, an Austrian development and engineering company. Based on the technology developed, a pilot plant was designed and erected in Austria. The nominal electric power output of the plant is 35 kWel and the nominal thermal output amounts to approx. 220 kWth. The plant...

  10. Fischer–tropsch diesel production and evaluation as alternative automotive fuel in pilot-scale integrated biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Doo; Yang, Chang-Won; Kim, Beom-Jong; Moon, Ji-Hong; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Jeong, Soo-Hwa; Lee, See-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ho; Seo, Myung-Won; Lee, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Uen-Do

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot scale biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was investigated for Fischer-Tropsch diesel production. • 200 kW_t_h dual fluidized bed gasifier was integrated with 1 bbl/day F-T synthesis reactor. • Purified syngas satisfies minimum requirements of F-T synthesis. • F-T diesel produced successfully (1 L/h) and satisfies the automotive fuel standard. • Fully integrated BTL system was operated successfully more than 500 h. - Abstract: Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) diesel produced from biomass through gasification is a promising alternative fuel. In this study, a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) system involving a dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), a methanol absorption tower, and an F-T synthesis process was investigated for producing clean biodiesel as an automotive fuel. A DFBG, which is an efficient indirect gasifier, can produce syngas with high caloric value while minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the product gas. In order to meet the strict requirements of syngas for F-T synthesis, any contaminants in the syngas must be minimized and its composition must be carefully controlled. In this work, the syngas mainly comprised 35 vol% of H_2 and 21.3 vol% of CO. The concentrations of H_2S and COS in the syngas were less than 1 ppmV owing to the use of chilled methanol cleaning process. Furthermore, long-term operation of a fully integrated BTL system was successfully conducted for over 500 h. The results showed that the BTL diesel can be used as an alternative automotive diesel fuel.

  11. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  13. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Characterization of ashes from a 100 kWth pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed with oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.H.; Wang, C.B.; Tan, Y.W.; Jia, L.F.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion experiments have been carried out on an oxygen-fired 100 kW(th) mini-circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) facility. Coal and petroleum coke were used as fuel together with different limestones (and fixed Ca:S molar ratios) premixed with the fuel, for in situ SO{sub 2} capture. The bed ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) samples produced from this unit were collected and characterized to obtain physical and chemical properties of the ash samples. The characterization methods used included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), char carbon and free lime analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface analysis. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the CFBC ashes from oxy-fuel firing to obtain a better understanding of the combustion process, and to identify any significant differences from the ash generated by a conventional air-fired CFBC. The primary difference in the sulfur capture mechanism between atmospheric air-fired and oxy-fuel FBC, at typical FBC temperatures (similar to 850{sup o}C), is that, in the air-fired case the limestone sorbents calcine, whereas the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in oxy-fuel FBC is high enough to prevent calcination, and hence the sulfation process should mimic that seen in pressurized FBC (PFBC). Here, the char carbon content in the fly ash was much higher than that in the bed ash, and was also high by comparison with ash obtained from conventional commercial air-firing CFBC units. In addition, measurements of the free lime content in the bed and fly ash showed that the unreacted Ca sorbent was present primarily as CaCO{sub 3}, indicating that sulfur capture in the oxy-fuel combustor occurred via direct sulfation.

  15. Performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.M.; Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Harada, Y.; Sakane, A. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first without EGR condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.65. A maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 1425 kPa and a thermal efficiency of 39% were obtained. However, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were high. A simulated EGR up to 50% was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The maximum reduction of NOx was 60% or more maintaining the similar levels of IMEP and thermal efficiency. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion.

  16. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46 Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework

  17. Safety aspects of the FMPP (Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant) setup constructed by INVAP in the Arabic Republic of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinat, Enrique; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The FMPP is a fuel plates manufacturing plant for test reactors. This facility was designed, constructed in El Cairo and turned-key handled by INVAP SE to the Arabian Republic of Egypt. In this project, CNEA participated in the transference of technology, elaboration of documents, training of Egyptian personnel and technical services during the setup of the facility in El Cairo. These tasks were undertaken by UPMP (Uranium Powder Manufacturing Plant) and ECRI (Research Reactors Fuel Elements Plant) personnel. Both plants in CNEA served as a FMPP design basis. During the setup of the facility a fuel element with natural uranium was firstly manufactured and then another one using uranium with 20% enrichment. In this paper the responses of the system regarding safety, after finishing the first two stages of manufacturing, are analyzed and evaluated. (author)

  18. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  19. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  20. Pilot-scale demonstration of the modified direct denitration process to prepare uranium oxide for fuel fabrication evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, F.G.

    1994-04-01

    The Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has the objective of developing a cost-competitive enrichment process that will ultimately replace the gaseous diffusion process used in the United States. Current nuclear fuel fabricators are set up to process only the UF 6 product from gaseous diffusion enrichment. Enriched uranium-iron alloy from the U-AVLIS separator system must be chemically converted into an oxide form acceptable to these fabricators to make fuel pellets that meet American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and utility company specifications. A critical step in this conversion is the modified direct denitration (MDD) that has been selected and presented in the AVLIS Conceptual Design for converting purified uranyl nitrate to UO 3 to be shipped to fabricators for making UO 2 pellets for power reactor fuel. This report describes the MDD process, the equipment used, and the experimental work done to demonstrate the conversion of AVLIS product to ceramic-grade UO 3 suitable for making reactor-grade fuel pellets

  1. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  2. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  3. Performance and exhaust emissions in a natural-gas fueled dual-fuel engine; Tennen gas dual fuel kikan no seino oyobi haiki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M.; Ishiyama, T.; Shibata, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ikegami, M. [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, tests were made for some operational parameters and their combination on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the gas oil quantity should be increased and gas oil injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission at middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing should be retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. The unburned hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency are improved at the same load avoiding too lean natural gas premixture by restriction of intake charge air. However the improvement is limited because the ignition and initial combustion of pilot diesel fuel is deteriorated when the cylinder pressure is excessively lowered by throttling. The increase in pilot gas oil amount is effective for low-load operation and the adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation. (author)

  4. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  5. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  6. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  7. Optimization experiment of gas oil direct injection valve for CNG dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.Y. [Chonnam National University Graduate School, Jeonju (Korea); Park, C. K. [Chonnam National University, Jeonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we studied for a conversion from diesel engine to natural gas dual fuel engine. For this experimental, we tested about the injection quantity characteristics of pilot valve with the plunger diameter at the retraction volume and investigated to the engine performance and exhaust emissions with the nozzle hole number and injection nozzle diameter. As a result, when the plunger diameter is 7.5 mm at the retraction volume, 25 mm{sup 3}/st, the injection quantity characteristics develop. Also, when a nozzle type is 4*{phi} 0.24, total hydrocarbon(THC) emission reduce at low equivalence ratio. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... renewable fuel is defined as fuel produced from renewable biomass that is used to replace or reduce the quantity of fossil fuel present in home heating oil or jet fuel.\\3\\ In essence, additional renewable fuel... of ``home heating oil.'' EPA determined that this term was ambiguous, and defined it by incorporating...

  9. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

  10. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  11. Quantities used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The application of ICRP recommendations requires knowledge of a variety of concepts and magnitudes. Many of them are employed in other fields of science and precision in its definition reflects this wide application. In this regard, information on quantities and basic units of radiation, which exists in numerous publications, are subjects of great interest. The characteristics and radiation effects are studied by physicists, biologists and chemists mainly. However, there are basics that must be known and to be recognized by general practitioners and specialists from all branches of medicine. The information on quantities and units are used only in radiation protection, have been obtained from the reports listed on the attached bibliography. Such quantities and units contain weighting factors used to provide for different types of radiation and energies that affect the body and thus take into account the relative radio-sensitivity of different tissues. Additionally, they have added a series of data for a better understanding of the units: for example, multiples and sub-multiples, and some examples of converting the units used in radiation protection. (author) [es

  12. Effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emissions under high EGR rate on a diesel engine by fueling blends of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol and pure diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zunqing; Yue, Lang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhu, Yuxuan; Zhong, Xiaofan; Yao, Mingfa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage injection using diesel blended fuel at high EGR (46%) was studied. • Blending fuels induce retarded pilot heat release and have less effect on MPRR. • Effects of injection parameters of blended fuels on emissions are similar to diesel. • Different fuels have little influence on post combustion heat release. • Small quantity post injection close to main results in better efficiency and emissions. - Abstract: The effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emission characteristics under high EGR (46%) condition were experimentally investigated. Four different fuels including pure diesel and blended fuels of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol were tested. Results show that blending gasoline or/and n-butanol in diesel improves smoke emissions while induces increase in maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR). Adopting pilot injection close to main injection can effectively reduce the peak of premixed heat release rate and MPRR. However, for fuels blends with high percentage of low cetane number fuel, the effect of pilot fuel on ignition can be neglected and the improvement of MPRR is not that obvious. Pilot-main interval presents more obvious effect on smoke than pilot injection rate does, and the smoke emissions decrease with increasing pilot-main interval. A longer main-post interval results in a lower post heat release rate and prolonged combustion duration. While post injection rate has little effect on the start of ignition for post injection. The variation in fuel properties caused by blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel does not impose obvious influence on post combustion. The smoke emission increases first and then declines with retard of post injection timing. Compared to diesel, the smoke emissions of blended fuels are more sensitive to the variation of post injection strategy

  13. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  14. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  15. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  16. How necessary are the new quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1991-01-01

    The necessity of the ICRU operational quantities is discussed from the point of view of practical, opertional radiation protection, on the basis of ICRU report 43. It is clear that, although the new quantities have some advantages over previous systems of operational quantities, there are some disadvantages as well. The decision to adopt these quantities is, therefore, not clear cut. (orig.)

  17. Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.B. [Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Sahoo, N.; Saha, U.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2009-08-15

    Petroleum resources are finite and, therefore, search for their alternative non-petroleum fuels for internal combustion engines is continuing all over the world. Moreover gases emitted by petroleum fuel driven vehicles have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. There is universal acceptance of the need to reduce such emissions. Towards this, scientists have proposed various solutions for diesel engines, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines, which use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel, are referred to as 'dual-fuel engines'. Natural gas and bio-derived gas appear more attractive alternative fuels for dual-fuel engines in view of their friendly environmental nature. In the gas-fumigated dual-fuel engine, the primary fuel is mixed outside the cylinder before it is inducted into the cylinder. A pilot quantity of liquid fuel is injected towards the end of the compression stroke to initiate combustion. When considering a gaseous fuel for use in existing diesel engines, a number of issues which include, the effects of engine operating and design parameters, and type of gaseous fuel, on the performance of the dual-fuel engines, are important. This paper reviews the research on above issues carried out by various scientists in different diesel engines. This paper touches upon performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual-fuel engines which use natural gas, biogas, producer gas, methane, liquefied petroleum gas, propane, etc. as gaseous fuel. It reveals that 'dual-fuel concept' is a promising technique for controlling both NO{sub x} and soot emissions even on existing diesel engine. But, HC, CO emissions and 'bsfc' are higher for part load gas diesel engine operations. Thermal efficiency of dual-fuel engines improve either with increased engine speed, or with advanced injection timings, or with increased amount of pilot fuel. The ignition

  18. Main results on pilot operation during 5 years of the 3rd generation fuel in VVER-440 reactors of Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saprykin, V.; Sumarokov, M.; Gagarinskiy, A.; Sumarokova, A.; Adeev, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the report the results of comparison of main neutron-physical data of exploitation of nuclear fuel are presented for the average enrichment (on U - 235) of 4.87 for the 2nd and 3rd (12 piece) generations with the results of calculations by the complex of the programs KASKAD for 5 fuel loadings of Kola NPP Unit 4 with the reactor VVER- 440. The basic feature of fuel of the 3rd generation as compared with the 2nd is a presence of ribs of inflexibility at corners instead of cover of the fuel assembly and also the increased amount of uranium. The arrangement of fuel rods with different enrichment in fuel assemblies of the 2nd and 3rd generations is chosen identical for the convenient comparison of neutronic and thermohydraulic characteristics of the fuel of different generations. The fuel of 3rd generation was situated in the core symmetrically to the fuel of 2nd one

  19. Are necessary unmeasurable quantities in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.G.; Correa, M.F.; Videira, A.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the metrological status of unmeasurable protection quantities and the need to maintain these kind of quantities in the system. The discussion is based on reports from the institutions responsible for the quantities and on scientific publications. In conclusion, we can say that there are alternatives for changing the system in a way that it keep just measurable quantities, nevertheless the present system is well assimilated. Even though a proposal yet to be presented for changing the system, although might simplify and improve it, is not intended to overcome the existence of unmeasurable quantities or the two kinds of quantities. (author)

  20. Foreign materials in the repository - update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2007-03-01

    In a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a variety of materials are used during the construction process and during the operation of the repository. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository through the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles, as waste produced by the staff etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and their quantities - both the introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after closure - in the repository constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland are estimated here based on new information. This work is intended to update the estimations that have been made previously, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto. During this construction process, the quantities of the different construction materials introduced into the underground openings have been monitored and they form a basis for estimating the quantities to be used in the future. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository and to the Olkiluoto site, although in some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in the ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2006 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As these plans are generally not final yet, several different alternative plans are assumed when necessary. Also two different strategies for the backfilling of the tunnels are considered. The most significant differences with respect to the results of an earlier estimation are related to the materials used in grouting, shotcreting and in support bolts. In the cases where a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock is the used backfill alternative, gypsum and cement are the materials with the largest quantities remaining in the

  1. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C 1 . In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q ab , P ab ) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background

  2. Criticality Studies in a Pilot Plant for Processing MTR-Type Irradiated Fuels; Estudios de Criticidad de una Planta Piloto para el Tratamiento de Combustibles Irradiados Tipo ' MTR '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Sanchez, G.; Uriarte Hueda, A. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Division de Materiales Madrid (Spain)

    1966-05-15

    A number of theoretical studies on nuclear safety have been carried out in a pilot plant being constructed at the Junta de Energia Nuclear in Madrid for processing irradiated fuels from the MTR-type experimental reactor JEN-1. The study was carried out working with aqueous and organic solutions at two levels of {sup 235}U enrichment - 20% and 93%. The paper is divided into two main parts: the first deals with the individual items of equipment, and the interactions between these are studied in the second part. The calculations in this second part have been made using three different methods to make it more certain that the system as a whole can never be critical. The first method employed is based on the solid angle concept and makes it possible to fix the maximum {sup 235}U concentrations within the system. The second method, based on the albedo, supplies the value of the multiplication factor K of the whole assembly as a function of the concentration of {sup 235}U. In the last part, the distribution of the equipment is compared with other similar systems and experimental tests from other sources. Finally, the paper specifies the conditions for working the installation which ensure that a nuclear accident can never occur. (author) [Spanish] Se ha efectuado una serie de estudios teoricos sobre la seguridad nuclear de una planta piloto, que se encuentra en construccion en la Junta de Energfa Nuclear situada en Madrid, para el tratamiento de combustibles irradiados procedentes del reactor experimental JEN-1 del tipo MTR. El estudio se ha realizado utilizando disoluciones, tanto acuosas como organicas, con dos grados de enriquecimiento, 20% y 93% en {sup 235}U. Este trabajo comprende dos partes principales: en la primera se han considerado las distintas unidades del equipo individualmente y en la segunda se han estudiado las interacciones entre ellas. El calculo de esta segunda parte se ha hecho por tres metodos diferentes para tener una mayor seguridad de que el

  3. Comparison of performance of biodiesels of mahua oil and gingili oil in dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental work was carried out to compare the performance of biodiesels made from non edible mahua oil and edible gingili oil in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification process and mahua oil methyl ester (MOME and gingili oil methyl ester (GOME were used as pilot fuels. The viscosity of MOME is slightly higher than GOME. The dual fuel engine runs smoothly with MOME and GOME. The test results show that the performance of the MOME is close to GOME, at the pilot fuel quantity of 0.45 kg/h and at the advanced injection timing of 30 deg bTDC. Also it is observed that the smoke, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydro carbon emissions of GOME lower than the MOME. But the GOME results in slightly higher NOx emissions. From the experimental results it is concluded that the biodiesel made from mahua oil can be used as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine.

  4. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  5. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a supercharged H{sub 2}-diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Murari Mohon [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged engine fueled by hydrogen and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel in dual-fuel mode. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with charge dilution. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first with hydrogen-operation condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.3. A maximum IMEP of 908 kPa and a thermal efficiency of about 42% were obtained. Equivalence ratio could not be further increased due to knocking of the engine. The emission of CO was only about 5 ppm, and that of HC was about 15 ppm. However, the NOx emissions were high, 100-200 ppm or more. The charge dilution by N{sub 2} was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The 100% reduction of NOx was achieved. Due to the dilution by N{sub 2} gas, higher amount of energy could be supplied from hydrogen without knocking, and about 13% higher IMEP was produced than without charge dilution. (author)

  6. Foreign materials in the repository. Update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-06-01

    A variety of materials are used during the construction process and the operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository with the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and both introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after the closure in the repository are estimated here based on the most recent information. This work is intended to update the previous estimations, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO at Olkiluoto. The implemented quantities as well as designs and preliminary designs have been used in calculating the quantities of the foreign materials. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository. In some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2010 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As all of these plans are not final some quantities may change in the future. As the repository layout may still go through some changes this report also provides the foreign materials for a hundred meters of different deposition tunnels designed for the OL and LO type canisters1. The results have also been calculated for a space demanded by a deposition tunnel end plug and the tunnel lengths before and after one. The most significant foreign materials are certain accessory minerals of the clay materials followed by organic materials (including the organic carbon from the clay materials), cement, steel and silica. (orig.)

  7. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  8. Achievement report (edition B) for fiscal 1999 on development of technology to manufacture coal gas for fuel cells. Studies by using pilot test facilities (Volumes for equipment fabrication and constructions, and trial run design); 1999 nendo seika hokokusho (B ban). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (kisokoji kiki seisaku hen shiunten sekkei hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a coal gas manufacturing system for fuel cells, research and development has been performed on a oxygen-blown coal gasifier and researches on a technology to purify gases for fuel cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The current fiscal year has performed, among other the pilot plant construction works, execution of the above-the-ground constructions for the operation center and compressor room building, construction of the cooling water tanks, and partial improvement of roads in the plant site. In the gasifier facilities, items of equipment were fabricated, some of the outsourced articles were procured, and the installations thereof were carried out. For the gas purifying equipment, installation of the gas analyzer room was executed. In the trial run design, discussions were given on the systematic improvements in the test items, the gas sampling procedures, the unit protecting interlock, and the facility protecting logic. For the trial run design, establishment has been implemented on the efficient and functional test plans by establishing priority on the tests to be executed, so that the development items demanded in the pilot test and research can be achieved within the limited test processes. (NEDO)

  9. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  10. Pressure-time characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Helwan Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both cases. A Ricardo E6 diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data are stored in a PC for off-line analysis. The effect of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, and pilot fuel quantity on combustion noise is examined for both diesel and dual engine. Maximum pressure rise rate and some samples of ensemble averaged pressure-crank angle data are presented in the present work. The combustion noise, generally, is found to increase for the dual fuel engine case as compared to the diesel engine case. (Author)

  11. Effects of Oxygen Content of Fuels on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of oxygen content of fuels on combustion characteristics and emissions were investigated on both an optical single cylinder direct injection (DI diesel engine and a multi-cylinder engine. Three fuels were derived from conventional diesel fuel (Finnish City diesel summer grade by blending Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME or Diglyme and Butyl-Diglyme of different quantities to make their oxygen content 3%, 3% and 9%, respectively. The experimental results with three tested fuels show that the fuel spray development was not affected apparently by the oxygenating. Compared with the base fuel, the ignition delay to pilot injection was shortened by 0%, 11% and 19% for three oxygenated fuels, respectively. The ignition delay to main injection was shortened by 10%, 19% and 38%, respectively. With regard to emissions, the smoke level was reduced by 24% to 90%, depending on fuel properties and engine running conditions. The penalties of increased NOx emissions and fuel consumption were up to 19% and 24%, respectively.

  12. The new operational quantities for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

  13. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  14. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  15. The treatment of irradiated uranium fuel. Results obtained while operating the pilot plant at Fontenay-aux-Roses; Le traitement de l'uranium irradie. Resultats d'exploitation de l'usine-pilote de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaut, P; Faugeras, P; Brut, A; Helou, R; Redon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In this paper the results obtained from four years operation of the pilot plant when using bars of increasing activity, are summarised and compared with the results of parallel studies carried out in the laboratory. As a conclusion to the article, the optimum conditions for the different phases of a process based on solvent extraction are given. (author)Fren. [French] Cette conference resume les resultats obtenus durant quatre annees de fonctionnement de l'Usine-Pilote, avec des barreaux d'activite croissante et les compare aux resultats d'etudes conduites parallelement en laboratoire. En conclusion sont donnees les conditions optima pour les differentes phases d'un procede base sur l'extraction par solvant. (auteur)

  16. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession. The study further aimed to establish the reasons why some quantity surveyors do not acquire the required CPD hours and face losing their professional registration with ...

  17. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    Jan 1, 1991 ... The research established that quantity surveyors regarded handing in their CPD ... Surveying, Walter Sisulu University, PO Box 1421, East London, 5200, South Africa. ... Keywords: Continuing professional development, quantity surveying, perception .... In spite of this opportunity enshrined in the Act, the.

  18. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  19. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposure of miners. (i) A ventilating air quantity that is less than what is required by paragraph... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance with applicable TLV ®'s. (j) If during sampling required by § 70.1900(c) of this subchapter the ventilating air is...

  20. Method and means for determining heat quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waasdorp, G G; de Jong, J J; Bijl, A

    1965-08-24

    To determine the quantity of potential heat W that has flowed past a certain point in a certain time, the velocity of the combustible Q, the temperature T, and the specific gravity YDTU are measured, and these values are transmitted to a computer which automatically calculates the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ in which delta T is the difference between the combustible temperature T and a reference temperature, and in which the relation f(YDTU, delta T) represents the heat of combustion as a function of the quantities YDTU and delta T and possibly other properties of the combustible. Alternatively the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ may be measured; here the quantities have the same meaning as above.

  1. An experimental and numerical investigation of the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Karim, G.A.; Xiao, F.; Sohrabi, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.

    2007-07-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the performance of a small bore engine with a swirl chamber when operating as a dual fuel engine with commercial methane as the gaseous fuel were presented in this paper. The experiment involved using a 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to predict the performance of the engine. A detailed chemical kinetics for the gaseous fuel component, consisting primarily of methane and a reduced detailed chemical kinetics for the diesel fuel while considering the turbulent combustion processes an associated performance of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber were incorporated in the simulation. The study experimentally and numerically investigated the effects of changes in the quantities of the liquid fuel pilot and gaseous fuels on the combustion processes, engine performance, cyclic variations, and emissions. The paper discussed the experimental approach and results. It also discussed the simulation of the dual fuel engine combustion process. It was concluded that dual fuel combustion was an effective method to burn a gaseous fuel-air mixture with a low energy density. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Pilot project of a small 300 W fuel-cell-powered electrical boat; Projet pilote d'une petite embarcation mue par pile a combustible de 300 W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    The important demand at the European level for electrical boats shows the great interest for such a technology. We can expect an important growth of electric boats production. Thus, two means could be used to provide a maximum of comfort, reliability, silence, absence of pollution and respect of the environment: photovoltaics and fuel cells. The purpose of the present project is to explore the second solution. A small boat 'Hydroxy100' has been designed as first prototype in the field of a diploma work. A larger boat, 'Hydroxy300', with the use of a 300-watt PEFC fuel cell was realised and successfully presented at the international fuel cells meeting in Lucerne (June 99) and other occasions. The subject is also an excellent didactical application for the electrical degree students of our technical university. (author)

  3. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  4. Estimation of Waste Quantities Using DeCAT-Pro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Oh, Jaeyoung; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The D and D (Dismantling and Decontamination) is scheduled to get started in June 2022 elapsing five years of cooling spent fuels down. The final site status is postulated as Brown Field and tentative DCGL of less than 0.1 mSv per year to evaluate waste quantities in a conservative manner. The decommissioning strategy was determined the immediate decommissioning whose whole period would be taken for approximately 15 years; pre-decommissioning for two years, spent fuel cool-down for five years, D and D for six years, site remediation for two years. The assumption to dismantle the underground facilities including SSCs is to one meter beneath the ground level and the other facilities remain intact. In addition, non-radioactive concrete wastes would be used to landfill gaps of the remaining facilities. Although there are many assumptions we applied, the methodologies developed and the data produced by this research will play a meaningful role as a good starting point for the Kori-1 decommissioning after its shutdown to logically and reasonably estimate the waste quantity. However it is clear that tenacious efforts should be taken to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  5. Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.

  6. The Radiometric Measurement Quantity for SAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Björn J.; Schwerdt, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system measures among other quantities the terrain radar reflectivity. After image calibration, the pixel intensities are commonly expressed in terms of radar cross sections (for point targets) or as backscatter coefficients (for distributed targets), which are directly related. This paper argues that pixel intensities are not generally proportional to radar cross section or derived physical quantities. The paper further proposes to replace the inaccurate term...

  7. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  8. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  9. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  10. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  11. Characterization of released radionuclides in the gas phase during cutting and dissolution of irradiated fuel elements of CANDU type reactors at EUREX pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, G.; Castellani, F.; Curzio, G.; Gentili, A.; Pieve, L.

    1982-01-01

    This article deals with measurements on off-gas during reprocessing of Pickering spent fuel elements. On-line equipment, samplers and analysis systems are described. Airborne particulates collected on filters and iodine 129 collected on impregnated charcoal are analyzed by gamma spectrometry, krypton 85 is analyzed by on-line gamma counting and tritium by radiochromatography. Activity and concentration are given for each isotope during mechanical process and dissolution and for the gaseous effluent in the different sampling points. Results are compared with activity in the spent fuel calculated by the ORIGEN code

  12. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells (Research using pilot test facility - for public release); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2000 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, part of the road in the site was constructed as continued from the preceding fiscal year. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, some of the devices were built, which were the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and the char recovery device, and some of the thus-built devices and procured devices were installed. In the study of the control of the operation of the oxygen-blown coal gasification system, the pilot test facility was divided into unit devices and, for each of the unit devices, detailed procedures for pre-start preparation, start, stop, and for the stop of accessorise were deliberated, and important operating steps were worked out. Timing charts were prepared for the operation of each of the facilities during plant start/stop operations. In the effort to deal with serious accidents, special operation procedures were studied and prepared on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Part 1 - Construction and test operation); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Sono 1 - Koji shiken unten hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2001 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, work involved the road in the site, road illumination system installation in the site, and an unauthorized entry prevention system. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, work involved electrical instrumentation and painting for the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and so forth, and the installation of a series of devices was completed. In July following the completion, power was received and test operations were started, which included the operation of the coal gasification facility alone. Renting was started in August for the coal pretreatment facility, air separation facility, and the slag treatment device. In the study of the operation control technology for the oxygen-blown coal gasification furnace system, test operations were conducted based on the operating procedures prepared in the preceding fiscal year, which included a test operation performed for the pilot test facility alone. Parameters for equipment control obtained through the test operations, and improvements on operating steps carried out as required, were all reflected on the operating procedures. (NEDO)

  14. Pilot study of Bio-jet A-1 fuel production for Stockholm-Arlanda Airport; Foerstudie foer biobaserat flygbraensle foer Stockholm-Arlanda Flygplats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl; Hagstroem, Martin; Hermann, Fredrik

    2009-11-15

    The air traffic industry faces big changes in the near future, one being how to reduce their share of the CO{sub 2}-emissions. Therefore LFV set the framework to investigate the pre-conditions for a biorefinery plant in conjunction with Arlanda Airport. The biorefinery is based on advanced gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to a bio-jet fuel product. Locations at Brista and Igelsta were studied for two different process plant configurations, with each 50 kton bio-jet fuel annual capacity, or 290 and 610 MW{sub th} biomass input, respectively. The biomass-to-fuels efficiency was 46 % and total net efficiency was 79 %. The capital investment was calculated as 5.1 and 7.4 billion SEK, and production costs of 8300 SEK (812 EUR/1183 USD) and 5000 SEK (490 EUR/714 USD) per cubic meter bio-jet, respectively, whereas the Jet A-1 fuel today costs some 6000 SEK, at crude oil price of USD 67 per barrel

  15. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes 232 U and 233 U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions

  16. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Succession of microbial functional communities in response to a pilot-scale ethanol-blended fuel release throughout the plume life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2015-01-01

    GeoChip, a comprehensive gene microarray, was used to examine changes in microbial functional gene structure throughout the 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume, including 2-year continuous released followed by plume disappearance after source removal. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Mantel tests showed that dissolved O 2 (which was depleted within 5 days of initiating the release and rebounded 194 days after source removal) was the most influential environmental factor on community structure. Initially, the abundance of anaerobic BTEX degradation genes increased significantly while that of aerobic BTEX degradation genes decreased. Gene abundance for N fixation, nitrification, P utilization, sulfate reduction and S oxidation also increased, potentially changing associated biogeochemical cycle dynamics. After plume disappearance, most genes returned to pre-release abundance levels, but the final functional structure significantly differed from pre-release conditions. Overall, observed successions of functional structure reflected adaptive responses that were conducive to biodegradation of ethanol-blend releases. - Highlights: • GeoChip discerned microbial functional changes through an ethanol blend plume. • The release increased gene abundance for anaerobic BTEX degradation. • The release changed key biogeochemical (N, P, C, and S) cycling gene abundance. • The functional structure did not recover 4 months after the plume attenuated. • Dissolved O 2 was the most influential factor shaping community structure. - Geochip analysis discerned adaptive shifts in microbial functional structure and controlling environmental factors throughout a 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume

  18. Critical review of the current radiation protection quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Examples exist in dosimetry and radiation protection where primary attention was focused on the unit rather than the corresponding quantity. Another difficulty arises from the fact that quantities in this field cannot be considered as pure physical quantities, they are rather biophysical quantities. There are too many quantities (e. g. 17 quantities based on the dose equivalent), with differences in numerical values of 'similar' quantities, not always satisfactory approximations of virtually unmeasurable quantities by measurable quantities, inconsistency in definitions and interpretations of quantities of some international expert bodies, and problems of weighting and conversion factors. (M.D.)

  19. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  20. Quality control of coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Mitsunobu

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of the coated fuel particles for high temperature gas-cooled reactors is characterized by the fact that the size of the target product to be controlled is very small, and the quantity is very large. Accordingly, the sampling plan and the method of evaluating the population through satisfically treating the measured data of the samples are the important subjects to see and evaluate the quality of a batch or a lot. This paper shows the fabrication process and the quality control procedure for the coated fuel particles. The development work of a HTGR was started by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1969, and as for the production technology for coated fuel particles, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. has continued the development work. The pilot plan with the capacity of about 40 kg/year was established in 1972. The fuel product fabricated in this plant was put to the irradiation experiment and out-of-pile evaluation test. In 1983, the production capacity was expanded to 200 kg/year, and the fuel compacts for the VHTRC in JAERI were produced for two years. The basic fuel design, the fabrication process, the quality control, the process control and the quality assurance are reported. For the commercial product, the studies from the viewpoint of production and quality control costs are required. (Kako, I.)

  1. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  2. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  3. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  4. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  5. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  6. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  8. Varieties of Quantity Estimation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3…

  9. Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved

  10. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  11. Characteristics of used CANDU fuel relevant to the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasywich, K M

    1993-05-01

    Literature data on the characteristics of used CANDU power reactor fuel that are relevant to its performance as a waste form have been compiled in a convenient handbook. Information about the quantities of used fuel generated, burnup, radionuclide inventories, fission gas release, void volume and surface area, fuel microstructure, fuel cladding properties, changes in fuel bundle properties due to immobilization processes, radiation fields, decay heat and future trends is presented for various CANDU fuel designs. (author). 199 refs., 39 tabs., 100 figs.

  12. Characteristics of used CANDU fuel relevant to the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasywich, K.M.

    1993-05-01

    Literature data on the characteristics of used CANDU power reactor fuel that are relevant to its performance as a waste form have been compiled in a convenient handbook. Information about the quantities of used fuel generated, burnup, radionuclide inventories, fission gas release, void volume and surface area, fuel microstructure, fuel cladding properties, changes in fuel bundle properties due to immobilization processes, radiation fields, decay heat and future trends is presented for various CANDU fuel designs. (author). 199 refs., 39 tabs., 100 figs

  13. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... good distribution practice and which unavoidably result in change of weight or mass or measure. (c... good packaging practice: Provided, that such variations shall not be permitted to such extent that the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted...

  14. Study of a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for a geothermal heat pump heated greenhouse and evaluation of the electrolyser efficiency and operational mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic factor of variability of renewable energy sources often limits their broader use. The photovoltaic solar systems can be provided with a power back up based on a combination of an electrolyser and a fuel cell stack. The integration of solar hydrogen power systems with greenhouse heating equipment can provide a possible option for powering stand-alone greenhouses. The aim of the research under development at the experimental farm of Department of Agro-Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari Aldo Moro is to investigate on the suitable solutions of a power system based on photovoltaic energy and on the use of hydrogen as energy vector, integrated with a ground source heat pump for greenhouse heating in a self sustained way. The excess energy produced by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules supplies an alkaline electrolyser; the produced hydrogen gas is stored in pressured storage tank. When the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the heat pump power demand, the fuel cell starts converting the chemical energy stored by the hydrogen fuel into electricity. This paper reports on the description of the realised system. Furthermore the efficiency and the operational mode of the electrolyser were evaluated during a trial period characterised by mutable solar radiant energy. Anyway the electrolyser worked continuously in a transient state producing fluctuations of the hydrogen production and without ever reaching the steady-state conditions. The Faradic efficiency, evaluated by means of an empirical mathematic model, highlights that the suitable working range of the electrolyser was 1.5÷2.5 kW and then for hydrogen production more than 0.21 Nm3h–1.

  15. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  16. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  17. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-13

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are observed at different levels. Accurate prediction of CCV in IC engines is an important but challenging task. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using high performance computing (HPC) can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. In the present study, a dual fuel large engine is considered, with natural gas injected into the manifold accompanied with direct injection of diesel pilot fuel to trigger ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series as in the experiments to investigate the potential of HPC based high fidelity simulations to accurately capture the cycle to cycle variation in dual fuel engines. Open cycle simulations are conducted to predict the combined effect of the stratification of fuel-air mixture, temperature and turbulence on the CCV of pressure. The predicted coefficient of variation (COV) of pressure compared to the results from closed cycle simulations and the experiments.

  18. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation: Appendix 2B, User's guide to the LWR assemblies data base, Appendix 2C, User's guide to the LWR radiological data base, Appendix 2D, User's guide to the LWR quantities data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This User's Guide for the LWR Assemblies data base system is part of the Characteristics Data Base being developed under the Waste Systems Data Development Program. The objective of the LWR Assemblies data base is to provide access at the personal computer level to information about fuel assemblies used in light-water reactors. The information available is physical descriptions of intact fuel assemblies and radiological descriptions of spent fuel disassembly hardware. The LWR Assemblies data base is a user-oriented menu driven system. Each menu is instructive about its use. Section 5 of this guide provides a sample session with the data base to assist the user

  19. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  20. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  1. Strategic Planning in Irish Quantity Surveying Pracitces

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    The role and usefulness of strategic planning has been well documented over several decades of strategic management research. Despite the significant body of existing knowledge in the field of strategic planning, there remains a paucity of investigation into the construction sector, specifically in Professional Service Firms (PSF’s) operating within it. The aim of this research was to ascertain the type, scope and extent of strategic planning within Irish Quantity Surveying (QS) practices and...

  2. Radiation quantities and units. ICRU report 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. It is recommended that energy state be inserted into the definition of activity and that the word transformation be replaced by transition. These modifications have now been incorporated into the current definition. Helpful comments on the previous quantities and units report have resulted in clarification of several points in the present Report. In line with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection I.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  4. A compound refining system for separation of gaseous fission products incorporated in a reprocessing pilot plant for spent fuel from neclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, a gas treatment experimental apparatus was installed to the SU-2 type experimental facility. The purpose is to solve variety of problems in the separation, collection and subsequent treatment for gaseous fission products and highly volatile fission products in spent fuel reprocessing. The experimental apparatus has the functions as follows: the measurement of air flow such as flow rate, pressure, total γ activity and krypton-85 content, preliminary air flow cleaning and drying removing aerosol, hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen oxide, and the trapping and analysis of gaseous fission products and highly volatile fission products in air flow. For the collection of these two types of fission products, a liquid absorbent and a solid adsorbent are used in series arrangement. (J.P.N.)

  5. Fuel rod behaviour at high burnup WWER fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.; Bogatyr, S.; Kouznetsov, V.; Khvostov, G.; Lagovsky; Korystin, L.; Poudov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The modernisation of WWER fuel cycles is carried out on the base of complete modelling and experimental justification of fuel rods up to 70 MWd/kgU. The modelling justification of the reliability of fuel rod and fuel rod with gadolinium is carried out with the use of certified START-3 code. START-3 code has a continuous experimental support. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-440 fuel is justified for fuel rod and pellet burnups 65 MWd/kgU and 74 MWd/U, accordingly. Results of analysis are demonstrated by the example of uranium-gadolinium fuel assemblies of second generation under 5-year cycle with a portion of 6-year assemblies and by the example of successfully completed pilot operation of 5-year cycle fuel assemblies during 6 years at unit 3 of Kolskaja NPP. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-1000 fuel is justified for a fuel rod burnup 66 MWd/kgU by the example of fuel operation under 4-year cycles and 6-year test operation of fuel assemblies at unit 1 of Kalininskaya NPP. By the example of 5-year cycle at Dukovany NPP Unit 2 it was demonstrated that WWER fuel rod of a burnup 58 MWd/kgU ensure reliable operation under load following conditions. The analysis has confirmed sufficient reserves of Russian fuel to implement program of JSC 'TVEL' in order to improve technical and economical parameters of WWER fuel cycles

  6. Analysis of fuel densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.

    1976-06-01

    A chronology is given of NRC reviews of analytical models that are used by U.S. fuel manufacturers for the analysis of fuel densifications. A new NRC densification model, which is based on a 1700 0 C-24 hr resintering test and non-instantaneous kinetics, is also described. Statistical methods are presented for applying the model to production quantities of fuel. The NRC densification model is being used in licensing activities, but it was not developed with the intention of replacing approved vendor models

  7. Fuel resources in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The total resources of fossil fuel in the country are estimated (rounded off into billion m/sup 3/ of oil equivalent) as 30--oil 22, natural gas 4 and coal 4. The explored reserves are 2.39--oil 1.68, natural gas 0.25 and coal 0.46. The main type of fuel in the fuel and energy balance of the country is oil. Coal is used in limited quantity in cement, ceramic and other sectors of industry. Outlook for development of the coal industry is discussed in relation to the planned use of coal at the TES.

  8. Uranium recovery from waste of the nuclear fuel cycle plants at IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio A.; Ferreira, Joao C.; Zini, Josiane; Scapin, Marcos A.; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de, E-mail: afreitas@ipen.b, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.b, E-mail: jzini@ipen.b, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.b, E-mail: fatimamc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sodium diuranate (DUS) is a uranium concentrate produced in monazite industry with 80% typical average grade of U{sup 3}O{sup 8}, containing sodium, silicon, phosphorus, thorium and rare earths as main impurities. Purification of such concentrate was achieved at the nuclear fuel cycle pilot plants of uranium at IPEN by nitric dissolution and uranium extraction into an organic phase using TBP/Varsol, while the aqueous phase retains impurities and a small quantity of non extracted uranium; both can be recovered later by precipitation with sodium hydroxide. Then the residual sodium diuranate goes to a long term storage at a safeguards deposit currently reaching 20 tonnes. This work shows how uranium separation and purification from such bulk waste can be achieved by ion exchange chromatography, aiming at decreased volume and cost of storage, minimization of environmental impacts and reduction of occupational doses. Additionally, the resulting purified uranium can be reused in nuclear fuel cycle.(author)

  9. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  10. A central spent fuel storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Hagberth, R.

    1978-01-01

    A planned central spent fuel storage facility in Sweden is described. The nuclear power program and quantities of spent fuel generated in Sweden is discussed. A general description of the facility is given with emphasis on the lay-out of the buildings, transport casks and fuel handling. Finally a possible design of a Swedish transportation system is discussed. (author)

  11. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the LWR Quantities Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.E.; Moore, R.S.

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Quantities Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's waste, technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes non-LWR spent fuel, high-level and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the LWR Quantities Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. The PC data base itself may be requested from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using the order form provided in Volume 1 of publication DOE/RW-0184

  12. Safety aspects of the FMPP (Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant) setup constructed by INVAP in the Arabic Republic of Egypt; Aspectos de seguridad en la puesta en marcha de la FMPP (Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant) construida por INVAP en la Republica Arabe de Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinat, Enrique; Boero, Norma L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Combustibles Nucleares

    1999-07-01

    The FMPP is a fuel plates manufacturing plant for test reactors. This facility was designed, constructed in El Cairo and turned-key handled by INVAP SE to the Arabian Republic of Egypt. In this project, CNEA participated in the transference of technology, elaboration of documents, training of Egyptian personnel and technical services during the setup of the facility in El Cairo. These tasks were undertaken by UPMP (Uranium Powder Manufacturing Plant) and ECRI (Research Reactors Fuel Elements Plant) personnel. Both plants in CNEA served as a FMPP design basis. During the setup of the facility a fuel element with natural uranium was firstly manufactured and then another one using uranium with 20% enrichment. In this paper the responses of the system regarding safety, after finishing the first two stages of manufacturing, are analyzed and evaluated. (author)

  13. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production For The Purpose of Rnewable Fuel Generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in A Pilot Scale CSTR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabraeil Taghinazhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM and corn straw residue (CSR were experimentally investigated using a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR under semi- continuously feeding circumstance at mesophilic (35°C±2 temperature. The pilot-scale digester with 180 L in volume was employed under experimental protocol to examine the effect of the change in organic loading rate on efficiency of biogas production and to report on its steady-state performance. An average organic loading rates of 2 and 3 kg VS. (m-3.d-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 25 days was examined with respect to two different CM to CSR mixing ratios of 100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The results showed both organic loading rates at co-digestion of CM+ CSR gave better methane yields than single digestion of cow manure. The biogas production efficiency was obtained 0.242, 0.204, 0.311 0.296, 259.5 and 235 m3.(kg VS input-1 for 2 and 3 kg VS.(m-3.d-1 at CM to CSR mixing ratios of100:0 , 75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The reactor showed stable performance with VS reduction between 55-74% during different runs. With increment of loading rate, the VS degradation and biogas yield decreased. Modified Gompertz and logistic plot equation was employed to model the methane production at different organic loading rates and substrate concentrations. The equations gave a good approximation of the maximum methane production (rm and the methane yield potential (P with correlation coefficient (R2 over 0.99. Keywords: Biogas; cow manure; corn straw; Kinetic; semi-continuously Article History: Received Oct 25th 2016; Received in revised form Dec 19th 2016; Accepted 2nd January 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Taghinazhad. J., Abdi, R. and Adl, M. (2017. Kinetic and Enhancement of Biogas Production for the purpose of renewable fuel generation by Co-digestion of Cow Manure and Corn Straw in a Pilot Scale CSTR System. Int Journal of Renewable

  14. Pilot Study on the Impact of Biogas as a Fuel Source on Respiratory Health of Women on Rural Kenyan Smallholder Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; Guernsey, Judith Read; Critchley, Kimberley; VanLeeuwen, John

    2012-01-01

    Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which generate biogas for cooking, versus traditional fuel sources on the respiratory health of nonsmoking Kenyan farmwomen. Women from 31 farms with biogas digesters were compared to age-matched women from 31 biomass-reliant farms, in June 2010. Only 43% of the biogas group reported any breathing problems, compared to 71% in the referent group (P = 0.03). Referent women self-reported higher rates of shortness of breath (52% versus 30%), difficulty breathing (42% versus 23%), and chest pain while breathing (35% versus 17%) during the last 6 months (P = 0.09 to 0.12) compared to biogas women. Biogas women demonstrated slightly better spirometry results but differences were not statistically significant, likely due to limited latency between biogas digester installation and spirometry testing. Most biogas women reported improved personal respiratory health (87%) and improved children's health (72%) since biogas digester installation. These findings suggest that using biogas in cookhouses improves respiratory symptoms but long-term impacts on lung function are unclear. PMID:22969815

  15. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 1/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 1/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test of the motor-operated valve, individual test of the gasification furnace circulation water pump, individual test of the motor for the same, individual test of the SGC (syngas cooler) circulation water pump, individual test of the coal feeder rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters extraction rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters classifier, individual test of the char feeder rotary valve, individual test of the slag conveyer, individual test of the slag vibrator, individual test of the slag crusher, individual test of the slag separation tank exhaust blower, individual test of the slag separator water pump, test of gasification furnace interlocking, verification test of alert for the same, test of gasification furnace system pressure rise, test of oxygen line ventilation, test of comprehensive purge master sequence, verification test of distribution performance of the distributor, test on char system rock hopper pressure application and pressure release, test of pneumatic actuator valve loop, actual operational test of the soot blower, and an individual test of the receiving conveyer. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 3/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 3/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test operation of the expansion turbine in the air separation facility, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the expansion turbine in the same, test operation of the oxygen compressor in the same, test operation of the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the high pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, performance verification test for the air separation facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage normal pressure coal hopper purge master in the gasification facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage initial coal loading master in the same, sequence test for char system rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for gasification furnace light oil leak check master in the same, sequence test for coal rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for upper/lower coal rock hopper coal reception master in the same, sequence test for slag hopper quenching operation master in the same, and sequence test for gasification steam drum water filling master in the same. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  18. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  19. Waste Quantity, Mix and Throughput Study Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadia E, Lev

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the impact that waste stream parameters have on repository design, including surface, subsurface and waste package designs. Two design basis waste streams and corresponding design levels are established for two documented inventories of wastes: (a) Mined Geologic Design System (MGDS) Baseline (Viability Assessment) (VA) and (b) Extended Baseline. The MGDS Baseline VA inventory is currently used as the basis for the VA design of the repository, and is limited by statutes to a total of 70,000 MTU. The Extended Baseline includes the total documented inventories of commercial spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste and US Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel. Impacts of the two design bases on surface, subsurface and waste package designs are projected. The impact of potential disposal of additional commercial and Department of Energy miscellaneous wastes on design is assessed qualitatively

  20. Study of the Nafion quantity effect in membrane and electrodes assemblies (MEAs) of 50 cm{sup 2} used in type proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operating with H{sub 2}/Air; Estudo do efeito da quantidade de Nafion em MEAs de 50 cm{sup 2} utilizadas em celula a combustivel tipo PEM operando com H{sub 2}/ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profeti, Demetrius; Colmati, Flavio; Carlindo, Adao A.J.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.; Ticianelli, Edson A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dprofeti@iqsc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated with the aim at characterizing the effects of the Nafion. content on the scale-up of the electrodes from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. It is observed that a diminution of the single cell performance occurred when the electrode area is increased from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. The tests carried out with different Nafion. contents, and fuel cell and humidifiers at the same temperature (T{sub cell}=T{sub H2}=T{sub air}=70 deg C) showed a slightly decrease of the fuel cell performance compared to the tests performed at different temperatures (T{sub cell}=70 deg C, T{sub H2}=85 deg C, T{sub air}=75 deg C). In the study of the variation on the Nafion. contents, the higher performance up to a current density of 0.8 A cm-2 is obtained with the 35.5 wt.% Nafion.. On the other hand, at higher current densities values, the performance of the fuel cells is very similar for the 31.0, 35.5 and 39.4 wt.% Nafion contents. (author)

  1. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  2. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  3. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  5. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  6. 14 CFR 27.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 27.959 Section 27.959... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.959 Unusable fuel supply. The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than the quantity at which the first evidence...

  7. 14 CFR 29.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 29.959 Section 29.959... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.959 Unusable fuel supply. The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than the quantity at which the first evidence...

  8. The Marcoule pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Calame Longjean, A.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Revol, G.

    1986-06-01

    The Marcoule spent fuel reprocessing pilot facility was built in 1960-1961 for extended testing of the PUREX process with various types of fuel under conditions similar to those encountered in a production plant. Extensive modification work was undertaken on the facility in 1983 in the scope of the TOR project, designed with the following objectives: - increase the throughput capacity to at least 5 metric tons of PHENIX equivalent fuel per year, - extend equipment and process R and D capability, - improve job safety by maximum use of remote handling facilities, - maximize waste conditioning treatments to produce waste forms suitable for direct storage, - provide a true industrial process demonstration in continuous operation under centralized control using computerized procedures. The redesigned plant is scheduled to begin operation during the second half of 1986. The proximity of the Industrial Prototypes Service and the ATALANTE radiochemical research laboratory scheduled to begin operation in 1990, will provide a synergistic environment in which R and D program may be carried out under exceptional conditions

  9. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-25

    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  10. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content

  11. Caught in a Severe Thunderstorm, Fuel Is Low, Passenger Having Heart Attack, Hydraulics Are Failing, Instruments Are Iffy, and No Airport Is in Sight: Quick--As the Pilot, What Do You Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, Michael Craig; Budden, Connie Browning

    2007-01-01

    University administrators can take a cue from pilots. Pilots regularly face decision situations where much lies in the balance. So it is with university administrators. The department, college or university itself can be compared to an aircraft. In flight, there are times when the sun shines and winds are favorable: a comfortable flight results…

  12. Plutonium fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The work of the Project-Fuel Development reached the apex of its current programme during the course of the year. Notable success was recorded in the area of irradiation testing with the completion of the examination of the MFBS-7 irradiation. The irradiation group also prepared the seventh Filos experiment and this, as well as the DIDO-III test, began irradiation at the end of the year. Consideration was given and plans prepared for a revised pin filling line for bundle tests. Work also began on the conceptual design study for a pilot production line having a nominal capacity of 500 kg fuel per year. (Auth.)

  13. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  14. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  15. Discounting of quantity surveying fees in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by clients have forced Quantity Surveying firms into competition with ... Furthermore, 43% of consulting engineering firms were discounting their fees at a rate of .... Quantity. Surveying services are also offered in the fields of dispute resolution,.

  16. A control-oriented approach to estimate the injected fuel mass on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure in multiple injection diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Control-oriented method to estimate injected quantities from in-cylinder pressure. • Able to calculate the injected quantities for multiple injection strategies. • Based on the inversion of a heat-release predictive model. • Low computational time demanding. - Abstract: A new control-oriented methodology has been developed to estimate the injected fuel quantities, in real-time, in multiple injection DI diesel engines on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure. The method is based on the inversion of a predictive combustion model that was previously developed by the authors, and that is capable of estimating the heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure on the basis of the injection rate. The model equations have been rewritten in order to derive the injected mass as an output quantity, starting from use of the measured in-cylinder pressure as input. It has been verified that the proposed method is capable of estimating the injected mass of pilot pulses with an uncertainty of the order of ±0.15 mg/cyc, and the total injected mass with an uncertainty of the order of ±0.9 mg/cyc. The main sources of uncertainty are related to the estimation of the in-cylinder heat transfer and of the isentropic coefficient γ = c_p/c_v. The estimation of the actual injected quantities in the combustion chamber can represent a powerful means to diagnose the behavior of the injectors during engine operation, and offers the possibility of monitoring effects, such as injector ageing and injector coking, as well as of allowing an accurate control of the pilot injected quantities to be obtained; the latter are in fact usually characterized by a large dispersion, with negative consequences on the combustion quality and emission formation. The approach is characterized by a very low computational time, and is therefore suitable for control-oriented applications.

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity...

  18. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. ... quantity of milt used for artificial reproduction in fish significantly affect water quality used ... is the major organic substance that supplies the spermatozoa with energy.

  19. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  20. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia, plus 5. (b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102...

  1. HTGR fuel element size reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.B.; Cramer, G.T.

    1978-06-01

    Reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel requires development of a fuel element size reduction system. This report describes pilot plant testing of crushing equipment designed for this purpose. The test program, the test results, the compatibility of the components, and the requirements for hot reprocessing are discussed

  2. The covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.; Perey, F.G.

    1992-06-01

    The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived quantities entails new estimates for the true values of the measured quantities and consequently implies a modification of the covariance matrix of the derived quantities that was used in the evaluation process. Failure to recognize such an implication can lead to inconsistencies between the results of different evaluation strategies. In this report we show that an iterative procedure can eliminate such inconsistencies

  3. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  4. Nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toyoji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To remove failures caused from combination of fuel-cladding interactions, hydrogen absorptions, stress corrosions or the likes by setting the quantity ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium relative to oxygen to a specific range in fuel pellets and forming a specific size of a through hole at the center of the pellets. Constitution: In a fuel rods of a structure wherein fuel pellets prepared by compacting and sintering uranium dioxide, or oxide mixture consisting of oxides of plutonium and uranium are sealed with a zirconium metal can, the ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium to oxygen is specified as 1 : 2.01 - 1 : 2.05 in the can and a passing hole of a size in the range of 15 - 30% of the outer diameter of the fuel pellet is formed at the center of the pellet. This increases the oxygen partial pressure in the fuel rod, oxidizes and forms a protection layer on the inner surface of the can to control the hydrogen absorption and stress corrosion. Locallized stress due to fuel cladding interaction (PCMI) can also be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  6. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Can Improve Liver Transaminase Quantities in Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs Hepatotoxicity: a Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asgarshirazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been directed to investigate Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA effect in children, to reduce the high Liver transaminases induced by Anticonvulsant drugs (drug induced hepatitis. This idea has been driven from Cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of UDCA to be used in drug induced inflammation in Liver. Twenty two epileptic patients aged between 4 mo - 3 yr whom were under anticonvulsant therapy with drugs such as valperoic acid, primidone, levetiracetam, Phenobarbital or any combination of them and had shown Liver transaminases rise , after rule out of Viral-Autoimmune, Metabolic and Anatomic causes, have been prescribed UDCA in dose of 10-15 mg/kg/day, at least for 6 months. Any patient who have shown confusing factors such as genetic disorders with liver involvement or spontaneous decline in enzymes or had not treatment compliance has been excluded from the study. Transaminases range changes as well as Probable side effects of the drug have been monitored. The results indicated that UDCA is effective and well tolerable in the children with drug induced hyper transaminasemia. No side effect has been seen and recorded in this study. Based on this study and its results, we recommend UDCA as a safe and effective choice in drug induced hepatotoxicities.

  9. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  10. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  11. Feasibility study for adapting ITREC plant to reprocessing LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moccia, A.; Rolandi, G.

    1976-05-01

    The report evaluates the feasibility of adapting ITREC plant to the reprocessing LMFBR fuels, with the double purpose of: 1) recovering valuable Pu contained in these fuels and recycling it to the fabrication plant; 2) trying, on a pilot scale, the chemical process technology to be applied in a future industrial plant for reprocessing the fuel elements discharged from fast breeder power reactors

  12. Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakianitis, T.; Namasivayam, A.M.; Crookes, R.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    insufficient penetration and distribution of the pilot fuel in the charge, resulting in a lack of ignition centers. EGR admission at low and intermediate loads increases combustion temperatures, lowering unburned HC and CO emissions. Larger pilot fuel quantities at these load levels and hydrogen gas addition can also help increase combustion efficiency. Power output is lower at certain conditions than diesel-fueled engines, for reasons similar to those affecting power output of SI engines. In both cases the power output can be maintained with direct injection. Overall, natural gas can be used in both engine types; however further refinement and optimization of engines and fuel-injection systems is needed. (author)

  13. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  14. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  15. Laser pulse heating of nuclear fuels for simulation of reactor power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser applications; nuclear fuel elements; nuclear safety. ... accident (LOCA) and reactivity initiated accident (RIA), a laser pulse heating system is under ... As a prelude to work on irradiated nuclear fuel specimens, pilot studies on unirradiated ...

  16. Burn of actinides in MOX fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel from nuclear reactors is stored temporarily in dry repositories in many countries of the world. However, the main problem of spent fuel, which is its high radio-toxicity in the long term, is not solved. A new strategy is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle and for the sustain ability of nuclear power generation, this strategy could be the recycling of plutonium to obtain more energy and recycle the actinides generated during the irradiation of the fuel to transmute them in less radioactive radionuclides. In this work we evaluate the quantities of actinides generated in different fuels and the quantities of actinides that are generated after their recycling in a thermal reactor. First, we make a reference calculation with a regular enriched uranium fuel, and then is changed to a MOX fuel, varying the plutonium concentrations and determining the quantities of actinides generated. Finally, different amounts of actinides are introduced into a new fuel and the amount of actinides generated at the end of the fuel burn is calculated, in order to determine the reduction of minor actinides obtained. The results show that if the concentration of plutonium in the fuel is high, then the production of minor actinides is also high. The calculations were made using the cell code CASMO-4 and the results obtained are shown in section 6 of this work. (Author)

  17. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  18. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  19. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  20. Stabilizing motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-07-12

    Motor fuel is stabilized by adding less than 2% of a tar fraction from peat, coal, torbanite or shale, said fraction containing sufficient constituents boiling between 200 and 325/sup 0/C, to inhibit gum formation. Low-temperature coal-tar fractions are specified. The preferred boiling ranges are from 225 or 250/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C. In examples, the quantity added was 0.01%. The fuel may be a cracked distillate of gasoline boiling-point range or containing gasoline, and may contain relatively large proportions of di- and tri-olefines. The material added to the fuel may be (1) the tar fraction itself; (2) its alkali-soluble constituents; (3) its acid-soluble constituents; (4) a mixture of (2) and (3); (5) a blend of (2), (3) or (4) with a normal tar fraction; (6) the residue after extraction with alkali; (7) the residue after extraction with acid and alkali.

  1. Physical quantities, their role and treatment in gasflow measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narjes, L.

    1977-06-01

    We begin by taking a closer look at the concepts physical quantity, dimension and unit of measurement. Then a survey is given of the physical quantities applied in gasflow measurement techniques. Here the volume-, as well as the mass-flow rate, as derived quantities are of particular interest. The application of these quantities in relation to the legal units of measurement is specifically described. In addition the quantity equation and further the quantity equation adapted to the use of suitable units and their modes of application are compared. In the appendix four examples clarify these modes. Special attention is paid to the quantity equation adapted to practically oriented units. The applications of this type of equation in VDI regulations, standards and other technical guidelines for measurement of flow are mentioned. Moreover, the meaning of the standard state for the comparison of flows of gaseous fluids is illustrated. The difficulties concerning an international agreement on uniform standard temperature are explained. Starting from there, the advantages of the fundamental quantity 'amount of substance' applied to the measurement of flow are described. The use of this quantity for the thermodynamic state of ideal and real gases, respectively gas mixtures, is demonstrated in the appendix by an example. (orig.) [de

  2. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  3. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  4. Influences of diesel pilot injection on ethanol autoignition - a numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnete, N. V.; Burnete, N.; Jurchis, B.; Iclodean, C.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the influences of the diesel pilot quantity as well as the timing on the autoignition of ethanol and the pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion process. The combustion concept presented in this paper requires the injection of a small quantity of diesel fuel in order to create the required autoignition conditions for ethanol. The combustion of the diesel droplets injected in the combustion chamber lead to the creation of high temperature locations that favour the autoignition of ethanol. However, due to the high vaporization enthalpy and the better distribution inside the combustion chamber of ethanol, the peak temperature values are reduced. Due to the lower temperature values and the high burning velocity of ethanol (combined with the fact that there are multiple ignition sources) the conditions required for the formation of nitric oxides are not achieved anymore, thus leading to significantly lower NOx emissions. This way the benefits of the Diesel engine and of the constant volume combustion are combined to enable a more efficient and environmentally friendly combustion process.

  5. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  6. Special emission measurements on Riley Stoker's advanced CFB pilot facility co-firing non-recyclable de-inking paper fiber and high sulfur eastern bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.; Reicker, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Riley Stoker has developed advanced industrial CFB designs that utilize eastern bituminous coals as fuel, and have the potential to use coal in combination with other fuels. Various fiber waste streams in paper recycling processes have sufficient carbonaceous content to be considered as possible sources of such fuels that could fire FBC combustors. The American Paper Institute estimates that by the mid-1990's more than 40% of the waste paper will be recycled, reaching much higher numbers by the year 2000. To evaluate the effectiveness of co-firing such fuels, a test program was conducted on Riley's pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed test facility. A de-inked newsprint derived fiber waste was successfully co-fired with high sulfur coal. The waste fiber material containing approximately 50% moisture had a heating value of 3500 Btu/lb. The coal was strip-mined and contained a lot of clay and excessive quantities of fines making it difficult to burn in conventional boilers. Tests were also conducted with a combination fuel consisting of coal, fiber waste and a high carbon fly ash. In addition to obtaining performance data on combustion efficiency, sulfur capture, and NO x emissions, special emission measurements were also made to quantify the organics, trace metals and hydrochloric acid levels in the flue gas. The co-firing tests achieved a maximum combustion efficiency of 98% and sulfur capture of 90%. The effect of Ca/S mole ratio and temperature is discussed. Although there are no formal regulations in place for FBC systems regarding special emissions, the levels measured were far below the allowable limits for waste incinerators. Materials handling experience on the pilot facility relating to co-firing is also discussed. This is done to identify special considerations for designing commercial facilities. A brief overview of the de-inking waste fiber combustion market is also presented

  7. Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar

    2017-03-28

    The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Cycle to cycle variation (CCV) is expected to be due to variabilities in operating and boundary conditions, in-cylinder stratification of diesel and natural gas fuels, variation in in-cylinder turbulence levels and velocity flow-fields. In a previous publication by the authors [1], variabilities in operating and boundary conditions are incorporated into several closed cycle simulations performed in parallel. Stochastic variations/stratifications of fuel-air mixture, turbulence levels, temperature and internal combustion residuals cannot be considered in such closed cycle simulations. In this study, open cycle simulations with port injection of natural gas predicted the combined effect of the stratifications on the CCV of in-cylinder pressure. The predicted Coefficient of Variation (COV) of cylinder pressure is improved compared to the one captured by closed cycle simulations in parallel.

  8. MOX fuel fabrication at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimayuga, F.C.; Jeffs, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication activities are conducted in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories (RFFL) at the Chalk River Laboratories. The RFFL facility is designed to produce experimental quantities of CANDU MOX fuel for reactor physics tests or demonstration irradiations. From 1979 to 1987, several MOX fuel fabrication campaigns were run in the RFFL, producing various quantities of fuel with different compositions. About 150 bundles, containing over three tonnes of MOX, were fabricated in the RFFL before operations in the facility were suspended. In late 1987, the RFFL was placed in a state of active standby, a condition where no fuel fabrication activities are conducted, but the monitoring and ventilation systems in the facility are maintained. Currently, a project to rehabilitate the RFFL and resume MOX fuel fabrication is nearing completion. This project is funded by the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The initial fabrication campaign will consist of the production of thirty-eight 37-element (U,Pu)O 2 bundles containing 0.2 wt% Pu in Heavy Element (H.E.) destined for physics tests in the zero-power ZED-2 reactor. An overview of the Rehabilitation Project will be given. (author)

  9. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  12. Combustion of mixed fuels (lignite and sewage sludge) in a pilot model of a circulated fluidized bed - a contribution to the waste disposal and to a combustion with low emissions. Final report; Verbrennung von Mischbrennstoffen (Braunkohle und Klaerschlamm) in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung - ein Beitrag zur Abfallentsorgung und zu einer schadstoffarmen Verbrennung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Girndt, H.; Richter, B.; Kaplonek, M.

    1997-04-01

    Mixed fuels based on dried lignite and sewage sludge were burned in a pilot model with circulated fluidized bed technology. The part of sewage sludge has been varied in the fuel, the different reaction and emission conditions were investigated. In the report were laid emphasis on the primary influence of the waste gas components (CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O). The author started first searchs to the ash composition and to where about of the heavy metals. In the report are recommendation for the industriel effective combustion with low emissions with sewage sludge/lignite mixded fuel. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer Pilotanlage mit zirkulierender Wirbelschichtfeuerung wurden unterschiedliche Brennstoffgemsiche aus Trockenbraunkohle und Klaerschlamm verbrannt. Die Anteile am Klaerschlamm wurden variiert und die sich aendernden Reaktions- und Emissionsverhaeltnisse aufgenommen. Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit war die primaere Beeinflussung der Gasschadstoffe (CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O). Erste Untersuchungen zur Aschenzusammensetzung und zum Verbleib der Schwermetalle wurden vorgenommen. Empfehlungen fuer die grosstechnische, effektive, schadstoffarme Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm/Braunkohle-Gemischen wurden erarbeitet. (orig.)

  13. 48 CFR 52.217-6 - Option for Increased Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option for Increased....217-6 Option for Increased Quantity. As prescribed in 17.208(d), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option for Increased Quantity (MAR 1989) The Government may increase the...

  14. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  15. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indefinite-quantity, multiple award contracts to ensure that adequate consideration exists to contractually... contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

  16. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  17. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  18. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  19. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  20. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  1. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  2. Quantifying cannabis: A field study of marijuana quantity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T; Pearson, Matthew R

    2018-05-17

    The assessment of marijuana use quantity poses unique challenges. These challenges have limited research efforts on quantity assessments. However, quantity estimates are critical to detecting associations between marijuana use and outcomes. We examined accuracy of marijuana users' estimations of quantities of marijuana they prepared to ingest and predictors of both how much was prepared for a single dose and the degree of (in)accuracy of participants' estimates. We recruited a sample of 128 regular-to-heavy marijuana users for a field study wherein they prepared and estimated quantities of marijuana flower in a joint or a bowl as well as marijuana concentrate using a dab tool. The vast majority of participants overestimated the quantity of marijuana that they used in their preparations. We failed to find robust predictors of estimation accuracy. Self-reported quantity estimates are inaccurate, which has implications for studying the link between quantity and marijuana use outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  4. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  5. Results of fuel elements fabrication on the basis of increased concentration dioxide fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    According to the Russian Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, that were constructed under the Russian projects, at the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant the pilot series of different configuration (WR-M2, MR, IRT-4M) fuel elements, based on increased concentration uranium dioxide fuel, have been fabricated for reactor tests. Comprehensive fabricated fuel elements quality estimation has been carried out. (author)

  6. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila; Gadbury, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  7. Experience with failed or damaged spent fuel and its impacts on handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-12-01

    Spent fuel management planning needs to include consideration of failed or damaged spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. Described in this paper, which was prepared under the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program that is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are the following: the importance of fuel integrity and the behavior of failed fuel, the quantity and burnup of failed or damaged fuel in storage, types of defects, difficulties in evaluating data on failed or damaged fuel, experience with wet storage, experience with dry storage, handling of failed or damaged fuel, transporting of fuel, experience with higher burnup fuel, and conclusions. 15 refs

  8. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2006-26661; Amendment No., 141-14] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School..., certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools...: Background On August 21, 2009, the FAA published the ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School...

  9. Wartsila 32DF, the dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-06-01

    This paper gives details of the development of the Wartsila 32DF duel-fuel lean-burn engine that can burn liquid or gaseous fuels, and reports on the installation of four of the engines in Turkey. The combustion process, and the design of the gas admission, pilot fuel, cylinder control, air-fuel control, and engine control and monitoring systems are described. The advantages of the engine are discussed.

  10. Fuel cells in industrial use. EnBW's experiences from three years' pilot operation at Michelin; Brennstoffzellen im industriellen Einsatz. EnBW-Erfahrungen aus drei Jahren Pilotbetrieb bei Michelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A. [EnBW AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Berger, P. [MTU CFC Solutions GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    For three years a molten carbonate fuel cell of MTU CFC Solutions GmbH supplied Michelin tyre plant at Karlsruhe with power and 200 C process heat for the vulcanisation of truck tyres. In about 24.000 operating hours the plant produced more than four million kWh power. Aim of the fuel cell project at Michelin was to gain deepened cognitions concerning suitability for daily use of fuel cells in industrial processes. Operator of the plant was EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG. (orig.)

  11. Piloting improved cookstoves in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica J; Bhojvaid, Vasundhara; Brooks, Nina; Das, Ipsita; Jeuland, Marc A; Patange, Omkar; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential of improved cookstoves to reduce the adverse environmental and health impacts of solid fuel use, their adoption and use remains low. Social marketing-with its focus on the marketing mix of promotion, product, price, and place-offers a useful way to understand household behaviors and design campaigns to change biomass fuel use. We report on a series of pilots across 3 Indian states that use different combinations of the marketing mix. We find sales varying from 0% to 60%. Behavior change promotion that combined door-to-door personalized demonstrations with information pamphlets was effective. When given a choice amongst products, households strongly preferred an electric stove over improved biomass-burning options. Among different stove attributes, reduced cooking time was considered most valuable by those adopting a new stove. Households clearly identified price as a significant barrier to adoption, while provision of discounts (e.g., rebates given if households used the stove) or payments in installments were related to higher purchase. Place-based factors such as remoteness and nongovernmental organization operations significantly affected the ability to supply and convince households to buy and use improved cookstoves. Collectively, these pilots point to the importance of continued and extensive testing of messages, pricing models, and different stove types before scale-up. Thus, we caution that a one-size-fits-all approach will not boost improved cookstove adoption.

  12. Challenges and interventions in meeting delivery of nutrition in mid-day meal scheme: a pilot in district Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iksha Chhabra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing cooked food to about hundred million children under mid-day meal scheme has been accomplished. Focus has now shifted to delivery of nutrition since the National Food Security Act specifies statutory quantities of protein and calories. Aims & Objectives: Delivery of nutrition requires comprehensive overhaul to include interventions in area of storage, preparation and practices, stoves, human resource development and community participation. Methodology: Based on a baseline survey of 70 schools through random selection in two blocks of Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh these concerns were investigated in details for specific interventions. Results: Nutrition: Both Faizabad and MHRD’s all India data establish that net quantities consumed by a child (quantity served minus plate waste cannot provide prescribed nutrition. It reiterated the fact that mid-day meal is first and major meal for most rural children. Experiments conducted to standardize quantities, consistencies and splitting meal into snack plus meal improved nutritional delivery. Hygiene and food safety: In both blocks food was delivered at high temperature enabling food safety standards to be met with improved hygiene and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs. Human Resource: A pictorial training manual was prepared to train master trainers as well as cooks. Location specific training using local idiom and practices were used and campaign was conducted to enhance community participation in 45 villages. Fuel efficiency: Low cost smokeless chullahs (stoves designed locally resulted in fuel savings. High efficiency cook stoves were also tested, however their cost limits reproduction. Conclusion: Accomplishing comprehensive improvement within existing cost of conversion per child is a challenge particularly since there are no economies of scale in rural areas. The methodologies created in the pilot for hygiene and food safety, awareness and capacity building through

  13. Ningyo Toge uranium enrichment pilot plant comes into full

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The uranium enrichment pilot plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation at Ningyo Toge went into full operation on March 26, 1982. This signifies that the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, from uranium ore to enrichment, is only a step away from commercialization. On the same day, the pilot plant of uranium processing and conversion to UF 6 , the direct purification of uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride, began batch operation at the same works. The construction of the uranium enrichment pilot plant has been advanced in three stages: i.e. OP-1A with 1000 centrifuges, OP-1B with 3000 centrifuges and OP-2 with 3000 centrifuges. With a total of 7000 centrifuges, the pilot plant, the first enrichment plant in Japan, has now a capacity of supplying enriched uranium for six months operation of a 1,000 MW nuclear power plant. (J.P.N.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Concept of ICRU's operational quantity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    1995-01-01

    The operational quantity which was introduced in the ICRU report 39 published in 1985 was shocking rather than fresh for the author. The report was translated into Japanese, but at the beginning, the contents were not able to be understood. Thereafter, the measurement of ICRU sphere dose equivalent was introduced in a national law. But it is feared that the understanding of this operational quantity is limited to specialist level, and is not by men of practical works. The meaning of ''operational'' must be that workers measure and obtain dose on the spot for the radiation protection for themselves. The principles used when ICRU considered the new practical measured quantity are shown. In the definition of operational quantity in area monitoring, two concepts of expanded and aligned connect real measurement with the operational quantity. The problems of measuring individual dose equivalent are discussed. As to the reality of applying the operational quantity, the fundamentals of the calibration of measuring instruments, the investigation of the operational quantity in relation to measuring instruments and measurement mode, and the relation of area monitoring and individual monitoring are described. (K.I.)

  16. Quantities of Interest in Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation of a High-Octane Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie

    2017-03-28

    This work examines the oxidation of a well-characterized, high-octane-number FACE (fuel for advanced combustion engines) F gasoline. Oxidation experiments were performed in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) for FACE F gasoline under the following conditions: pressure, 10 bar; temperature, 530-1250 K; residence time, 0.7s; equivalence ratios, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Detailed species profiles were achieved by identification and quantification from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Four surrogates, with physical and chemical properties that mimic the real fuel properties, were used for simulations, with a detailed gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Fuel and species profiles were well-captured and-predicted by comparisons between experimental results and surrogate simulations. Further analysis was performed using a quantities of interest (QoI) approach to show the differences between experimental and simulation results and to evaluate the gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Analysis of the multicomponent surrogate kinetic model indicated that iso-octane and alkyl aromatic oxidation reactions had impact on species profiles in the high-temperature region;. however, the main production and consumption channels were related to smaller molecule reactions. The results presented here offer new insights into the oxidation chemistry of complex gasoline fuels and provide suggestions for the future development of surrogate kinetic models.

  17. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  18. Fuel Cycle of VVER-1000: technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosourov, E.; Pavlov, V.; Pavlovichev, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper contains estimations of dependences of technical and economic characteristics of VVER-1000 fuel cycle on number of charged FAs and their enrichment. In the study following restrictions were used: minimum quantity of loaded fresh FAs is equal 36 FAs, a maximum one - 78 (79) FAs and fuel enrichment is limited by value 4,95 %. The following technical and economic characteristics are discussed: cycle length, average burnup of spent fuel, specific consumption of natural uranium, specific quantity of separative work, annual production of thermal energy, fuel component of electrical energy cost, electricity generation cost. Results of estimations are presented as dependences of researched characteristics on cycle length, quantity of loaded FAs and their enrichments. The presented information allows to show tendencies and ranges of technical and economic characteristics at change of fuel cycle parameters. This information can be useful for definition of the fuel cycle parameters which satisfy the requirements of power system and exploiting organizations. (authors)

  19. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  20. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breinholt, T.; Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Meyer Henius, U.; Sander Nielsen, B.

    1992-09-01

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  1. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5 wt. % Fs) are presented. (The symbol 'Fs' designates fissium, a 'pseudo-element' which, in reality, is an alloy whose composition is representative of fission products that remain in reprocessed fuel). The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations with the measurements shows quantitative agreement in both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content. (orig.)

  2. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  3. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  4. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  6. New quantities in radiation protection and conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Four new quantities have been proposed by the ICRP for use in radiation protection from external sources, i.e. the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent (penetrating), and the individual dose equivalent (superficial). These quantities are briefly described together with two new concepts of expanded and aligned fields. The BCRU recommends that these quantities should be adopted for use in the UK together with conversion coefficients when re-calibrating existing instruments, reporting the results of measurements and designing instruments. (UK)

  7. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...

  8. Issues for Storing Plant-Based Alternative Fuels in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    of aerobic metabolites that exacerbated subsequent corrosion processes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodiesel , alternative fuel, seawater, corrosion, carbon...2013 Accepted 17 December 2013 Available online 24 December 2013 Keywords: Biodiesel Alternative fuel Seawater Corrosion Carbon steel...high energy density transportation fuels 13). The feasibility of producing large quantities of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and lipid-based fuels

  9. Development of a 1200 KW/CYL low pressure dual fuel engine for LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, G. [S.E.M.T.-Pielstick, Thermodynamical Project Dept. (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design and feasibility tests of a 570 mm bore 4 stroke low pressure (L.P.) dual fuel engine rated at 20.9 bar BMEP meant for the propulsion of LNG carriers. The basic design features which are to be in accordance with classification societies safety rules are described: individual electro hydraulic valves located in the air manifold ducts, pilot injection, monitoring system etc. The engine capability to burn variable liquid/gas fuel proportions have been investigated with diesel oil and heavy fuel and possible running zones are defined. This ensures the possibility of the engine to cope with the different boil off gas quantity emanating from the ship`s tank during her loaded - and ballast - journeys. With the very lean setting of this engine, no adverse influence of the high ash lube-oil additives were found during the tests. Further tests are necessary to confirm that possible more significant fouling of the combustion chamber is still acceptable. (au)

  10. A note on the expectation and deviation of physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Masao

    2009-01-01

    By using the function representation of self-adjoint operators, the expectation and variance of physical quantities (self-adjoint operators) are defined, and it is shown that the so-called uncertainty principle does not hold.

  11. The ICRU dose equivalence quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The definitions and application of the new ICRU radiation protection quantities have been reviewed and studied in literature. Special emphasis was laid on the consequences of the use of the new quantities by personnel dosimetry services, and on the consequences of the use of the new quantities during an intercomparison programme for dosimetry services. The study shows that the recommendations of the ICRU are not yet complete and not fully realizable. This means that the dosimetry services always have to make certain approximations, when they use the new quantities. In literature, several approaches have been proposed. The feasibility of an approach depends on the characteristics of the dosimeters used. The use of different approaches by the dosimetry services is thought to be of possible influence on the results of an intercomparison programme. (author). 42 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  13. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  14. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  15. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  16. Information quantity in a pixel of digital image

    OpenAIRE

    Kharinov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of integer-valued estimating of information quantity in a pixel of digital image. The definition of an integer estimation of information quantity based on constructing of the certain binary hierarchy of pixel clusters is proposed. The methods for constructing hierarchies of clusters and generating of hierarchical sequences of image approximations that minimally differ from the image by a standard deviation are developed. Experimental results on integer-valu...

  17. Uncertainty analysis of thermal quantities measurement in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurda, Lukáš; Matas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Compressor performance characteristics evaluation process based on the measurement of pressure, temperature and other quantities is examined to find uncertainties for directly measured and derived quantities. CFD is used as a tool to quantify the influences of different sources of uncertainty of measurements for single- and multi-thermocouple total temperature probes. The heat conduction through the body of the thermocouple probe and the heat-up of the air in the intake piping are the main phenomena of interest.

  18. Testing quantity theory of money for the Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Korap

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to test the main assumptions of the Quantity Theory of Money for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous estimation techniques to examine the long-run stationary economic relationships on which the quantity theory is constructed, it is found that stationary characteristics of the velocitities of narrowly and broadly defined monetary aggregates cannot be rejected. However, monetary aggregates seem to be endogenous for the long-run evoluation of prices and rea...

  19. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  20. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  1. Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)

  2. Considerations for handling failed fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Cholister, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The impact of failed fuel receipt on reprocessing operations is qualitatively described. It appears that extended storage of fuel, particularly with advanced storage techniques, will increase the quantity of failed fuel, the nature and possibly the configuration of the fuel. The receipt of failed fuel at the BNFP increases handling problems, waste volumes, and operator exposure. If it is necessary to impose special operating precautions to minimize this impact, a loss in plant throughput will result. Hence, ideally, the reprocessing plant operator would take every reasonable precaution so that no failed fuel is received. An alternative policy would be to require that failed fuel be placed in a sealed canister. In the latter case the canister must be compatible with the shipping cask and suitable for in-plant storage. A required inspection of bare fuel would be made at the reactor prior to shipping off-site. This would verify fuel integrity. These requirements are obviously idealistic. Due to the current uncertain status of reprocessing and the need to keep reactors operating, business or governmental policy may be enacted resulting in the receipt of a negotiated quantity of non-standard fuel (including failed fuel). In this situation, BNFP fuel receiving policy based soley on fuel cladding integrity would be difficult to enforce. There are certain areas where process incompatibility does exist and where a compromise would be virtually impossible, e.g., canned fuel for which material or dimensional conflicts exist. This fuel would have to be refused or the fuel would require recanning prior to shipment. In other cases, knowledge of the type and nature of the failure may be acceptable to the operator. A physical inspection of the fuel either before shipment or after the cask unloading operation would be warranted. In this manner, concerns with pool contamination can be identified and the assembly canned if deemed necessary

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  4. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  5. Application of an experimental irradiation facility type K-120 for the radiation treatment of agricultural products in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.; Foeldiak, G.; Horvath, I.; Hargittai, P.; Bartfai, Cs.

    1979-01-01

    During experimental and pilot irradiation carried out by the 60 Co irradiation facility type K-120 of the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences an irradiation technology for the treatment of agricultural and food products of considerable density has been developed. Applying transport containers of commercial size the intermittent radiation treatment of great quantity products was made possible with homogeneous dose distribution. The radiation technical characteristics, the utilization coefficient and the capacity of the facility for every agricultural product were calculated. (author)

  6. Transmutation Fuel Fabrication-Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grover, Blair Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT Nearly all of the metallic fuel that has been irradiated and characterized by the Advanced Fuel Campaign, and its earlier predecessors, has been arc cast. Arc casting is a very flexible method of casting lab scale quantities of materials. Although the method offers flexibility, it is an operator dependent process. Small changes in parameter space or alloy composition may affect how the material is cast. This report provides a historical insight in how the casting process has been modified over the history of the advanced fuels campaign as well as the physical parameters of the fuels cast in fiscal year 2016.

  7. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The wax content decreases as temperature increases .The highest quantity ... polyethylene are generated . The producers of ... increase in the volume of waste generated daily by its usage in .... aviation industry and other domestic fuel users.

  9. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  10. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  12. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  13. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  14. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  15. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  16. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  18. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  19. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  20. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  1. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment

  2. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  3. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  4. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2009: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  7. Quantities of natural gas transported in August-December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the available monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity from August to December 2007: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  8. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  9. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  10. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  11. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  12. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  13. Fuel management at Washington State Ferries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.; Olds, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed Washington State Ferry (WSF) operations and provided details of a biodiesel research and demonstration project. Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States, with a total of 28 vessels that operate on 10 routes through 20 terminals. Routes vary by transit times, navigational challenges, and the proximity to population centres. WSF fuel and emissions management initiatives include exhaust emission studies, clean fuel initiatives, machinery upgrades, fuel conservation initiatives, and biodiesel testing. The organization is also using waste heat recovery and a positive restraint system. The WSF biodiesel pilot program was conducted using soy-derived fuels with a purifier disk stack. The program is in agreement with recent legislation requiring that 2 per cent of annual diesel fuel sales are from biodiesel fuels, and state legislation requiring that state agencies use a minimum of 20 per cent biodiesel blends in diesel-powered vessels and vehicles. Details of project partnerships were included. tabs., figs

  14. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  16. Quality or Quantity: A Statement for Teacher Training in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed countries are initiating and implementing effective and appropriate technics in the field of teacher training. In Turkey, much research has been done in order to determine the qualification of teachers and, by this way, to train qualified teachers. Ministry of Education, Turkish Council of Higher Education, Faculties of Education and Faculties of Sciences have cooperated some certification systems, however, the research which is not supported by preliminary studies but exposured to political coercions lowered the quality of education. Besides, quantity is increased by pedagogical formation programs. In this study, Turkish teacher training system is analyzed with respect to quantity and quality.

  17. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  18. Units for physical quantities used in dosimetry and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, R; Wagner, S

    1976-04-01

    The 15th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1975) decided to introduce the name Becquerel for the SI unit of the quantity activity (1 Bq = 1 s/sup -1/) and the name Gray for the SI unit of ionizing radiations (1 Gy = 1 J/kg). The consequences of this latter decision are discussed. The Bundesanstalt is of the opinion that no further names for this unit should be introduced, but that the Gray should be used also for other quantities of the same dimension, especially for the dose equivalent.

  19. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  20. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  2. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  4. Absorption process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.; Reed, W.D.; Pashley, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant selective absorption process for the collection and recovery of krypton and xenon is being further developed to demonstrate, on a pilot scale, a fluorocarbon-based process for removing krypton from the off-gas of an LMFBR fuel reprocessing plant. The new ORGDP selective absorption pilot plant consists of a primary absorption-stripping operation and all peripheral equipment required for feed gas preparation, process solvent recovery, process solvent purification, and krypton product purification. The new plant is designed to achieve krypton decontamination factors in excess of 10 3 with product concentration factors greater than 10 4 while processing a feed gas containing typical quantities of common reprocessing plant off-gas impurities, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water, xenon, iodine, and methyl iodide. Installation and shakedown of the facility were completed and some short-term tests were conducted early this year. The first operating campaign using a simulated reprocessing plant off-gas feed is now underway. The current program objective is to demonstrate continuous process operability and performance for extended periods of time while processing the simulated ''dirty'' feed. This year's activity will be devoted to routine off-gas processing with little or no deliberate system perturbations. Future work will involve the study of the system behavior under feed perturbations and various plant disturbances. (U.S.)

  5. 105-KE basin pilot run relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the bases for selecting the exact in-facility location for installation of process equipment to support pilot testing activities in the 105-KE Basin at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The 105-KE Basin was constructed during the early 1950s, as an integralcomponent of the 105-K East reactor building. Similar basins were provided in all Hanford weapons production reactor buildings to receive fuel elements discharged from the reactors and stage them for rail transport to 200 Area fuel reprocessing plants. The 105-KE reactor began operation in 1955. It was shut down in 1971. However, the 105-KE Basin was reactivated several years later to store spent fuel from the N-Reactor basin and permit its continued operation during outages at the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant in the 200E Area

  6. A Study on the Influence of Fuel Pipe on Fuel Injection Characteristics of Each Nozzle Hole in Diesel Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner diameter of high pressure fuel pipe has a significant effect on the fuel injection process and the performance of a diesel engine. The spray impact force of each nozzle hole of a conventional injection system of pump-line-nozzle for diesel engine (based on the spray momentum flux and the injection pressure (on a fuel injection pump test rig were measured. With varying fuel injection quantities and pump speed, the effects of the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe on fuel injection process and the fuel injection characteristics of each nozzle hole were analyzed. It was noted from experimental results that the fuel injection pressure changes with variations in the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe and also the injection duration gradually increases with increase in the inner diameter. At low injection pump speed, even with the same geometric fuel deliver rate, the injection duration also increases gradually. Due to throttling effect and reduction in injection pressure, the fuel injection quantities of the injection nozzle were relatively minimal when the inner diameters of the high pressure fuel pipe were respectively small and large. The optimum injection pipe inner diameter for the right quantity for fuel injection falls between the two cases (between small and large. In addition, the injection rate of each nozzle hole increases with the decrease in angle between the needle axis and each of the nozzle hole axis. The fuel injection quantity of each nozzle hole increases while their relative difference decreases with increasing pump speed.

  7. Strategy for Passivating Char Efficiently at the Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Timothy C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-18

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising pathway for the commercialization of liquid transportation fuels from biomass. Fast pyrolysis is performed at moderate heat (450-600 degrees Celcius) in an oxygen-deficient environment. One of the products of fast pyrolysis is biochar, which is often used as a heat source or as a soil amendment. Biochar is a partially reacted solid that is created in the production of bio-oil during fast pyrolysis. Biochar produced at these conditions contains significant quantities of carbon that adsorb oxygen when exposed to air. Biochar adsorption of oxygen is an exothermic process that may generate sufficient heat for combustion in ambient air. Biochar is also a self-insulating material which compounds the effects of heat generated internally. These factors lead to safety concerns and material handling difficulties. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory operates a pilot plant that may be configured for fast pyrolysis, gasification, and will be introducing catalytic fast pyrolysis capabilities in 2018. The TCPDU designed and installed a system to introduce oxygen to collected biochar systematically for a controlled passivation. Biochar is collected and cooled in an oxygen deficient environment during fast pyrolysis. Oxygen is then introduced to the biochar on a mass flow basis. A sparger imbedded within the biochar sample near the bottom of the bed flows air diluted with nitrogen into the char bed, and excess gasses are removed from the top of the collection drum, above the char bed. Pressure within the collection drum is measured indicating adequate flow through filters. Sample weight is recorded before and after passivation. During passivation, temperature is measured at 18 points within the char bed. Oxygen content and temperature are measured leaving the char bed. Maximum temperature parameters were established to ensure operator safety during biochar passivation. Extensive passivation data was

  8. Quantities of natural gas transmitted in January-December 2012. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2012: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  9. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing. An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) envisioned the introduction of Plutonium fuelled fast reactors as the intermediate stage, between Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors and Thorium-Uranium-233 based reactors for the Indian Nuclear Power Programme. This necessitated the closing of the fast reactor fuel cycle with Plutonium rich fuel. Aiming to develop a Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (FRFR) technology with low out of pile inventory, the DAE, with over four decades of operating experience in Thermal Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (TRFR), had set up at the India Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, R and D facilities for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. After two decades of R and D in all the facets, a Pilot Plant for demonstrating FRFR had been set up for reprocessing the FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor) spent mixed carbide fuel. Recently in this plant, mixed carbide fuel with 100 GWd/t burnup fuel with short cooling period had been successfully reprocessed for the first time in the world. All the challenging problems encountered had been successfully overcome. This experience helped in fine tuning the designs of various equipments and processes for the future plants which are under construction and design, namely, the DFRP (Demonstration Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant) and the FRP (Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant). In this paper, a comprehensive review of the experiences in reprocessing the fast reactor fuel of different burnup is presented. Also a brief account of the various developmental activities and strategies for the DFRP and FRP are given. (author)

  10. Teacher quality and quantity as correlates of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the twin variables of quality and quantity of teachers as correlates of secondary school academic performance in Ogun State of Nigeria between 1997/98 and 2000/2001 academic sessions. The study was conducted ex-post facto under a descriptive survey research design using the proportional to ...

  11. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity limit rules. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated...

  12. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-07

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl.

  13. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  14. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  15. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  16. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverselinear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation.We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to analytically compute thethermal ...

  17. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... Abstract. We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse- linear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation. We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to ...

  18. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  19. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  20. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  1. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  3. Whither the Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in the Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of information on the computing status of the quantity surveyors in Nigeria have been scanty and without empirical substantiation. The basic platform for entry to the information technology gateway is the acquisition, adoption and utilization of the computer. Baseline information is therefore indispensable for the ...

  4. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  5. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  6. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  7. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the preservation or safety of the loan collateral. Loans may be made on a lower percentage basis... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity for loan. 1427.170 Section 1427.170... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170...

  8. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  9. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  10. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory: Request for Information (RFI) – Call for Commercialization Partners on behalf of the Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) L’Innovator Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Laura Jeaneen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    The purpose of the L’Innovator is to assemble unique, state-of-the-art IP bundles developed at the national labs that aggregate synergistic technologies in furtherance of the emerging hydrogen and fuel cell market. The first L’Innovator IP bundle consists of Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) Catalyst technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), combined with Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, H.H.

    1979-04-01

    In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for both thorium containing BISO and uranium containinng WAR fissile fuels are included. A continuous vertical centrifuge is used to clarify the resultant dissolver product solution. Process instrumentation and controls for the system reflect design philosophy suitable for remote operation

  13. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  14. Measurement of uranium quantities by fluorescence-X using neuronal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, V.; Martinez, J.M.; Simon, A.C.; Junca, R.

    1995-01-01

    Layered neural networks are a class of models based on neural computation in biological systems. Connexionists models are made of a large number of simple computing structures, highly interconnected. The weights assigned to the connections enable the encoding of the knowledge required for a task. They can be trained to learn any input-output relation after selecting a suitable architecture. This method appears useful in those cases in which a simple operation and a fast response are needed, together with a reasonable accuracy. They are applied here to the automatic analysis of X-ray fluorescence spectra, obtained with plastic bottles irradiate by collimated beam of photons, emitted by a sealed source of iridium. The method could allow the surveillance of the measurement of uranium quantities in nuclear fuel cycles in processing plants. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs

  15. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners

  16. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000

  17. Characterization of fuel swelling in helium-bonded carbide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, D.L.Y.

    1987-08-01

    This work is not only the first attempt at characterizing the swelling of (U,Pu)C fuel pellets, but it also represents the only detailed examinations on carbide fuel swelling at high fuel burnups (4 to 16 at. %). This characterization includes the contributions of fission gases, cracks and solid fission products to fuel swelling. Significantly, the contributions of fission gases and cracks were determined by using the image analysis technique (IAT) which allows researchers to take areal measurements of the irradiated fuel porosity and cracks from the photographs of metallographic fuel samples. However, because areal measurements for varying depths in the fuel pellet could not be obtained, the crack areal measurements could not be converted into volumetric quantities. Consequently, in this situation, an areal fuel swelling analysis was used. The macroscopic fission-gas induced fuel swelling (MAS) caused by fission-gas bubbles and pores > 1 μm was determined using the measured irradiated fuel porosity because the measuring range of IAT is limited to bubbles and pores >1 μm. Conversely, for fuel swelling induced by fission-gas bubbles < 1 μm, the microscopic fission-gas induced fuel swelling (MIS) was estimated using an areal fuel swelling model

  18. Two-stroke engine with gaseous and liquid fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Rene Sejer [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The need to lower emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates as well as rising oil prices have increased engine operators' interest in alternative fuels and fuel flexibility. The low speed two-stroke ME-GI and ME-LGI dual-fuel engines with diesel pilot injection from MAN Diesel and Turbo offer the opportunity of utilising fuels such as LNG, LPG, and methanol in a wide range of liquid to gaseous fuel ratios. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Injection Timing and Venture for Gaseous Fuel Induction on the Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancing or retarding pilot fuel injection timing in a diesel engine provided with either conventional mechanical fuel injection (CMFIS or high pressure injection as in common rail fuel injection (CRDI systems can significantly affect its performance and tail pipe emissions. Performance of diesel engine when fueled with various biofuels as well as gaseous fuels tends to vary with subsequent changes in pilot fuel injection timings. Biodiesel derived from rubber seed oil called Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RuOME and hydrogen (H2 and hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas called (HCNG both being renewable fuels when used in diesel engines modified to operate in dual fuel mode can provide complete replacement for fossil diesel. In the present study, effect of injection timings and venture design for gas mixing on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual fuel engine fitted with both CMFIS and CRDI injection systems and operated on RuOME and HCNG/hydrogen has been investigated. Results showed that high pressure CRDI assisted injection of RuOME with optimized mixing chamber (carburetor for hydrogen induction in dual fuel engine performed improved compared to that with CMFIS. In addition, for the same fuel combinations, CRDI resulted in lower biodiesel consumption, lower carbon monoxide (BSCO and hydrocarbon (BSHC emissions and increased NOx emissions than CMFIS operation.

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  4. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  5. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  6. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  7. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  8. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  9. Large quantity production of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes by mechano-thermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Fitzgerald, J.D.; Chadderton, L.; Williams, J.S.; Campbell, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nanotube materials including carbon and boron nitride have excellent properties compared with bulk materials. The seamless graphene cylinders with a high length to diameter ratio make them as superstrong fibers. A high amount of hydrogen can be stored into nanotubes as future clean fuel source. Theses applications require large quantity of nanotubes materials. However, nanotube production in large quantity, fully controlled quality and low costs remains challenges for most popular synthesis methods such as arc discharge, laser heating and catalytic chemical decomposition. Discovery of new synthesis methods is still crucial for future industrial application. The new low-temperature mechano-thermal process discovered by the current author provides an opportunity to develop a commercial method for bulk production. This mechano-thermal process consists of a mechanical ball milling and a thermal annealing processes. Using this method, both carbon and boron nitride nanotubes were produced. I will present the mechano-thermal method as the new bulk production technique in the conference. The lecture will summarise main results obtained. In the case of carbon nanotubes, different nanosized structures including multi-walled nanotubes, nanocells, and nanoparticles have been produced in a graphite sample using a mechano-thermal process, consisting of I mechanical milling at room temperature for up to 150 hours and subsequent thermal annealing at 1400 deg C. Metal particles have played an important catalytic effect on the formation of different tubular structures. While defect structure of the milled graphite appears to be responsible for the formation of small tubes. It is found that the mechanical treatment of graphite powder produces a disordered and microporous structure, which provides nucleation sites for nanotubes as well as free carbon atoms. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes appear to grow via growth of the (002) layers during thermal annealing. In the case of BN

  10. Effect of scale and quantity on the cost and performance of energy technologies: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.

    1983-11-01

    Traditionally, a six-tenths power law stated that cost increased by only half with a doubling of plant size, reducing cost per unit of capacity to 75%. Problems during construction in the past two decades have largely nullified the expected savings. Thermal efficiency improves with size in both coal and nuclear plants, but plant availability declines. These trends suggest that an optimal size for nuclear plants may be somewhat less than 1000 MW(e). Judged by a study of the cost of electricity generated during the 1970s, however, operational savings substantially restored economies of scale to nuclear plants but not to coal plants. The alternative to building larger plants is to build more small plants. In field construction, a second plant at the same site costs about 90% of the first, and a doubling of the number of plants built by an architect-engineer appears to reduce average cost to about 93%. In a variety of manufacturing industries, the learning curve is steeper. In the few cases where learning curves are mentioned in manufacturing studies of new energy technologies, however, a reduction in cost to only about 90% with a doubling of quantity is assumed. Most of the cost of new energy technologies such as photovoltaic arrays and fuel cells will be due to conventional equipment, structure, and manufacturing methods. It should therefore be possible to estimate size-quantity cost tradeoffs with some confidence to help establish optimal plant or module sizes

  11. The effect of coolant quantity on local fuel–coolant interactions in a molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Songbai; Matsuba, Ken-ichi; Isozaki, Mikio; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate local fuel–coolant interactions in a molten pool. • As water volume increases, limited pressurization and mechanical energy observed. • Only a part of water is evaporated and responsible for the pressurization. - Abstract: Studies on local fuel–coolant interactions (FCI) in a molten pool are important for severe accident analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Motivated by providing some evidence for understanding this interaction, in this study several experimental tests, with comparatively larger difference in coolant volumes, were conducted by delivering a given quantity of water into a simulated molten fuel pool (formed with a low-melting-point alloy). Interaction characteristics including the pressure-buildup as well as mechanical energy release and its conversion efficiency are evaluated and compared. It is found that as water quantity increases, a limited pressure-buildup and the resultant mechanical energy release are observable. The performed analyses also suggest that only a part of water is probably vaporized during local FCIs and responsible for the pressurization and mechanical energy release, especially for those cases with much larger water volumes

  12. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  14. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  15. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  16. Changing the Rules on Fuel Export at Sellafield's First Fuel Storage Pond - 12065

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Derek [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1949/50 to receive, store and de-can fuel and isotopes from the Windscale Piles. Following closure of the Piles in 1957, plant operations were scaled down until fuel processing eventually ceased in 1962. The facility has held an inventory of metal fuel both from the Piles and from other programmes since that time. The pond is currently undergoing remediation and removal of the fuel is a key step in that process, unfortunately the fuel export infrastructure on the plant is no longer functional and due to the size and limited lifting capability, the plant is not compatible with today's large volume heavy export flasks. The baseline scheme for the plant is to package fuel into a small capacity flask and transfer it to another facility for treatment and repackaging into a flask compatible with other facilities on site. Due to programme priorities the repackaging facility is not available to do this work for several years causing a delay to the work. In an effort accelerate the programme the Metal Fuel Pilot Project (MFPP) was initiated to challenge the norms for fuel transfer and develop a new methodology for transferring the fuel. In developing a transfer scheme the team had to overcome challenges associated with unknown fuel condition, transfers outside of bulk containment, pyro-phoricity and oxidisation hazards as well as developing remote control and recovery systems for equipment not designed for this purpose. A combination of novel engineering and enhanced operational controls were developed which resulted in the successful export of the first fuel to leave the Pile Fuel Storage Pond in over 40 years. The learning from the pilot project is now being considered by the main project team to see how the new methodology can be applied to the full inventory of the pond. (author)

  17. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P. G.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Meneley, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    There are many reasons for countries embarking on a CANDU R program to start with the natural uranium fuel cycle. Simplicity of fuel design, ease of fabrication, and ready availability of natural uranium all help to localize the technology and to reduce reliance on foreign technology. Nonetheless, at some point, the incentives for using natural uranium fuel may be outweighed by the advantages of alternate fuel cycles. The excellent neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and simple fuel-bundle design provide an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility in CANDU reactors. The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a two- to three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than dose conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U. S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or

  18. Fuels for internal-combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-10-23

    To reduce knocking in internal-conbustion engines, the fuel is mixed with a small quantity, for instance 10 percent, of the hydrocarbon obtained by extracting with liquid sulfur dioxide hydrocarbon material, such as mineral oil fractions, coal tar and lignite tar distillates of higher boiling point, for example distillates boiling between 150 and 300/sup 0/C.

  19. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  20. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small-quantity-site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk; L. Fritz; B. Daugherty; K. Hladek; S. Kosiewicx

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  1. The analysis of the RA reactor irradiated fuel cooling in the spent fuel pool; Analiza hladjenja ozracenog goriva u bazenu za odlaganje reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrhovac, M; Afgan, N; Spasojevic, D; Jovic, V [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1985-07-01

    According to the RA reactor exploitation plan the great quantity of the irradiated spent fuel will be disposed in the reactor spent fuel pool after each reactor campaign which will including the present spent fuel inventory increase the residual power level in the pool and will soon cause the pool capacity shortage. To enable the analysis of the irradiated fuel cooling the pool and characteristic spent fuel canister temperature distribution at the residual power maximum was done. The results obtained under the various spent fuel cooling conditions in the pit indicate the normal spent fuel thermal load even in the most inconvenient cooling conditions. (author)

  2. Molten fuel-moderator interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Kynstautas, R.

    1987-02-01

    A critical review of the current understanding of vapor explosions was carried out. It was concluded that, on the basis of actual industrial accidents and large scale experiments, energetic high yield steam explosion cannot be regarded as an improbable event if large quantities of molten fuel and coolant are mixed together. This study also reviewed a hydrodynamic transient model proposed by Henry and Fauske Associates to assess a molten fuel-moderator interaction event. It was found that the proposed model negates a priori the possibility of a violent event, by introducing two assumptions: 1) fine fragmentation of the molten fuel, and ii) rapid heat transfer from the fine fragments to form steam. Using the Hicks and Menzies thermodynamic model, maximum work potential and pressure rise in the calandria were estimated. However, it is recommended that a more representative upper bound model based on an underwater explosion of a pressurized volume of steam be developed

  3. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  4. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  5. On the operational quantity Hp(3) for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R

    2012-01-01

    In the past the operational quantity H p (3) has been defined for calibration purposes in a slab phantom. Recently, an additional phantom in the form of a cylinder was suggested for eye lens dosimetry as a cylinder much better approximates the shape of a head than a slab. Therefore, this work investigates whether the quantity H p (3), when defined in the respective calibration phantom, adequately estimates the eye lens dose (or is at least conservative) depending on the phantom: it turns out that in most cases both calibration phantoms are similarly well suited. Finally, the definition of the eye lens dose is discussed together with possible consequences on the definition of H p (3): the consideration of only the radiation sensitive volume of the lens causes H p (3) not to be conservative in beta radiation fields. (paper)

  6. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  7. Conserved quantities for generalized KdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogero, F.; Rome Univ.; Degasperis, A.; Rome Univ.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that the nonlinear evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t) usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t), possesses three (and, in some cases, four) conserved quantities, that are explicitly displayed. These results are of course relevant only to the cases in which this evolution equation is not known to possess an infinite number of conserved quantities. Purpose and scope of this paper is to report three or four simple conservation laws possessed by the evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t)usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t). (author)

  8. Gas blanket fueling of a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a speculative investigation of the potential of fueling a Tokamak by introducing a sufficiently large quantity of gaseous deuterium and tritium at the vacuum wall boundary. It is motivated by two factors: current generation tokamaks are, in a manner of speaking, fueled from the edge quite successfully as is evidenced by pulse lengths that are long compared to particle recycling times, and by rapid plasma density increase produced by gas puffing, alternative, deep penetration fueling techniques that have been proposed possess severe technological problems and large costs

  9. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  10. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  11. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  12. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H p (0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H p (3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  13. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  15. Effect of burnup on the response of stainless steel-clad mixed-oxide fuels to simulated thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Badyopadhyay, G.

    1981-01-01

    Direct electrical heating experiments were performed on irradiated fuel to study the fuel and cladding response as a function of burnup during a slow thermal transient. The results indicated that the nature and extent of the fuel and cladding behavior depended on the quantity of fission gas retained in the fuel. Fission-gas-driven fuel ejection occurred as the molten cladding flowed down the stack exposing bare, radially unrestrained fuel. The fuel dispersion occurred in the absence of molten fuel and the amount of fuel ejected increased with increasing burnup. 31 refs

  16. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  18. Characteristics of radioactive waste streams generated in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a study concerned with identification and characterization of radioactive waste streams from an HTGR fuel reprocessing plant. Approximate quantities of individual waste streams as well as pertinent characteristics of selected streams have been estimated. Most of the waste streams are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing. However, waste streams from the solvent extraction system and from the plant facilities do not differ greatly from the corresponding LWR fuel reprocessing wastes

  19. Integrated automation system for a pilot plant for energy conversion using PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Raceanu, Mircea; Stanciu, Vasile; Stefanescu, Ioan; Enache, Adrian; Lazaro, Pavel Gabriel; Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Badea, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Based on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells researches and technological capabilities achieved in the National R and D Programs, ICIT Rm. Valcea built an experimental-demonstrative pilot plant for energy conversion using hydrogen PEMFCs. This pilot plant consists of a fuel processor based on steam methane reforming (SMR) process, a hydrogen purification unit, a PEM fuel cells stack (FCS) and a power electronics unit. The paper deals with the dedicated controlling system that provides automated data acquisition, manual or on-line operational control, gas management, humidification, temperature and flow controls. (authors)

  20. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  1. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  2. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  4. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  5. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  6. Reprocessing of fast neutron reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    1981-05-01

    A PUREX process specially adapted to fast neutron reactor fuels is employed. The results obtained indicate that the aqueous process can be applied to this type of fuel: almost 10 years operation at the AT 1 plant which processes fuel from RAPSODIE; the good results obtained at the MARCOULE pilot plant on large batches of reference fuels. The CEA is continuing its work to transfer this technology onto an industrial scale. Industrial prototypes and the launching of the TOR (traitement d'oxydes rapides) project will facilitate this transfer. In 1984, it is expected that fast fuels will be able to be processed on a significant scale and that supplementary R and D facilities will be available [fr

  7. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  8. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Entropy and Its Correlations with Other Related Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to find more correlations between entropy and other related quantities, an analogical analysis is conducted between thermal science and other branches of physics. Potential energy in various forms is the product of a conserved extensive quantity (for example, mass or electric charge and an intensive quantity which is its potential (for example, gravitational potential or electrical voltage, while energy in specific form is a dissipative quantity during irreversible transfer process (for example mechanical or electrical energy will be dissipated as thermal energy. However, it has been shown that heat or thermal energy, like mass or electric charge, is conserved during heat transfer processes. When a heat transfer process is for object heating or cooling, the potential of internal energy U is the temperature T and its potential “energy” is UT/2 (called entransy and it is the simplified expression of thermomass potential energy; when a heat transfer process is for heat-work conversion, the potential of internal energy U is (1 − T0/T, and the available potential energy of a system in reversible heat interaction with the environment is U − U0 − T0(S − S0, then T0/T and T0(S − S0 are the unavailable potential and the unavailable potential energy of a system respectively. Hence, entropy is related to the unavailable potential energy per unit environmental temperature for heat-work conversion during reversible heat interaction between the system and its environment. Entropy transfer, like other forms of potential energy transfer, is the product of the heat and its potential, the reciprocal of temperature, although it is in form of the quotient of the heat and the temperature. Thus, the physical essence of entropy transfer is the unavailable potential energy transfer per unit environmental temperature. Entropy is a non-conserved, extensive, state quantity of a system, and entropy generation in an irreversible heat transfer process

  10. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  11. Research and development of FBR fuel reprocessing in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, T.

    1976-05-01

    The research program of the PNC for FBR fuel reprocessing in Japan is discussed. The general characteristics of FBR fuel reprocessing are pointed out and a comparison with LWR fuel is made. The R and D program is based on reprocessing using the aqueous Purex process. So far, some preliminary steps of the research program have been carried out, these include solvent extraction test, off-gas treatment test, voloxidation process study, solidification test of high-level liquid waste, and study of the dissolution behaviour of irradiated mixed oxide fuel. By the end of the 1980s, a pilot plant for FBR fuel reprocessing will be completed. For the design of the pilot plant, further research will be carried out in the following fields: head-end techniques; voloxidation process; dissolution and extraction techniques; waste treatment techniques. A time schedule for the different steps of the program is included

  12. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  13. Remarks and suggestions concerned with formulation of the definition of quantity ''committed dose'' and quantity ''radiation burden'' useful in estimates of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwik, T.

    1990-01-01

    The paper contains remarks to the definitions of the quantity ''commited dose'' given in the publications of the ICRP. The suggestions are presented on the mode of formulating the definition of the quantity ''commited dose'' and the definition of the quantity denoted hitherto by the symbol H 50 . The other suggestions deal with introduction of the quantity ''radiation burden'', assigned for use in assessments of irradiation expressed ''per caput'' of population. 9 refs. (author)

  14. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  15. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Pilot process waste assessment for the fireset area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.J.; Goethe, M.C.

    1992-08-01

    A pilot process waste assessment (WA) was conducted in the fireset area to develop methodology for conducting future process waste assessments. The study was conducted on trichloroethylene spray cleaning using the guidance for PWAs supplied by Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H). The first objective was to draw up a flow diagram (see Appendix A, worksheet 4) for the process. When this was done, a mass balance (see Appendix A, Worksheet 5) was conducted to determine the quantity of incoming material and where it was going during the process. The mass balance showed that a large quantity of trichloroethylene and all the isopropyl alcohol was being released to the atmosphere instead of being captured in the waste solvent container. Upon completion of the mass balance, waste minimization options where identified (see Appendix A, Worksheet 8) to reduce or eliminate the quantity of hazardous solvent used

  17. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  18. Information technology in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshagiri Rao, G.R.; Arora, U.K.; Mohanty, Deepak; Siva Kumar, G.V.S.M.; Banerjee, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    NFC, Hyderabad is engaged in manufacturing of fuel assemblies required for Indian Nuclear Power Programme. During the manufacturing process, the basic Uranium Fuel and Zirconium alloy cladding tubes travels through several work centers, machines and exposes to various process parameters. For analyzing the fuel performance these parameters are indicators and is a requirement to record such history by both manufacturer and customer. NFC has planned to deploy Information Technology (IT) Systems from MDU/UOC Dissolution to Finished Fuel Assembly dispatch stage by using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)/Barcode Technologies. IT Systems are connected to electronic weigh balances to acquire material weight data automatically. The IT Systems are also designed to receive data from small Island Systems like Helium leak testing equipments. As a pilot project the system is initially implemented from empty tube Tray preparation stage to Fuel Assembly Packing and dispatch stage, containing about more than 14 processes. The system was built using open source technology platform and was deployed on a cost effective Hardware environment. The present paper describes the development process of the system, Implementation challenges faced and change management. The paper also discusses about fruits of implementation and productivity improvements. (author)

  19. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. French development program on fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Bourgeois, M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to close the fuel cycle of fast reactors makes the development of the cycle installations (fuel fabrication, irradiated assembly conditioning before reprocessing, reprocessing and waste management) especially independent with the development of the reactor. French experience with the integrated cycle over a period of about 25 years, the tonnage of fuels fabricated (more than 100 t of mixed oxides) for the Rapsodie, Phoenix and SuperPhoenix reactors, and the tonnage of reprocessed fuel (nearly 30 t of plutonium fuel) demonstrate the control of the cycle operations. The capacities of the cycle installations in existence and under construction are largely adequate for presents needs, even including a new European EFR reactor. They include the Cadarache fuel fabrication complex, the La Hague UP2-800 reprocessing plant, and the Marcoule pilot facility. Short- and medium-term R and D programs are connected with fuel developments, with the primary objective of very high burnups. For the longer term and for a specific plant to reprocess fast reactor fuels, the programs could concern new fabrication and reprocessing systems and the study of the consequences of the reduction in fuel out-of-core time

  1. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  2. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  3. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  4. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  5. Solvation quantities from a COSMO-RS equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotou, C.; Tsivintzelis, I.; Aslanidou, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Extension of the successful COSMO-RS model to an equation-of-state model. • Two scaling constants, obtained from atom-specific contributions. • Overall estimation of the solvation quantities and contributions. - Abstract: This work focuses on the extension of the successful COSMO-RS model of mixtures into an equation-of-state model of fluids and its application for the estimation of solvation/hydration quantities of a variety of chemical substances. These quantities include free-energies, enthalpies and entropies of hydration as well as the separate contributions to each of them. Emphasis is given on the estimation of contributions from the conformational changes of solutes upon solvation and the associated restructuring of solvent in its immediate neighborhood. COSMO-RS is a quantum-mechanics based group/segment contribution model in which the Quasi-Chemical (QC) approach is used for the description of the non-random distribution of interacting segments in the system. Thus, the equation-of-state development is done through such a QC framework. The new model will not need any adjustable parameters for the strong specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, since they will be provided by the quantum-mechanics based cosmo-files – a key feature of COSMO-RS model. It will need, however, one volumetric and one energy parameter per fluid, which are scaling constants or molecular descriptors of the fluid and are obtained from rather easily available data such as densities, boiling points, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization or second virial coefficients. The performance and the potential of the new equation-of-state model to become a fully predictive model are critically discussed

  6. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  7. Italian experience with pilot reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S.; Dworschak, H.; Rolandi, G.; Simonetta, R.

    1977-01-01

    Problems and difficulties recently experienced in the reprocessing technology of high burnup power reactor fuel elements have shown the importance of pilot plant experiments to optimize the separation processes and to test advanced equipment on a representative scale. The CNEN Eurex plant, in Saluggia (Vercelli), with a 50 kg/d thruput, in operation since '71, has completed several reprocessing campaigns on MTR type fuel elements. Two different chemical flowsheets based respectively on TBP and tertiary amines were thoroughly tested and compared: a concise comparative evaluation of the results obtained with the two schemes is given. Extensive modifications have then been introduced (namely a new headend cell equipped with a shear) to make the plant suitable to reprocess power reactor fuels. The experimental program of the plant includes a joint CNEN-AECL reprocessing experiment on CANDU (Pickering) type fuel elements to demonstrate a two cycle, amine based recovery of the plutonium. Later, a stock of high burnup fuel elements from the PWR Trino power station will be reprocessed to recover Pu and U with a Purex type flowsheet. ITREC, the second CNEN experimental reprocessing plant located at Trisaia Nuclear Center (Matera), started active operation two years ago. In the first campaign Th-U mixed oxide fuel elements irradiated in the Elk River reactor were processed. Results of this experiment are reported. ITREC special design features confer a high degree of versability to the plant allowing for substantial equipment modification under remote control conditions. For this reason the plant will be principally devoted in the near future to advanced equipment testing. Along this line high speed centrifugal contactor of a new type developed in Poland will be tested in the plant in the frame of a joint experiment between CNEN and the Polish AEC. Later on the plant program will include experimental campaign on fast reactor fuels; a detailed study on this program is in

  8. Thermochemical equilibrium in a kernel of a UN TRISO coated fuel particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Jo, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; Cho, M. S.; Lee, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    A coated fuel particle (CFP) with a uranium mononitride (UN) kernel has been recently considered as an advanced fuel option, such as in fully ceramic micro encapsulated (FCM) replacement fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). In FCM fuel, a large number of tri isotropic coated fuel particles (TRISOs) are embedded in a silicon carbide (SiC) matrix. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations can predict the chemical behaviors of a kernel in a TRISO of FCM fuel during irradiation. They give information on the kind and quantity of gases generated in a kernel during irradiation. This study treats the quantitative analysis of thermochemical equilibrium in a UN TRISO of FCM LWR fuel using HSC software

  9. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  10. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  12. Net present value analysis of the economic production quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Stephen Michael; Warburton, R. D. H.; Zhong, Q. C.

    2013-01-01

    Using Laplace transforms we extend the economic production quantity (EPQ) model by analysing cash flows from a net present value (NPV) viewpoint. We obtain an exact expression for the present value of the cash flows in the EPQ problem. From this, we are able to derive the optimal batch size. We obtain insights into the monotonicity and convexity of the present value of each of the cash flows, and show that there is a unique minimum in the present value of the sum of the cash flows in the exte...

  13. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  14. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  15. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  16. Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site

  17. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  18. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.; Juddoo, M.; Lacoste, Deanna; Dunn, M. J.; Roberts, William L.; Masri, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Sets the Pace for Plug-In Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    their fueling costs even further. In addition, Georgia Power announced a $12 million pilot program in analysis that determined the ZEV tax credit yields a net positive cash flow for the state.5 According to

  20. U.S. technology for mechanized/automated fabrication of fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Bennett, D.W.; Claudson, T.T.; Dahl, R.E.; Graham, R.A.; Keating, J.J.; Yatabe, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the U.S. fast reactor Fuel Fabrication Development Program is discussed. The objectives of the program are to develop and evaluate a high throughput pilot fuel fabrication line including close-coupled chemistry and wet scrap recycle operations. The goals of the program are to demonstrate by mechanized/automated and remote processes: reduced personnel exposure, enhanced safegurads/accountability, improved fuel performance, representative fabrication rates and reduced fuel costs

  1. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  2. Fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, M.; Matus, L.; Vigassy, J.

    1987-11-01

    A short summary of the main critical points in fuel performance of nuclear power reactors from chemical and mechanical point of view is given. A schedule for a limited research program is included. (author) 17 refs

  3. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  5. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  6. Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ivan; Abrao, Alcidio; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Ayoub, Jamil M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  8. Pilot production of 325 kg of uranium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clozet, C.; Dessus, J.; Devillard, J.; Guibert, M.; Morlot, G.

    1969-01-01

    This report describes the pilot fabrication of uranium carbide rods to be mounted in bundles and assayed in two channels of the EL 4 reactor. The fabrication process includes: - elaboration of uranium carbide granules by carbothermic reduction of uranium dioxide; - electron bombardment melting and continuous casting of the granules; - machining of the raw ingots into rods of the required dimensions; finally, the rods will be piled-up to make the fuel elements. Both qualitative and quantitative results of this pilot production chain are presented and discussed. (authors) [fr

  9. Discussion on concepts for radiological dosimetric quantities in the Japan Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Oda, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Many dosimetric quantities have been used for radiation protection purpose. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended protection quantities and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has introduced operational quantities to provide a reasonable estimate of the protection quantities. Enthusiastic discussions are continuously made on the issues of the dosimetric quantities, such as basic biological data for the definition of these quantities and applicability of the quantities to actual radiation protection practice. At the moment, some changes are being proposed concerning dosimetric quantities in the draft recommendations of ICRP, opened for consultation in recent years. Thus, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) established the Expert Committee on concepts of Dosimetric Quantities used in radiological protection (ECDQ) in April 2005 to reviewed and discuss issues in the dosimetric quantities. (author)

  10. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  11. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  12. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  13. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  14. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  15. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  16. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  17. Nuclear fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z; Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    An assessment of fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP units 1-6 is made on the basis of operational data obtained for a total of 62 fuel cycles. Basic characteristics of core loading and operation conditions are given. SPPS-1 and BIPR-7 codes are used to calculate assembly-wise power distributions for different full power days of a given cycle and unit. The data are compared with the measured values of these quantities. The analysis performed shows that the core loading option chosen has led to efficient fuel utilization without violation of the nuclear safety criteria. For WWER-440 (Units 1 - 4) this is expressed in effective reduction of the reactor vessel irradiation, maintaining the design duration of the fuel cycles at a reduced number of assemblies by a factor 5 - 5-10%, utilizing fuel with higher enrichment and implementing the 4-year fuel cycle. For WWER-1000 the improvements lead to: adoption of the 3-year fuel cycle utilizing fuel with 4.4% initial enrichment, implementation of improved fuel with a new type of absorbers and more effective low-leakage core loading patterns. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs.

  18. Continuous process of powder production for MOX fuel fabrication according to ''granat'' technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkovnikov, V.E.; Raginskiy, L.S.; Pavlinov, A.P.; Chernov, V.A.; Revyakin, V.V.; Varykhanov, V.S.; Revnov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    During last years the problem of commercial MOX fuel fabrication for nuclear reactors in Russia was solved in a number of directions. The paper deals with the solution of the problem of creating a continuous pilot plant for the production of MOX fuel powders on the basis of the home technology 'Granat', that was tested before on a small-scale pilot-commercial batch-operated plant of the same name and confirmed good results. (authors)

  19. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  20. Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Aniol, Rasmus Wochnik; Larsen, Morten Boberg

    2011-01-01

    The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function...... of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling bed mode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel particle size and shape, fuel particle density, rotary kiln fill degree and rotational speed. Large fuel particles and low-density fuel particles appeared more on top...... of the bed than smaller particles and high-density fuel particles. Fuel particle dimensions and sphericity were important parameters for the percentage of visible particles. Increasing bed fill degree and/or increasing rotational speed decreased the percentage of particles visible on top of the bed...