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Sample records for pilot case-control investigation

  1. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

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    Malhotra Nidhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview. Results There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57% than men (43%. Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese, curd (plain yogurt, and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively. Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340, as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431, and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741. Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43. Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23. Conclusions In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D

  2. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

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    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  3. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

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    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  4. Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study

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    Mercado-García Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of Bisphenol A (BPA has been documented worldwide in a variety of human biological samples. There is growing evidence that low level BPA exposure may impact placental tissue development and thyroid function in humans. The aim of this present pilot study was to determine urinary concentrations of BPA during the last trimester of pregnancy among a small subset of women in Mexico City, Mexico and relate these concentrations to risk of delivering prematurely. Methods A nested case-control subset of 60 participants in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT study in Mexico City, Mexico were selected based on delivering less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and greater than 37 weeks of gestation. Third trimester archived spot urine samples were analyzed by online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results BPA was detected in 80.0% (N = 48 of the urine samples; total concentrations ranged from th week (n = 12, the odds ratio for specific-gravity adjusted BPA was larger and statistically significant (p Conclusions This is the first study to document measurable levels of BPA in the urine of a population of Mexican women. This study also provides preliminary evidence, based on a single spot urine sample collected during the third trimester, that pregnant women who delivered less than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation and prematurely (

  5. Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls: A case-control and pilot intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcken, W.; Teeuw, W.J.; Bizarro, S.; Rodriguez, E.A.; Mulders, T.A.; van den Born, B.-J.H.; Loos, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Epidemiologically, periodontitis and ACVD are associated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate AS in periodontitis patients and controls. In addition, we explored the effect of periodontal

  6. Functional neuroimaging of emotional processing in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control pilot study

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    Marsh, Courtney A.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Persad, Carol C.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate emotional processing in women with insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (IR-PCOS) and its relationship to glucose regulation and the mu-opioid system. Design Case-control pilot. Setting Tertiary referring medical center. Patient(s) Seven women with IR-PCOS and five non-insulin-resistant controls, aged 21–40 years, recruited from the general population. Intervention(s) Sixteen weeks of metformin (1,500 mg/day) in women with IR-PCOS. Main Outcome Measure(s) Assessment of mood, metabolic function, and neuronal activation during an emotional task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and mu-opioid receptor availability using positive emission tomography (PET). Result(s) We found that insulin-resistant PCOS patients [1] had greater limbic activation during an emotion task than controls (n = 5); [2] trended toward decreased positive affect and increased trait anxiety; [3] after metformin treatment, had limbic activation that no longer differed from controls; and [4] had positive correlations between fMRI limbic activation during emotional processing and mu-opioid binding potential. Conclusion(s) Patients with IR-PCOS had greater regional activation during an emotion task than the controls, although this resolved with metformin therapy. Alterations in mu-opioid neurotransmission may underlie limbic system activity and mood disorders in IR-PCOS. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00670800. PMID:23557757

  7. RNA sequencing shows transcriptomic changes in rectosigmoid mucosa in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: a pilot case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to conduct a pilot case-control study of RNA expression profile using RNA sequencing of rectosigmoid mucosa of nine females with -diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with accelerated colonic transit and nine female healthy controls. Mucosal total RNA was isolated and purified, and next-generation pair-end sequencing was performed using Illumina TruSeq. Analysis was carried out using a targeted approach toward 12 genes previously associated with IBS and a hypothes...

  8. Disrupted Tactile Acuity in People With Achilles Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Case-Control Investigation.

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    Debenham, James; Butler, Prue; Mallows, Adrian; Wand, Benedict M

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, preliminary case-control design. Background The mechanisms that contribute to Achilles tendinopathy remain poorly understood. The disparity between pain experience and peripheral pathology demonstrated in patients with Achilles tendinopathy suggests that changes in central nervous system function may be involved. Objectives To investigate whether lower-limb tactile acuity is impaired in people with nonacute Achilles tendinopathy. Methods Thirteen consecutive participants with nonacute midportion Achilles tendinopathy and 13 healthy controls were enrolled. Two-point discrimination thresholds over the affected Achilles tendon, unaffected tendon, and tendon of healthy controls were evaluated. Independent and dependent t tests were used to compare group means. Results Two-point discrimination distance over the affected limb in participants with Achilles tendinopathy was significantly increased when compared to the unaffected limb (mean difference, 11.7 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9, 21.5; P = .02) and to healthy controls (mean difference, 13.1 mm; 95% CI: 1.6, 24.6; P = .03). There was no significant difference between the healthy controls and the unaffected side in people with Achilles tendinopathy (mean difference, 1.4 mm; 95% CI: -7.9, 5.1; P = .66). Conclusion These data provide the first evidence of reduced 2-point discrimination over the affected tendon in patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Further research is needed to determine the cause for the change in tactile acuity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(12):1061-1064. Epub 30 Oct 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6514.

  9. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  10. Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

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    Leslie, Douglas L; Kobre, Robert A; Richmand, Brian J; Aktan Guloksuz, Selin; Leckman, James F

    2017-01-01

    Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children. Using claims data, we compared the prior year's occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and open wounds. Subjects were matched with controls according to age, gender, geographical area, and seasonality. Conditional logistic regression models were used to determine the association of prior vaccinations with each condition. Subjects with newly diagnosed AN were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder). This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals. These findings warrant further investigation, but do not prove a causal role of antecedent infections or vaccinations in the pathoetiology of these conditions. Given the modest

  11. Is case-chaos methodology an appropriate alternative to conventional case-control studies for investigating outbreaks?

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    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2014-08-15

    Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012. Using case-chaos methodology, we calculated odds ratios 1,000 times for each exposure. We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman's correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45). Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman ρ = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations.

  12. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

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    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  13. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

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    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  14. A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

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    Teeuw, Wijnand J; Laine, Marja L; Bizzarro, Sergio; Loos, Bruno G

    2015-01-01

    Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.

  15. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

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    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  16. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

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    Lance A Bare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  17. The Relationship between P-Selectin Polymorphisms and Thrombosis in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Pilot Case-Control Study

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    Nilüfer Alpay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The selectins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate the interactions among leukocytes, activated platelets, and endothelial cells. We aimed to investigate whether P-selectin polymorphisms are associated with thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. METHODS: The diagnosis and classification of APS were based on the report of an international workshop. Genomic DNA was extracted from citrated blood samples of all subjects. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the P-selectin coding region (S290N, c.1087G>A; N562D, c.1902G>A; T715P, c.2363A>C were assessed. RESULTS: There were 26 APS (65% patients with thrombosis. The number of patients without thrombosis was 14 (35%. The frequency of the N562D-DN genotype was significantly higher in patients with APS than in healthy controls (p=0.003. The frequency of this genotype was significantly higher in patients with APS with thrombosis compared with patients with no thrombosis (p=0.03. The N562D-NN genotype was found at a higher frequency in patients with APS than in healthy controls (p=0.004. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the N562D polymorphism of the DN genotype of P-selectin is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with APS.

  18. The Relationship between P-Selectin Polymorphisms and Thrombosis in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

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    Alpay, Nilüfer; Hançer, Veysel Sabri; Erer, Burak; İnanç, Murat; Diz-Küçükkaya, Reyhan

    2014-12-05

    The selectins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate the interactions among leukocytes, activated platelets, and endothelial cells. We aimed to investigate whether P-selectin polymorphisms are associated with thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The diagnosis and classification of APS were based on the report of an international workshop. Genomic DNA was extracted from citrated blood samples of all subjects. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the P-selectin coding region (S290N, c.1087G>A; N562D, c.1902G>A; T715P, c.2363A>C) were assessed. There were 26 APS (65%) patients with thrombosis. The number of patients without thrombosis was 14 (35%). The frequency of the N562D-DN genotype was significantly higher in patients with APS than in healthy controls (p=0.003). The frequency of this genotype was significantly higher in patients with APS with thrombosis compared with patients with no thrombosis (p=0.03). The N562D-NN genotype was found at a higher frequency in patients with APS than in healthy controls (p=0.004). Our results suggest that the N562D polymorphism of the DN genotype of P-selectin is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with APS.

  19. Home Care Service Diversification: A Pilot Investigation.

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    Jette, Alan M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a diversified approach to delivering home care to vulnerable older people. This pilot program, funded by the Massachusetts Department of Elder Affairs, attempted to reduce the demand for scarce homemaker services. Results suggest homecare diversification did not alter consumer satisfaction but increased manager time. (Author/JAC)

  20. Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Leufkens, Anke M.; Peeters, Petra H.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using

  1. RNA sequencing shows transcriptomic changes in rectosigmoid mucosa in patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: a pilot case-control study.

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    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Acosta, Andres; Busciglio, Irene; Nair, Asha A; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico; Klee, Eric W

    2014-06-15

    Our aim was to conduct a pilot case-control study of RNA expression profile using RNA sequencing of rectosigmoid mucosa of nine females with -diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) with accelerated colonic transit and nine female healthy controls. Mucosal total RNA was isolated and purified, and next-generation pair-end sequencing was performed using Illumina TruSeq. Analysis was carried out using a targeted approach toward 12 genes previously associated with IBS and a hypothesis-generating approach. Of the 12 targeted genes tested, patients with IBS-D had decreased mRNA expression of TNFSF15 (fold change controls to IBS-D: 1.53, P = 0.01). Overall, up- and downregulated mRNA expressions of 21 genes (P = 10(-5) to 10(-8); P values with false detection rates are shown) were potentially relevant to IBS-D including the following: neurotransmitters [P2RY4 (P = 0.001), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, P = 0.02)]; cytokines [CCL20 (P = 0.019)]; immune function [C4BPA complement cascade (P = 0.0187)]; interferon-related [IFIT3 (P = 0.016)]; mucosal repair and cell adhesion [trefoil protein (TFF1, P = 0.012)], retinol binding protein [RBP2 (P = 0.017)]; fibronectin (FN1, P = 0.009); and ion channel functions [guanylate cyclase (GUCA2B, P = 0.017), PDZ domain-containing protein 3 (PDZD3, P = 0.029)]. Ten genes associated with functions related to pathobiology of IBS-D were validated by RT-PCR. There was significant correlation in fold changes of the selected genes (Rs = 0.73, P = 0.013). Up- or downregulation of P2RY4, GUC2AB, RBP2, FNI, and C4BPA genes were confirmed on RT-PCR, which also revealed upregulation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter (IBAT/ASBT). RNA-Seq and RT-PCR analysis of rectosigmoid mucosa in IBS-D show transcriptome changes that provide the rationale for validation studies to explore the role of mucosal factors in the pathobiology of IBS-D.

  2. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, A.; Thimmasetty, K. T.; Sreeramareddy, N. M.; Venugopal, T. C.; Rajanna,; Vinutha, A. T.; Srinivas,; Bhargava, M K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence ...

  3. A comparison of case-control and case-only designs to investigate gene-environment interactions using breast cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Rajaee Fard, Abdolreza; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh

    2012-06-01

    The traditional methods of studying the gene-environment interactions need a control group. However, the selection of an appropriate control group has been associated with problems. Therefore, new methods, such as case-only design, have been created to study such interactions. The objective of this study was to compare the case-only and case-control designs using data from patients with breast cancer. The interaction of genetic and environmental factor as well as the ratio of control to population odds ratio was calculated for case-only (300 patients with breast cancer) and case-control (300 cases of breast cancer and 300 matched controls) designs. The confidence intervals and -2log likelihood in all variables in case-only design was smaller than those in the matched case-control design. In case-only design, the standard errors of some variables such as age at menarche, the first delivery at the age of 35 yrs and more or no delivery, the history of having live birth, use of oral contraception pills, breastfeeding history were less than those in the matched case-control design. The findings indicate that the case-only design is an efficient method to investigate the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

  4. A Comparison of Case-Control and Case-Only Designs to Investigate Gene-Environment Interactions Using Breast Cancer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional methods of studying the gene-environment interactions need a control group. However, the selection of an appropriate control group has been associated with problems. Therefore, new methods, such as case-only design, have been created to study such interactions. The objective of this study was to compare the case-only and case-control designs using data from patients with breast cancer.Methods: The interaction of genetic and environmental factor as well as the ratio of control to population odds ratio was calculated for case-only (300 patients with breast cancer and case-control (300 cases of breast cancer and 300 matched controls designs. Results: The confidence intervals and -2log likelihood in all variables in case-only design was smaller than those in the matched case-control design. In case-only design, the standard errors of some variables such as age at menarche, the first delivery at the age of 35 yrs and more or no delivery, the history of having live birth, use of oral contraception pills, breastfeeding history were less than those in the matched case-control design. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the case-only design is an efficient method to investigate the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

  5. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... the Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program to May 8... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including...

  6. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S

    1999-07-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age {>=} 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  7. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, A; Thimmasetty, K T; Sreeramareddy, N M; Venugopal, T C; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas; Bhargava, M K

    1990-11-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence interval 11.2-57.3). A statistically significant (linear test for trend P less than 0.001) dose response based on years, times per day and period of time chewed was seen. Any smoking (cigarette or bidi or both) had only slightly elevated risk of developing oral cancer, whereas a history of alcohol drinking or inhalation of snuff did not influence the risk. A new finding of our study was the markedly elevated risk of oral cancer in persons consuming ragi (Eleusine coracana, family graminae) in comparison to those not consuming ragi as staple cereal in their diet. There also appeared to be some interaction between ragi consumption and tobacco chewing with substantially higher relative risks in those who pursued both habits compared to those who gave a history of either.

  8. Punishment and psychopathy: a case-control functional MRI investigation of reinforcement learning in violent antisocial personality disordered men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sarah; Blair, R James; Ffytche, Dominic; Simmons, Andrew; Kumari, Veena; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    Men with antisocial personality disorder show lifelong abnormalities in adaptive decision making guided by the weighing up of reward and punishment information. Among men with antisocial personality disorder, modification of the behaviour of those with additional diagnoses of psychopathy seems particularly resistant to punishment. We did a case-control functional MRI (fMRI) study in 50 men, of whom 12 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, 20 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 were healthy non-offenders. We used fMRI to measure brain activation associated with the representation of punishment or reward information during an event-related probabilistic response-reversal task, assessed with standard general linear-model-based analysis. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy displayed discrete regions of increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula in response to punished errors during the task reversal phase, and decreased activation to all correct rewarded responses in the superior temporal cortex. This finding was in contrast to results for offenders without psychopathy and healthy non-offenders. Punishment prediction error signalling in offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy was highly atypical. This finding challenges the widely held view that such men are simply characterised by diminished neural sensitivity to punishment. Instead, this finding indicates altered organisation of the information-processing system responsible for reinforcement learning and appropriate decision making. This difference between violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without psychopathy has implications for the causes of these disorders and for treatment approaches. National Forensic Mental Health Research and Development Programme, UK Ministry of Justice, Psychiatry Research Trust, NIHR

  9. Investigation and analysis on fatigue status of military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-sheng GUO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the fatigue status and its characteristics and influential factors of military pilots. Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on 924 military pilots by using Fatigue Assessment Instrument (FAI and Fatigue Scale (FS-14, χ2 test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed on the data results with SPSS 17.0 software. Results The findings of fatigue status indicated 343 subjects (37.1% with positive fatigue symptoms and 581 subjects (62.9% with negative fatigue symptoms. FAI factor 1 (severity of fatigue, factor 2 (mental fatigue factor, factor 3 (consequence of fatique and the total score, FS-14 factor 1 (physical fatigue factor and the total score in fatigue-positive group were all higher than those in fatiguenegative group, and the differences were all statistically significant (P 0.05 in the possibility of developing fatigue symptoms between subjects with different aircraft types. Age and flight time were positively correlated with factor 1 and total score in FAI and factor 1, factor 2 and total score in FS-14. However, the aircraft type was associated with neither the individual factors and total score in FAI nor the individual factors and total score in FS-14. Conclusion It is common for military pilots to develop fatigue symptoms, characterized by obvious manifestations of severity, environmental specificity, consequences of fatigue and physical fatigue, and the possibilities of developing fatigue symptoms for different ages and flight time were different.

  10. A community-based case-control study to investigate the role of iron deficiency in the persistence of goiter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pathak, Rambha; Chaudhary, Chintu; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Shaikh, Zakirhusain; Goel, R K D; Patvegar, Bilkish

    2016-01-01

    To find out the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia in the age group of 6-12 years and investigate the role of iron deficiency as a possible contributor to endemic goiter in school children in Ambala...

  11. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  12. Investigation of a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak combining case-control, traditional typing and whole genome sequencing methods, Luxembourg, June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, Joël; Decruyenaere, Frédéric; Moris, Gilbert; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Olinger, Christophe M; Johler, Sophia; Perrin, Monique; Hau, Patrick; Weicherding, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at an international equine sports event in Luxembourg requiring the hospitalisation of 31 persons. We conducted a microbiological investigation of patients and buffet items, a case-control study and a carriage study of catering staff. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa-type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham, and in three members of staff. The case-control study strongly suggested pasta salad with pesto as the vehicle of infection (pfood item could not be tested, because there were no leftovers. Additional enterotoxigenic strains genetically unrelated to the outbreak strain were found in four members of staff. Non-enterotoxigenic strains with livestock-associated sequence type ST398 were isolated from three food items and two members of staff. The main cause of the outbreak is likely to have been not maintaining the cold chain after food preparation. Whole genome sequencing resulted in phylogenetic clustering which concurred with traditional typing while simultaneously characterising virulence and resistance traits.

  13. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  14. Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer: a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Leufkens, Anke M; Peeters, Petra H; Rodríguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-08-15

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.

  15. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  16. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... for early feasibility study IDE applications. FDA is also announcing that the duration of the pilot... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including...

  17. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  18. The Heavy Vehicle Study: a case-control study investigating risk factors for crash in long distance heavy vehicle drivers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunstein Ron R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy vehicle transportation continues to grow internationally; yet crash rates are high, and the risk of injury and death extends to all road users. The work environment for the heavy vehicle driver poses many challenges; conditions such as scheduling and payment are proposed risk factors for crash, yet the precise measure of these needs quantifying. Other risk factors such as sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea have been shown to increase crash risk in motor vehicle drivers however the risk of heavy vehicle crash from this and related health conditions needs detailed investigation. Methods and Design The proposed case control study will recruit 1034 long distance heavy vehicle drivers: 517 who have crashed and 517 who have not. All participants will be interviewed at length, regarding their driving and crash history, typical workloads, scheduling and payment, trip history over several days, sleep patterns, health, and substance use. All participants will have administered a nasal flow monitor for the detection of obstructive sleep apnoea. Discussion Significant attention has been paid to the enforcement of legislation aiming to deter problems such as excess loading, speeding and substance use; however, there is inconclusive evidence as to the direction and strength of associations of many other postulated risk factors for heavy vehicle crashes. The influence of factors such as remuneration and scheduling on crash risk is unclear; so too the association between sleep apnoea and the risk of heavy vehicle driver crash. Contributory factors such as sleep quality and quantity, body mass and health status will be investigated. Quantifying the measure of effect of these factors on the heavy vehicle driver will inform policy development that aims toward safer driving practices and reduction in heavy vehicle crash; protecting the lives of many on the road network.

  19. Investigation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in Indian venous thrombosis patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudesai, Aniket; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Kulkarni, Bipin

    2017-09-01

    The role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in venous thrombosis has been contradictory. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype is associated with elevated levels of PAI-1 resulting in a hypofibrinolytic state and a higher thrombotic risk. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in Indian patients with different types of venous thrombosis was investigated for its role in development of thrombosis. A total of 87 portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 71 Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), 156 cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and 163 deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients were studied alongside 251 healthy controls for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Frequency of 4G/4G genotype was higher in all groups in comparison with controls. 4G/4G was associated with PVT risk (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.29-4.96, P=.0075), BCS risk (OR=5.98, 95% CI=2.68-13.42, P<.0001), and DVT risk (OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.98-3.02, P=.0225). This is the first case-control study from India establishing PAI-1 4G/4G as a strong risk factor for abdominal thrombosis (PVT and BCS). Statistically significant association was not found between 4G/4G genotype and CVT risk. PAI-1 4G/4G is a strong risk factor for venous thrombosis in Indian patients and should be included in laboratory testing panel of thrombophilia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction < 0.01). Our findings provided evidence supporting the null association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Pilot in vivo toxicological investigation of boron nitride nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciofani G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Ciofani1, Serena Danti2, Giada Graziana Genchi1,3, Delfo D'Alessandro2, Jean-Luc Pellequer4, Michaël Odorico4, Virgilio Mattoli1, Mario Giorgi51Italian Institute of Technology, Center of MicroBioRobotics co Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Pisa, 3The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; 4Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Institut de Biologie Environnementale et Biotechnologie, Department of Biochemistry and Nuclear Toxicology, Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France; 5Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Clinics Department, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs have attracted huge attention in many different research fields thanks to their outstanding chemical and physical properties. During recent years, our group has pioneered the use of BNNTs for biomedical applications, first of all assessing their in vitro cytocompatibility on many different cell lines. At this point, in vivo investigations are necessary before proceeding toward realistic developments of the proposed applications. In this communication, we report a pilot toxicological study of BNNTs in rabbits. Animals were injected with a 1 mg/kg BNNT solution and blood tests were performed up to 72 hours after injection. The analyses aimed at evaluating any acute alteration of hematic parameters that could represent evidence of functional impairment in blood, liver, and kidneys. Even if preliminary, the data are highly promising, as they showed no adverse effects on all the evaluated parameters, and therefore suggest the possibility of the realistic application of BNNTs in the biomedical field.Keywords: boron nitride nanotubes, in vivo testing, toxicology

  2. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  3. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate

  4. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE: a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Danièle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. Methods/design ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with cancer registries, in 10 geographical areas. The control group was a random sample of the population of these areas, with a distribution by sex and age comparable to that of the cases, and a distribution by socioeconomic status comparable to that of the population. Subjects were interviewed face to face, using a standardized questionnaire collecting particularly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, residential history and a detailed description of occupational history. Biological samples were also collected from study subjects. The main occupational exposures of interest are asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium and nickel compounds, arsenic, wood dust, textile dust, solvents, strong acids, cutting fluids, silica, diesel fumes, welding fumes. The complete list of exposures of interest includes more than 60 substances. Occupational exposure assessment will use several complementary methods: case-by-case evaluation of exposure by experts; development and use of algorithms to assess exposure from the questionnaires; application of job-exposure matrices. Discussion The large number of subjects should allow to uncover exposures associated with moderate increase in risks, and to evaluate risks associated with infrequent or widely

  5. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  6. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer

  7. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  8. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  9. Theoretical Investigation of a Proportional-Plus-Flicker Automatic Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Ernest C.

    1950-01-01

    The proportional-plus-flicker automatic pilot operates by a nonlinear principle whereby a fast-acting flicker servomotor response is combined with a low-speed proportional servomotor response for the purpose of obtaining supersonic stability and control. Essentially, the autopilot maintains a zero reference about which the output is proportional to the input. However, a flicker response overrides this proportional response at a fixed angle of gimbal displacement on either side of the zero gyroscope reference. Therefore, in contrast to other high speed control systems, the design requirements are simplified because the two components of the proportional-flicker control system are easy to build separately and they can be combined in a relatively simple manner. By application of the proportional-flicker principle, satisfactory stability can be obtained by the proper adjustment of the variable factors in the autopilot mechanism; namely, the proportional gain, the amplitude of flicker control deflection, the autopilot time-lag factor (the time-lag between flicker and proportional operation), and the point in the range that the autopilot switches from a flicker to a proportional system. There is a possibility that these factors can be adjusted so that a more rapid response time (the time to reach steady state) is obtained with the non-linear proportional-flicker autopilot than with a purely linear proportional autopilot. For the main part of this analysis, the proportional part of the system is approximated by a zero-phase-lag proportional autopilot with the assumption that the control surface moves instantaneously at the point where the system switches from flicker to proportional. Good correlation is shown between the results obtained by this method and results obtained by using a close approximation of an actual autopilot transfer function for proportional autopilot operation.

  10. Investigation of the relationship between psychosocial stress and temporomandibular disorder in adults by measuring salivary cortisol concentration: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ebtisam; Alshaarani, Fandi; Hamed, Hussein Abou; Nassar, Jihad Abou

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the Study: Psychological factors, particularly psychosocial stress, have been implicated as risk indicators for temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of this study was to assess any differences in salivary cortisol concentration, scores of perceived stress scale (PSS), and scores of depression and distress between TMD patients and matched controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study comprised two groups; the patient group consisted of 60 patients attending the Department of Fixed Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry who met the inclusion criteria (42 females and 18 males aged 19–44), whereas the control group was selected to match the patient group in number, age and sex. Two questionnaires were used for stress assessment: The PSS 10 and the psychosocial measure of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD axis II. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by a competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test, and independent t-test were used. Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group at the three measures of psychosocial stress (P < 0.05). Increased occurrence of this disorder in women has been observed. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of TMD. Women are at increased risk of TMD when compared to men. Sub-types TMD patients approximately have the same level of stress. Muscle disorders were the most common. PMID:26929502

  11. Farm characteristics and calf management practices on dairy farms with and without diarrhea: a case-control study to investigate risk factors for calf diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is one of the most important problems in calf rearing on dairy farms worldwide. Besides pathogens, several noninfectious management factors, especially management around birth, colostrum management, calf housing, feeding, and hygiene are important in the pathogenesis of diarrhea. To date, few data are available concerning calf rearing management on small and medium-sized dairy farms that are typical for Austria and the alpine region. Consequently, the objectives of this case-control study were to evaluate routine calf management practices on Austrian dairy farms and to examine differences in management between farms with and without the presence of calf diarrhea to identify risk factors. Overall, 100 dairy farms were visited. Of these farms, 50 were chosen based on the history and presence of calf diarrhea (case farms). Another 50 farms with no presence of calf diarrhea were chosen to serve as a standard of comparison (control farms). On farms, management was evaluated by face-to-face interview, and health status and hygiene were surveyed. Several calf rearing management procedures were similar on all of the visited farms, especially in areas regulated by national and European law. These factors include colostrum management and feeding. Consequently, no influence of these factors on the appearance of calf diarrhea could be detected. In contrast, other areas such as hygiene measures differed between farms and showed a partial association with the presence of calf diarrhea on farm. Variables related to diarrhea on farm were farm size; that is, the number of cows on farm. Farms with diarrhea cases were larger (median 40 cows, interquartile range 24.5 to 64.0) compared with farms with no presence of diarrhea (median 28 cows, interquartile range 18.8 to 44.0). Other risk factors that influenced the presence of diarrhea were the presence of other farm animal species on the farm [odds ratio (OR) 26.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.64 to 273.5], frequency

  12. Piloted simulator investigation of helicopter control systems effects on handling qualities during instrument flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, R. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Alderete, T. S.; Gee, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory piloted simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the characteristics of helicopter flight control systems on instrument flight handling qualities. This joint FAA/NASA study was motivated by the need to improve instrument flight capability. A near-term objective is to assist in updating the airworthiness criteria for helicopter instrument flight. The experiment consisted of variations of single-rotor helicopter types and levels of stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS). These configurations were evaluated during an omnirange approach task under visual and instrument flight conditions. The levels of SCAS design included a simple rate damping system, collective decoupling plus rate damping, and an attitude command system with collective decoupling. A limited evaluation of stick force versus airspeed stability was accomplished. Some problems were experienced with control system mechanization which had a detrimental effect on longitudinal stability. Pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and performance data related to the task are presented.

  13. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  14. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  15. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  16. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modelling tools developed may be applicable to other...... wet FGD plants....

  17. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chro...

  18. Concentraciones de DDT/DDE y riesgo de hipospadias: un estudio piloto de casos y controles DDT/DDE concentrations and risk of hypospadias: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Flores-Luévano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre los niveles séricos maternos de DDT/DDE y el riesgo de hipospadias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles, efectuado en la Ciudad de México durante el periodo 1997-1999, con 41 casos de hipospadias y 28 controles. La informacion obtenida por cuestionario y las muestras sanguíneas fueron evaluadas mediante modelos multivariados de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones materna de DDT y DDE no mostraron asociación con el riesgo de hipospadias (RM 1.13; IC 95% 0.24-5.29 y RM 0.48; IC 95% 0.15-1.60, respectivamente. Los predictores encontrados fueron hijos de madres con mayor edad (RM 8.69; IC 95% 1.69-44.9, y la actividad laboral durante el embarazo (RM, 4.68; IC 95% 1.15-18.9. CONCLUSIONES: Dado que se cuenta con escasa información sobre los efectos endocrinos a diferentes concentraciones de DDT/DDE en humanos, la dosis pudiera ser un factor determinante sobre el tipo de efecto.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal serum DDT/DDE levels and risk of hypospadias. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study in Mexico City was conducted during 1997-1999 among 41 subjects with hypospadias and 28 controls. Blood samples were obtained from study subjects. Information was obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Maternal DDT and DDE levels showed no association with hypospadias (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.24-5.29 and OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.15-1.60, respectively. Associated factors were older age of mothers (OR 8.69; 95% CI 1.69-44.9, and working during pregnancy (OR 4.68; 95% CI 1.15-18.9. CONCLUSIONS: Information about the endocrine effects of different levels of DDT/DDE in human subjects is scarce; dosage may be a determinant factor of the type of effect.

  19. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time...... to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied. The influence of holding tank residence time (10–408 h), solids content (30–169 g/L), and the presence...... of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...

  20. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted.

  1. A pilot investigation in constructing crisis communications: what leads to best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Rachel M; Everly, George S

    2013-01-01

    Crisis communications can play an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral reactions to critical incidents and disasters. Effective crisis communications can serve to mitigate anxiogenesis and direct rapid and focused rescue, recovery, and rehabilitative operations. Ambiguous and/or deceptive communications can serve to worsen mental health reactions and delay operational response and recovery (Everly, Strouse, & Everly, 2010). It seems, therefore, that inquiry into the content of acute crisis communications would be warranted Said more simply, given limited time, cryptic messaging in social media, and the "sound bite" mentality that seems to govern news dissemination, it is important to identify the most important content to convey in the wake of critical incidents and disasters. This paper reports on a pilot investigation into "best practices" for the construction of acute crisis communications.

  2. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise......, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing...... walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective...

  3. Investigation of the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 (C/T) gene polymorphism and obesity in a Cameroonian population: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimmo-Metsadjio, Aurelie; Atogho-Tiedeu, Barbara; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Evehe, Marie-Solange; Djokam-Dadjeu, Rosine; Donfack, Olivier Sontsa; Nanfa, Dieudonne; Mato, Edith Pascale M; Ngwa, Elvis Ndonwi; Guewo-Fokeng, Magellan; Pokam-Fosso, Priscille; Mbacham, Wilfred F; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-04-18

    This study aimed at investigating the association between the rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene with obesity in a Cameroonian population. This was a case-control pilot study including 61 obese and 61 non-obese Cameroonian adults. Anthropometric indices of obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids were measured. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and genotypes were correlated with clinical and biological parameters. The T allele was predominant in the study population with a frequency of 93%. No statistically significant difference was however observed between the genotypic (p = 0.50) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.58) of obese and non-obese subjects. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters of C allele carriers (CX = CC + CT) with those of TT genotype showed that there was no significant difference between the lipid profile of these two groups. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene might not be associated with obesity in the Cameroonian population.

  4. Pilot Investigation of PTSD, Autonomic Reactivity, and Cardiovascular Health in Physically Healthy Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ashley N.; Aupperle, Robin L.; Sisante, Jason-Flor V.; Wilson, David R.; Billinger, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and combat-related PTSD in particular, has been associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular-related death. However, less research has examined possible factors that may link PTSD to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veteran populations. The current pilot study investigated whether psychological symptomology and autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts would relate to poorer cardiovascular health in combat veterans without a current diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Male veterans (N = 24), who served in combat since Operation Iraqi Freedom, completed a semi-structured interview and self-report measures to assess psychological symptomology. Autonomic reactivity, measured using heart rate variability (HRV; low to high frequency ratio), was obtained during script-driven imagery of emotional memories. Cardiovascular health was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Correlational analyses and discriminant analysis were used to assess the relationship between psychological symptoms (PTSD, depression, anger, as measured via self-report), autonomic reactivity to emotional scripts (HRV), and FMD. Overall, veterans in the current study showed poor cardiovascular health despite their relatively young age and lack of behavioral risk factors, with 15/24 exhibiting impaired FMD (FMD < 5%). Psychological symptomology was not associated with FMD; whereas autonomic reactivity to emotional (compared to neutral) scripts was found to relate to FMD. Autonomic reactivity to negative scripts correctly classified 76.5% of veterans as having impaired versus normative FMD. Results from this pilot study highlight the importance of cardiovascular screening with combat veterans despite psychological diagnosis. Results also support the need for longitudinal research assessing the use of autonomic reactivity to emotionally valenced stimuli as a potential risk factor for poorer

  5. A Preliminary Investigation into Cognitive Aptitudes Predictive of Overall MQ-1 Predator Pilot Qualification Training Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-06

    other qualitative studies postulating on the cognitive aptitudes critical to the performance of military RPA pilots flying large- sized aircraft at...b Bailey M. Predator pilot and sensor operator selection test batteries . United Kingdom: Cranwell Royal Air...Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II (MAB-II) assesses general intelligence with five distinct verbal intelligence subscales, five distinct performance 4

  6. A Pilot Clinical Study to Investigate the Human Whole Blood Spectrum Characteristics in the Sub-THz Region

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  7. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  8. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  9. A pilot investigation of mild hypothermia in neonates receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Marie; Ichiba, Shingo; Firmin, Richard K; Killer, Hilliary M; Edwards, David; Azzopardi, Denis; Hodge, Rachel; Kotecha, Sailesh; Field, David

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the safety and feasibility of using mild hypothermia in neonates receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Study design A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study of 25 neonates referred for ECMO. Whole body cooling was achieved by adjustment of the temperature of the extracorporeal circuit water bath. Five groups (N=5 per group) were each studied for the first 5 days of ECMO. The first group was maintained at 37 degrees C throughout the study period. Subsequent groups were cooled to 36 degrees C, to 35 degrees C, and, finally, to 34 degrees C, respectively, for 24 hours and the final group to 34 degrees C for 48 hours before being rewarmed to 37 degrees C. Patients were carefully assessed clinically and biologically. In addition to routine laboratory tests, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8), complement (C3a), and molecular markers of coagulation (thrombin/antithrombin III [TAT], antithrombin III, and plasmin-alpha2plasminogen) were measured. No major clinical or circuit problems were noted during cooling or rewarming. In particular, there were no problems of bleeding or cardiac arrhythmia. No significant difference was found between groups in terms of molecular markers of coagulation, complement, cytokines, and platelet transfusions. Applying mild hypothermia (34 degrees C) for 24 or 48 hours to neonates receiving ECMO is both feasible and safe.

  10. Explaining ethnic disparities in lung function among young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Neil J; Patel, Jaymini; Minelli, Cosetta; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung function have been linked mainly to anthropometric factors but have not been fully explained. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate how best to study ethnic differences in lung function in young adults and evaluate whether these could be explained by birth weight and socio-economic factors. We recruited 112 university students of White and South Asian British ethnicity, measured post-bronchodilator lung function, obtained information on respiratory symptoms and socio-economic factors through questionnaires, and acquired birth weight through data linkage. We regressed lung function against ethnicity and candidate predictors defined a priori using linear regression, and used penalised regression to examine a wider range of factors. We reviewed the implications of our findings for the feasibility of a larger study. There was a similar parental socio-economic environment and no difference in birth weight between the two ethnic groups, but the ethnic difference in FVC adjusted for sex, age, height, demi-span, father's occupation, birth weight, maternal educational attainment and maternal upbringing was 0.81L (95%CI: -1.01 to -0.54L). Difference in body proportions did not explain the ethnic differences although parental immigration was an important predictor of FVC independent of ethnic group. Participants were comfortable with study procedures and we were able to link birth weight data to clinical measurements. Studies of ethnic disparities in lung function among young adults are feasible. Future studies should recruit a socially more diverse sample and investigate the role of markers of acculturation in explaining such differences.

  11. Immunopathological characterization of cryptoglandular anal fistula: a pilot study investigating its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, C; Litta, F; Lucchetti, D; Parello, A; Boninsegna, A; Arena, V; Donisi, L; Calapà, F; Sgambato, A

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of cryptoglandular anal fistula (AF) is still under debate. Tissue inflammation could play a primary role. The pathological process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be involved but has never been investigated. In a prospective pilot study, 12 patients with an AF had a fistulectomy. The excised track was divided into proximal (intrasphincteric) and distal (extrasphincteric) parts which were subjected to standard histopathological examination. The cytokines IL-8 and IL-1beta were analysed as markers of inflammation, while EMT was evaluated by expression of TGF-beta, Vimentin, Zeb-1, Snail and E-cadherin. The mRNA and protein expression of these molecules was investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry and was compared with that of the normal adjacent tissue. Chronic inflammation and granulation tissue and a stratified epithelium were evident on standard histopathological examination. The cytokine IL-8 was more expressed in the proximal than the distal part of the track (fold increase 4.34 vs 3.60), while the reverse was found for IL-1beta (fold increase 1.33 vs 2.01); both were more intensely expressed compared with the normal anal mucosa. EMT was demonstrated, in both proximal and distal parts of the track, with an increase of TGF-beta, Vimentin, Zeb-1 and Snail and a mean decrease of E-cadherin. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry confirmed the protein expression. The study suggests that chronic inflammation is present in cryptoglandular fistulas. The inflammatory pattern might be different in the proximal than in the distal part of the fistula track. The cytokines IL-1beta and IL-8 could play a possible role in fistula formation. The study demonstrates for the first time the potential importance of EMT in the pathogenesis of cryptoglandular AF. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. A pilot investigation of "metaphor blindness" in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-06-01

    Previous research from our group suggests that patients with lesions in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL)-which is concerned with abstract numerical cognition and cross-modal association (which is consistent with its strategic location at the crossroads between the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes) have difficulty understanding proverbs and metaphors (Ramachandran and Hubbard, 2001). In the current pilot investigation, we report "metaphor blindness" in a college student population; that is, either the complete inability or difficulty for otherwise intellectually non-challenged individuals to comprehend metaphors of language. Participants (N=205) read 12 metaphorical ("The detective jumped at the clue") and 12 literal ("The accident was a fall") sentences and had to decide whether the sentences conveyed a metaphorical or literal meaning. The mean accuracy for these metaphorical sentences was 11.0 (SD=2.3; RNG=0-12); the mean accuracy for literal sentences was 7.2 (SD=1.8; RNG=2-10). We found that 5% of participants (11/205) were unable or had difficulty understanding metaphors (i.e., were statistical outliers), while their score for literal sentences felt within a normal statistical range M=8.3 (SD=2.3; RNG=5-10). Follow-up control procedures were conducted in order to help ascertain that the results were not due to low verbal IQ and task difficulty. Likewise, none of the "metaphor blind" participants reported any psychiatric or neurological histories that would impair language comprehension, including strokes, brain injuries, language problems dyslexia, and signs of late language onset. The results are very preliminary and future studies are needed to confirm these findings. We suggest that brain modules may be specialized even for subtle functions like metaphor and their formation in embryogenesis may be controlled by small handfuls of genes whose expression can go awry--as in "metaphor blindness".

  13. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Scottish Youth: A Pilot Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 70% of the total ethnic minority population of Scotland is of South Asian ancestry, although relatively little is known about their cardiovascular risk profile. Determining the risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry may inform the creation of interventions to reduce risk and improve the quality of life in this population. Approach: The purpose of this pilot investigation was to examine the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry. A sample of 48 South Asian adolescents (26 females, 22 males, 16±2 years of age resident in the city of Glasgow participated in this study. Stature, mass, waist circumference, physical activity, blood pressure, diet and 10 metabolic markers of CVD risk were recorded. Results: Boys had a significantly (p≤0. 01 greater body mass, stature and were more physically active than girls. The boys also had significantly (p≤0. 05 higher fasting levels of glucose, LDL and C-Reactive Protein (CRP and recorded lower levels of HDL than girls. High fat diets, low physical activity, elevated CRP, glucose and insulin levels and low HDL levels were the risk factors most often identified as being as non-desirable. About 88% of the cohort had between 2 and 6 CVD risk factors while 40% of boys and 20% of girls presented with 5 or more risk factors. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results suggest that preventive measures, including increased physical activity and dietary management may be warranted for the youth of South Asian ancestry."

  14. Pilot-Scale Investigation of Forward/Reverse Osmosis Hybrid System for Seawater Desalination Using Impaired Water from Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was focused on the investigation of a forward osmosis- (FO- reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process to cotreat seawater and impaired water from steel industry. By using this hybrid process, seawater can be diluted before desalination, hence reducing the energy cost of desalination, and simultaneously contaminants present in the impaired water are prevented from migrating into the product water through the FO and RO membranes. The main objective of this work was to investigate on pilot-scale system the performance of the combined FO pretreatment and RO desalination hybrid system and specifically its effects on membrane fouling and overall solute rejection. Firstly, optimization of the pilot-scale FO process to obtain the most suitable and stable operating conditions for practical application was investigated. Secondly, pilot-scale RO process performance as a posttreatment to FO process was evaluated in terms of water flux and rejection. The results indicated that the salinity of seawater reduced from 35000 to 13000 mg/L after 3 hrs using FO system, while after 6 hrs it approached 10000 mg/L. Finally, FO/RO system was tested on continuous operation for 15 hrs and it was demonstrated that no pollutant was detected neither in draw solution nor in RO permeate after the end of operating time.

  15. Biogeochemical Investigations to Evaluate the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy facility located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 655 m (2150 ft.) below ground surface in a bedded salt, Permian evaporite formation. This mined geologic repository has been receiving transuranic (TRU) waste from defense-related and environmental-management activities since March 1999. TRU waste contains alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than twenty years at concentrations greater than 100 nCi/gram. These actinide-contaminated wastes were generated from nuclear-weapons production and related processing activities. They include various organics, adsorbed liquids, sludges, cellulosics, plastics, rubber, and a variety of metals and cemented materials. An extensive set of investigations were performed to establish the basis for TRU waste disposal at WIPP and to support initial certification from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant element of the conceptual geochemical model for WIPP is the microbiologically-driven reactions leading to biodegradation of organic constituents in TRU wastes, as well as interactions with actinides present in the waste. This presentation will discuss the biogeochemical investigations that were performed to evaluate microbiological activity at WIPP, including studies of gas generation due to biodegradation of cellulose, plastic, and rubber materials and actinide-microbe interactions leading to changes in actinide chemical speciation. Highlights of this work are discussed here. Cellulose biodegradation in salt-brine systems results in the generation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and aqueous fermentation products (low molecular weight organic acids). Hypersaline brine can limit the range of microbial metabolic pathways, due to the energetic stresses of maintaining osmotic balance compatible with metabolic processes. Methanogenesis yields the lowest free energy per mole of carbon and as such is often not detected in

  16. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  17. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  18. Investigation of scanning parameters for thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology specimens: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari S Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in developing more feasible and affordable applications of virtual microscopy in the field of cytology continues to grow. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the scanning parameters for the thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology specimens. Subjects and Methods: A total of twelve glass slides from thyroid FNA cytology specimens were digitized at ×40 with 1 micron (μ interval using seven focal plane (FP levels (Group 1, five FP levels (Group 2, and three FP levels (Group 3 using iScan Coreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA producing 36 virtual images (VI. With an average wash out period of 2 days, three participants diagnosed the preannotated cells of Groups 1, 2, and 3 using BioImagene′s Image Viewer (version 3.1 (Ventana, Inc., Tucson, AZ, USA, and the corresponding 12 glass slides (Group 4 using conventional light microscopy. Results: All three raters correctly identified and showed complete agreement on the glass and VI for: 86% of the cases at FP Level 3, 83% of the cases at both the FP Levels 5 and 7. The intra-observer concordance between the glass slides and VI for all three raters was highest (97% for Level 3 and glass, same (94% for Level 5 and glass; and Level 7 and glass. The inter-rater reliability was found to be highest for the glass slides, and three FP levels (77%, followed by five FP levels (69.5%, and seven FP levels (69.1%. Conclusions: This pilot study found that among the three different FP levels, the VI digitized using three FP levels had slightly higher concordance, intra-observer concordance, and inter-rater reliability. Scanning additional levels above three FP levels did not improve concordance. We believe that there is no added benefit of acquiring five FP levels or more especially when considering the file size, and storage costs. Hence, this study reports that FP level three and 1 μ could be the potential scanning parameters for the thyroid FNA cytology specimens.

  19. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) plants with forced oxidation, installed at coal and oil fired power plants for removal of SO2(g), must produce gypsum of high quality. However, quality issues such as an excessive moisture content, due to poor gypsum dewatering properties, may occur from time to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied...

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Pilot Burner on Lean Blow Out Performance of A Staged Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinhu; ZHANG Kaiyu; LIU Cunxi; RUAN Changlong; LIU Fuqiang; XU Gang

    2014-01-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes.Moreover,it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine,which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission.However,lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation,so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine.In this work,the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section.The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access.Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns.Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance.The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition.Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization,which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly.Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results.It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel,atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO.In the end of the paper,conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  1. The effects of unburned carbon on radiative heat transfer in a pilot pulverized coal furnace -- Numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhaohui; Xing Huawei; Zhou Yingbiao; Zheng Chuguang [National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Wuhan (China)

    1997-12-31

    This paper investigates the possible effect of residue char on the radiative heat transfer in a pilot furnace. Firstly, a program is constructed to incorporate radiative properties of particles in solving the radiative heat transfer, based on a computer code for predicting turbulent gas-solid flow and combustion. The radiative properties of single unburnt char are modeled by coated sphere model of Mie theory, while the local Planck average radiative properties of particle could be obtained by a scheme based on Lagrangian approach with particle turbulent dispersion, and the radiative heat transfer is solved by Discrete Transfer method. Then, comparisons are made among predicted results for a pilot-scale pulverized coal furnace by several particulate radiative properties models. It shows even for the pilot-scale furnace, the effect of particle concentration is more important than that of distinguishing between particles of char and ash. The residue carbon in ash has a tendency to enhance the radiative heat transfer for this case. The optimized burn-off rate to separate ash from char is near 0.65.

  2. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    tensions and negotiations are fundamental characteristics of pilot implementations. Based on the analysis of a project that is pilot implementing an electronic pre-hospital patient record for emergency medical services in Danish health care, I investigate other perceptions of pilot implementations....... The analysis is conducted by means of a theoretical framework that centres on the concept infrastructure. With infrastructure I understand the relation between organised practice and the information systems supporting this practice. Thus, infrastructure is not a thing but a relational and situated concept...... understanding of pilot implementations as enacted interventions into existing infrastructures. Moreover, being embedded in the day-to-day organisation of work pilot implementations intervenes in the conventions of practice making the taken for granted visible. This allows project participants to attend...

  3. Serum cholesterol and acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto-Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Santoro, L; Ventura, G; Todesco, P; La Vecchia, C

    1994-05-01

    To examine the role of serum cholesterol in acute myocardial infarction in a population of patients with no history of coronary heart disease and to establish the nature of this association, the degree of risk, and the possible interaction between serum cholesterol and other major risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. Case-control study. 90 hospitals in northern, central, and southern Italy. 916 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed acute myocardial infarction and 1106 hospital controls admitted to hospital with acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for coronary heart disease. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire and blood samples were taken by venepuncture as soon as possible after admission to hospital from cases and controls. Blood cholesterol concentrations were available for 614 cases and 792 controls. After adjustment by logistic regression for sex, age, education, geographical area, smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes and hypertension, and family history of coronary heart disease the estimated relative risks of acute myocardial infarction for quintiles of serum cholesterol (from lowest to highest) were 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 3.4), 3.1 (95% CI 2.1 to 4.6), 4.1 (95% CI 2.8 to 6.0), and 5.2 (95% CI 3.5 to 7.7). The estimated relative risk across selected covariates increased from the lowest to the highest quintile of serum cholesterol particularly for men, patients under 55 years of age, and smokers. When the possible interaction of known risk factors with serum cholesterol was examined, smoking habits, diabetes, and hypertension had approximately multiplicative effects on relative risk. This study indicates that serum cholesterol was an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. This association was linear, with no threshold level. Moreover, there was a multiplicative effect between cholesterol and other major risk factors on the relative risk of acute myocardial

  4. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  5. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  6. A Spanish pilot investigation for a crosslinguistic study in protracted phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Peón, Mario E; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Adler-Bock, Marcy; Avila, Carmen; Carballo, Gloria; Fresneda, Dolores; Lleó, Conxita; Mendoza, Elvira; Perez, Denisse; Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2012-03-01

    A crosslinguistic study is underway concerning children's protracted phonological development (i.e. speech sound disorders). The current article reports pilot Spanish data for this study from two 4-year-old boys with protracted phonological development. The purposes of the pilot study were to: (1) develop and evaluate a word list for elicitation that could be used across Spanish dialects and that sufficiently sampled Spanish word lengths, stress patterns, word shapes and phonemes; and (2) to derive hypotheses for the larger study, based on patterns found in these children's speech, and a review of the literature. The two speakers showed some developmental patterns reported for other languages (e.g. constraints on production of liquids and word-initial consonants in unstressed syllables) but also patterns that may reflect Spanish phonological inventories, allophony and frequencies. These data helped consolidate the Spanish word list for elicitation and led to questions for the ongoing study concerning word structure, multisyllabic words, liquids, fricatives and vowel sequences.

  7. Cigarette smoking and acute myocardial infarction. A case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto--Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'infarto Miocardioco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Bechi, S

    1994-08-01

    To make a further quantitative assessment of the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction, a multicentric case-control study was conducted in Italy between September 1988 and June 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial. Ninety hospitals in various Italian Regions participated. 916 cases of acute myocardial infarction with no history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were studied. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of myocardial infarction according to various measures of tobacco smoking, were adjusted for identified potential confounding factors using multiple logistic regression. Compared to lifelong non-smokers, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) for ex-smokers, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9) for current smokers of less than 15 cigarettes per day, 3.1 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.2) for 15-24 cigarettes per day and 4.9 (95% CI 3.4 to 7.1) for 25 or more cigarettes per day. No trend in risk was evident for the duration, the RR being around 3 for subsequent categories. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age. Below the age 45, smokers of 25 or more cigarettes per day had a 33 times higher risk than non-smokers, compared to 7.5 at in the age group 45-54, 4.4 between the ages 55-64 and 2.5 at the age of 65 or over. The risk estimates were higher in women (RR for > or = 25 cigarettes per day = 10.1), in subjects in the lowest cholesterol tertile (RR = 11.9), with no history of diabetes (RR = 6.8), hypertension (RR = 9.5), no family history ischaemic heart disease (RR = 9.1) and low body mass index (RR = 9.3). The importance of smoking is confirmed as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: about 50% of all nonfatal infarctions in this Italian population could be attributable to cigarette smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A pilot study for investigating cortical binocularity in humans using fMRI adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcoane, Alina; Choubey, Bhaskar; Muckli, Lars; Sireteanu, Ruxandra

    2007-01-01

    Disrupted stereovision is a feature that accompanies strabismus. This study uses an fMRI adaptation paradigm to assess the amount of cortical binocularity in subjects with normal or impaired stereopsis. We present data from a pilot study of two normally-sighted and one stereodeficient subject with alternating fixation. We adapted one eye to diagonally oriented sinusoidal gratings and tested either the same (monocular test) or the other eye (interocular transfer), using either the same or an orthogonal orientation. In normally-sighted subjects, we observed monocular adaptation but only weak interocular transfer in the striate cortex, whereas in the extrastriate cortex we found strong monocular as well as interocular adaptation. In the stereodeficient subject, monocular adaptation but no interocular transfer was obtained in the extrastriate cortex. These results suggest that impaired stereopsis is related to reduced interocular transfer of adaptation at higher levels of the cortical visual pathway.

  9. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health

  10. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, E.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Puliti, D.; Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of

  11. Breast cancer screening case-control study design: impact on breast cancer mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, E.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Puliti, D.; Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent case-control studies on the effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening show differences in the magnitude of breast cancer mortality reduction. We investigated the role played by aspects of the case-control study design on these differences, e.g. the definition of ca

  12. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  13. Pilot project to investigate the anaerobic digestion of the European water chestnut. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    A pilot project was undertaken by the City of Watervliet, New York, funded by the US Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program, to verify the feasibility of producing methane gas through the anaerobic digestion of the European Water Chestnut Trapa natans L. Previous laboratory scale experiments confirmed the hypothesis that Trapa natans L. was susceptible to digestion by anaerobic bacteria. The experiment described herein confirmed those results in a ''real-world'' environment. Furthermore, it was shown that Trapa natans L. could be harvested, held in storage, and digested without employing unusual technologies. Energy for the digestion reaction was obtained from solar radiation, not fossil fuels, limiting the energy-debt to the construction and harvesting aspects of the project. Phase One of this project took place during the months of June through November, 1982. The digester failed to produce gas due to high oxygen levels. It was hypothesized that the buoyancy cells of the uncrushed plants were the source of this oxygen. Phase Two took place during the months of June through September, 1983. At that time, the Trapa natans L. plants were manually crushed and shredded before introduction to the digester. Gas production was 51% methane and 46% carbon dioxide for the second digester run. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  15. Joint engagement modulates object discrimination in toddlers: a pilot electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutman, Ted; Harrop, Clare; Baker, Elizabeth; Elder, Lauren; Abood, Kimberly; Soares, Annabelle; Jeste, Shafali Spurling

    2016-10-01

    Joint engagement (JE) is a state in which two people attend to a common target. By supporting an infant's attention to the target, JE promotes encoding of information. This process has not been studied in toddlers despite the fact that language and social interaction develop rapidly in this period. We asked whether JE modulates object discrimination in typically developing toddlers. In a pilot evaluation of a novel, naturalistic paradigm, toddlers (n = 11) were introduced to toys by an examiner with or without JE. Toddlers then viewed images of the toys while high-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Analysis focused on the differential neural response to objects presented in the two conditions. EEG components of interest included frontal positive component (Pb), negative component (Nc), and positive slow wave. Toddlers discriminated between conditions with a larger Pb peak amplitude to stimuli presented with JE and a larger Nc mean amplitude to the stimuli presented without JE, reflecting greater familiarity with the toys presented socially. Our findings suggest that JE supports object learning in toddlers, and supports the potential utility of this novel paradigm in both the assessment and the potential to detect impairment in social learning among toddlers.

  16. Eavesdropping on the family: a pilot investigation of corporal punishment in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Williamson, Paul A; Holland, Grant W O

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using audio recorders to collect novel information about family interactions. Research into corporal punishment (CP) has relied, almost exclusively, on self-report data; audio recordings have the promise of revealing new insights into the use and immediate consequences of CP. So we could hear how parents respond to child conflicts, 33 mothers wore digital audio recorders for up to 6 evenings. We identified a total of 41 CP incidents, in 15 families and involving 22 parent-child dyads. These incidents were evaluated on 6 guidelines culled from the writings of CP advocates. The results indicated, contrary to advice, CP was not being used in line with 3 of the 6 recommendations and for 2 others, the results were equivocal. The last recommendation could not be assessed with audio. Latency analyses revealed children, after being hit, were misbehaving again within 10 minutes after 73% of the incidents. Mothers' self reports about whether they used CP were found to correspond to the audio data in 81% of the cases. Among the mothers who were hitting, CP occurred at a much higher rate than the literature indicates. These results should be viewed as preliminary because of the small sample of families and the even smaller number of families who used CP. Nevertheless, this pilot study demonstrates that audio recording naturally occurring momentary processes in the family is a viable method for collecting new data to address important questions about family interactions.

  17. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, F.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Jansen, E.H.; Gils, C.H. van; Bakker, M.F.; Overvad, K.; Roswall, N.; Tjonneland, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Racine, A.; Cadeau, C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Castano, J.M.; Duell, E.J.; Barricarte, A.; Molina-Montes, E.; Arguelles, M.; Dorronsoro, M.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.L.; Khaw, K.T.; Jenab, M.; Fedirko, V.; Riboli, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-

  18. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: A nested case-control study : Plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–

  19. A pilot investigation of emotion-focused two-chair dialogue intervention for self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben; Carlin, Erica R; Engle, David E; Hegde, Jayanta; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Arkowitz, Hal

    2012-01-01

    Self-criticism plays a key role in many psychological disorders and predicts poor outcome in psychotherapy. Yet, psychotherapy research directly targeting self-critical processes is limited. In this pilot study, we examined the efficacy of an emotion-focused intervention, the two-chair dialogue task, on self-criticism, self-compassion and the ability to self-reassure in times of stress, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms among nine self-critical clients. Results showed that the intervention was associated with significant increases in self-compassion and self-reassuring, and significant reductions in self-criticism, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Effect sizes were medium to large, with most clients exhibiting low and non-clinical levels of symptomatology at the end of therapy, and maintaining gains over a 6-month follow-up period. Although preliminary, these finding suggest that emotion-focused chair work might be a promising intervention addressing self-criticism. Self-criticism is an important process in a variety of clinical disorders and predicts poor outcome in brief therapy for depression. Yet, little is known about how self-criticism can be effectively addressed in psychological treatment. Practitioners can benefit from increasing their awareness of self-critical processes in their clinical work, and from directly working with emotions in addressing self-criticisim. Emotion-focused two-chair dialogue intervention can be effective in reducing self-criticism, increasing self-compassion, and decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms, and these improvements are largely maintained six months after therapy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. Methods and materials One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. Results It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant. PMID:26604836

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant - a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant.

  3. Investigation on auditory function of 116 pilots%116名飞行员听觉功能的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁歌; 张霞; 孙雪蕾; 谢溯江; 田大为; 陈勇胜; 王致洁; 姜媛媛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate situation of hearing loss in pilots and explore the effects of flight on auditory function of pilots.Methods One hundred and sixteen pilots,aged from 23 to 56 years and flying hours were from 120 to 6000 h,were selected as subjects.The pilots were divided into 4 groups by age:61 pilots were grouped as pilot group A [23-29 yrs,(24.6 ± 1.7) yrs,(354.0-±-200.8) h],20 pilots were grouped as pilot group B [30 39 yrs,(34.1 ± 2.6) yrs,(1866.3±785.9) h],28 pilots were grouped as pilot group C [40-49 yrs,(44.0± 2.4) yrs,(2913.6±1085.6) h] and 7 pilots were grouped as pilot group D [50-56 yrs,(52.6±1.9) yrs,(4528.6±799.4) h)].Meanwhile,age correspondent subjects (non pilots) were selected as control groups,who were grouped as control group A (17 subjects),control group B (21 subjects),control group C (24 subjects) and control group D (12 subjects).They had no history of occupational noise exposure.All subjects were tested by pure tone audiometry from 500-8000 Hz and by the measurement of distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) from 1000-6000 Hz.Results ①Hearing loss of pilots was mainly at 3000 8000 Hz.The occurrence rate of unilateral hearing loss at high frequencies was higher than that of bilateral hearing in pilot group A and pilot group B.The occurrence rate of bilateral hearing loss at high frequencies gradually increased with flight time.The occurrence rate of unilateral hearing loss was almost the same with the bilateral in pilot group C.The occurrence rate of unilateral hearing loss was 14.30% while bilateral was 85.70% in pilot group D.②Audiometric notch was observed at the center of 6000 Hz in pilot groups,where the hearing loss firstly and significantly decreased.Control group A,B,and C showed normal hearing at all concerned frequencies.The hearing loss greatly increased at 8000 Hz in control group D and showed slope type variation.③The mean hearing thresholds of pilots group A and control group A had no

  4. Investigating Preschool and Primary School Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Needs in Teaching Science: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Walan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the curricula reforms at the levels of preschool and primary school in Sweden have caused new demands on the teachers. In particular, numerous teachers lack the educational training in science subjects. Therefore, this study aims to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy and needs in relationto science teaching. A total of 71 teachers, divided into three groups of preschool, 1-3 grades and 4-6 grades, were invited to join this pilot study. From the EU FP7 project, PROFILES, a Likert scale questionnaire (with scores from 1 to 3 to represent strongly disagree, agree to strongly agree, and I don’t know was scored 0 was used and revised for the data collection in this pilot study. The results showed that the participating teachers had relatively high self-efficacy and no significant differences were found among the three groups of teachers. However, even though the teachers had high self-efficacy, the needs of further education were expressed by the teachers to a large extent. In particular, the group of preschool teachers addressed the need for more content knowledge (CK in physics and chemistry (>41%. In terms of the groups of 1-3 and 4-6 grades teachers, the needs relating to scientific literacy were revealed, with a focus on engaging students in socio-scientific problems (52%, 56% and assessment (44%, 61%. The implication of this study is discussed in the hope to contribute to teachers’ professional development for both pre- and in-service teachers in science education.

  5. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  6. A Piloted Simulation Investigating Handling Qualities and Performance Requirements of a Single-Pilot Helicopter in Air Combat Employing a Helmet-Driven Turreted Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A. Decker, NASA, HAC III Project Engineer LTC Patrick M. Morris, NASA, HAC III Project Pilot Mr. Joseph 0. Ogwell, SYRE, Simulation Engineer Ms ...wtpnret n velope secnd ATOIT Toa msips diate them round PSIRD! XHDS posietion abln ciuh body axes) dtec TUERT IHADSSposition inrbelevan (body aes) deresw...Ref. 21]. 68 CDC 7600 IHADSS Position Mainframe [Asynchronous] (30 ms ) I (40 ms ) PDP 11 /55 TOTAL Singer (17 ms ) 120ms D (67 ms )IRIS (48 ms ) G HUD

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  8. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kandeel, Amr M; Talaat, Maha; Afifi, Salma A; El-Sayed, Nasr M; Abdel Fadeel, Moustafa A; Hajjeh, Rana A; Mahoney, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    .... We conducted a case-control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two...

  9. 76 FR 70152 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... entitled ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies... involve new approaches to IDE review to facilitate timely device and clinical protocol modifications... program are medical devices for which: 1. The sponsor has not already submitted an IDE application. 2....

  10. A Pilot Investigation Comparing Instructional Packages for MTS Training: "Manual Alone" vs. "Manual-Plus-Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marileide; Goyos, Celso; Pear, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Matching-to-sample (MTS) training consists of presenting a stimulus as a sample followed by stimuli called comparisons from which a subject makes a choice. This study presents results of a pilot investigation comparing two packages for teaching university students to conduct MTS training. Two groups--control and experimental--with 2 participants…

  11. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  12. Investigation of Pathogenic Genes in Peri-Implantitis from Implant Clustering Failure Patients: A Whole-Exome Sequencing Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soohyung; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jihye; Kim, Sanguk; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Han, Dong-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a frequently occurring gum disease linked to multi-factorial traits with various environmental and genetic causalities and no known concrete pathogenesis. The varying severity of peri-implantitis among patients with relatively similar environments suggests a genetic aspect which needs to be investigated to understand and regulate the pathogenesis of the disease. Six unrelated individuals with multiple clusterization implant failure due to severe peri-implantitis were chosen for this study. These six individuals had relatively healthy lifestyles, with minimal environmental causalities affecting peri-implantitis. Research was undertaken to investigate pathogenic genes in peri-implantitis albeit with a small number of subjects and incomplete elimination of environmental causalities. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on collected saliva samples via self DNA collection kit. Common variants with minor allele frequencies (MAF) > = 0.05 from all control datasets were eliminated and variants having high and moderate impact and loss of function were used for comparison. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to reveal functional groups associated with the genetic variants. 2,022 genes were left after filtering against dbSNP, the 1000 Genomes East Asian population, and healthy Korean randomized subsample data (GSK project). 175 (p-value implant failure. This result may demonstrate the feasibility of and provide pilot data for a larger research project aimed at discovering biomarkers for early diagnosis of peri-implantitis. PMID:24921256

  13. Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Zielak

    Full Text Available Introduction : The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the investigation of biomechanics via correlation of the findings of colorimetric photoelastic analysis (stress transition areas; STAs of design details between two types of short dental implants under axial loads. Methods Implants were embedded in a soft photoelastic resin and axially loaded with 10 and 20 N of force. Implant design features were correlated with the STAs (mm2 of the colored fringes of colorimetric photoelastic analysis. Results Under a 10 N load, the surface area of the implants was directly related to STA, whereas under a 20 N load, the surface area and thread height were inversely related to STA. Conclusion A smaller external thread height seemed to improve the biomechanical performance of the short implants investigated.

  14. Investigating the Effects of Display Design on Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    response time for selection of interceptors [51]. In a study investigating air traffic avoidance tasks, Ellis, McGreevy, and Hitchcock (1987) found...Francis: New York. 28. McCormick, E.P., and Wickens, C. D, Virtual reality features of frame of reference and display dimensionality with stereopsis ...integrality, stereopsis , motion, and mesh. Human Factors,, 1994: 44. 30. Olmos, O., Liang, C-C., & Wickens, C.D., Electronic map evaluation in

  15. Flight investigation of piloting techniques and crosswind limitations using a research type crosswind landing gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. D.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.; Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A research-type crosswind landing gear was tested in a flight program which used a light STOL transport in strong crosswind conditions. The research-type crosswind landing gear used enabled the airplane to land to crosswinds up to a magnitude of 25 to 30 knots. Three modes of landing-gear operation were investigated: preset, automatic, and castor (passive self-alignment). Actual test data and histograms are given for the 195 'visual flight rules' crosswind landings made.

  16. A pilot investigation of feeding problems in children with esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R; Levesque, D; Birnbaum, R; Ramsay, M

    2015-04-01

    While many long-term complications of esophageal atresia (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about feeding difficulties in children after surgical correction of EA and its impact on caregivers. This study investigates the feeding behaviors of children with EA through a validated feeding questionnaire. The Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS) was filled out by the primary caregiver during patient follow-up visits in the multidisciplinary EA clinic. Demographic information, EA subtype, associated anomalies and outcomes were recorded. Results were compared between groups and to a normative sample. Thirty caregivers have completed the MCH-FS; 26 patients had type C atresia (86.7%). In comparison to controls, 17.5% of EA cases are one standard deviation above the mean feeding difficulty score, while 6.7% (n = 2) cases are greater than two standard deviations above normative values. Typical EA patients (type C who were not born Feeding difficulties of patients with typical EA appear mild. Likely explanations include the use of early protocolized care and intensive multidisciplinary care in follow up. Nonetheless, patients with complicated EA (non-type C) and their caregivers tend to experience significant feeding difficulties. Early targeted care may be required for this patient subset, and additional cases will be investigated to confirm these preliminary findings and explore further risk factors of feeding problem in this cohort.

  17. Investigation of four distinct glottal configurations in classical singing--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Ternström, Sten; Svec, Jan G

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates four qualities of singing voice in a classically trained baritone: "naive falsetto," "countertenor falsetto," "lyrical chest" and "full chest." Laryngeal configuration and vocal fold behavior in these qualities were studied using laryngeal videostroboscopy, videokymography, electroglottography, and sound spectrography. The data suggest that the four voice qualities were produced by independently manipulating mainly two laryngeal parameters: (1) the adduction of the arytenoid cartilages and (2) the thickening of the vocal folds. An independent control of the posterior adductory muscles versus the vocalis muscle is considered to be the physiological basis for achieving these singing voice qualities.

  18. [Questionnaire for Investigating Therapeutic Alliance in Forensic Setting (FTBF): Results of a Pilot Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, N; Dudeck, M; Knein, A M; Rasche, K; Mentel, R; Streb, J; Connemann, B J; Sosic-Vasic, Z; Otte, S

    2015-12-01

    The relation between patient and therapist has a substantial effect on the success of psychotherapy. So far, in German-speaking regions questionnaires translated from English have been used, particularly for studying outpatients. Studies investigating and concerned with specialised features of hospitalised forensic psychiatry patients are sparse. The preliminary results of this study evaluating a recently developed questionnaire aimed to investigate the quality of the therapeutic relationship in forensic psychiatry ("Fragebogen zur therapeutischen Beziehung in der Forensik, FTBF") are reported. The data were collected both in general and forensic psychiatry departments. Factor analyses yielded two essential factors, namely "positive emotional aspects" (12 items, main features trust, respect, helpfulness, harmony, and sympathy; Cronbach's α = .933) and "negative emotional aspects" (4 items, main features power divide and punishment; Cronbach's α = .805). Forensic patients experienced power divide and punishment tendencies more intensively than general psychiatry patients (p < 0.001). Our questionnaire therefore demonstrates not only excellent reliabilities but also differential validity, enabling a differentiation between general and forensic psychiatry patients. Studies with larger samples would enable conclusions about the impact of the therapists' perspective, specific diagnostic subgroups and different psychotherapeutic orientations, on the patient-therapist relationship in forensic psychiatry.

  19. Investigation of polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels as a neuronal scaffold: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymer crosslinked aerogels are an attractive class of materials for future implant applications particularly as a biomaterial for the support of nerve growth. The low density and nano-porous structure of this material combined with large surface area, high mechanical strength, and tunable surface properties, make aerogels materials with a high potential in aiding repair of injuries of the peripheral nervous system. however, the interaction of neurons with aerogels remains to be investigated. METHODOLOGY: In this work the attachment and growth of neurons on clear polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA coated with: poly-L-lysine, basement membrane extract (BME, and laminin1 was investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. After comparing the attachment and growth capability of neurons on these different coatings, laminin1 and BME were chosen for nerve cell attachment and growth on PCSA surfaces. The behavior of neurons on treated petri dish surfaces was used as the control and behavior of neurons on treated PCSA discs was compared against it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that: 1 untreated PCSA surfaces do not support attachment and growth of nerve cells, 2 a thin application of laminin1 layer onto the PCSA discs adhered well to the PCSA surface while also supporting growth and differentiation of neurons as evidenced by the number of processes extended and b3-tubulin expression, 3 three dimensional porous structure of PCSA remains intact after fixing protocols necessary for preservation of biological samples and 4 laminin1 coating proved to be the most effective method for attaching neurons to the desired regions on PCSA discs. This work provides the basis for potential use of PCSA as a biomaterial scaffold for neural regeneration.

  20. Epigenetic Changes in Response to Tai Chi Practice: A Pilot Investigation of DNA Methylation Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tai chi exercise has been shown to improve physiological and psychosocial functions, well-being, quality of life, and disease conditions. The biological mechanisms by which tai chi exerts its holistic effects remain unknown. We investigated whether tai chi practice results in positive epigenetic changes at the molecular level. Design. The DNA methylation profiles of sixty CpG-dinucleotide marks in female tai chi practitioners (N=237; 45–88 years old who have been practising tai chi for three or more years were compared with those of age-matched control females (N=263 who have never practised tai chi. Results. Six CpG marks originating from three different chromosomes reveal a significant difference (P<0.05 between the two cohorts. Four marks show losses while two marks show gains in DNA methylation with age in the controls. In the tai chi cohort all six marks demonstrate significant slowing (by 5–70% of the age-related methylation losses or gains observed in the controls, suggesting that tai chi practice may be associated with measurable beneficial epigenetic changes. Conclusions. The results implicate the potential use of DNA methylation as an epigenetic biomarker to better understand the biological mechanisms and the health and therapeutic efficacies of tai chi.

  1. A Pilot Study Investigating the Potential of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound to Treat Tumours Rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Jonathan M.; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail; Kennedy, James

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the possibility of rapid tumour destruction by a novel method of treating the periphery of a tumour and inducing ischemia by impeding the blood supply. Ex vivo experiments were initially carried out in bovine liver to determine the optimum conditions for focal depth, gantry transducer speed circle diameter and intensity of the ultrasound beam. In vivo experiments were then performed in PGV rat livers implanted with a HSN fibrosarcoma cell line. The tumours were treated by novel technique of creating an annular lesion around the perimeter of the tumour. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the lesion at post mortem was performed. In addition histological examination of the untreated tumour which was within the annular circle of treatment was examined. This showed evidence of karyolytic nuclei a week after treatment suggesting death by infarction within this area. There was also some evidence of endothelial damage in the blood vessels with fragmented nuclei visible in the lumen. The work presented here adds to our understanding of how high intensity focused ultrasound may be used to treat tumours in as faster and more efficient way. Further work in this area will facilitate the design of future therapeutic interventions in the medical and veterinary world.

  2. Investigating the Relationship Between Religiosity and Psychological Distress Among Surgical Inpatients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Peter; Behzadi, Abdollah

    2017-07-28

    Psychological distress may hinder recovery following surgery. Studies examining the relationship between psychological distress and religiosity in the acute post-operative setting are lacking. The present study investigated this relationship, evaluated protocol design, and explored coping mechanisms. Psychological distress of surgical inpatients was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Religiosity was assessed using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Correlations were obtained using Minitab software. Qualitative analysis identified coping mechanisms. Of eligible inpatients, 13/54 were recruited. No significant correlation was found between religiosity and psychological distress. The RSCL had a strong correlation with HADS (R = 0.82, p = 0.001). Assessment of distress was >2 min faster using RSCL compared to HADS. Relationships with pets, friends or family, and God emerged as the most common coping mechanism. Given study limitations, no conclusion was drawn regarding the relationship between religiosity and psychological distress. Weaknesses in study protocol were identified, and recommendations were outlined to facilitate the definitive study. This includes use of RSCL instead of HADS. Further study is warranted to explore how to strengthen relationships for inpatients.

  3. Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, H; Zaki, N; Abdelhai, R; Sabry, N; Silverman, H; El-Kamary, S S

    2015-05-19

    Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception.

  4. Alterations in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Resulting From Repeated Eccentric Exercise of a Single Muscle Group: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Barwood, Martin J; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISI Matsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p Eccentric exercise decreased ISI Matsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

  5. Teachers' perceptions of implementation of aided AAC to support expressive communication in South African special schools: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Kerstin M; Dada, Shakila

    2016-12-01

    Although the provision of assistive technology for students with disabilities has been mandated in South African education policy documents, limited data are available on the implementation of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in classrooms. This pilot investigation used a concurrent mixed-methods survey design to determine the extent to which aided AAC was implemented to foster students' expressive communication in preschool to Grade 3 classrooms in special schools from six urban school districts in the Gauteng (the smallest, most affluent and most densely populated of the nine South African provinces), and also obtained teachers' perceptions of this process. A total of 26 teachers who taught students who used aided AAC for expression participated. Although there is evidence of provision and also implementation of aided AAC in classrooms, various limitations still exist. Teachers identified an array of factors that influenced the implementation of aided AAC, including those related to themselves, the classroom context, the characteristics of aided AAC, students using AAC, and other stakeholders. These factors are discussed in the light of international literature as well as the local context, and are used as a basis to suggest a research agenda for AAC in the South African education system.

  6. Effluent treatment by multi-media filtration, microfiltration and ultrafiltration: results of a pilot investigation at WWTP Hoek van Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Poele, S; Menkveld, W; Boom, J; van Bragt, W

    2005-01-01

    Upgrading of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as a part of the Dutch governmental policy to close the water cycle has increasing interest now. The Water Board Hoogheemraadschap van Delfland together with the project team of Witteveen + Bos Consulting Engineers, Delft University of Technology and Rossmark water treatment investigated the reuse possibilities of WWTP effluent in the region of Delfland. Therefore pilot research was carried out at WWTP Hoek van Holland applying different filtration techniques: multi-media filtration, micro- and ultrafiltration. The results show stable process performances of the different filtration techniques when proper pre-treatment was applied. For microfiltration the filtration characteristics were strongly influenced by particles which were not retained in the multi-media filter. For ultrafiltration the filtration characteristics were strongly influenced by organic components WWTP effluent could not be used directly as process water or for agriculture purposes, due to high concentrations of COD and salts in the WWTP effluent and filtrates. However WWTP effluent or floc filtrate could be applied directly as water for the washing of sea-sand.

  7. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2002-09-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  8. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I; Friedman, David J; Field, John K; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E; Hicks, Pamela J; Hocking, Lynne J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W; Raji, Olaide Y; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Plenge, Robert M; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C; Schaumberg, Debra A; Chasman, Daniel I; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2) test statistics and a

  9. Investigation of pathogenic genes in peri-implantitis from implant clustering failure patients: a whole-exome sequencing pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Lee

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is a frequently occurring gum disease linked to multi-factorial traits with various environmental and genetic causalities and no known concrete pathogenesis. The varying severity of peri-implantitis among patients with relatively similar environments suggests a genetic aspect which needs to be investigated to understand and regulate the pathogenesis of the disease. Six unrelated individuals with multiple clusterization implant failure due to severe peri-implantitis were chosen for this study. These six individuals had relatively healthy lifestyles, with minimal environmental causalities affecting peri-implantitis. Research was undertaken to investigate pathogenic genes in peri-implantitis albeit with a small number of subjects and incomplete elimination of environmental causalities. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on collected saliva samples via self DNA collection kit. Common variants with minor allele frequencies (MAF > = 0.05 from all control datasets were eliminated and variants having high and moderate impact and loss of function were used for comparison. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to reveal functional groups associated with the genetic variants. 2,022 genes were left after filtering against dbSNP, the 1000 Genomes East Asian population, and healthy Korean randomized subsample data (GSK project. 175 (p-value <0.05 out of 927 gene sets were obtained via GSEA (DAVID. The top 10 was chosen (p-value <0.05 from cluster enrichment showing significance of cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and metal ion binding. Network analysis was applied to find relationships between functional clusters. Among the functional groups, ion metal binding was located in the center of all clusters, indicating dysfunction of regulation in metal ion concentration might affect cell morphology or cell adhesion, resulting in implant failure. This result may demonstrate the feasibility of and provide pilot data for a larger research

  10. Early pyloric stenosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Marie; Nguyen, Son; Emil, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Pyloric stenosis (PS) is rare in the first 2 weeks of life, often leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. We conducted a case control study to delineate the characteristics of patients with early PS (EPS). In addition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with EPS present with a smaller pylorus than older patients. A database of all patients presenting with PS to a children's hospital over a 5-year period (2002-2006) was obtained. Each patient admitted during the first 2 weeks of life (subject) was matched to a patient admitted after 4 weeks of age (control), with the same gender, electrolyte status, and treating surgeon. A single pediatric radiologist, blinded to patient age, reviewed all available ultrasounds retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and outcome data were compared. During the study period, 278 pyloromyotomies were performed for PS. Sixteen patients (5.8%) presented with EPS between 2 and 14 days of life. EPS patients had a higher prevalence of positive family history (31 vs. 0%, P = 0.043), and breast milk feeding (75 vs. 31%, P = 0.045). Sonographic measurements showed a pylorus that was of significantly less length (17.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 20.5 +/- 0.9 mm, P = 0.006) and muscle thickness (3.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.2 mm, P < 0.001) in patients with EPS. Hospital stay was significantly longer for EPS patients (4.3 +/- 0.9 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1 days, P = 0.19). Babies presenting with EPS are more likely to be breast fed and to have a positive family history. EPS is associated with a longer hospital stay. Use of sonographic diagnostic measurements specific to this age group may prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment, and improve outcomes.

  11. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  12. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  13. Rationale and design of the CANARI study: a case-control study investigating the association between prostate cancer and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy by linking SNIIRAM and pathology laboratories in a specific region in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scailteux, Lucie-Marie; Balusson, Frédéric; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Nowak, Emmanuel

    2017-08-30

    Benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) could be associated with low urinary symptoms requiring medical treatment: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) or ɑ-blockers. Two clinical trials investigating 5-ARI use in prostate cancer (PCa) primary prevention highlighted a potential safety signal with an increased risk of high grade PCa. Later observational studies failed to show similar results but have some limits. The present paper focuses on describing the protocol of the CANARI study and its feasibility, as regards the matching process of two pseudo-anonymous databases. The study concerned patients living in the Brittany region (France) between 2010 and 2013. We designed a case-control study nested within a cohort of men treated by medical drugs licensed for symptomatic BPH between 2010 and 2011. Cases were patients with incident PCa diagnosed between 2012 and 2013 identified through French Health database (SNIIRAM). Gleason score was searched through Brittany pathology laboratories. Controls were patients without PCa diagnosis. Local pathology laboratories database was constituted in Brittany, gathering Gleason scores. No unique identification number is available in France; linkage of SNIIRAM and Brittany pathology laboratories database was made by deterministic matching. We matched 859 cases to Gleason grading (119 had Gleason score ≥ 8 and 740 had Gleason < 8); around 22% of cases received 5-ARI and 78% α-blockers or phytotherapy. The CANARI study investigated in a population of men treated for BPH the risk of PCa with 5-ARI, according to Gleason grade thanks to SNIIRAM database enriched by local pathological results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. A Limited Flight Test Investigation of Pilot-Induced Oscillation Due to Elevator Rate Limiting (HAVE LIMITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    astick dI"Q veseor tighthi or rscinutos divam y Pilot must open conhol ioop by FIB =r IN PIO RAtW% Scale (Roffemrzce 9) a. It Yes, 016lY induced? pilo...Cor0POration 3 AfIlN: Lou Knotts P.O. Box 400 Bufalto NY 14225 110e Aoroai nc. 2 AT"N: David Michell Vixt VQ* C1uW,2117 2075 F&IOS VOW= Dwr•-¢ Nor

  15. Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Zielak, João César; Archetti, Felipe Belmonte; Scotton,Ricardo; Filietaz,Marcelo; Carmen Lucia Mueller STORRER; Giovanini,Allan Fernando; Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the inv...

  16. A mixed methods pilot study to investigate the impact of a hospital-specific iPhone application (iTreat) within a British junior doctor cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Karl Fb; Weeks, Lucy; Dunning, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We present a pilot study to investigate the impact of introducing a hospital-specific smartphone application into a cohort of British junior doctors. We created the iPhone application 'iTreat' that contained disease management and antibiotic dosing guidelines specific to our hospital, together with a postgraduate education department really simple syndication feed, a contact number phonebook and a favourites section. This intervention was trialled in a group of 39 foundation grade junior doctors, in a UK hospital, for a time period of 4 months. Mixed methods data capture, utilising survey and semi-structured interviews, was used to evaluate application usage patterns and potential barriers to endorsement of smartphone technology in the hospital setting. Sixty eight per cent of participants felt the application saved them time during clinical activities, with a decrease in the frequency of participants not referring to hospital clinical guidelines. The findings from this pilot study point towards the internal hospital environment as having a major impact upon smartphone usage. Participants viewed smartphone use as unprofessional in the ward-based setting, with a perceived negative attitude from other healthcare staff. An understanding of how healthcare staff choose to utilise smartphones in the clinical environment is crucial to enable the successful assimilation of smartphone technology into the hospital setting. This pilot study provides experience and parameters for future substantive studies being carried out by this group.

  17. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  18. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  19. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  20. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  1. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  2. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  3. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  4. A Note on Penalized Regression Spline Estimation in the Secondary Analysis of Case-Control Data

    KAUST Repository

    Gazioglu, Suzan

    2013-05-25

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease (D) and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated due to the case-control sampling, and to avoid the biased sampling that arises from the design, it is typical to use the control data only. In this paper, we develop penalized regression spline methodology that uses all the data, and improves precision of estimation compared to using only the controls. A simulation study and an empirical example are used to illustrate the methodology.

  5. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals ...

  6. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  7. The investigation of congenital infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in an endemic area of Chile: three protocols explored in a pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulantay, I; Corral, G; Guzman, M C; Aldunate, F; Guerra, W; Cruz, I; Araya, A; Tapia, V; Marquez, F; Muñoz, C; Apt, W

    2011-01-01

    Given the increasing travel of pregnant women from areas were Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic, the congenital transmission of the parasite has become a global public-health problem. In a recent pilot study, which ran in Chile from 2006 to 2010, three strategies for exploring and managing T. cruzi-infected mothers and their infected or uninfected neonates were investigated. Any protocols applied to the investigation of such mother-and-child pairs need to include the detection of infection in pregnant women, the detection of infection, if any, in the children born to the women, the appropriate treatment of the infected neonates, and the serological–parasitological follow-up of all of the neonates until their medical discharge. PMID:21396248

  8. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  9. Risk factors for gastroenteritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Wolfe, R; Leder, K

    2011-04-01

    This nested case-control study investigated the risk factors for gastroenteritis in a cohort using rainwater as their primary domestic water source. Consumption of beef [odds ratio (OR) 2·74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·56-4·80], handling of raw fresh chicken in the household (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·02-2·29) and animal contact (OR 1·83, 95% CI 1·20-2·83) were found to be significant risk factors (P>0·05). Significant protective effects were observed with raw salad prepared at home (OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·18-0·58), consumption of salami (OR 0·60, 95% CI 0·36-0·98), and shellfish (OR 0·31, 95% CI 0·14-0·67). This study provides novel insight into community-based endemic gastroenteritis showing that consumption of beef was associated with increased odds of illness and with a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 57·6%. Detecting such a high PAF for beef in a non-outbreak setting was unexpected.

  10. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole.

  11. Standing Up for Learning: A Pilot Investigation on the Neurocognitive Benefits of Stand-Biased School Desks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana K. Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing desks have proven to be effective and viable solutions to combat sedentary behavior among children during the school day in studies around the world. However, little is known regarding the potential of such interventions on cognitive outcomes in children over time. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the neurocognitive benefits, i.e., improvements in executive functioning and working memory, of stand-biased desks and explore any associated changes in frontal brain function. 34 freshman high school students were recruited for neurocognitive testing at two time points during the school year: (1 in the fall semester and (2 in the spring semester (after 27.57 (1.63 weeks of continued exposure. Executive function and working memory was evaluated using a computerized neurocognitive test battery, and brain activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex were obtained using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Continued utilization of the stand-biased desks was associated with significant improvements in executive function and working memory capabilities. Changes in corresponding brain activation patterns were also observed. These findings provide the first preliminary evidence on the neurocognitive benefits of standing desks, which to date have focused largely on energy expenditure. Findings obtained here can drive future research with larger samples and multiple schools, with comparison groups that may in turn implicate the importance of stand-biased desks, as simple environmental changes in classrooms, on enhancing children’s cognitive functioning that drive their cognitive development and impact educational outcomes.

  12. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-{1/4} inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12).

  13. Toxocara infection in psychiatric inpatients: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is poor knowledge about the epidemiology of toxocariasis in psychiatric patients. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Through a case-control seroprevalence study, 128 psychiatric inpatients and 276 control subjects were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies in Durango, Mexico. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of inpatients associated with toxocariasis were also investigated. RESULTS: Six of the 128 (4.7% psychiatric inpatients, and 3 (1.1% of the 276 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (P = 0.03. Stratification by age showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.02 higher in patients aged ≤50 years old (6/90∶6.7% than controls of the same age (2/163∶1.2%. While Toxocara seroprevalence was similar in patients and controls aged >50 years old. Stratification by gender showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.03 higher in female patients (2/37∶5.4% than in female controls (0/166∶0%. No statistically significant associations between Toxocara seropositivity and clinical characteristics were found. In contrast, Toxocara seropositivity was associated with consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of toxocariasis in psychiatric inpatients in Mexico. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with psychiatric diseases. The role of the consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail in the transmission of Toxocara deserve further investigation.

  14. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  15. Pilot investigation of two-stage biofiltration for removal of natural organic matter in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Lee, Wan-Ning; Coleman, Clark; Meyer, Melissa; Carter, Jason; Nowack, Kirk; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study employing two parallel trains of two-stage biofiltration, i.e., a sand/anthracite (SA) biofilter followed by a biologically-active granular activated carbon (GAC) contactor, was conducted to test the efficiency, feasibility and stability of biofiltration for removing natural organic matter (NOM) after coagulation in a drinking water treatment plant. Results showed the biofiltration process could effectively remove turbidity (24% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), >57% of UV254, and >44% of SUVA254), where the SA biofilters showed a strong capacity for turbidity removal, while the GAC contactors played the dominant role in NOM removal. The vertical profile of water quality in the GAC contactors indicated the middle-upper portion was the critical zone for the removal of NOM, where relatively higher adsorption and enhanced biological removal were afforded. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis of NOM showed that the GAC contactors effectively decreased the content of humic-like component, while protein-like component was refractory for the biofiltration process. Nutrients (NH4-N and PO4-P) supplementation applied upstream of one of the two-stage biofiltration trains (called engineered biofiltration) stimulated the growth of microorganisms, and showed a modest effect on promoting the biological removal of small non-aromatic compositions in NOM. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated influent UV254 was the most explanatory water quality parameter for GAC contactors' treatment performance, and a high load of UV254 would result in significantly reduced removals of UV254 and SUVA254. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust estimation for homoscedastic regression in the secondary analysis of case-control data

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2012-12-04

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease D and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, which is often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated owing to the case-control sampling, where the regression of Y on X is different from what it is in the population. Previous work has assumed a parametric distribution for Y given X and derived semiparametric efficient estimation and inference without any distributional assumptions about X. We take up the issue of estimation of a regression function when Y given X follows a homoscedastic regression model, but otherwise the distribution of Y is unspecified. The semiparametric efficient approaches can be used to construct semiparametric efficient estimates, but they suffer from a lack of robustness to the assumed model for Y given X. We take an entirely different approach. We show how to estimate the regression parameters consistently even if the assumed model for Y given X is incorrect, and thus the estimates are model robust. For this we make the assumption that the disease rate is known or well estimated. The assumption can be dropped when the disease is rare, which is typically so for most case-control studies, and the estimation algorithm simplifies. Simulations and empirical examples are used to illustrate the approach.

  17. Gaze aversion to stuttered speech: a pilot study investigating differential visual attention to stuttered and fluent speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Andrew L; Crawcour, Stephen C; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People who stutter are often acutely aware that their speech disruptions, halted communication, and aberrant struggle behaviours evoke reactions in communication partners. Considering that eye gaze behaviours have emotional, cognitive, and pragmatic overtones for communicative interactions and that previous studies have indicated increased physiological arousal in listeners in response to stuttering, it was hypothesized that stuttered speech incurs increased gaze aversion relative to fluent speech. The possible importance in uncovering these visible reactions to stuttering is that they may contribute to the social penalty associated with stuttering. To compare the eye gaze responses of college students while observing and listening to fluent and severely stuttered speech samples produced by the same adult male who stutters. Twelve normally fluent adult college students watched and listened to three 20-second audio-video clips of the face of an adult male stuttering and three 20-second clips of the same male producing fluent speech. Their pupillary movements were recorded with an eye-tracking device and mapped to specific regions of interest (that is, the eyes, the nose and the mouth of the speaker). Participants spent 39% more time fixating on the speaker's eyes while witnessing fluent speech compared with stuttered speech. In contrast, participants averted their direct eye gaze more often and spent 45% more time fixating on the speaker's nose when witnessing stuttered speech compared with fluent speech. These relative time differences occurred as a function of the number of fixations in each area of interest. Thus, participants averted their gaze from the eyes of the speaker more frequently during the stuttered stimuli than the fluent stimuli. This laboratory study provides pilot data suggesting that gaze aversion is a salient response to the breakdown in communication that occurs during stuttering. This response may occur as a result of emotional, cognitive, and

  18. Lupus Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Yan-Lin Zhu; Meng-Tao Li; Na Gao; Xin You; Qing-Jun Wu; Jin-Mei Su

    2015-01-01

    Background:Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of lupus myocarditis (LM) and to determine risk factors of LM in hospitalized Chinese patients with SLE.Methods:We conducted a retrospective case-control study.A total of 25 patients with LM from 2001 to 2012 were enrolled as the study group,and 1 O0 patients with SLE but without LM were randomly pooled as the control group.Univariable analysis was performed using Chi-square tests for categorical variables,and the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test was performed for continuous variables according to the normality.Results:LM presented as the initial manifestation of SLE in 7 patients (28%) and occurred mostly at earlier stages compared to the controls (20.88 ± 35.73 vs.44.08 ± 61.56 months,P =0.008).Twenty-one patients (84%) experienced episodes of symptomatic heart failure.Echocardiography showed that 23 patients (92%) had decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (<50%) and all patients had wall motion abnormalities.A high SLE Disease Activity Index was the independent risk factor in the development of LM (odds ratio =1.322,P < 0.001).With aggressive immunosuppressive therapies,most patients achieved satisfactory outcome.The in-hospital mortality was not significantly higher in the LM group than in the controls (4% vs.2%,P =0.491).Conclusions:LM could result in cardiac dysfunction and even sudden death.High SLE disease activity might potentially predict the occurrence of LM at the early stage of SLE.Characteristic echocardiographic findings could confirm the diagnosis of LM.Early aggressive immunosuppressive therapy could improve the cardiac outcome of LM.

  19. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  20. [A micro-education programme for breastfeeding women: a pilot study to investigate the educations' effect on injured and painful nipples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlepsch-Schreiner, H; Jeitziner, M-M; Jähnke, A; Bischofberger, I

    2012-10-01

    Injured and painful nipples are frequently occurring events in nursing women during the first days after giving birth. These problems often result in a premature termination of breastfeeding despite the mother's wish to nurse. Unsystematic instructions given to women regarding correct breastfeeding increase the risk that these complications will arise. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a systematic micro-education programme for nursing women by means of a pilot study or a quasi-experiment. The study included 100 mother and child pairs each in the experimental group and in the control group (N = 200). The pain experienced by all women during nursing was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the degree of injury to the nipples after nursing was measured with a tool specially developed for this purpose, the Nipple Wound Score (NWS). Women who received instructions by means of the micro-education programme exhibited significantly less injured nipples (on the third day: experimental group 55 % and control group 77 %, p < 0.00; on the fourth day: 56 % and 80 %, p < 0.00).No differences were observed between the study groups in regard to the occurrence of pain (on the fourth day p = 0.68). The variables of birthing method, parity, age or nationality of the women had no effect on the degree of injury of the nipples or on the intensity of pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that repeated micro-education for breastfeeding women should be implemented during the first days after giving birth.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate as a slow-release carbon source for in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers: From laboratory investigation to pilot-scale testing in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Lucia; Matturro, Bruna; Rossetti, Simona; Sagliaschi, Marco; Sucato, Salvatore; Alesi, Eduard; Bartsch, Ernst; Arjmand, Firoozeh; Papini, Marco Petrangeli

    2016-11-27

    A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Prior to field testing, PHB was experimentally verified as a suitable electron donor for biological reductive dechlorination processes at the investigated site by microcosm studies carried out on site aquifer material and measuring the quantitative transformation of detected CAHs to ethene. Owing to the complex geological characteristics of the aquifer, the use of a groundwater circulation well (GCW) was identified as a potential strategy to enable effective delivery and distribution of electron donors in less permeable layers and to mobilise contaminants. A 3-screened, 30-m-deep GCW coupled with an external treatment unit was installed at the site. The effect of PHB fermentation products on the in situ reductive dechlorination processes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results from the first 4 months of operation clearly demonstrated that the PHB fermentation products were effectively delivered to the aquifer and positively influenced the biological dechlorination activity. Indeed, an increased abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (up to 6.6 fold) and reduced CAH concentrations at the installed monitoring wells were observed.

  2. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza, E.; Morris, Joan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Design Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the sa

  3. Case-control studies for identifying novel teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werler, Martha M; Louik, Carol; Mitchell, Allen A

    2011-08-15

    The case-control study design offers an operationally efficient approach to measuring an association between an exposure and an outcome, especially when the outcome is rare, as is true for specific birth defects. For example, instead of following 50,000 pregnant women to have sufficient statistical power to identify a doubling in risk of oral clefts associated with a common exposure (e.g., cigarette smoking), 75 cases and 3 controls per case could be studied with equal statistical power. Examples of case sources include hospital or clinical series, or birth defect registries. For validity, control subjects should represent the population base of the cases, which can be difficult to identify for non-population-based case groups. Case-control studies typically rely on retrospective exposure measurement, which presents a major challenge and sets up the possibility of recall bias. Approaches are discussed to keep sources of bias to a minimum, including recall, non-differential information, and selection biases. Case-control studies can play an important role in this process for both hypothesis-generation and hypothesis-testing of potential teratogens. Examples of case-control studies and their contributions to the field are presented. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Prostate Cancer Risk in Relation to IGF-1 and its Genetic Determinants: A Case Control Study Within the Cancer Prostate Sweden Project (CAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    I and its Genetic Determinants: A Case Control Study within the Cancer Prostate Sweden Project (CAPS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rudolf J...Genetic Determinants: A Case Control Study within the Cancer Prostate Sweden Project (CAPS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  5. Benzodiazepine use and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and exposure to benzodiazepines started at least five years before, considering both the dose-response relation and prodromes (anxiety, depression, insomnia) possibly linked with treatment. Design Case-control study. Setting The Quebec health insurance program database (RAMQ). Participants 1796 people with a first diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and followed up for at least six years before were matched with 7184 ...

  6. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  7. A pilot to investigate the use of the icf in documenting levels of function and disability in people living with hiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was a pilot study aimed at investigating the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF checklist developed by the World Health Organisation in determining the function of individuals living with HIV in a township near Cape Town.Methods: Twelve participants attending the HIV clinic were examinedusing the ICF checklist.Findings: Areas of the ICF in which problems were noted included emotional functioning and energy and drive. Four participants complained of increased sensitivity to sound. Several respondents (three reported difficulties in relationships with community members, with less having problems in family and intimate relationships. Conclusion: The ICFwas found to be time consuming and many codes were not relevant. Some of the concepts were not well understood by the participants. However, despite limitations, the use of the ICF in a resource poor setting formed a useful framework within which to examine the functional problems of HIV infected individuals. In the absence of any equivalent unifying framework within which to classify health and health related states, the use of the ICF merits further investigation.

  8. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;

    2012-01-01

    implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  9. 首批女歼击机飞行员心理健康状况调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis on Psychological Health Status in the First Generation of Female Fighter Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李侠; 焦志刚; 王玉; 邢雷; 常丽; 郭华; 王颉; 詹皓

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨首批歼击机女飞行员心理健康状况,为制定相应的心理卫生保障措施作参考.方法 采用症状自评量表( SCL-90)对空军某飞行学院女歼击机飞行员16例进行心理健康测评,并与中国男飞行员、军校女学员、中国军人常模以及中国成年人常模比较.结果 女飞行员未检出阳性例数,男性检出阳性5例,占该院受调查男飞行员的31.3%,无因子分值≥3分者.男女飞行员之间恐怖因子分值没有差异(P>0.05);女飞行员SCL-90总分、阳性项目数、阳性项目平均分及各因子分值均显著低于中国男飞行员、军校女学员、中国军人常模或中国成年人常模(P<0.01).结论 歼击机女飞行学员心理健康水平总体良好,优于男飞行学员,为其高难飞行课目训练奠定了良好的心理基础.%Objective To investigate and analyze the psychological health status in the first generation of female fighter pilots for providing evidence on making corresponding psychological health protective measures. Methods The symptom checklist-90 ( SCL-90) was used to assess the psychological health status of 16 female fight pilots in a flight college of Air Force. Their results were compared with China male pilots, China female cadets of military college, China army norm and China adult norm. Results There were 5 positive cases in male pilots, which was 31.3% in male pilots investigated, while no positive cases in female pilots was found. Besides there was no difference in phobic anxiety factor between female pilots and male pilots(P >0. 05 ) . The general SCL-90 score, the number of positive items, the average score of positive items and the gene score of female pilots were much lower than those of China male pilots, China female pilot cadets, China army norm and China adult norm(P <0. 01). Conclusion The psychological health status in the first generation of female fighter pilots is better than that of male pilots,which is helpful

  10. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  11. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a five-element model of pilot...... implementation, and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can...

  12. Case-control study on analgesics and nephropathy (SAN: protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Woude Fokko

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between intake of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics and the occurrence of chronic renal failure is still controversially discussed. A new epidemiologic study was planned and conducted in Germany and Austria. Methods/design The objective of the international, multicenter case-control study was to evaluate the association between end-stage renal disease (ESRD and use of non-phenacetin-containing analgesics with particular emphasis on combined formulations. A targeted sample of 1000 new (incident dialysis patients, aged less than 50 years, was planned to recruit between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2004. The age limit was chosen to avoid contamination of the study population with phenacetin-containing analgesics to the extent possible. Four control subjects per ESRD case, matched by age, sex, and region were selected from the population living in the region the case came from. Lifetime exposure to analgesics and potential renal risk factors were recorded in a single face-to-face interview. A set of aids was introduced to reinforce the memory of study participants. A standardized, pre-tested interview questionnaire (participants, a medical documentation sheet (physicians in dialysis centres, a logbook for all activities (dialysis centres were used to collect the necessary data. Quality management consisted of the standardized procedures, (re- training and supervision of interviewers, regular checks of all incoming data for completeness and plausibility. The study is scientifically independent and governed by a international Scientific Advisory Committee that bridged the gap between the sponsoring companies and the investigators. Also other advisory groups assisted the managing committee of the study. All relevant German and Austrian nephrological associations supported the study, and the study design was carefully reviewed and approved by the Kidney Foundation of Germany. Discussion The study is expected to

  13. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Investigating the Impact of a Workplace Resilience Program During a Time of Significant Organizational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Shane; Meir, Rudi; Crowley-McHattan, Zac; McEwen, Kathryn; Pastoors, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a short-term resilience intervention as measured by the Resilience at Work (RAW) scale. A 5-week resilience program was implemented with 28 volunteers and assessed by the 20-item RAW scale. The scale was administered electronically and participants were match paired into either a treatment or control group. Statistical analysis was conducted using a 2 × 2 group (Treatment, control) × time (pre, post) analysis of variance with repeated measures. Postintervention time point RAW total score was significantly greater in the treatment group (P < 0.01) and statistical significance was also achieved for four of the seven subscales. Employee resilience can be improved via specific educational and skills training requiring a total time commitment of just 5 hours, making this intervention feasible for most working environments.

  14. Pilot project to investigate over-wintering of free-living gastrointestinal nematode larvae of sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Laura C; Menzies, Paula I; VanLeeuwen, John; Shakya, Krishna P; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Avula, Jacob; Jansen, Jocelyn T; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the overwintering survival and infectivity of free-living gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) stages on pasture. The presence of GIN larvae was assessed on 3 sheep farms in Ontario with a reported history of clinical haemonchosis, by collecting monthly pasture samples over the winter months of 2009/2010. The infectivity of GIN larvae on spring pastures was evaluated using 16 tracer lambs. Air and soil temperature and moisture were recorded hourly. Free-living stages of Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. were isolated from herbage samples. Gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from all tracer lambs on all farms; Teladorsagia sp. was the predominant species. Very low levels of Haemonchus contortus were recovered from 1 animal on 1 farm. The results suggest that Haemonchus larvae do not survive well on pasture, while Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. are able to overwinter on pasture in Ontario and are still infective for sheep in the spring.

  15. A semiparametric efficient estimator in case-control studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-01-01

    We construct a semiparametric estimator in case-control studies where the gene and the environment are assumed to be independent. A discrete or continuous parametric distribution of the genes is assumed in the model. A discrete distribution of the genes can be used to model the mutation or presence of certain group of genes. A continuous distribution allows the distribution of the gene effects to be in a finite-dimensional parametric family and can hence be used to model the gene expression levels. We leave the distribution of the environment totally unspecified. The estimator is derived through calculating the efficiency score function in a hypothetical setting where a close approximation to the samples is random. The resulting estimator is proved to be efficient in the hypothetical situation. The efficiency of the estimator is further demonstrated to hold in the case-control setting as well.

  16. Selection of controls in case-control studies. I. Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacholder, S; McLaughlin, J K; Silverman, D T; Mandel, J S

    1992-05-01

    A synthesis of classical and recent thinking on the issues involved in selecting controls for case-control studies is presented in this and two companion papers (S. Wacholder et al. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1029-50). In this paper, a theoretical framework for selecting controls in case-control studies is developed. Three principles of comparability are described: 1) study base, that all comparisons be made within the study base; 2) deconfounding, that comparisons of the effects of the levels of exposure on disease risk not be distorted by the effects of other factors; and 3) comparable accuracy, that any errors in measurement of exposure be nondifferential between cases and controls. These principles, if adhered to in a study, can reduce selection, confounding, and information bias, respectively. The principles, however, are constrained by an additional efficiency principle regarding resources and time. Most problems and controversies in control selection reflect trade-offs among these four principles.

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S.M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, im...

  18. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  19. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. METHODS: Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. RESULTS: Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while ca...

  20. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  1. Motivational Engineering for Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Frederick I.; And Others

    The study was an investigation of student pilot motivation for, and toward, the Air Training Command's undergraduate pilot training (UPT) program. The motivation hygiene approach was used to identify the motivational factors operating in the UPT program systematically. This approach has been used extensively in industry and with success in a…

  2. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: william.bailey@mcht.nhs.uk; Marshall, Gill [Chair of Faculty Academic Standards International Projects Leader, Faculty of Health and Social Care, St. Martin' s College, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Coals, Jacqui [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation.

  3. Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogebakan, Z.; Gogebakan, Y.; Selcuk, N.; Seliuk, E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15

    This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49 wt%; hazelnut shell, 42 wt%; and cotton residue, 41 wt%) in 0.3 MWt Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on all air-cooled probe at a temperature of 500{degree}C. Samples were analyzed by SEM/EDX and XRD methods. The results reveal that co-firing lignite with olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue show low deposition rates. High concentrations of silicon, calcium, sulfur, iron, and aluminum were found in deposit samples. No chlorine was detected in deposits. Calcium sulfate and potassium sulfate were detected as major and minor components of the deposits, respectively. High sulfur and alumina-silicate content of lignite resulted in formation of alkali sulfates instead of alkali chlorides. Therefore, fuel blends under consideration can be denoted to have low-fouling propensity.

  4. Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogebakan, Zuhal; Gogebakan, Yusuf; Selçuk, Nevin; Selçuk, Ekrem

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49 wt%; hazelnut shell, 42 wt%; and cotton residue, 41 wt%) in 0.3 MW(t) Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on an air-cooled probe at a temperature of 500 degrees C. Samples were analyzed by SEM/EDX and XRD methods. The results reveal that co-firing lignite with olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue show low deposition rates. High concentrations of silicon, calcium, sulfur, iron, and aluminum were found in deposit samples. No chlorine was detected in deposits. Calcium sulfate and potassium sulfate were detected as major and minor components of the deposits, respectively. High sulfur and alumina-silicate content of lignite resulted in formation of alkali sulfates instead of alkali chlorides. Therefore, fuel blends under consideration can be denoted to have low-fouling propensity.

  5. Reading impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A pilot study to investigate similarities and differences with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrea, Guja; Pecini, Chiara; Gasperini, Filippo; Brisca, Giacomo; Scutifero, Marianna; Bruno, Claudio; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Cioni, Giovanni; Politano, Luisa; Chilosi, Anna Maria; Battini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Below-average reading performances have been reported in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but literacy problems in these subjects have yet to be characterized. In this study, the presence and characteristics of literacy deficits in boys with DMD were investigated through a comparison with typically developing children and with children affected by developmental dyslexia, with the aim of clarifying whether DMD and developmental dyslexia have overlapping profiles of literacy deficits and whether these deficits are associated, as in children with dyslexia, with impairments in phonological processing and rapid lexical access. The results confirmed the high incidence of literacy problems in boys with DMD and revealed a profile less severe than, but qualitatively similar to, that of Italian children with developmental dyslexia. Both groups showed specific difficulties in reading and writing words and a reduced rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed. This is the first time that a RAN speed deficit has been documented in DMD. Moreover, the boys with DMD and the subgroup of dyslexic children with a previous language delay showed additional deficits in phonological processing. The impairments highlighted in this study could explain the reading difficulties observed in boys with DMD and suggest that there is a need for targeted preschool interventions.

  6. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  7. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  8. A pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness of reflexology for managing pregnancy low back and/or pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Ciara; Sinclair, Marlene; Cullough, Julie Mc; Liddle, Dianne; Hughes, Ciara

    2016-05-01

    Many pregnant women with low back and/or pelvic pain (LBPP) use pain medications to manage this pain, much of which is self-prescribed and potentially harmful. Therefore, there is a need to find effective nonpharmacological treatments for the condition. Reflexology has previously been shown to help nonspecific low back pain. Therefore; a pilot RCT was conducted investigating reflexology in the management of pregnancy-LBPP. 90 primiparous women were randomised to either usual care, a reflexology or footbath intervention. Primary outcome measures were; the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). 64 women completed the RCT; retention rates for the reflexology group were 80%, usual care group 83.33% and footbath group 50%. The reflexology group demonstrated a Clinically Important Change (CIC) in pain frequency (1.64 cm). Results indicate it is feasible to conduct an RCT in this area, although a footbath is an unsuitable sham treatment. Reflexology may help manage pregnancy-LBPP; however a fully powered trial is needed to confirm this.

  9. Pilot study investigating the utility of a specialized online symptom management program for individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome as compared to an online meditation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroll MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Megan A Arroll, Elizabeth A Attree, Claire L Marshall, Christine P DanceyChronic Illness Research Team, School of Psychology, University of East London, London, UKBackground: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is a long-term, debilitating condition that impacts numerous areas of individuals' lives. The two predominant treatment options for ME/CFS are cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise therapy; however, many people have found these techniques unacceptable or even damaging. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the utility of a specialized online symptom management program for ME/CFS in comparison to an online meditation program in an effort to ascertain whether this tool could be a further option for those with ME/CFS.Methods: This experimental design consisted of two interventions: a specialized online symptoms management program (N=19 and a control intervention based on an online meditation website (N=9. A battery of questionnaires, including measures of multidimensional fatigue, illness-specific symptoms, perceived control, and mindful awareness, were completed before the participants commenced use of the programs and following 8 weeks' use.Results: Significant differences were found in the areas of chance and powerful others' locus of control, and sleeping difficulties, but not in ME/CFS symptomatology overall.Conclusion: The specialized online program described in this study warrants further investigation, as it appears to influence perceived control and key ME/CFS symptoms over time.Keywords: ME/CFS, perceived control, sleep, outcomes, online intervention

  10. A pilot study about the burn out investigation of PICU medical and nursing personnel for a pediatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Pousderki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decades, physicians' and nurses' burnout have been constituted a subject of many studies. Stress can be considerable in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs and Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs, as the relationships between physicians/nursing personnel and the relatives can develop reacts of discomfort and depression to the professionals. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the existence or not of burnout in PICUs and NICUs in a pediatric hospital of Athens and the correlation of burnout with demographic and other social factors. Method and material: The study was conducted in a pediatric hospital of Athens. There were distributed 64 questionnaires to physicians and nursing staff and have been returned filled 48 (response rate, rr= 75%. The questionnaire that has been used was the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI, Maslach and Jackson 1984 and the statistical analysis has concluded not parametric tests using SPSS. Results: The professional burnout has been found in moderate levels as it seems by the means of the 3 dimensions of MBI. The mean scores of the emotional exhaustion were 22.02, the personal achievements 32.44 and the depersonalization 9.02. Significant statistical differences has been found between dimensions of MBI and sex (p=0,034, age (p=0,001, educational level (p=0,045, work department (p=0,004, work position (p=0,015, and years in the employment (p=0,025, at the hospital (p=0,008, in the department (p=0,018. Conclusion: As well as the professional burnout of physicians and nursing personnel working in PICU and NICU has been found between moderate to high levels, the managers of the hospitals should take it in account contributing in the improvement of personnel's quality of life in these particular departments.

  11. A pilot study investigating two dose reduction techniques for AP lumbar spine radiography using direct dosimetry and Projection VR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare radiation dose measurements generated using a virtual radiography simulation with experimental dosimeter measurements for two radiation dose reduction techniques in digital radiography. Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) measurements were generated for an antero-posterior lumbar spine radiograph experimentally using NanoDOT™, single point dosimeters, for two radiographic systems (systems 1 and 2) and using Projection VR™, a virtual radiography simulation (system 3). Two dose reduction methods were tested, application of the 15% kVp rule, or simplified 10 kVp rule, and the exposure maintenance formula. The 15% or 10 kVp rules use a specified increase in kVp and halving of the mAs to reduce patient ESD. The exposure maintenance formula uses the increase in source-to-object distance to reduce ESD. Increasing kVp from 75 to 96 kVp, with the concomitant decrease in mAs, resulted in percent ESD reduction of 59.5% (4.02-1.63 mGy), 60.8% (3.55-1.39 mGy), and 60.3% (6.65-2.64 mGy), for experimental systems 1 and 2, and virtual simulation (system 3), respectively. Increasing the SID (with the appropriate increase in mAs) from 100 to 140 cm reduced ESD by 22.3% 18.8%, and 23.5%, for experimental systems 1 and 2, and virtual simulation (system 3), respectively. Percent dose reduction measurements were similar between the experimental and virtual measurement systems investigated. For the dose reduction practices tested, Projection VR™ provides a realistic alternate of percent dose reduction to direct dosimetry. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a five-element model of pilot...

  13. Pilot Study: Unique Response of Bone Tissue During an Investigation of Radio-Adaptive Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Iwaniec, U.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We obtained bone tissue to evaluate the collateral effects of experiments designed to investigate molecular mechanisms of radio-adaptation in a mouse model. Radio-adaptation describes a process by which the prior exposure to low dose radiation can protect against the toxic effect of a subsequent high dose exposure. In the radio-adaptation experiments, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either a Sham or a priming Low Dose (5 cGy) of Cs-137 gamma rays before being exposed to either a Sham or High Dose (6 Gy) 24 hours later. ANALYSIS: Bone tissue were obtained from two experiments where mice were sacrificed at 3 days (n=3/group, 12 total) and at 14 days (n=6/group, 24 total) following high dose exposure. Tissues were analyzed to 1) evaluate a radio-adaptive response in bone tissue and 2) describe cellular and microstructural effects for two skeletal sites with different rates of bone turnover. One tibia and one lumbar vertebrae (LV2), collected at the 3-day time-point, were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and micro-CT to evaluate the cellular response and any evidence of microarchitectural impact. Likewise, tibia and LV2, collected at the 14-day time-point, were analyzed by micro-CT alone to evaluate resulting changes to bone structure and microarchitecture. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA to evaluate the effects of the priming low dose radiation, of the high dose radiation, and of any interaction between the priming low and high doses of radiation. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the cancellous bone (aka trabecular bone) compartments of the proximal tibial metaphysis and of LV2. RESULTS: Cellular Response @ 3 Days The priming Low Dose radiation decreased osteoblast-covered bone perimeter in the proximal tibia and the total cell density in the bone marrow in the LV2. High Dose radiation, regardless of prior exposure to priming dose, dramatically reduced total cell density in bone marrow of both the long bone and vertebra. However, in the proximal

  14. Investigating the impact of the properties of pilot points on calibration of groundwater models: case study of a karst catchment in Rote Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Dua K. S. Y.; Imteaz, Monzur Alam

    2017-09-01

    A robust configuration of pilot points in the parameterisation step of a model is crucial to accurately obtain a satisfactory model performance. However, the recommendations provided by the majority of recent researchers on pilot-point use are considered somewhat impractical. In this study, a practical approach is proposed for using pilot-point properties (i.e. number, distance and distribution method) in the calibration step of a groundwater model. For the first time, the relative distance-area ratio ( d/ A) and head-zonation-based (HZB) method are introduced, to assign pilot points into the model domain by incorporating a user-friendly zone ratio. This study provides some insights into the trade-off between maximising and restricting the number of pilot points, and offers a relative basis for selecting the pilot-point properties and distribution method in the development of a physically based groundwater model. The grid-based (GB) method is found to perform comparably better than the HZB method in terms of model performance and computational time. When using the GB method, this study recommends a distance-area ratio of 0.05, a distance-x-grid length ratio ( d/ X grid) of 0.10, and a distance-y-grid length ratio ( d/ Y grid) of 0.20.

  15. Sleep and Parkinson's disease: a review of case-control polysomnography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraully, Tasneem; Yong, Ming-Hui; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Tan, Eng-King

    2012-12-01

    The link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and certain primary sleep disorders has yet to be clarified. We performed a systematic review of case-control polysomnography studies to evaluate the relationship between PD and sleep disorders. A PubMed literature search and bibliography review yielded 15 case-control polysomnography studies in patients with PD. Studies differed by recruitment methods, duration of polysomnography monitoring, and sleep parameters measured. Subjective sleepiness was greater in patients than controls (50%-66% vs 2.9%-12%) despite lack of objective increase in daytime sleepiness by mean sleep latency testing. The 4 case-control polysomnography studies investigating rapid eye movement behavior disorder support a higher prevalence in PD (0%-47% vs 0%-1.8% in controls), although differences in diagnostic criteria hamper interpretation. The preponderance of evidence did not support an increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (27%-60% vs 13%-65%) or periodic leg movements of sleep in patients compared to controls. Adequately powered, prospective studies with uniform methodology and healthy controls are needed to further address the association and pathophysiological significance between PD and sleep problems.

  16. Valid statistical inference methods for a case-control study with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xuejun

    2016-05-19

    The main objective of this paper is to derive the valid sampling distribution of the observed counts in a case-control study with missing data under the assumption of missing at random by employing the conditional sampling method and the mechanism augmentation method. The proposed sampling distribution, called the case-control sampling distribution, can be used to calculate the standard errors of the maximum likelihood estimates of parameters via the Fisher information matrix and to generate independent samples for constructing small-sample bootstrap confidence intervals. Theoretical comparisons of the new case-control sampling distribution with two existing sampling distributions exhibit a large difference. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of the three different sampling distributions on statistical inferences. One finding is that the conclusion by the Wald test for testing independency under the two existing sampling distributions could be completely different (even contradictory) from the Wald test for testing the equality of the success probabilities in control/case groups under the proposed distribution. A real cervical cancer data set is used to illustrate the proposed statistical methods.

  17. An Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium in an Acute Care Pediatric Hospital: Lessons from Environmental Screening and a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Drews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study describes a vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE outbreak investigation and a case-control study to identify risk factors for VRE acquisition in a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C; Darwin, C M; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-07-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis.

  19. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    between medical student behaviours and performances and subsequent professional misconduct or disciplinary action with the same study design and found positive associations.4,7 Our results (positive or negative) is of importance in the general discussion of the transition and handing-over of medical......, James D. Risk factors at medical school for subsequent professional misconduct: multicenter retrospective case-control study. BMJ 2010;340:c2040. Evans DE, Alstead EM, Brown J. Applying your clinical skills to students and trainees in academic difficulty. Clin Teach 2010;7(4):230-235. Yao DC, Wright SM...

  20. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or pos

  1. Analog-Computer Investigation of Effects of Friction and Preload on the Dynamic Longitudinal Characteristics of a Pilot-Airplane Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Harold L.

    1961-01-01

    With an electric analog computer, an investigation has been made of the effects of control frictions and preloads on the transient longitudinal response of a fighter airplane during abrupt small attitude corrections. The simulation included the airplane dynamics, powered control system, feel system, and a simple linearized pseudopilot. Control frictions at the stick pivot and at the servo valve as well as preloads of the stick and valve were considered individually and in combinations. It is believed that the results which are presented in the form of time histories and vector diagrams present a more detailed illustration of the effects of stray forces and compensating forces in the longitudinal control system than has previously been available. Consistent with the results of previous studies, the present results show that any of these four friction and preload forces caused some deterioration of the response. However, even a small amount of valve friction caused an oscillatory pitching response during which the phasing of the valve friction was such that it caused energy to be fed into the pitching oscillation of the air-plane. Of the other friction and preload forces which were considered, it was found that stick preload was close to 180 deg. out of phase with valve friction and thus could compensate in large measure for valve friction as long as the cycling of the stick encompassed the trim point. Either stick friction or valve preload provided a smaller stabilizing effect primarily through a reduction in the amplitude of the resultant force vector acting on the control system. Some data were obtained on the effects of friction when the damping or inertia of the control system or the pilot lag was varied.

  2. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B.; Sumnik, Z.; Schober, E.; Waldhor, T.; Battelino, T.; Bratanic, N.; Kurti, K.; Lebl, J.; Limbert, C.; Madacsy, L.; Odink, R.J.H.; Paskova, M.; Soltesz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  3. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VII. Cruciferous and other vegetables (International)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosetti, C; Negri, E; Kolonel, L; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Mabuchi, K; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; La Vecchia, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between cruciferous and other vegetables and thyroid cancer risk we systematically reanalyzed the original data from 11 case-control studies conducted in the US, Asia, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2241 cases (1784 women, 457 men) and 3716 controls (2744

  4. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VII. Cruciferous and other vegetables (International)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosetti, C; Negri, E; Kolonel, L; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Mabuchi, K; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; La Vecchia, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between cruciferous and other vegetables and thyroid cancer risk we systematically reanalyzed the original data from 11 case-control studies conducted in the US, Asia, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2241 cases (1784 women, 457 men) and 3716 controls (2744 w

  5. A case-control study of determinants for the occurrence of gouty arthritis in heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueskes, B.A.; Willems, F.F.; Leen, A.C.; Ninaber, P.A.; Westra, R.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Janssens, H.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Roovers, E.A.; Janssen, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Gouty arthritis is a frequent and disabling complication in heart failure patients. This study aimed to investigate which factors are associated with the occurrence of gouty arthritis in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed in heart failure patients (February

  6. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate

  7. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia – a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, JS; Dohn, G

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  8. Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Mortimer; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA re-analysis of the data from 11 case-control studies was performed to investigate the association between head trauma and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To increase comparability of studies, exposures were limited to head trauma with loss of consciousness (hereafter referred to as 'head tra

  9. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  10. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  11. Association of acute toxic encephalopathy with litchi consumption in an outbreak in Muzaffarpur, India, 2014: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Aakash; Kumar, Anil; Jerry D Thomas; Laserson, Kayla F.; Bhushan, Gyan; Carter, Melissa D.; Chhabra, Mala; Mittal, Veena; Khare, Shashi; Sejvar, James J.; Dwivedi, Mayank; Isenberg, Samantha L.; Johnson, Rudolph; Pirkle, James L.; Sharer, Jon D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. Methods: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infec...

  12. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers.

  13. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers. PMID:28374757

  14. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuepersonalized recommendations regarding women's cancer risk evaluation.

  15. Pharmacodynamic effects of EV-077 in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease on aspirin or clopidogrel monotherapy: results of an in vitro pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollini, Fabiana; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Patel, Ronakkumar; Darlington, Andrew; Wilson, Ryan E; Franchi, Francesco; Muñiz-Lozano, Ana; Desai, Bhaloo; Bender, Norbert; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased propensity to generate thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and other eicosanoids which can contribute to their heightened platelet reactivity. EV-077 is a potent thromboxane receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor and thus represents an attractive therapy in patients with DM. However, the effects of EV-077 on pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles in patients with DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) while on antiplatelet therapy is poorly explored and represented the aim of this in vitro pilot investigation. Patients with DM and stable CAD (n = 10) on low-dose aspirin (81 mg/day) were enrolled and then switched to clopidogrel (75 mg/day) monotherapy for 7-10 days. PD assessments were conducted while on aspirin and on clopidogrel using light transmittance aggregometry following stimuli with U-46619 [TXA2 stable analogue (7 μM)], arachidonic acid [AA (1 mM)], collagen (3 μg/mL) and adenosine diphosphate [ADP (5 μM and 20 μM)] with and without in vitro EV-077. EV-077 completely inhibited U-46619-stimulated platelet aggregation (p = 0.005 for both aspirin and clopidogrel) and also showed a significant reduction of collagen-induced aggregation (aspirin p = 0.008; clopidogrel p = 0.005). EV-077 significantly reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation in clopidogrel (p = 0.009), but not aspirin (p = 0.667) treated patients. Ultimately, EV-077 significantly reduced ADP-mediated platelet aggregation in both aspirin (ADP 5 μM p = 0.012; ADP 20 μM p = 0.032) and clopidogrel (ADP 5 μM p = 0.007; ADP 20 μM p = 0.008) treated patients. In conclusion, in DM patients with CAD on aspirin or clopidogrel monotherapy, in vitro EV-077 exerts potent platelet inhibitory effects on multiple platelet signaling pathways. These data support that EV-077 has only additive platelet inhibiting effects on top of standard antiplatelet therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in ex vivo settings.

  16. A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the addition of direct access to physiotherapy to usual GP-led primary care for adults with musculoskeletal pain: the STEMS pilot trial protocol (ISRCTN23378642).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Annette; Tooth, Stephanie; Protheroe, Joanne; Salisbury, Chris; Ogollah, Reuben O; Jowett, Sue; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems are common, accounting for up to 30 % of general practitioner (GP) consultations and are a major cause of chronic disability worldwide. Demand for health care for musculoskeletal conditions is likely to continue to rise given the ageing population and the increasing impact of these common painful conditions. Physiotherapists are well equipped to deliver evidence-based management for these conditions. Direct access allows patients to access physiotherapy without seeing their GP or another referring practitioner first; however, for most patients in the UK, access to National Health Service physiotherapy is controlled through GP referral. The aim of this pilot, pragmatic, cluster trial is to assess the feasibility of a future large trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the additional offer of direct access to physiotherapy versus continuing with usual GP-led primary care alone for adults with common musculoskeletal problems. The pilot will focus on process outcomes to assess feasibility, although performance of the likely outcomes of a main trial will also be assessed. This is a two-arm parallel, cluster RCT where GP practices are the units of randomisation (the clusters), yet data are collected from individual patients with musculoskeletal problems (the participants). A direct access service will be set up in the participating physiotherapy service to provide the option of direct access to patients of the intervention arm practices. Inclusion criteria are broad to reflect the 'real-world' operation of an NHS physiotherapy direct access service for patients with musculoskeletal pain. Data collection will be through patient self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 2, 6 and 12 months and medical record review. No previous trials have been conducted into direct access to physiotherapy for patients with musculoskeletal problems. The strengths of the STEMS pilot trial are its size, the length of follow-up, and collection of

  17. A pilot study investigating whether focusing on body functionality can protect women from the potential negative effects of viewing thin-ideal media images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Veldhuis, J.; Martijn, C.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored whether focusing on body functionality (i.e., everything the body can do) can protect women from potential harmful effects of exposure to thin-ideal images. Seventy women (Mage=20.61) completed an assignment wherein they either described the functionality of their body or t

  18. A pilot study to investigate nitrate and nitrite kinetics in healthy volunteers with both normal and artificially increased gastric pH after sodium nitrate ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers EPH; Hegger C; Kortboyer JM; Meulenbelt J; NVIC

    1996-01-01

    Door de afdeling Medische Toxicologie van het Nationaal Vergiftigingen Informatie Centrum (NVIC) van het RIVM is een pilot-studie uitgevoerd naar de kinetiek van nitraat en nitriet na een orale dosis van 10 mg natriumnitraat per kg lichaamsgewicht aan acht gezonde vrijwilligers ( vier mannen en vier

  19. 军事飞行人员疲劳状况调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on fatigue status of military pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建生; 陈士伟; 白菁; 李娜; 马峥嵘; 沈嘉平; 季思菊; 应淑辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fatigue status of military pilots,as well as the characteristics and influence factors.Methods Questionnaire survey was conducted on 924 military pilots by using Fatigue Assessment Instrument (FAI) and Fatigue Scale (FS-14),x2 test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed on the data results with SPSS 17.0 software.Results The findings of fatigue status indicated 343 subjects (37.1%) with positive fatigue symptoms and 581 subjects (62.9%) with negative fatigue symptoms.FAI factor 1,factor 2,factor 3 and the total score,FS-14 factor 1 and the total score in fatigue-positive group were all higher than fatigue-negative group,and the differences were all statistically significant (P<0.01).The possibilities of developing fatigue symptoms for the subjects with different ages and flight time are statistically different (P<0.01,P<0.05); however,there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) on the possibility of developing fatigue symptoms between subjects with different aircraft types.Age and flight time were positively correlated with factor 1 (severity of fatigue) and total score in FAI,as well as factor 1 (physical fatigue factor),factor 2 (mental fatigue factor) and total score in FS-14.However,the aircraft type was neither associated with the individual factors and total score in FAI nor the individual factors and total score in FS-14.Conclusion It is common for military pilots to develop fatigue symptoms,characterized by obvious manifestations of severity,environmental specificity,consequences of fatigue and physical fatigue,and the possibilities of developing fatigue symptoms for different ages and flight time were different.%目的 了解军事飞行人员的疲劳状况及其特点与影响因素.方法 采用疲劳评定量表(FAI)和疲劳量表(FS-14)对924例军事飞行人员进行问卷调查,数据结果采用SPSS 17.0软件进行x2检验及Pearson相关分析.结果 问卷调查结

  20. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiao; Yang Fujiang; Guo Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transduc-ers. A high speed camera with CH*bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state grad-ually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  1. Combustion instability of pilot flame in a pilot bluff body stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion instability of pilot flame has been investigated in a model pilot bluff body stabilized combustor by running the pilot flame only. The primary objectives are to investigate the pilot flame dynamics and to provide bases for the study of the interaction mechanisms between the pilot flame and the main flame. Dynamic pressures are measured by dynamic pressure transducers. A high speed camera with CH∗ bandpass filter is used to capture the pilot flame dynamics. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is used to further analyze the high speed images. With the increase of the pilot fuel mass flow rate, the pilot flame changes from stable to unstable state gradually. The combustion instability frequency is 136 Hz when the pilot flame is unstable. Numerical simulation results show that the equivalence ratios in both the shear layer and the recirculation zone increase as the pilot fuel mass flow rate increases. The mechanism of the instability of the pilot flame can be attributed to the coupling between the second order acoustic mode and the unsteady heat release due to symmetric vortex shedding. These results illustrate that the pilot fuel mass flow rate has significant influences on the dynamic stability of the pilot flame.

  2. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  3. Metabolic Derangements in Lichen Planus - A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Panda, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome has been established in previous studies. Lichen Planus (LP) is also a chronic inflammatory disease morphologically related to psoriasis and few studies have shown association of metabolic derangements in LP. Aim To study the association of metabolic derangements in LP. Materials and Methods A prospective case control study was undertaken for a period of one year. Age and sex matched patients of LP and other non-inflammatory diseases were taken as cases and controls respectively. Data on height, weight, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels were collected for all the patients. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Results A total of 80 patients were recruited, 40 cases and 40 controls. The mean values for all the lipid and glucose parameters were high in cases as compared to controls with significant p-values. Conclusion In the present study metabolic derangements were seen in patients with LP. PMID:28050485

  4. Nigerian juvenile offenders: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlesi, A O

    1991-01-01

    A case-controlled study was carried out on all the 51 juvenile delinquents found in a point prevalence survey of a Nigerian Borstal Remand Centre. Mean age of the delinquents was 17-27 years. They were mostly from the low social class (70.6%) and the commonest reason for admission was for being beyond parental control (68.6%). Identified risk factors found for juvenile delinquency were death of biological mother, parental marital failure, growing up with relatives rather than parents, drug abuse and ordinal position in the family. Possible cultural explanations for some of these observations were proffered. The need to improve on the living conditions of these juveniles and their assessment procedure were highlighted. Finally, it is imperative that the obsolete Nigerian Children and Young Person's Law be updated.

  5. Risk factors for anal fistula: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Yang, G; Qiu, J; Song, Y; Wang, L; Gao, J; Wang, C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to identify potential risk factors for anal fistula in order to improve prevention and treatment of anal fistula. A retrospective case-control study for anal fistula was conducted at our unit. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify associated risk factors for anal fistula. The final model obtained by the stepwise forward logistic regression analysis method identified the following items as independent risk factors: body mass index of >25.0 kg/m(2), high daily salt intake, history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, dermatosis, anorectal surgery, history of smoking and alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of spicy/greasy food, very infrequent participation in sports and prolonged sitting on the toilet for defecation. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors and certain medical conditions increase an individual's risk of developing anal fistula.

  6. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  7. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Eriksson; Lena Nise; Anna Kats; Elin Luttropp; Anca Irinel Catrina; Johan Askling; Leif Jansson; Lars Alfredsson; Lars Klareskog; Karin Lundberg; Tülay Yucel-Lindberg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry ...

  8. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  9. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  10. Investigation on the Effect of Drill Geometry and Pilot Holes on Thrust Force and Burr Height When Drilling an Aluminium/PE Sandwich Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Rezende

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials are widely employed in the naval, aerospace and transportation industries owing to the combination of being lightweight and having a high modulus of elasticity, strength and stiffness. Drilling is an operation generally used in composite materials to assemble the final product. Damages such as the burr at the drill entrance and exit, geometric deviations and delamination are typically found in composites subjected to drilling. Drills with special geometries and pilot holes are alternatives used to improve hole quality as well as to increase tool life. The present study is focused on the drilling of a sandwich composite material (two external aluminum plates bound to a polyethylene core. In order to minimize thrust force and burr height, the influence of drill geometry, the pilot hole and the cutting parameters was assessed. Thrust force and burr height values were collected and used to perform an analysis of variance. The results indicated that the tool and the cutting speed were the parameters with more weight on the thrust force and for burr height they were the tool and the interaction between tool and feed. The results indicated that drilling with a pilot hole of Ø4 mm exhibited the best performance with regard to thrust force but facilitated plastic deformation, thus leading to the elevation of burr height, while the lowest burr height was obtained using the Brad and Spur drill geometry.

  11. Neurocysticercotic Calcifications and Hippocampal Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus de Oliveira Taveira

    Full Text Available The exact role of calcified neurocysticercotic lesions (CNLs in epilepsy is yet unknown and controversial. Although the relationship between CNLs, epilepsy and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS has already been addressed, to our knowledge, no study has actually provided strong statistical evidence, nor reported the ODDS ratio for these associations. Therefore, we designed this case-control study to assess the likelihood of having MTLE-HS versus other forms of epilepsy in the presence of CNLs.In this case-control study we included 119 consecutive patients with epilepsy and 106 disease controls (headache with previous CT scans. We subdivided cases into MTLE-HS and other epilepsies. We used brain CT scans to define presence or absence of CNLs. After exploratory analyses, we used logistic regression to analyze the association between CNLs, epilepsy subgroups and disease controls.CNLs were found in 31.09% of cases and in 11.32% of controls (p<0.001. The initial analysis comparing epilepsy versus controls revealed a significant association between CNLs and epilepsy (OR = 5.32; 95%CI = 2.43-11.54; p<0.001. However, when we compared MTLE-HS versus other epilepsies versus controls we confirmed that CNLs were associated with MTLE-HS (OR = 11.27, 95%CI = 4.73-26.85; p<0.001 but other epilepsies were not. We found no difference in the CNLs load and no difference in the location of the CNLs when we compared patients with MTLE-HS, other epilepsies and disease controls.The inclusion of controls allowed us to estimate the likelihood of having epilepsy in the presence of CNLs. We found that patients with CNLs were 11 times more likely to have MTLE-HS; however, the presence of CNLs did not change the odds of having other types of epilepsy. These findings raise the possibility of neurocysticercosis playing a role in the pathophysiology of MTLE-HS and need further confirmation in other series.

  12. A study of airline pilot morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Adrian J; Larsen, Peter D; Griffiths, Robin F; Aldington, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    It has long been believed that airline pilots are healthier than the general population. There are a number of reasons why this should be the case. However, there is very little evidence to support this belief as fact. This study investigates the health of the pilot population of an Oceanic based airline compared to the health of the general population. Pilots who conducted their medical certificate renewal at the airline's medical unit between 1 November 2009 and 31 October 2010 were included. A medical questionnaire was completed by each pilot at the time of their medical certificate renewal. Data from the questionnaire was entered into a database as well as the pilot's BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose level. The comparison population was the population who completed the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) between 2006-2007. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics, and health status data from the pilots was compared to the NZHS using a Chi-squared test. Included in the study were 595 pilots. With respect to most medical conditions, pilots had a lower prevalence when compared to the general population. Pilots had a higher prevalence of kidney disease (3.3% vs 0.6%) and melanoma skin cancer (19 per 1000 vs 0.4 per 1000). This study suggests that pilots in New Zealand are healthier than the general population with respect to most medical conditions. The two medical conditions that were identified as being overrepresented in pilots may be the result of the occupational environment.

  13. Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2017-07-09

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify the determinant factors of GDM. An unmatched case-control study was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the profile of study participants and binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of GDM. GDM was associated with history of abortion (AOR 5.05 [95% CI: 2.65-9.63]), family history of diabetes mellitus (AOR 8.63 [95% CI: 5.19-14.35]), chronic hypertension (AOR 4.63 [95% CI: 1.27-16.86]), dietary diversification score (AOR 2.96 [95% CI: 2-4.46]), regular physical exercise (AOR 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.04]), history of infertility (AOR 6.19 [95%CI: 1.86-20.16]), history of Caesarean section (AOR 3.24 [95% CI: 1.58-6.63]), previous history of GDM (AOR 8.21 [95% CI: 3.18-21.24]), previous history of intrauterine fetal death (AOR 3.96 [95% CI: 1.56-10.04]), literacy (AOR 0.6 [95% CI: 0.43-0.85]), body mass index (AOR 2.96 [95% CI: 2.08-4.2]), parity (AOR 1.78 [95% CI: 1.3-2.49]). Regular physical exercise should be used as the main tool in preventing GDM.

  14. Consanguinity and neonatal death: a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have found higher rates of abortion and still births following consanguinity (familial marriages, the question of whether consanguinity significantly increases the risk of neonatal death has inadequately been addressed.This study aims to evaluate familial marriage effects on neonatal death in rural areas in Iran.In this nested case-control study, 6900 newbornswho were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province (South-West of Iranwere followed till the end of neonatal period, and neonatal death was the outcome of interest. Subsequently 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort by using risk set sampling model. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR were estimated by usinga conditional logistic regression model.In the final model, prematurity (OR = 5.57, low birthweight (LBW (OR = 7.68, consanguinity (first cousins (OR = 5.23, C-section (OR = 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR = 6.95 and birthsinterval less than 24 months (OR = 4.65 showed significant statistical association with neonatal mortality (p < 0.05.According to our findings, after adjusting the effects of other significant risk factors, familial marriageto first cousins is considered asan important risk factor for neonatal death.

  15. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  16. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  17. Prognostic indicators in bacterial meningitis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Magalhães Acioly Mendizabal

    Full Text Available This was a case-control study to identify prognostic indicators of bacterial meningitis in a reference hospital in Pernambuco/Brazil. The data were collected from charts of 294 patients with bacterial meningitis between January 2000 and December 2004. Variables were grouped in biological, clinical, laboratory and etiologic agent/treatment. Variables selected in each step were grouped and adjusted for age. Two models were created: one containing clinical variables (clinical model and other containing laboratory variables (laboratory model. In the clinical model the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were dyspnea (p = 0.006, evidence of shock (p = 0.051, evidence of altered mental state (p = 0.000, absence of headache (p = 0.008, absence of vomiting (p = 0.052, and age >40 years old (p = 0.013. In the laboratory model, the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were positive blood cultures (p = 0.073 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.019. Identification of prognostic indicators soon after admission may allow early specific measures, like admission of patients with higher risk of death to Intensive Care Units.

  18. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; de Oliveira, Maeli Gomes; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94). CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. PMID:28099656

  19. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  20. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  1. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  2. Nutrient patterns and asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, G; Amirjannati, N; Rashidkhani, B; Sadeghi, M-R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2017-04-01

    The association of dietary nutrient patterns and sperm motility is not yet well elucidated, and previous studies have just focused on the isolated nutrients. This case-control study examined the association of nutrient patterns with asthenozoospermia among Iranian men. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Semen quality data were analysed according to the fifth edition of WHO guideline. Nutrient patterns were identified using principal component analysis based on semiquantitative 168-item food frequency questionnaires. All nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by the residual method. In principal component analysis, three dietary patterns emerged. The first pattern, which was high in vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, folate, total fibre, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly associated with lower risk of asthenozoospermia. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores had 51% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared with those in the lowest (p-trend: .004). Our findings suggest that adherence to the pattern comprising mainly of antioxidant nutrients may be inversely associated with asthenozoospermia.

  3. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Martins Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial, and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2 years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3 years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61% were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42, which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94. CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies.

  4. Nonparametric Bayes modeling for case control studies with many predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Herring, Amy H; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Olshan, Andrew F; Dunson, David B

    2016-03-01

    It is common in biomedical research to run case-control studies involving high-dimensional predictors, with the main goal being detection of the sparse subset of predictors having a significant association with disease. Usual analyses rely on independent screening, considering each predictor one at a time, or in some cases on logistic regression assuming no interactions. We propose a fundamentally different approach based on a nonparametric Bayesian low rank tensor factorization model for the retrospective likelihood. Our model allows a very flexible structure in characterizing the distribution of multivariate variables as unknown and without any linear assumptions as in logistic regression. Predictors are excluded only if they have no impact on disease risk, either directly or through interactions with other predictors. Hence, we obtain an omnibus approach for screening for important predictors. Computation relies on an efficient Gibbs sampler. The methods are shown to have high power and low false discovery rates in simulation studies, and we consider an application to an epidemiology study of birth defects.

  5. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

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    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospitals of Mashhad in 2014. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg accompanied with urinary protein excretion more than 300 mg per 24 hours. The cutoff point for the presence of anxiety was the score of ≥8; the score of 8-9 was mild anxiety and the score of 20 was very severe anxiety. Data collection tools included the form of demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory signs of preeclampsia, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16 and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and logistic regressions model. P Results: We found significant relationship between anxiety and preeclampsia (P

  6. Case-Control Study of Parturient Hemoglobinuria in Buffaloes

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    Altaf Mahmood*, Muhammad Athar Khan, Muhammad Younus1, Muhammad Arif Khan2, Hafiz Javed Iqbal3 and Abdul Ahad4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population based case control study of parturient hemoglobinuria was conducted in District Chakwal during April 2009 to January 2011 for quantification of epidemiological risk factors associated with condition. Data of 180 case–control pairs were analyzed for various hypothesized risk factors. Odds ratios calculated for ≥7 years age (5.56, ≥7 months pregnancy (15.80, ≥3 lactation number (6.39, ≥8 liters daily milk yield (1.07, ≤60 days postpartum period (6.23, previous history of hemoglobinuria (3.41 and ingestion of cruciferous plants (2.51 were significant (P˂0.05; whereas, those recorded for cottonseed cake (1, use of mineral mixture (0.81, use of drugs (1.07, use of oxytocin injection (1.32, vaccination (1, grazing (0.91 and previous history of diseases other than parturient hemoglobinuria (1.19 were insignificant (P>0.05. It was concluded that parturient hemoglobinuria is strongly associated with age, lactation number, stage of pregnancy, postpartum period and previous disease history of affected animals.

  7. Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study

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    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk factors of placenta previa differ around the world. This study evaluated risk factors of pregnancies complicated with placenta previa during a 5-year period in a referral center in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This case control study was conducted in Hamadan city (Hamadan Province of Iran from April 2013 to March 2017. The cases were women whose deliveries were complicated by placenta previa and the controls were those who delivered without placenta previa. We recruited 130 cases and 130 controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results: The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58 by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58 by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45 by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.  Conclusion: Our study suggests that high maternal age and prior operations of the uterine cavity are risk factors for placenta previa.

  8. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  9. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  10. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

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    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk.

  11. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

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    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  12. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  14. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

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    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  16. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  17. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

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    M Waked

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country.Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered.Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source.Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  18. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Yah PENG; Xiang-lan WANG; Li-ping WU; Mei WANG; Hu-ling YAN; Sheng-xiang XIAO

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders,but controversy persists.In this case-control study,a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an,China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex.Amongst the patients,539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis.Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method.Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation,and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation.The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%.Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years.Compared to patients with neutral skin,patients with mixed,oily,or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5,2.4,and 1.6,respectively).Moreover,Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1),steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7),seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2),and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1).In particular,ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate.Therefore,we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea,steroid-induced dermatitis,seborrheic dermatitis,and primary irritation dermatitis.The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate.The risk factors of Demodex infestation,age,and skin types were identified.Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

  19. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  20. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

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    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  1. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  2. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies.

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    De Souza, E; Morris, J K

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months. Data from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 12 European countries. Diagnoses with observed or (for terminations) predicted year of birth from 1980 to 2005, comprising live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks and terminations after prenatal diagnosis of the anomaly. Data include 374 cases of Patau syndrome, 929 of Edwards syndrome, 295 of Klinefelter syndrome, 28 of XYY syndrome and 5627 controls with Down syndrome. Odds ratio (OR) associated with a 10-year increase in paternal age for each anomaly was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results were adjusted to take account of the estimated association of paternal age with Down syndrome (1.11; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). The OR for Patau syndrome was 1.10 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.45); for Edwards syndrome, 1.15 (0.96 to 1.38); for Klinefelter syndrome, 1.35 (1.02 to 1.79); and for XYY syndrome, 1.99 (0.75 to 5.26). There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of Klinefelter syndrome with increasing paternal age. The larger positive associations of Klinefelter and XYY syndromes with paternal age compared with Patau and Edwards syndromes are consistent with the greater percentage of these sex chromosome anomalies being of paternal origin.

  3. Determinants of brushite stone formation: a case-control study.

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    Roswitha Siener

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. METHODS: Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. RESULTS: Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p = 0.035, calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p = 0.001 and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p = 0.005 as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA. Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect.

  4. Risk factors for episiotomy: a case-control study

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    Giordana Campos Braga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: obtaining information on the factors associated with episiotomy will be useful in sensitizing professionals to the need to minimize its incidence. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for episiotomy in pregnant women who had undergone vaginal delivery at a university maternity hospital in northeastern Brazil. Methods: a case-control study was conducted with pregnant women submitted to episiotomy (cases and pregnant women not submitted to episiotomy (controls between March 2009 and July 2010 at the Professor Fernando Figueira Integral Medicine Institute (IMIP in Recife, Brazil, in a ratio of 1 case to 2 controls. The study variables consisted of: whether episiotomy was performed, demographic, obstetric and fetal characteristics (primiparity, analgesia, instrumental delivery, fetal distress, etc., external factors (day and time of delivery, professional attending delivery and factors directly related to delivery. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the adjusted risk of episiotomy. Results: a total of 522 women (173 cases and 349 controls were included. It was found that deliveries with episiotomy were more likely to have been attended by staff physicians (OR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.01 - 3.48, to have required forceps (OR = 12.31; 95%CI: 4.9 - 30.1 and to have occurred in primiparas (OR = 4.24; 95%CI: 2.61 - 6.89. The likelihood of a nurse having attended the delivery with episiotomy was significantly lower (OR = 0.29; 95%CI: 0.16 - 0.55. Conclusion: episiotomy was found to be strongly associated with deliveries attended by staff physicians, with primiparity, and with instrumental delivery, and was less common in deliveries attended by nurses.

  5. Zinc status in febrile seizure: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehiomran, Mohammad Reza; Mahzari, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Febrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc) and febrile seizure. Zinc, as a major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. This case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years. This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case) and 50 febrile children without seizures (control), that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the north of Iran). Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001). The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to the control groups. Our findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children.

  6. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

    2011-12-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (≥5 mites/cm(2)) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

  8. Risk factors of Cancer Prostate A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nahed M; Tayel, Eiman S; El Abbady, Ahmed A; Khashab, Sahar S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the different risk factors related to this cancer particularly that there is no agreement about which factors affect the risk. A fishing expedition hospital based case control study was carried out. Cases and controls were identified from the Urology Department of Alexandria Main University Hospital, 2004. All cases diagnosed as having the tumor were included in the case series. For each case the second subject proved to have a negative pathological examination was included in the control group (50).Data collection was carried out blindly using a structured interview schedule. Analysis was applied using Chi-square test, Fisher exact and Student's t-test. Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results indicated that regular consumption of sausages was greater among cases than controls (X(2)= 10.19, p= 0.001 and an odds ratio of 5.92 (CI: 1.69-25.99). Also more cases claimed consuming regularly butter and natural ghee than controls (X(2)= 5.47, p= 0.019). The estimate risk was as high as 2.79 (Cl: 1.07-7.33). However regular consumption of vegetables was more encountered among controls than cases (X(2) = 5.005, p= 0.025 where the odds ratio was 0.19 (Cl: 0.02-1.01). Moreover the multiple regression analysis confirmed the results obtained from univariate analysis. The consistency of results of current work as regards sausages and butter with several other research works can support the identification of these specific possible risk factors. Also other research workers pointed out to the protective effect of vegetables. However further research is needed to address other risk factors.

  9. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  10. Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, S. R. C.; Schellenberg, J; Chimah, O; Ideh, R. C.; Ebruke, B. E.; Oluwalana, C.; MacKenzie, G; M. Jallow; Njie, M; Donkor, S; Dionisio, K. L.; Goldberg, G; Fornace, K.; C. Bottomley; Hill, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2–59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pn...

  11. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in io...

  12. A connection between neurovascular conflicts within the cerebellopontine angle and vestibular neuritis, a case controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Loader, B.; Linauer, I.; Korkesch, S.; Krammer-Effenberger, I.; Zielinski, V.; Schibany, N.; Kaider, A.; Vyskocil, E.; Tscholakoff, D.; Franz, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This retrospective, observer blinded case-control study aims to compare the prevalence of neurovascular conflicts (NVCs) of the vestibulocochlear nerve and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in patients presenting with clinical signs of acute vestibular neuritis with and without subsequent objective vestibular function loss (VFL). 58 acute cases of clinically suspected acute vestibular neuritis were investigated with same day cranial MRI at a tertiary referral centre and c...

  13. A pilot study to investigate the role of the 26S proteasome in radiotherapy resistance and loco-regional recurrence following breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadl, Dalia; Hodgkinson, Victoria C; Long, Ervine D; Scaife, Lucy; Drew, Philip J; Lind, Michael J; Cawkwell, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy is a currently accepted method for managing patients with early stage breast cancer. However, approximately 7% of patients may develop loco-regional tumour recurrence within 5 years. We previously reported that expression of the 26S proteasome may be associated with radio-resistance. Here we aimed to analyse the 26S proteasome in a pilot series of early breast cancers and correlate the findings with loco-regional recurrence. Fourteen patients with early breast cancer who developed loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of completing breast conserving therapy were selected according to strict criteria and compared with those from 14 patients who were disease-free at 10 years. Decreased expression of the 26S proteasome was significantly associated with radio-resistance, manifested as the development of a loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of breast conserving therapy (p = 0.018). This small pilot study provides further suggestion that the 26S proteasome may be associated with response to radiotherapy.

  14. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Lespérance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Boivin, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (Pcircadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  15. Opioid system genes in alcoholism: a case-control study in Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupic, B; Stefulj, J; Zapletal, E; Matosic, A; Bordukalo-Niksic, T; Cicin-Sain, L; Gabrilovac, J

    2013-10-01

    Due to their involvement in dependence pathways, opioid system genes represent strong candidates for association studies investigating alcoholism. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes for mu (OPRM1) and kappa (OPRK1) opioid receptors and precursors of their ligands - proopiomelanocortin (POMC), coding for beta-endorphin and prodynorphin (PDYN) coding for dynorphins, were analyzed in a case-control study that included 354 male alcohol-dependent and 357 male control subjects from Croatian population. Analysis of allele and genotype frequencies of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN revealed no differences between the tested groups. The same was true when alcohol-dependent persons were subdivided according to the Cloninger's criteria into type-1 and type-2 groups, known to differ in the extent of genetic control. Thus, the data obtained suggest no association of the selected polymorphisms of the genes OPRM1/POMC and OPRK1/PDYN with alcoholism in Croatian population.

  16. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    odds ratio for cardiovascular event between cases and controls was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.80 - 1.29). No significant effect was seen in any subgroup when stratifying by age, gender, renal function, allopurinol dose or the achieved urate level. Overall, the doses of allopurinol used......Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid...... is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. Objectives: We sought to investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. Methods: We identified all long-term users of allopurinol...

  17. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winta Yellow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day. Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR = 0.99, p < 0.0001. The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.

  18. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  19. Final Results from A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Manson, J. Russell; King, David; Decicco, Nicolas; Prince, Alyssa; di Mercurio, Alexis; Rios, Manual

    2017-01-01

    Wake Vortex Turbulence is the turbulence generated by an aircraft in flight. This turbulence is created by vortices at the tips of the wing that may decay slowly and persist for several minutes after creation. These vortices and turbulence are hazardous to other aircraft in the vicinity. The strength, formation and lifetime of the turbulence and vortices are effected by many things including the weather. Here we present the final results of the pilot project to investigation of low level wind fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and an analysis of historical data. The findings from the historical data and the data simulations were used as inputs for the computational fluid dynamics model (OpenFoam) to show that the vortices could be simulated using OpenFoam. Presented here are the updated results from a research grant, ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Stockton University and the FAA''.

  20. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  1. Diagonal Earlobe Crease as a Significant Marker for Coronary Artery Disease: A Case-control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rida; Kausar, Komal; Minto, Moeed H; Ilyas, Fariha; Assad, Salman; Shah, Saeed U

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between diagonal earlobe crease (DELC) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Limited data exists in South Asia and no prior studies have been performed in Pakistan to assess this relationship. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 participants from December 2015 to March 2016 at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan were enrolled. Consecutive non-probability sampling was used to recruit patients. Cases were enrolled from cardiac care unit (CCU) of the hospital with angiography-proven CAD. Controls were selected from surgical, medical and neurology units of the hospital if they had no previously established evidence or symptoms of CAD. Patients were evaluated in terms of age and any history of hypertension, diabetes and/or smoking. Cases and controls were examined separately by two investigators for the unilateral or bilateral presence of DELC of the lobular portion of either auricle. Patients with ear piercings were excluded from the study. The data was analyzed in statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) (IBM, Delaware, Chicago), and an online statistical software. Results: Out of the 200 patients, 126 (63%) were males and 74 (37%) were females. In the 100 cases, 76 had DELC and 24 had no crease whereas, among the 100 controls, 36 had DELC and 64 had no DELC (p statistically significant (p 0.05). Conclusion: There is a significant association between DELC and CAD. This is the first case-control study from South Asia disclosing this important correlation. Our study also reports a high frequency of DELC in patients suffering from hypertension and diabetes mellitus. No association between smoking and DELC was found.

  2. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower…

  3. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    Full Text Available Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03 worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025 increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05 decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  4. Incorporation of the time aspect into the liability-threshold model for case-control-family data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Luise; Holst, Klaus K.; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2017-01-01

    Familial aggregation and the role of genetic and environmental factors can be investigated through family studies analysed using the liability-threshold model. The liability-threshold model ignores the timing of events including the age of disease onset and right censoring, which can lead...... to estimates that are difficult to interpret and are potentially biased. We incorporate the time aspect into the liability-threshold model for case-control-family data following the same approach that has been applied in the twin setting. Thus, the data are considered as arising from a competing risks setting...... and inverse probability of censoring weights are used to adjust for right censoring. In the case-control-family setting, recognising the existence of competing events is highly relevant to the sampling of control probands. Because of the presence of multiple family members who may be censored at different...

  5. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Thai, Cao Quang; Cao, Quang Thai; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Nguyen, Van Minh Hoang; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tran, Vu Thieu Nga; Thao, Le Thi Phuong; Le, Thi Phuong Thao; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nguyen, Hoan Phu; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Tran, Thi Hong Chau; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Dinh, Xuan Sinh; Diep, To Song; To, Song Diep; Hang, Hoang Thi Thanh; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Truong, Hoang; Campbell, James; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Nguyen, Tran Chinh; Dung, Nguyen Van; Nguyen, Van Dung; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Ngo, Thi Hoa; Spratt, Brian G; Hien, Tran Tinh; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-08

    Streptococcus suis infection, an emerging zoonosis, is an increasing public health problem across South East Asia and the most common cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Little is known of the risk factors underlying the disease. A case-control study with appropriate hospital and matched community controls for each patient was conducted between May 2006 and June 2009. Potential risk factors were assessed using a standardized questionnaire and investigation of throat and rectal S. suis carriage in cases, controls and their pigs, using real-time PCR and culture of swab samples. We recruited 101 cases of S. suis meningitis, 303 hospital controls and 300 community controls. By multivariate analysis, risk factors identified for S. suis infection as compared to either control group included eating "high risk" dishes, including such dishes as undercooked pig blood and pig intestine (OR(1) = 2.22; 95%CI = [1.15-4.28] and OR(2) = 4.44; 95%CI = [2.15-9.15]), occupations related to pigs (OR(1) = 3.84; 95%CI = [1.32-11.11] and OR(2) = 5.52; 95%CI = [1.49-20.39]), and exposures to pigs or pork in the presence of skin injuries (OR(1) = 7.48; 95%CI = [1.97-28.44] and OR(2) = 15.96; 95%CI = [2.97-85.72]). S. suis specific DNA was detected in rectal and throat swabs of 6 patients and was cultured from 2 rectal samples, but was not detected in such samples of 1522 healthy individuals or patients without S. suis infection. This case control study, the largest prospective epidemiological assessment of this disease, has identified the most important risk factors associated with S. suis bacterial meningitis to be eating 'high risk' dishes popular in parts of Asia, occupational exposure to pigs and pig products, and preparation of pork in the presence of skin lesions. These risk factors can be addressed in public health campaigns aimed at preventing S. suis infection.

  6. Network-based regularization for matched case-control analysis of high-dimensional DNA methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hokeun; Wang, Shuang

    2013-05-30

    The matched case-control designs are commonly used to control for potential confounding factors in genetic epidemiology studies especially epigenetic studies with DNA methylation. Compared with unmatched case-control studies with high-dimensional genomic or epigenetic data, there have been few variable selection methods for matched sets. In an earlier paper, we proposed the penalized logistic regression model for the analysis of unmatched DNA methylation data using a network-based penalty. However, for popularly applied matched designs in epigenetic studies that compare DNA methylation between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues or between pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions, applying ordinary logistic regression ignoring matching is known to bring serious bias in estimation. In this paper, we developed a penalized conditional logistic model using the network-based penalty that encourages a grouping effect of (1) linked Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites within a gene or (2) linked genes within a genetic pathway for analysis of matched DNA methylation data. In our simulation studies, we demonstrated the superiority of using conditional logistic model over unconditional logistic model in high-dimensional variable selection problems for matched case-control data. We further investigated the benefits of utilizing biological group or graph information for matched case-control data. We applied the proposed method to a genome-wide DNA methylation study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) where we investigated the DNA methylation levels of tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from HCC patients by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 Beadchip. Several new CpG sites and genes known to be related to HCC were identified but were missed by the standard method in the original paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  8. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; Araújo, Gleide Santos de; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Oliveira, Maeli Gomes de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-12-22

    To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04-5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12-7.94). The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. Testar a associação entre diabetes e tuberculose. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle, pareado por idade e sexo. Foram incluídos 323 casos novos de tuberculose com resultados positivos à baciloscopia. Os controles foram 323 sintomáticos respiratórios com baciloscopia negativa, oriundos dos mesmos serviços de saúde dos casos: ambulatórios de três hospitais de referência e seis unidades básicas de saúde responsáveis pelas notificações dos casos novos de

  9. Hepatic Dysfunction in Asphyxiated Neonates: Prospective Case-Controlled Study

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    Mukesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE grading of the neonates. Method and Material This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control. All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT, aspartate transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct, and international normalized ratio (INR, were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups. Results In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0–3, 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4–5, and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6–7 birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant. Conclusion We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Mental Health Status of Fighter Pilots%战斗机飞行员心理健康现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇航; 周宇红; 陆洋; 郑真; 顾栩栩; 龚林

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析战斗机飞行员心理健康状况,寻求提高飞行员队伍整体心理健康水平的途径.方法 将100名现役战斗机飞行员设为实验组,137名大学一年级学生设为对照组,进行90项症状自评量表(Symptom Checklist 90,SCL-90)的测试.利用SPSS15.0统计软件对实验组和对照组数据进行统计处理,从感觉、情感、思维、意识、行为及生活习惯、人际关系、饮食睡眠等方面寻求异同,研究分析被试者的心理健康状况.结果 ①实验组人员心理健康状况总体良好,各因子分及总分均低于对照组(P<0.01),实验组的心理健康状况明显好于对照组.②回归分析显示,对实验组人员SCL-90测试总分影响最大的因子依次是抑郁、躯体化、强迫症状(回归系数分别为14.182,13.734,11.350),焦虑、精神病性、人际关系敏感等因子的影响也较大(回归系数分别为10.864,10.702,10.116).结论 战斗机飞行员总体心理健康状况较好,但部分人员躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、偏执、其他(睡眠及饮食等情况)等因子呈阳性,其中影响其心理健康状况的主要因素为抑郁、强迫症状和焦虑3个因子,其他因子与这3个因子呈高度相关.%Objective To analyze the mental health of fighter pilots and to seek the ways to further improve comprehensive mental health of pilots. Methods One hundred excellent fighter pilots as experimental group and 137 freshmen in a university as control were evaluated by Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Data were analysed by SPSS. The similarities and differences of mental health of the two groups were summarized in terms of feeling, sensation, thinking, consciousness, behavior and life habit, interpersonal relationship, diet and sleeping. Results ① The mental health of experimental group was good and the factor scores and total scores were significantly lower than control group (P<0. 01). The mental health of

  11. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  12. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  13. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

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    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  14. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Ortega, Sara; Del Olmo, Lourdes; Vidal, Xavier; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Conforti, Anita; Leone, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Paula; Figueiras, Adolfo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. Methods We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day). Results 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. Conclusions The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2. PMID:21625637

  15. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  16. [Case control trial on putative factors antagonising the successful project course of MD thesis projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, J; Schaper, K; Krummenauer, F

    2015-05-01

    Award of the degree MD has special relevance in Germany since the underlying research project can be started during the qualification for admission to doctoral training. This leads to a large number of thesis projects with a not always sufficiently pronounced enthusiasm and thus poor chances of success. Accordingly a case control study was undertaken in the Department of Human Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University to investigate reported drop-outs of thesis projects. In autumn 2012 all students in the clinical phases of human medicine education were surveyed using a self-conceived questionnaire on previously initiated or terminated thesis projects, "terminated" is defined as the unsuccessful ending of a project after working for at least 3 months. Individually reported thesis terminations were evaluated using defined items in a 4-stage Likert scale regarding thesis plan and project, subsequently, graduate students who successfully completed a project received the same questionnaire. The items possibly corresponding to process determinants were averaged to a total of 7 dimensions prior to the analysis; the resulting scores were normalised in value ranges 0.0 to 1.0 (1.0 = optimal project situation) whereby individual items could be included in several scores. By means of 5 items a primary endpoint from the faculty's perspective on "compliance with formal procedures" was aggregated; by means of a two-sided Wilcoxon test at the 5 % level students with unsuccessful and successful courses were compared along the corresponding scores. 181 of 276 students from 7 study semesters participated in the screening; details of 17 terminations and 23 currently successful courses could be evaluated in the case control study. For significant differences (p thesis projects to the responsible committees. A weakness is the low number of evaluable self-reported drop-outs as well as the overall moderate response rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

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    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  18. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  19. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  20. Poorer prognosis with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a single-center case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi-Fukuda, Naoko; Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nakamura, Kensuke; Iwagami, Masao; Wada, Tomoki; Jona, Masahiro; Hisasue, Takashi; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    In ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP), automated platelet counts are lower than actual counts because of EDTA-induced aggregation. Factors contributing to the incidence of EDTA-PTCP are unknown, and no study has assessed the prognosis of EDTA-PTCP patients. This retrospective study assessed characteristics in EDTA-PTCP patients and matched controls to determine differences in prognosis. A retrospective case-control study was designed. From the University of Tokyo Hospital database, we identified patients diagnosed with EDTA-PTCP between 2009 and 2012, and performed 1:2 case:control matching for age and sex. A control group of sex- and age-matched patients was selected at random from the same database. We investigated differences in the frequency of complications, medication history, and blood transfusion history between the groups at the time of blood collection. Prognosis was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, autoimmune disease, liver disease, and malignant tumor. We identified 104 EDTA-PTCP patients and 208 matched controls. The median age was 69.0 years (interquartile range: 54-76), with men comprising 51%. EDTA-PTCP patients had a higher frequency of malignant tumor and a lower frequency of hypertension and diabetes than controls. After adjustment for background factors, prognosis of EDTA-PTCP patients was significantly poorer than controls (hazard ratio, 11.8; 95% confidence intervals, 2.62-53.54). In conclusion, EDTA-PTCP patients had higher mortality, and EDTA-PTCP may need to be recognized as an indicator of worse prognosis.

  1. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control stu

  2. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control stu

  3. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-02-01

    Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots. Accident rates, medical parameters, autopsy findings, and toxicological findings from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) general aviation (GA) accident database were analyzed to assess potential risk factors with accident outcomes. During 2003-2012, there were 114 (113 men, 1 woman) general aviation fatal accidents involving pilots ages 70 to 92 yr. A combination of 3 or more drugs were found in 13 (13%) of deceased pilots. The most frequent drugs were first generation antihistamines and antidepressants represented the next highest proportion of possible performance-affecting medications. This study indicates that there are critical medical factors that may contribute to fatal accidents among elderly pilots. Polypharmacy use should be taken into consideration, especially during periodic health examinations and fatal aviation investigations involving elderly pilots.Vuorio A, Asmayawati S, Budowle B, Griffiths R, Strandberg T, Kuoppala J, Sajantila A. General aviation pilots over 70 years old. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):142-145.

  4. UV/TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection of carbon-bacteria complexes in activated carbon-filtered water: Laboratory and pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yaqian; Liu, Cuiyun; Liu, Ranbin

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of carbon-bacteria complexes in activated carbon filtered water has posed a public health problem regarding the biological safety of drinking water. The application of combined process of ultraviolet radiation and nanostructure titanium dioxide (UV/TiO2) photocatalysis for the disinfection of carbon-bacteria complexes were assessed in this study. Results showed that a 1.07 Lg disinfection rate can be achieved using a UV dose of 20 mJ cm(-2), while the optimal UV intensity was 0.01 mW cm(-2). Particle sizes ≥8 μm decreased the disinfection efficiency, whereas variation in particle number in activated carbon-filtered water did not significantly affect the disinfection efficiency. Photoreactivation ratio was reduced from 12.07% to 1.69% when the UV dose was increased from 5 mJ cm(-2) to 20 mJ cm(-2). Laboratory and on-site pilot-scale experiments have demonstrated that UV/TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection technology is capable of controlling the risk posed by carbon-bacteria complexes and securing drinking water safety.

  5. A pilot study investigating whether focusing on body functionality can protect women from the potential negative effects of viewing thin-ideal media images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Martijn, Carolien

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study explored whether focusing on body functionality (i.e., everything the body can do) can protect women from potential harmful effects of exposure to thin-ideal images. Seventy women (Mage=20.61) completed an assignment wherein they either described the functionality of their body or the routes that they often travel (control). Afterward, participants were exposed to a series of thin-ideal images. Appearance and functionality satisfaction were measured before the assignment; appearance and functionality satisfaction, self-objectification, and body appreciation were measured after exposure. Results showed that participants who focused on body functionality experienced greater functionality satisfaction and body appreciation compared to control participants. Therefore, focusing on body functionality could be a beneficial individual-level technique that women can use to protect and promote a positive body image in the face of thin-ideal images. Research including a condition wherein participants are exposed to (product-only) control images is necessary to draw firmer conclusions.

  6. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  7. Findings from a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of a snoezelen room in residential care: should we be engaging with our residents more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katrina; Bird, Michael; Macpherson, Sarah; McDonough, Vikki; Davis, Terri

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing literature on multisensory therapy or Snoezelen, with some evidence suggesting it promotes positive mood and reduces maladaptive behavior in people with dementia. We undertook a pilot evaluation of a Snoezelen room in residential care and compared effects with a condition in which staff took residents out to a garden. This study was therefore a comparison between a Snoezelen room containing prescriptive, expensive equipment and a more everyday existing location that, inevitably, also contained several sensory stimuli. The study was difficult to implement, with low numbers because some staff failed to attend sessions, and the frequent although rarely reported difficulty of introducing psychosocial interventions and doing research in residential care is one of the main stories of this study. No staff member used the room outside of the study, and we found no significant difference between Snoezelen and garden conditions. Results, although highly equivocal because of low numbers, raised the issue of the implementation of standard therapies in dementia care outpacing the evidence, possibly at the expense of less elaborate practices. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of a sewage-integrated technology combining an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and an electrochemical reactor in a pilot-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Xudong; Zeng, Ciyuan; Li, Liang

    2011-09-15

    A sewage-integrated treatment system (SITS) for the treatment of municipal wastewater, consisting of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor to remove soluble organic matter and an electrochemical (EC) reactor to oxidize the NH(3)-N, was evaluated. The performance of the EGSB reactor was monitored for 12 months in a pilot-scale plant. Iron shavings were added to the EGSB reactor on the sixtieth day to improve the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total phosphorus (TP). After the iron shavings were added, the effluent COD, SS and TP decreased from 104 to 46 mg L(-1), 21 to 8.6 mg L(-1) and 3.62 to 1.36 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, in the EC reactor, which was equipped with IrO(2)/Ti anodes, the NH(3)-N and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations decreased from 25 to 12 mg L(-1) and 29 to 15 mg L(-1), respectively. The NH(3)-N was directly oxidized to N(2), resulting in no secondary pollution. The results demonstrated the possibility of removing carbon and nutrients in a SITS with high efficiency. The system runs efficiently and with a flexible operation, making it suitable for low-strength wastewater. The results and parameters presented here can provide references for the practical project.

  9. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. Determinar os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à sa

  10. 海军飞行人员主要生活习惯、睡眠情况及体重指数调查%Investigation of living habits,sleep condition and body mass index among navy pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贵喜; 李鸣皋; 李靖; 蒙果

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigales the currenl lifestyle of navy pilots, offering scientific basis for promoting the health condition of pilots and ensuring the safety of flight. Methods A questionnaire investigation on life habits was carried out in 557 pilots; their body weight, body height and body mass index (BMI) were measured, then those data were analyzed using SPSS11 soft ware. Results (l)There was a high proportion of smoking in pilots of all ages(52.68% -55.24% ). No significant difference was found in all kinds of airplane groups. (2)The proportion of pilot with habit of drinking usually was 8. 7% in 20 - 29 year old group, 26.79% in 30 - 39 year old group, and 25. 17% in 40 + year old group. (3)There was a high proportion of doing physical exercise in pilots of all ages, which was 98. 05% in 20 - 29 year old group, 91. 87% in 30 - 39 year old group, and 85. 31% in 40 + year old group. 76. 87% of pilots often did physical exercise in transporter group, lower than that in other three groups (P <0. 01) . (4) Survey results on sleeping showed that no significant difference in different age group and different airplane group. (5)There was a high proportion of overweight and obesity in pilots of all ages, which increased with age. Conclusions There is high proportion of pilots with unhygienic-dietary and living habits, which are very important factors for causing overweight and obesity, and it is imperative to interfere with it.%目的 了解海军飞行人员主要生活习惯、体育锻炼情况、睡眠状况,以及体重指数,为增进飞行员身体健康,保障飞行安全提供科学依据.方法 采用问卷方式调查了557名海军不同机种飞行人员的吸烟、饮酒、运动及睡眠情况,并测量身高、体重,计算出体重指数,分别按照不同年龄和不同飞行机种进行对比研究.结果 (1)飞行人员吸烟比例较高,不同年龄组的吸烟比例为52.68%~55.24%;不同机种间比较无明显差异.(2)有经

  11. Upper airway dimensions in patients with craniocervical junction malformations with and without sleep apnea. A pilot case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barbalho Guerreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with craniocervical junction malformations (CCJM tend to suffer more frequently from sleep respiratory disturbances, which are more frequent and severe in patients with basilar invagination. Here we evaluate if patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disorders (SRD present smaller airway dimensions than patients without SRD. Method Patients with CCCM with and without sleep respiratory disturbances were evaluated clinically by Bindal's score, modified Mallampati classification, full-night polysomnography and upper airway cone beam tomography. Results Eleven patients had sleep respiratory disorders (SRD, and nine patients performed control group without SRD. CCJM patients with SRD were predominantly female, older, had higher BMI, were more likely to have Mallampati grades 3 and 4 and had statistically significant smaller anteroposterior diameter of the upper airway than patients without SRD. Conclusion Patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disturbances have higher BMI, higher Mallampati score and smaller anterior posterior diameter of the upper airway.

  12. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Al-Alawi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD.

  13. Dietary iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy and the development of type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ambika P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To investigate the impact of iron intake on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Methods Case-control study with self-administered questionnaire among families of children with T1DM who were less than 10 years old at the time of the survey and developed diabetes between age 1 and 6 years. Data on the types of infant feeding in the first 4 months of life was collected from parents of children with T1DM (n = 128 and controls (n = 67 Results The median (min, max total iron intake in the first 4 months of life was 1159 (50, 2399 mg in T1DM cases and 466 (50, 1224 mg among controls (P Conclusion In this pilot study, high iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy is associated with T1DM. Whether iron intake is causal or a marker of another risk factor warrants further investigation.

  14. Childhood leukaemia in relation to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from television and radio broadcast transmitters: epidemiological aspects of a case-control study in Germany; Leukaemie bei Kindern in der Umgebung von Sendestationen des Rundfunks. Anforderungen an das Studiendesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzenich, H.; Bennack, S.; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Schmiedel, S.; Schuez, J. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology; Brueggemeyer, H. [Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz, AB35 - Strahlenschutz in Niedersachsen, Hannover (Germany); Philipp, J. [Suedwestrundfunk, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Frequenz- und Versorgungsplanung; Spix, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister

    2007-07-01

    Leukaemia is the most common type of cancer in children accounting for about a third of all cancers in children under the age of 15 years. Environmental factors such as non-ionising radiation exposure might play a role in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. However, data to support such hypotheses are inconsistent. A case control study has been set up in West Germany (University of Mainz) in order to determine whether there is an increased risk of childhood leukaemia in populations exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from TV and/or Radio towers. Cases are children aged 0 to 14 years with a primary leukaemia diagnosed between 1984 and 2003 who lived in the vicinity of these TV- and/ or Radio towers. Cases have been identified through the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Three controls per case have been individually matched by age at diagnosis, sex, time of diagnosis and study area. The study focuses on an individual retrospective exposure assessment using data from transmitter network operators. The study has started in March 2005 with a pilot investigation in order to specify the study design and the methods for exposure assessment. A total of 2009 eligible cases have been identified. The study will be finished end of 2007. (orig.)

  15. Jump In! An investigation of school physical activity climate, and a pilot study assessing the acceptability and feasibility of a novel tool to increase activity during learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan J Graham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted six focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators.

  16. Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; O'Donnell, Maeve B

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) benefits children's physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators.

  17. Understanding marijuana's effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use disorder: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Fischer, Adina S; Henricks, Angela M; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Roth, Robert M; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I

    2017-08-17

    Nearly half of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have co-occurring cannabis use disorder (CUD), which has been associated with decreased treatment efficacy, increased risk of psychotic relapse, and poor global functioning. While reports on the effects of cannabis on cognitive performance in patients with SCZ have been mixed, study of brain networks related to executive function may clarify the relationship between cannabis use and cognition in these dual-diagnosis patients. In the present pilot study, patients with SCZ and CUD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting scans. Prior to the second scan, patients smoked a 3.6% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis cigarette or ingested a 15mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pill. We used resting-state functional connectivity to examine the default mode network (DMN) during both scans, as connectivity/activity within this network is negatively correlated with connectivity of the network involved in executive control and shows reduced activity during task performance in normal individuals. At baseline, relative to controls, patients exhibited DMN hyperconnectivity that correlated with positive symptom severity, and reduced anticorrelation between the DMN and the executive control network (ECN). Cannabinoid administration reduced DMN hyperconnectivity and increased DMN-ECN anticorrelation. Moreover, the magnitude of anticorrelation in the controls, and in the patients after cannabinoid administration, positively correlated with WM performance. The finding that DMN brain connectivity is plastic may have implications for future pharmacotherapeutic development, as treatment efficacy could be assessed through the ability of therapies to normalize underlying circuit-level dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 20924 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Pilot Evaluation Program for Investigational New Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...) applications to participate in a pilot evaluation program for CBER's eSubmitter Program (eSubmitter). CBER's e... FDA. II. eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program Expectations The eSubmitter pilot evaluation program...

  20. Health among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J S; Butler, G C; Lackland, D T; Tessier, G S; Mohr, L C; Hoel, D G

    2001-09-01

    The airline pilot works within a complex exposure environment that may present physiological challenges to long-term health. This study investigated self-reported disease outcomes among a large group of active and retired commercial airline pilots in the United States and Canada. A survey methodology was used, including the collection of historical information. Of 10,678 surveys mailed, 6609 were returned (6533 men, 63 women). Given the limitations of survey methodology, increased disease rates among pilots were suggested for melanoma, motor neuron disease, and cataracts. However, rates for other diseases were in general lower than those for the U.S. population. Further study has been initiated to verify and follow reported cases, to expand the study to a larger group, and to collect more in-depth information on flight histories, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors.

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Nested case-control sampling is designed to reduce the costs of large cohort studies. It is important to estimate the parameters of interest as efficiently as possible. We present a new maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for nested case-control sampling in the context of Cox's proportional hazards...... model. The MLE is computed by the EM-algorithm, which is easy to implement in the proportional hazards setting. Standard errors are estimated by a numerical profile likelihood approach based on EM aided differentiation. The work was motivated by a nested case-control study that hypothesized that insulin...

  2. SerumTrace Elements in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMAKIN, Kokab; ZARDAST, Mahmoud; SHARIFZADEH, Golamreza; BIDAR, Toktam; ZARGARIAN, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure (FS) is one of the most common neurological problems during childhood.Pathogenesis of febrile convulsion is unknown. This study investigated some trace elements among children admitted with FS compared with thoseof febrile without seizure attacks. Materials & Methods This case-control study was conducted on48 children (6 months to 5 yrold) diagnosed with febrile seizure as the cases and 48 age-matched febrile children as the control group. Serum levels of magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, and serum zinc were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 15) using Student t-test. Results There were no significant differences between the cases and controls in terms of gender or age. The means of serum level of zinc, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the case group was lower than those of the control group. There was no significant difference onserum potassium mean level between the case and control groups. Conclusion Deficiency of trace elements was correlated significantly with febrile convulsion, while further investigations on trace elements are required. PMID:27375757

  3. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  4. A Case Control Study of Lung Cancer Among Workers in Dagang Oil Field, Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang FAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To investigate the risk factors of lung cancer among the employees who had worked in Dagang oil field, Tianjin, China. Methods A matched case control study was conducted to analyse the association between some exposures and lung cancer risk by univariate and multiple Logistic regression method. ResultsAccording to the results from univariate and multiple analysis, smoking and previous lung disease increase lung cancer risk with adjusted OR of 1.52 (95%CI: 1.18-1.94 and 3.37 (95%CI: 1.88-7.16 respectively, while the adjusted OR for occupational chemical toxic substance and dust exposure is 0.73 (95%CI: 0.69-1.30 and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.62-1.15 respectively, and there is no significant association between family history of cancer and lung cancer risk in this study.Conclusion Smoking and previous lung disease are the independent risk factors for lung cancer among workers in Dagang oil field, yet due to some potential epidemiological bias, the association between occupational exposure and lung cancer needs further investigation.

  5. Case-control studies of gene-environment interaction: Bayesian design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ahn, Jaeil; Gruber, Stephen B; Ghosh, Malay; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2010-09-01

    With increasing frequency, epidemiologic studies are addressing hypotheses regarding gene-environment interaction. In many well-studied candidate genes and for standard dietary and behavioral epidemiologic exposures, there is often substantial prior information available that may be used to analyze current data as well as for designing a new study. In this article, first, we propose a proper full Bayesian approach for analyzing studies of gene-environment interaction. The Bayesian approach provides a natural way to incorporate uncertainties around the assumption of gene-environment independence, often used in such an analysis. We then consider Bayesian sample size determination criteria for both estimation and hypothesis testing regarding the multiplicative gene-environment interaction parameter. We illustrate our proposed methods using data from a large ongoing case-control study of colorectal cancer investigating the interaction of N-acetyl transferase type 2 (NAT2) with smoking and red meat consumption. We use the existing data to elicit a design prior and show how to use this information in allocating cases and controls in planning a future study that investigates the same interaction parameters. The Bayesian design and analysis strategies are compared with their corresponding frequentist counterparts.

  6. High Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Korean Patients after Hip Fracture: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Il; Ha, Yong Chan; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Lee, Young Kyun; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Yoo, Moon Jib

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI: lean mass/height²) and bone mineral density (BMD). In the HF group, using the AWGS definition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in women and men was 44.3% and 68.2%, respectively; in the NF group, it was 7.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Lower appendicular SMI (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia (OR = 6.52; 95% CI = 4.67-9.09), age (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.13-1.17), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.58) were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture. This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures compared with a normal population, and higher prevalence of sarcopenia in men.

  7. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  8. A melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, J F; Wilkinson, G S; Tietjen, G L; Key, C R; Stebbings, J H; Voelz, G L

    1983-09-01

    We conducted a melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to investigate whether related occupational exposures or personal characteristics of employees could be identified. This study was prompted by a recent report from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that melanoma was much more frequent than expected among employees and that persons suffering from melanoma more often worked as chemists. Our investigation did not uncover an association with plutonium body burden, cumulative external radiation exposure, or employment as a chemist or a physicist. The major finding was that cases were more educated than controls. Melanoma risk was 2.11 among college-educated employees and increased to 3.17 among those with graduate degrees (Mantel-extension linear trend probability = 0.038). This finding is consistent with the often reported increased melanoma incidence among persons of higher social class. It points to personal characteristics, particular to persons of higher educational attainment, as risk factors for melanoma at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  9. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Serum Chemerin Levels in relation to Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate serum chemerin levels in patients with osteoporosis and healthy controls and to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods. An age- and gender-matched case-control study was conducted. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and BMD. Results. There were 93 patients included in the osteoporosis group and 93 matched controls. Serum chemerin level was significantly higher in patients with osteoporosis (87.27±5.80 ng/mL than patients in control (71.13±5.12 ng/mL (P<0.01. There was a negative correlation between femoral bone mineral density and chemerin in both groups (R=-0.395, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.680, P<0.01 in control and also a negative correlation between lumbar bone mineral density with chemerin in both groups (R=-0.306, P<0.01 in osteoporosis group; R=-0.362, P<0.01 in control. Conclusions. Patients with osteoporosis presented a higher level of serum chemerin, which witnessed an inverse correlation with BMD. Further studies are needed to explore the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis.

  11. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  12. Evaluation of two methods for assessing gene-environment interactions using data from the Danish case-control study of facial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etheredge, Analee J; Christensen, Kaare; Del Junco, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological investigations have begun to consider gene-environment (GE) interactions as potential risk factors for many diseases, including several different birth defects. However, traditional methodological approaches for the analysis of case-control data tend to have low power...

  13. The possible involvement of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in the aetiology of Crohn's disease: a case control study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrewegh AAPM; Overduin P; Roholl PJM; Gielis FK; Robinson JE; Mahmmod N; Lieverse RJ; Robijn RJ; Zanden AGM van der; Soolingen D van; Dept of Medical Microbiology; Biomedics Scientific Consultancy; LIS; LPI

    2005-01-01

    A case control study was performed to investigate the possible role of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) in the aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD). Biopsy samples were collected from the ileum and colon of CD patients, Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients and control persons. The biopsy sam

  14. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had no

  15. Levels of apolipoprotein M are not associated with the risk of coronary heart disease in two independent case-control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstrom, J.; Axler, O.; Jauhiainen, M.;

    2008-01-01

    of human apoM in LDL receptor-deficient mice reduced the atherogenic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the apoM levels in man predict the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). ApoM was measured in samples from two separate case-control studies...

  16. Dietary intake of B-vitamins, polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1, and colorectal adenoma risk: a Dutch case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M. van den; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Harryvan, J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase are involved in folate metabolism. In a case-control study, including 768 cases and 709 controls, we investigated the associations between colorectal adenomas and TS tandem repeat and SHMT1 C1420T polymorphisms, and the interplay with B-vitami

  17. Decision Support System for Fighter Pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randleff, Lars Rosenberg

    2007-01-01

    During a mission over enemy territory a fighter aircraft may be engaged by ground based threats. The pilot can use different measures to avoid the aircraft from being detected by e.g. enemy radar systems. If the enemy detects the aircraft a missile may be fired to seek and destroy the aircraft...... and countermeasures that can be applied to mitigate threats. This work is concerned with finding proper evasive actions when a fighter aircraft is engaged by ground based threats. To help the pilot in deciding on these actions a decision support system may be implemented. The environment in which such a system must...... platforms (aircraft, ships, etc.) is described. Different approaches to finding the combination of countermeasures and manoeuvres improving the pilots survivability is investigated. During training a fighter pilot will learn a set of rules to follow when threat occurs. For the pilot these rules...

  18. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  19. Cognitive impairments in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Lan; Shi, Yunbo; Wu, Xunyi; Guo, Qihao

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is considered as a treatable dementia, but it is often misdiagnosed. We investigated cognitive impairment and the MRI pathology of Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients. The study comprised eight patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy, 16 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and 24 healthy subjects. A neuropsychological battery included assessments of memory, language, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability. Cranial MRI was obtained from all Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients. Hashimoto's encephalopathy and mild Alzheimer's disease showed cognitive impairments in episodic memory, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability, but naming ability was unaffected in Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The MRI of Hashimoto's encephalopathy showed leukoencephalopathy-like type or limbic encephalitis-like type; the lesions did not affect the temporal cortex which plays a role in naming ability. Except that the naming ability was retained, the impairments in cognitive functions for the Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients were similar to those of Alzheimer's disease patients. These results were consistent with the MRI findings.

  20. Human herpes virus-6 seroprevalence and leukaemias: a case-control study. GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, G; Mele, A; Ragona, G; Faggioni, A; Zompetta, C; Tosti, M E; Visani, G; Castelli, G; Pulsoni, A; Monarca, B; Martino, P; Mandelli, F

    1999-06-01

    The relationships between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and human herpes virus (HHV)-6 antibody level were investigated in a multicentre case-control study. An association between increased HHV-6 seropositivity and geometric mean titre ratio with AML was shown: P for trend = 0.022, adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.33 respectively. No association was found between HHV-6 and ALL, CML or RAEB.

  1. Family lifestyle factors related to children s congenital heart defects in China:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the multiple risk factors for family lifestyle of children with congenital heart defects(CHDs)in Shaanxi Province,China.Methods A 1∶1 case-control study was carried out to investigate 60 pairs of children and their parents.The univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the influence of risk factors related to parents' lifestyle on CHDs.Results Several possible risk factors were found for CHDs,including fever(OR=4.465,P=0.017),pesticides contact(OR=2.234...

  2. TNFR 2 M196R Polymorphism and Acne Vulgaris in Han Chinese:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎明; 谢红付; 杨婷; 胡耀华; 李吉; 王玮蓁

    2010-01-01

    In this case-control study,the relationship between M196R(676 T→G) variant in exon 6 of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2(TNFR2) gene and genetic susceptibility of acne vulgaris in Han Chinese was investigated.A total of 93 acne vulgaris patients and 90 healthy subjects from Han Chinese ethnic group were enrolled in this study.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP) technique was adopted to analyze the single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of TNFR2 M196R gene,and to ...

  3. Association between lipid-lowering drugs (statins and fibrates) and venous thromboembolism: a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KarineLACUT; GregoireLEGAL; FrancisCOUTURAUD

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies of selected patients have suggested a reduction in the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with the use of statins, and no effect of fibrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between statin and fibrate use and the risk of VTE. METHODS: The present report used data from an ongoing hospital-based case-control study designed to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors of VTE. This study started in May 2000 in a single centre in Brest, France, and included patients consecutively hospitalized for a documented

  4. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the databa

  5. Determinants of infant nutritional status in Dabat district, North Gondar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amarech Asratie Wubante

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. Methods A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district...

  6. Genetics, drugs and environmental factors in Parkinson's disease: a case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANTONIO LUIZ DOS SANTOS WERNECK; HELCIO ALVARENGA

    1999-01-01

    A case-control study of Parkinson's disease (PD) was conducted in the city of Rio de Janeiro based on the assumption that neurotoxins with secondary parkinsonian action may be related to the development of Parkinson's disease...

  7. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. CDC Kerala 12: Socio-demographic factors among children (2-6 y) with autism--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Babu; Padmam, M S Razeena; Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To compare the socio-demographic factors among children between 2 and 6 y of age with autism and a control group of normal children. One hundred forty three confirmed cases of 2-6 y-old children with autism, attending autism clinic of Child Development Centre, who had a CARS score of more than 30 were included in the study. Two hundred normal children in the same age group were recruited from the well-baby/immunization clinic of SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using a structured pre-piloted questionnaire consisting of 11 socio-demographic possible risk factors. The multivariate analysis on socio-demographic characteristics as possible risk factors for autism has shown that (i) upper and upper middle socioeconomic status (OR: 7.13; CI: 3.26-15.57) and (ii) male gender (OR: 3.95; CI: 2.22-7.04) were significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rural (OR: 0.41; CI: 0.24-0.68) is a protective factor. This case control study involving 143 children between 2 and 6 y with autism as per CARS criteria and a control group of 200 normal children has shown that upper and upper middle socioeconomic status and (ii) male gender are significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rule is a protective factor.

  9. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guiying [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); An, Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Bing [Experiment Medical Research Centre, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m{sup −3}) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m{sup −3}). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m{sup −3} as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale.

  10. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindstroem, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeboeller, Heike; Donald W. Bowden; Eyre, Steve; Barry I Freedman; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals...

  11. A Data Management System for Multi-Phase Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gibeau, Joanne M.; Steinfeldt, Lois C; Stine, Mark J.; Tullis, Katherine V.; Lynch, H. Keith

    1983-01-01

    The design of a computerized system for the management of data in multi-phase epidemiologic case-control studies is described. Typical study phases include case-control selection, abstracting of data from medical records, and interview of study subjects or next of kin. In consultation with project personnel, requirements for the system were established: integration of data from all study phases into one data base, accurate follow-up of subjects through the study, sophisticated data editing ca...

  12. A PILOT INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIVE TOXICITY OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR FINE PARTICLES: IN-VITRO EFFECTS OF ENDOTOXIN AND OTHER PARTICULATE PROPERTIES. (R827353C001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Epidemiological investigation of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in pilots%飞行员阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞剑; 刘杰峰; 郭永敬; 邓昌磊; 段建宝; 刘德宝

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea‐hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in pilots and to provide reference on prevention and cure of OSAHS in pilots . Methods Two hundred and thirty‐six pilots were randomly picked and were asked to fill out a questionnaire about Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) score .Their age ,smoking and drinking habit were gathered .Their neck circumference ,height ,body weight and body mass index (BMI) were also measured .The sleepiness of pilots were monitored by nocturnal oxygen saturation ,apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and other indicators . Results The 236 pilots were divided into three groups according to the ESS and sleep monitoring results :no snoring group (n=207) ,simple snoring group (n=26) and OASHS group (n= 3) .The prevalence of OSAHS was 1 .27% .Age ,smoking and drinking habits were significantly different among three groups (χ2 = 17 .533 ,9 .870 ,13 .302 , P< 0 .01) . ESS ,AHI ,neck circumference and BMI were significantly different among three groups (F=14 .231‐92 .801 , P< 0 .01) . Conclusions Pilots′ OSAHS are correlated to such factors as their age , smoking ,drinking ,neck circumference and BMI .The prevalence of OSAHS is lower in pilots than that in common people .Since OSAHS can cause metabolic disorder ,cognitive decline and other clinical manifestations ,it may become a potential risk to flight operation ,and thus attention should be paid on detection and treatment of OSAHS in pilots .%目的:调查研究航空兵部队飞行员阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome ,OSAHS)患病率,为军事飞行员阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征的防治提供依据。方法采用随机数字法抽取航空兵部队飞行员236人,由专人以问答形式填写Epworth嗜睡量表,调查年龄、吸烟史和饮酒史,测量颈围、身高、体重,计算体质指数。对其进行睡眠呼吸监测,监测夜间血氧饱和度

  14. The Investigation and Medical Evalution for the Anormal Characteristics in Ultrasonic Testing of Pilots on Nursing%疗养飞行人员超声异常特点及医学鉴定调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴伟川; 李艳娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective to investigate the abnormal characteristics ultrasonic testing of pilots, and give references for medical examination and the safeguard of aviation sanitation. Methods by statistic analysing the results of the ultrasonic testing for the pilots who are in active service and come for health recuperation in Cuilin Convalescent Hospital. Results there are 4,529 pilots take the ultrasonic testing,and 1,352 people show abnormal. The relevance ratio is 29.85%(1352/4529),amount to 24 kinds of disease,and 1,608 abnormal. Of these abnormal, 1,122 pilots have one item test abnormal,with 82.99%,and 204 pilots have two item tests abnormal, with 15.09%,26 pilots have three items abnormal,with 1.92%.The first four diseases among these anormal ultrasonic testings are fatty liver,with 16.78%,polyp of gallbladder,with 4.31%,renal cyst,with 2.69%. The abnormal cases number increases as the age grows,comparison among groups is P<0.01. In the fatty liver group,people who drink take an account of 72.89%(554/760) ,the obe-ses take an account of 59.47%(452/760) ,and the symptoms of fatty liver combined with gall stone,polyp of gallbladder,hypertension, hyperglycemia,hyperlipidemia,hyperuricemia are apparently more than that of the group of nonalcoholic fatty liver (P<0.01). A-mong those 1,352 cases of the anormal ultrasonic testing,there are 1,341 cases concluded to be qualified to fly by medical evalu-tion,with 99.19%,and 11 cases are concluded to be not qualified to fly at present,with 0.81%. Conclusions The relevace ratio of anormal ultrasonic testings is a little high,but mostly are asymptomatic begnign lesions,and the flight evalution most are qualified. The important task for aviation sanitarium safeguard is to do periodic reexamination well. But for those pilots who have alcoholic drink,obesity,hyperlipaemia,hypertension etc. put emphasis on intervention and control,to be sure for air saefty.%目的 调查年度疗养飞行人员超声异常特点,为医学鉴定及航

  15. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  16. Cognitive impairments in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hashimoto's encephalopathy is considered as a treatable dementia, but it is often misdiagnosed. We investigated cognitive impairment and the MRI pathology of Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients. METHODS: The study comprised eight patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy, 16 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and 24 healthy subjects. A neuropsychological battery included assessments of memory, language, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability. Cranial MRI was obtained from all Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients. RESULTS: Hashimoto's encephalopathy and mild Alzheimer's disease showed cognitive impairments in episodic memory, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability, but naming ability was unaffected in Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The MRI of Hashimoto's encephalopathy showed leukoencephalopathy-like type or limbic encephalitis-like type; the lesions did not affect the temporal cortex which plays a role in naming ability. CONCLUSION: Except that the naming ability was retained, the impairments in cognitive functions for the Hashimoto's encephalopathy patients were similar to those of Alzheimer's disease patients. These results were consistent with the MRI findings.

  17. Case-control study of pathogens involved in piglet diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vera L A; Bersano, Josete G; Carvalho, Aline F; Catroxo, Márcia H B; Chiebao, Daniela P; Gregori, Fábio; Miyashiro, Simone; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ogata, Renato A; Scarcelli, Eliana P; Tonietti, Paloma O

    2016-01-11

    Diarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus), as well as nematode and protozoan parasites, can be associated with disease cases. All bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic agents here investigated, with the exception of Salmonella spp. as well as both coronaviruses, were detected in varying proportions in piglet fecal samples, and positive animals were equally distributed between case and control groups. A statistically significant difference between case and control groups was found only for Cystoisospora suis (p = 0.034) and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.047). When co-infections were evaluated, a statistically significant difference was found only for C. perfringens β2 and C. suis (p = 0.014). The presence of pathogens in piglets alone does not determine the occurrence of diarrhea episodes. Thus, the indiscriminate use of antibiotic and anthelminthic medication should be re-evaluated. This study also reinforces the importance of laboratory diagnosis and correct interpretation of results as well as the relevance of control and prophylactic measures.

  18. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  19. Ovarian cancer and talc: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D W; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Wojciechowski, C A

    1982-07-15

    Opportunities for genital exposure to talc were assessed in 215 white females with epithelial ovarian cancers and in 215 control women from the general population matched by age, race, and residence. Ninety-two (42.8%) cases regularly used talc either as a dusting powder on the perineum or on sanitary napkins compared with 61 (28.4%) controls. Adjusted for parity and menopausal status, this difference yielded a relative risk of 1.92 (P less than 0.003) for ovarian cancer associated with these practices. Women who had regularly engaged in both practices had an adjusted relative risk of 3.28 (P less than 0.001) compared to women with neither exposure. This provides some support for an association between talc and ovarian cancer hypothesized because of the similarity of ovarian cancer to mesotheliomas and the chemical relation of talc to asbestos, a known cause of mesotheliomas. The authors also investigated opportunities for potential talc exposure from rubber products such as condoms or diaphragms or from pelvic surgery. No significant differences were noted between cases and controls in these exposures, although the intensity of talc exposure from these sources was likely affected by variables not assessed in this study.

  20. A polytomous conditional likelihood approach for combining matched and unmatched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Guimaraes, Paulo; Cozen, Wendy; Conti, David V

    2010-04-30

    In genetic association studies it is becoming increasingly imperative to have large sample sizes to identify and replicate genetic effects. To achieve these sample sizes, many research initiatives are encouraging the collaboration and combination of several existing matched and unmatched case-control studies. Thus, it is becoming more common to compare multiple sets of controls with the same case group or multiple case groups to validate or confirm a positive or negative finding. Usually, a naive approach of fitting separate models for each case-control comparison is used to make inference about disease-exposure association. But, this approach does not make use of all the observed data and hence could lead to inconsistent results. The problem is compounded when a common case group is used in each case-control comparison. An alternative to fitting separate models is to use a polytomous logistic model but, this model does not combine matched and unmatched case-control data. Thus, we propose a polytomous logistic regression approach based on a latent group indicator and a conditional likelihood to do a combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control data. We use simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and a case-control study of multiple myeloma and Inter-Leukin-6 as an example. Our results indicate that the proposed method leads to a more efficient homogeneity test and a pooled estimate with smaller standard error.

  1. Pilot age and error in air taxi crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2009-07-01

    The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes. Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Of the 1751 air taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the "safe worker effect."

  2. Parental occupation and childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, R R; Bunin, G R; Nass, C C; Meadows, A T

    1992-02-15

    Parental occupations were investigated as possible risk factors for astrocytoma, the most frequently occurring brain tumor in children. A case-control study of 163 pairs was performed. Cases under 15 years of age at diagnosis in 1980-1986 were identified through the tumor registries of eight hospitals in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Controls were selected by random-digit dialing and were matched to cases on age, race, and telephone area code. Occupations before the child's conception, during the pregnancy, and after the child's birth were studied separately. We did not observe any strong associations. Significantly more fathers of cases were electrical or electronic repairmen, a subgroup of an occupational category previously associated with increased risk. An excess of case mothers employed as nurses was observed, which was significant for mothers of children diagnosed before 5 years of age. Elevated although not significant odds ratios were observed for some white collar and professional occupations in case parents; for paternal exposure to paint and paternal occupation in the paper and pulp mill industry, both in the period after the child's birth; and for maternal occupation as a hairdresser. The lack of strong associations may have resulted from low statistical power for some job groupings. Our study, unlike previous studies, focused on a single type of brain tumor: childhood astrocytoma. Thus our results suggest that some parental occupations associated with childhood brain tumors in previous studies may not be risk factors for childhood astrocytoma.

  3. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL. PMID:26829393

  4. Laboratory assessment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Tommaso; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Tribi, Lorenzo; Lasagni, Daniela; Pilia, Annalisa; Vecchia, Luigi; Baricchi, Roberto; Bianchin, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otologic emergency that affects five to 30 subjects per 100,000/year. The cause of SSHL remains unknown or uncertain in 70% to 90% of cases, and treatment decisions are usually made without knowing the etiology. Prospective case-control study. One hundred thirty-one idiopathic SSHL patients were recruited from January 2014 to June 2015 in concordance with the Statements of Clinical Practice Guideline and divided into groups according to the disease severity. A clinical laboratory assessment was completed on blood samples collected from SSHL patients and control subjects. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between laboratory data and SSHL basis. Only a few SSHL patients were positive for autoimmunity or viral infection. Statistically significant (P < .05) higher levels of blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipoprotein (a), and factor VIII were found in SSHL patients compared to controls. Furthermore, blood glucose, HbA1C, uric acid, factor VIII, and homocysteine were significantly associated to disease severity. Gluco-metabolic, lipidic, and coagulative laboratory data support the vascular hypothesis for SSHL and its severity. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:2375-2381, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. The association between breastfeeding and breast cancer occurrence among Israeli Jewish women: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shema, Lilach; Ore, Liora; Ben-Shachar, Menachem; Haj, Mahmoud; Linn, Shai

    2007-08-01

    Breast cancer remains the major malignant disease among Israeli women, with about 4,000 new cases diagnosed annually, and a steadily increasing incidence rates. Early in this century investigators noted that nulliparity and a history of never having breastfed were more common in women with breast cancer than without the disease. Epidemiological evidence on those issues remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to clarify those controversial. A hospital-based case control study was carried out at Nahariya hospital (North of Israel) to assess the risk of breast cancer in relation to breastfeeding history. A total of 256 recent cases of breast cancer (diagnosed between January 1999 and February 2005) and 536 controls were included. Detailed information regarding breastfeeding, menstruation, reproductive factors and confounders was collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Short duration of lifetime breastfeeding, late age at first breastfeeding and experience of insufficient milk were found to increase breast cancer risk. When women who had ever breastfed their infants were compared with females who had not, breastfeeding was found to be protective (OR of 0.39; 95% CI 0.26-0.59). These findings may have significant impact on intervention planning aimed towards breast cancer reduction among Israeli Jewish women.

  6. The Serum Antioxidant Status in Chinese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome:a Case-Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-rong LI; Kun XUE; Hong-wei GUO; Min WU; Ming LIU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and analyze the association between serum antioxidant status and MS components.MethodsA case-control study was conducted with 221 MS cases and 329 controls aged 18-70 years. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E,β-carotene and lycopene were examined.Results Mean serum SOD activity,β-carotene level were significantly lower, and MDA higher (P<0.05) in MS subjects than in controls after adjusting for age and gender. Serum SOD, GSH-Px andβ-carotene level were also decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased number of MS components.Conclusion Serum antioxidant status was negatively correlated with risks of MS and lower SOD activity andβ-carotene level appeared to be associated with more MS components. Serum oxidative status is useful in assessing the severity of MS.

  7. A web application for sample size and power calculation in case-control microbiome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Federico; Verbist, Bie; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; Shannon, William D; Bijnens, Luc; Thas, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    : When designing a case-control study to investigate differences in microbial composition, it is fundamental to assess the sample sizes needed to detect an hypothesized difference with sufficient statistical power. Our application includes power calculation for (i) a recoded version of the two-sample generalized Wald test of the 'HMP' R-package for comparing community composition, and (ii) the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for comparing operational taxonomic unit-specific abundances between two samples (optional). The simulation-based power calculations make use of the Dirichlet-Multinomial model to describe and generate abundances. The web interface allows for easy specification of sample and effect sizes. As an illustration of our application, we compared the statistical power of the two tests, with and without stratification of samples. We observed that statistical power increases considerably when stratification is employed, meaning that less samples are needed to detect the same effect size with the same power. The web interface is written in R code using Shiny (RStudio Inc., 2016) and it is available at https://fedematt.shinyapps.io/shinyMB The R code for the recoded generalized Wald test can be found at https://github.com/mafed/msWaldHMP CONTACT: Federico.Mattiello@UGent.be. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The role of the CHRNA4 gene in Internet addiction: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Sauer, Carina; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies from Asia provided first evidence for a molecular genetic link between serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission and Internet addiction. The present report offers data on a new candidate gene in the investigation of Internet addiction-the gene coding for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 (CHRNA4). A case-control study was carried out. The participants were recruited from a large gene data bank, including people from the general population and from a university setting. A total of 132 participants with problematic Internet use and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. Participants provided DNA samples and filled in the Internet Addiction Test Questionnaire. The T- variant (CC genotype) of the rs1044396 polymorphism on the CHRNA4 gene occurred significantly more frequently in the case group. Further analyses revealed that this effect was driven by females. Combined with the findings from other studies, the present data point in the direction that rs1044396 exerts pleiotropic effects on a vast range of behaviors, including cognition, emotion, and addiction.

  9. Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case-control study in a Mediterranean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Valero, María; Fletcher, Astrid E; de Stavola, Bianca L; Chaqués-Alepúz, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the relation between sunlight exposure and risk of cataract. Methods We carried out a frequency-matched case-control study of 343 cases and 334 controls attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a primary health-care center in a small town near Valencia, Spain. All cases were diagnosed as having a cataract in at least one eye based on the Lens Opacification Classification system (LOCS II). Controls had no opacities in either eye. All cases and controls were interviewed for information on outdoor exposure, "usual" diet, history of severe episodes of diarrhea illness, life-style factors and medical and socio-demographic variables. Blood antioxidant vitamin levels were also analyzed. We used logistic regression models to estimate sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) by quintiles of years of occupational outdoor exposure, adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, alcohol consumption, serum antioxidants and education. Results No association was found between years of outdoor exposure and risk of cataract. However, exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between years of outdoor exposure at younger ages and risk of nuclear cataract later in life. Conclusion Our study does not support an association with cataract and sunlight exposure over adult life. PMID:18039367

  10. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant's skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36)] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76); paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0)]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in different Exons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:24082921

  11. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant′s skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76; paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in differentExons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis.

  12. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Allan H

    2003-12-15

    Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic at concentrations near 100 microg/liter. All incident cases diagnosed from 1994 to 2000 were recruited. Individual data on water sources, water consumption patterns, smoking, and other factors were collected for 181 cases and 328 controls. Overall, no increased risks were identified for arsenic intakes greater than 80 microg/day (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.57; linear trend, p=0.48). These risks are below predictions based on high dose studies from Taiwan. When the analysis was focused on exposures 40 or more years ago, an odds ratio of 3.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 9.42; linear trend, p<0.01) was identified for intakes greater than 80 microg/day (median intake, 177 microg/day) in smokers. These data provide some evidence that smokers who ingest arsenic at concentrations near 200 microg/day may be at increased risk of bladder cancer.

  13. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  14. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of gallstone disease: a case-control study in Xiamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanhua; Dai, Yishen; Lin, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xing; Han, Yaofeng; Zhao, Benhua

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the association between serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of gallstone disease. A 1:1, pair-matched, case-control study was designed. Data from 150 patients with gallstones diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography at a single hospital from June 2009 to June 2010 were collected. A total of 150 patients without gallstones during the same period at the same hospital were recruited as the control group. Capillary gas chromatography was employed to measure the serum concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues. Multiple-factor conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relative risk of gallstones in relation to organochlorine pesticide residues in serum. The percentages of p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT in serum of patients were significantly higher than those in serum of controls. The p,p'-DDE, α-HCH, and δ-HCH residues in serum of patients were also significantly increased compared with those in serum of controls. Multiple-factor conditional logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT residues were risk factors for gallstone disease. A high level of organochlorine pesticide residues in serum is a potential risk factor for gallstone disease, which suggests that environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides should be evaluated with respect to gallstone formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  17. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis.

  18. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  19. Choroidal thickness and central serous chorioretinopathy: a case-control study and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Yuan Ye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTin central serous chorioretinopathy(CSCReyes and to compare them with normal control eyes. METHODS: This was a case-control study and a Meta-analysis. Forty-six CSCR patients diagnosed by the fundus pre-set lens, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand indocyanine green angiography(ICGAwere enrolled in this study. Sixty two age-, sex-, diopter- and axial length-matched 62 normal subjects(62 eyeswere enrolled in this study as the control group. Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography(EDI-OCT, SFCT of CSCR eyes and normal control eyes were measured and compared. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were performed to assess the association between SFCT and clinical factors. The Meta-analysis were conducted using the Stata software package to calculate the summary weighted mean differences(WMDs. RESULTS:The mean SFCT of the CSCR group and the normal control group was 397.34±83.91μm and 274.48±62.57μm, respectively. The CSCR eyes had a thicker choroid than the control eyes at the SFCT(PCI: 137.43, 174.83for SFCT. CONCLUSION:Along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, SFCT in CSCR eyes was thicker than that of normal control eyes. Increased SFCT might be associated with CSCR.

  20. Association of interleukin genes polymorphism with asthma susceptibility in Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Pratibha; Awasthi, Shally; Agarwal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Interleukins (IL) 4 and 13 genes and their receptors (R) are the key cytokines which amplify inflammatory reactions in asthma. This study aimed to investigate the association of IL 4, 4 R, 13 and 13 R genes polymorphism with asthma in Indian children. In this hospital-based case-control study, included were children aged 1-15 years recruited as diagnosed cases of bronchial asthma, according to EPR 2007 and excluded were subjects with other respiratory diseases. Children with no present or past history of asthma were enrolled as controls. Spirometry was done in cases age ≥ 6 years. Gene-gene interaction was evaluated using binary logistic regression. From October 2010 to July 2013, 275 cases and 275 controls were recruited. Gene-gene interactions between C1112T in IL 13 and Ile50Val in IL 4 R gene polymorphisms were found to be statistically significant (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.04-5.42, p = 0.040). Individuals with CT and GG genotype of C1112T in IL 13 and Ile50Val in IL 4 R were at twice the risk for the development of asthma compared to individuals with both non-risk genotypes. The data suggests that gene-gene interactions between IL 13 and IL 4 R genes may play an important role in asthma among Indian children.

  1. Association between phytosterol intake and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wu-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-03-01

    A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, P trendcolorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  2. Years of sunlight exposure and cataract: a case-control study in a Mediterranean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Stavola Bianca L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the relation between sunlight exposure and risk of cataract. Methods We carried out a frequency-matched case-control study of 343 cases and 334 controls attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a primary health-care center in a small town near Valencia, Spain. All cases were diagnosed as having a cataract in at least one eye based on the Lens Opacification Classification system (LOCS II. Controls had no opacities in either eye. All cases and controls were interviewed for information on outdoor exposure, "usual" diet, history of severe episodes of diarrhea illness, life-style factors and medical and socio-demographic variables. Blood antioxidant vitamin levels were also analyzed. We used logistic regression models to estimate sex and age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs by quintiles of years of occupational outdoor exposure, adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, alcohol consumption, serum antioxidants and education. Results No association was found between years of outdoor exposure and risk of cataract. However, exploratory analyses suggested a positive association between years of outdoor exposure at younger ages and risk of nuclear cataract later in life. Conclusion Our study does not support an association with cataract and sunlight exposure over adult life.

  3. A case-control study of Parkinson's disease and tobacco use: gene-tobacco interactions.

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    De Palma, Giuseppe; Dick, Finlay D; Calzetti, Stefano; Scott, Neil W; Prescott, Gordon J; Osborne, Aileen; Haites, Neva; Mozzoni, Paola; Negrotti, Anna; Scaglioni, Augusto; Mutti, Antonio

    2010-05-15

    A case-control study of genetic, environmental, and occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) was carried out in five European countries (Italy, Malta, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden) to explore the possible contribution of interactions among host and environmental factors in sporadic PD. Whereas smoking habits confirmed its negative association with PD, a possible modulatory role of genetic polymorphisms was investigated to obtain further mechanistic insights. We recruited 767 cases of PD and 1989 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including the history of smoking habits. The polymorphisms of genes involved either in metabolism of compounds contained in tobacco smoke (CYP2D6, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA. We found evidence of statistically significant gene-tobacco interaction for GSTM1, NAT2, and GSTP1, the negative association between tobacco smoking and PD being significantly enhanced in subjects expressing GSTM1-1 activity, in NAT2 fast acetylators, and in those with the GSTP1*B*C haplotype. Owing to the retrospective design of the study, these results require confirmation.

  4. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

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    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  5. Domestic incense burning and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese.

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    Xie, Shao-Hua; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tse, Lap Ah; Au, Joseph Siu Kie; Wang, Feng; Lau, June Sze Man; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Incense burning is a powerful producer of carcinogens and has been considered as a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We conducted a case-control study and case-only analyses to investigate the effect of incense burning and its interaction with genetic background on NPC risk among Hong Kong Chinese. Between June 2010 and December 2012, we recruited 352 incident cases of NPC and 410 controls. We collected information on lifelong practice of domestic incense burning via interviews and genotyped 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. We observed an increased NPC risk associated with daily burning in women [Adjusted OR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.66] but not in men. The adjusted OR for daily burning with poor ventilation was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 4.24), while that with good ventilation was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.98). Interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2074517 and rs4771436) and incense burning were significantly associated with NPC risk and tended to have a SNP exposure-response effect. Evidence for gene-environment interactions supported the knowledge that NPC is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the joint effects of environmental exposures and inherited susceptibility.

  6. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

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    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  7. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

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    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  8. Breastfeeding and breast cancer: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

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    Tessaro Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and breast cancer in Southern Brazil, a case-control design was employed, with two age-matched control groups. A total of 250 cases of breast cancer were identified in women from 20 to 60 years of age, with 1,020 hospital and community controls. The main study variables were occurrence of breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding. A multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed. According to the results, breastfeeding did not have a protective effect against breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR for women who breastfed was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.2 compared to women who did not breastfeed. For women who breastfed for six months or less, the OR was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.8. In pre-menopausal women who breastfed for more than 25 months, the OR was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.5-3.5, and in post-menopausal women OR was 1.27 (95% CI: 0.5-3.1, compared to women who had not breastfeed.

  9. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

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    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  10. Depression and Anxiety Disorders among Patients with Psoriasis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

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    Masoud Golpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45% were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (<0.05. Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men.

  11. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

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    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  12. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

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    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  13. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Abbas; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeid; Zand, Vahid; Ansari, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  14. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  15. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  16. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  17. Prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo among motocross racers: a case-control study.

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    Hancı, Deniz; Altun, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) among motocross racers after cross-country up and downhill activities. This case-control study included 40 motocross racers (39 males, 1 female; mean age 26 years; range 21 to 43 years) and 40 healthy controls (30 males, 10 females; mean age 28 years; range 22 to 43 years) who had no hearing or balance problems. The Dix-Hallpike maneuver was applied to confirm the diagnosis of BPPV. Patients with BPPV were administered the Epley maneuver every week for one month and followed-up for treatment response assessment. Motocross and control groups were similar in terms of demographic and laboratory parameters. While BPPV was detected in four motocross racers (10%) according to Dix-Hallpike maneuver outcome and clinical findings, there was no BPPV in the control group. Of the motocross racers with BPPV, three had unilateral, one had bilateral disease. Of these patients, Epley maneuver was applied two times in two patients and three times in the other two patients. There was no vertigo or nystagmus in any of the patients with BPPV in one month. Intensive motocross activity is a cause of post-traumatic BPPV developing without head trauma. Large-scale, randomized controlled studies are needed to establish the post-traumatic etiology of BPPV in motocross racers.

  18. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

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    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  19. Role of Platelet Parameters on Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case-Control Study in Iran.

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    Abbas Mirvakili

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a common otological disorder characterized by a hearing loss greater than 30 dB over three consecutive frequencies, in less than 72 hours. It has been established that platelet parameters, such as mean platelet volume, are associated with ischemic heart events, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of SSNHL. Hence, we aimed to determine if the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width are related to the occurrence and severity of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case-control prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Iran. One hundred-eight patients with SSNHL and an equal number of healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the subjects, and the platelet count, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width were measured with an automated blood cell counter. Analysis of the audiometry and hematological test results using SPSS22 software showed no statistical correlation between the platelet parameters and the occurrence of SSNHL, but correlation coefficients showed a significant correlation between PDW and hearing loss severity in patients group. However, further investigation is required to unequivocally establish the absence of correlation between the platelet parameters and occurrence of SSNHL.

  20. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between functional iron deficiency and reactive thrombocytosis in hospitalised patients: a case-control study.

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    Nicola, H; Ho, K M; Cordingley, F

    2016-11-01

    The association of deficiency in total body iron with an increased risk of reactive thrombocytosis is well known, but whether 'functional iron deficiency' is also associated with reactive thrombocytosis is unknown. This retrospective case-control study assessed the relationships between functional iron deficiency, reactive thrombocytosis and risk of thromboembolism. A total of 150 patients with reactive thrombocytosis (platelet count >400 x 10(9)/l) and 343 controls (platelet count thrombocytosis, infection, and an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration were all significantly more common in patients with functional iron deficiency than in those without functional iron deficiency (all P thrombocytosis (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.75; P=0.048). Thromboembolic events occurred in 32 patients (6.6%). This was not significantly associated with functional iron deficiency. Our results suggest that in patients without haematological malignancy or recent chemotherapy there might be a link between functional iron deficiency and reactive thrombocytosis. Whether treating patients with functional iron deficiency with intravenous iron corrects reactive thrombocytosis without inducing infection remains uncertain, but merits further investigation.

  2. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

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    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  3. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism:A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; XI Qian Qian; WU Jun; HAN Yu; DAI Wei; SU Yuan Yuan; ZHANG Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. Results There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ2=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ2=45.248, P=0.000; χ2=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ2=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. Conclusion The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  5. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

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    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  6. A Pilot Investigation regarding Speech-Recognition Performance in Noise for Adults with Hearing Loss in the FM+HA Listening Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. Samantha; Gallun, Frederick J.; Gordon, Jane; Lilly, David J.; Crandell, Carl

    2010-01-01

    While the concurrent use of the hearing aid (HA) microphone with frequency modulation (FM) technology can decrease speech-recognition performance, the FM+HA condition is still an important setting for users of both HA and FM technology. The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of attenuating HA gain in the FM+HA listening…

  7. Backfilling and closure of the deep repository. Phase 3 - pilot tests to verify engineering feasibility. Geotechnical investigations made on unsaturated backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The investigations described in this report is a part of the third phase of the joint SKB-Posiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO'. The overall objective of the BACLO project is to develop backfilling concept for the deep repository that can be configured to meet SKB's and Posiva's requirements in the chosen repository sites. The project was divided into four phases, of which two have already been performed. The second phase of the BACLO project consisted of laboratory tests and deepened analyses of the investigated backfill materials and methods and resulted in recommendation to focus on the development and testing of the block placement concept with three alternative backfill materials. The third phase investigations comprise of laboratory and large-scale experiments aiming at testing the engineering feasibility of the concept. In addition, how site-specific constraints, backfilling method and materials affect the long-term functions of the barriers will be described and analysed in order to set design specifications for the backfill. The third phase of the BACLO project is divided into several subprojects. The work described in this report belongs to subproject 1 concerning processes during installation and saturation of the backfill that may affect the long-term function of the bentonite buffer and the backfill itself. One of the main functions of backfill is to restrict buffer expansion which can lead to decrease in buffer density in the deposition hole. The criterion used as a basis for the Baclo investigations was that the buffer density at saturation should not be below 1,950 kg/m3 at the level of the canister. The same criterion was applied for the work described in this report. The upward swelling of the buffer and the enclosed compression of the backfill was first studied assuming that both the buffer and the backfill were saturated. The main objective of this work was to study a case where the buffer is

  8. The "case-chaos study" as an adjunct or alternative to conventional case-control study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Iain A; Mook, Piers; Adak, Goutam K; O'Brien, Sarah J; McCarthy, Noel D

    2012-09-15

    Case-control studies are important in infectious disease epidemiology for rapidly identifying and controlling risks, but challenges, including the need for speed, can place practical restrictions on control selection and recruitment. The biased comparisons that result can hamper or, worse, mislead investigators. Following a 2009 outbreak of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with a petting farm in southeast England, it was hypothesized that case behavior alone could be used to identify risks. Case-patients' exposures were randomized on a case-by-case basis, and the resulting permuted data were compared with the actual events preceding illness by conditional logistic regression analysis. There was good agreement between the risks identified by using our new method and the risks elicited in the original outbreak case-control studies. This was also the case in analysis of 2 further historical outbreaks. These initial findings suggest that the technique, which we have called the "case-chaos" technique, appeared to be useful in this setting. Analysis of simulated data supports this view. Circumventing the need for traditional control data has the potential to reduce outbreak investigation lead times, leading to earlier interventions and reduced morbidity and mortality. However, further validation is necessary, coupled with an awareness of limitations of the method.

  9. Association between long travel and venous thromboembolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Santos, A Javier; Jiménez-Puente, Alberto; Perea-Milla, Emilio

    2008-02-01

    The term "economy-class syndrome" defines an infrequent episode of venous thromboembolism (VTED) related to a long travel, namely by plane. However, this relation has not clearly been demonstrated by investigators. We carried out a systematic review and a meta-analysis of cases-control studies that had studied this topic. We realised a systematic review of the literature and selected all the case-control studies published. Two authors carried out a methodological evaluation according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network items (concordance was analysed by weighted kappa index), and a systematic analysis of the potential biases of each study was assessed. We carried out the meta-analysis with the data extracted from the studies. We recovered eight cases-control studies. The relation between the antecedent of a long travel and subsequent VTED varied from OR = 1.1 to OR = 4.0 and was found to be significant in four studies. The studies were highly heterogeneous in methodology and so the results obtained about the relation between the long travel and the VTED and the score at SIGN50. Two meta-analysis were carried out: only with travels by plane in which the relation was not significant (OR = 1.21; CI 95%, 0.95-1.55) and with all types of transport, with a slightly significant relation (OR = 1.46; CI95%, 1.24-1.72). We may deduce from this systematic review that there does exist a weak association between episodes of VTED and a long travel, but not by plane specifically. The heterogeneity and the methodological quality of the studies published preclude of more robust conclusions.

  10. Does Breastfeeding Protect Young Infants From Pertussis? Case-control Study and Immunologic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Gesualdo, Francesco; Carloni, Emanuela; Villani, Alberto; Midulla, Fabio; Carsetti, Rita; Stefanelli, Paola; Fedele, Giorgio; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case-control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. Hospitalized infants breastfeeding on pertussis was investigated through multivariable analysis. Breast milk and blood samples were obtained from mothers of patients. IgA and bacterial binding against Bordetella pertussis and other bacteria were tested in breast milk. IgG against pertussis toxin (PT) was tested in serum. We enrolled 296 patients (61 cases and 235 controls). Exclusive breastfeeding was not associated with pertussis compared with partial breastfeeding/artificial feeding [odds ratio: 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-4.67]. Children with siblings were at higher risk for pertussis (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.21-5.35). IgA against pertussis antigens were not higher in cases (IgA anti-PT median = 0.24 optical density) compared with controls (IgA anti-PT median = 0.21 optical density). Though bacterial binding to B. pertussis, measured in breast milk, was higher in cases (median = 4.35%) compared with controls (median = 2.8%; P = 0.004), bacterial binding to B. pertussis was low compared with other pathogens. IgG titers were higher in mothers of cases, but no correlation was found between serum IgG and breast milk IgA. Breastfeeding remains a mainstay of prevention for numerous diseases, though it does not seem to play a role against pertussis. Alternative strategies to protect unvaccinated infants from pertussis should be considered.

  11. Metabolic markers or conditions preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R; Ahlskog, J Eric; Rocca, Walter A

    2012-07-01

    Several metabolic markers or conditions have been explored as possible risk or protective factors for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results remain conflicting. We further investigated these associations using a case-control study design. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to abstract information about body mass index (BMI), cholesterol level, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus preceding the onset of PD (or the index year). There were no significant differences between cases and controls for the metabolic markers or conditions investigated. No significant associations were found using 2 cutoffs for BMI level (BMI ≥ 25 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) and 3 cutoffs for cholesterol levels (>200, >250, or >300 mg/dL). Neither a diagnosis of hypertension or the documented use of antihypertensive medications was significantly associated with the subsequent risk of PD (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.54; P = .99) nor was a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or the use of glucose-lowering medications (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.37-1.57; P = .47). Our study, based on historical information from a records-linkage system, does not support an association between BMI, cholesterol level, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus with later development of PD.

  12. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  13. Tuberculosis and indoor biomass and kerosene use in Nepal: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Amod K; Bates, Michael N; Verma, Sharat C; Joshi, Hari S; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Smith, Kirk R

    2010-04-01

    In Nepal, tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem. Worldwide, six previous epidemiologic studies have investigated whether indoor cooking with biomass fuel such as wood or agricultural wastes is associated with TB with inconsistent results. Using detailed information on potential confounders, we investigated the associations between TB and the use of biomass and kerosene fuels. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal. Cases (n = 125) were women, 20-65 years old, with a confirmed diagnosis of TB. Age-matched controls (n = 250) were female patients without TB. Detailed exposure histories were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Compared with using a clean-burning fuel stove (liquefied petroleum gas, biogas), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for using a biomass-fuel stove was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.48-3.05], whereas use of a kerosene-fuel stove had an OR of 3.36 (95% CI, 1.01-11.22). The OR for use of biomass fuel for heating was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.44-8.27) and for use of kerosene lamps for lighting was 9.43 (95% CI, 1.45-61.32). This study provides evidence that the use of indoor biomass fuel, particularly as a source of heating, is associated with TB in women. It also provides the first evidence that using kerosene stoves and wick lamps is associated with TB. These associations require confirmation in other studies. If using kerosene lamps is a risk factor for TB, it would provide strong justification for promoting clean lighting sources, such as solar lamps.

  14. Associations between central obesity and asthma in children and adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsakis, Constantina; Chondronikola, Maria; Antonogeorgos, Georgios; Papadakou, Eleni; Matziou, Vasiliki; Drakouli, Maria; Konstantaki, Evanthia; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Priftis, Kostas N

    2015-03-01

    Evidence supports a significant yet weak association between high-body weight and asthma in children. However, most studies investigating the obesity-asthma link use Body Mass Index (BMI) to evaluate body fatness. The relationship between body fat distribution and asthma remains largely unknown, especially in children. This pediatric case-control investigation examined associations between central obesity/high-body weight and asthma diagnosis. Five-hundred and fourteen children (217 physician diagnosed asthma cases and 297 healthy controls) of 5-11 years were recruited. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Asthma symptoms, past medical history, personal lifestyle, socioeconomic status, diet and physical activity history were also collected. A higher proportion of children with asthma were centrally obese [(≥90th waist percentile) 15.2 vs. 9.4%, pchildren were more likely to have asthma (high-waist circumference (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.07-3.68) and high-waist circumference to height ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.47-3.40), following adjustment for various confounders. Overweight/obese participants (BMI defined) were more likely to be asthmatic [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.70)] when compared to controls. Presence of central obesity and high-body weight (at least overweight) as assessed by waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and BMI are associated with asthma diagnosis. More studies are needed, especially in children and adolescents, to confirm these findings and better understand how body fat distribution impacts the obesity-asthma relationship.

  15. An investigation of EEG, genetic and cognitive markers of treatment response to antidepressant medication in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, D; Arns, M; Barnett, K J; Cooper, N J; Gordon, E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if biomarkers in QEEG, genetic and neuropsychological measures are suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome in depression. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder were assessed twice, pretreatment and at 8-wk follow-up, on a variety of QEEG and neuropsychological tasks. Additionally, cheek swab samples were collected to assess genetic predictors of treatment outcome. The primary outcome measure was the absolute decrease on the HAM-D rating scale. Regression models were built in order to investigate which markers contribute most to the decrease in absolute HAM-D scores. Patients who had a better clinical outcome were characterized by a decrease in the amplitude of the Auditory Oddball N1 at baseline. The 'Met/Met' variant of the COMT gene was the best genetic predictor of treatment outcome. Impaired verbal memory performance was the best cognitive predictor. Raised frontal Theta power was the best EEG predictor of change in HAM-D scores. A tentative integrative model showed that a combination of N1 amplitude at Pz and verbal memory performance accounted for the largest part of the explained variance. These markers may serve as new biomarkers suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome.

  16. Variation in the Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) Gene Is Associated with Keratoconus in Family-Based and Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Li, Xiaohui; Epifantseva, Irina; Haritunians, Talin; Siscovick, David; Aldave, Anthony; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rabinowitz, Yaron S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Keratoconus is a bilateral noninflammatory progressive corneal disorder with complex genetic inheritance and a common cause for cornea transplantation in young adults. A genomewide linkage scan in keratoconus families identified a locus at 5q23.2, overlapping the gene coding for the lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX encodes an enzyme responsible for collagen cross-linking in a variety of tissues including the cornea. Corneal collagen cross-linking with long-wave ultraviolet light and riboflavin is a promising new treatment for keratoconus. To determine whether LOX is a genetic determinant of the pathogenesis of keratoconus, we analyzed association results of LOX polymorphisms in two independent case-control samples and in keratoconus families. Methods. Association results were analyzed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOX gene from a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) investigation in two independent panels of patients with keratoconus and controls and in keratoconus families. Results. Evidence of association was found at SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 located in intron 4 of LOX in the GWAS discovery case-control panel with P values of 2.3 × 10−3 and 7 × 10−3, respectively. The same two SNPs were found to be associated with keratoconus by family-based association testing with P values of 2.7 × 10−3 and 7.7 × 10−4, respectively. Meta P values of 4.0 × 10−5 and 4.0 × 10−7 were calculated for SNPs rs10519694 and rs2956540 by analyzing case-control and family samples simultaneously. Sequencing of LOX exons in a subset of keratoconus patients identified two polymorphisms, rs1800449 and rs2288393, located in LOX transcripts I and II, associated with keratoconus in case-control and family samples with a meta P value of 0.02. Conclusions. Results provided strong genetic evidence that LOX variants lead to increased susceptibility to developing of keratoconus. PMID:22661479

  17. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  18. A proteomic investigation of B lymphocytes in an autistic family: a pilot study of exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) may lead to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Zhao, Xin-liang; Ju, Weina; Zou, Xiao-bing; Huo, Li-rong; Yan, Wu; Zou, Jun-hua; Yan, Guo-di; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Zhong, Nanbert

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a multi-factorial neurodevelopmental disorder. We have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in a Chinese family with autism by a proteomic approach. Antibody chips containing 500 spots of human protein antibodies were used to screen for differentially expressed proteins in the peripheral B lymphocytes between autistic and non-autistic siblings in this family. Four proteins relevant to immuno-pathway, including IKKα that was up-regulated and Tyk2, EIF4G1 and PRKCI that were down-regulated, were identified differentially expressed in autistic versus non-autistic siblings. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction validated the differential expression of these four proteins. Based on the function of these differentially expressed proteins, relevant studies on immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, nuclear factor kappa B signaling activation and cell cycle were conducted in both autistic and non-autistic children of this family. Considering the fact that the family members were in close contact with natural rubber latex (NRL) and that IgE-mediated cross-reactions could be triggered by Hevea brasiliensis (Hev-b) proteins in NRL, we hypothesize that immune reactions triggered by close contact with NRL might influence the functions of B lymphocytes by altering expression of certain proteins identified in our experiments thus contributing to the occurrence of autism.

  19. CFD simulation and experimental investigation of the copper solvent extraction in a pilot plant pulsed packed column in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Maryam; Sarrafi, Amir; Hashemipour, Hasan; Baghaie, Ali; Molaeinasab, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Present work deals with the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for investigate the extraction of copper from leach solution with the Lix84-I. The model is based on Eulerian-Eulerian two phase equations in conjunction with the realizable k-ɛ model for turbulence. Population balance modeling (PBM) is used to describe the dynamics of the time and space variation of droplet sizes in the column. The PBM equation is solved using the class method. The mass transfer is the important parameters which can improve the performance of pulsed column and changes widely with the variation in the droplet number density. Valid empirical correlations were implemented to the CFD model for mass transfer coefficients by user defined functions. To validate the model, the results of CFD model and experimental measurements were compared and there was a good agreement between them. The effects of flow rates and intensity of pulsation on the yield of copper extraction and entrainment of the organic phase were studied. The results shown that increasing the phase ratio (the flow rate of organic phase/aqueous phase) from 0.5 to 1.75, caused yield of copper extraction from leach solution increased from 31 to 91%. The organic entrainment increased with increasing the pulse intensity and phase flow rates. Additionally, the results show that the performance of the pulsed packed column for copper extraction is reasonable.

  20. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  1. Radiogenomics of glioblastoma: a pilot multi-institutional study to investigate a relationship between tumor shape features and tumor molecular subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Nicholas M.; Clark, Kal; Peters, Katherine B.; Collins, Leslie M.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2016-03-01

    Genomic subtype has been shown to be an important predictor of therapy response for patients with glioblastomas. Unfortunately, obtaining the genomic subtype is an expensive process that is not typically included in the standard of care. It is therefore of interest to investigate potential surrogates of molecular subtypes that use standard diagnostic data such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this study, we analyze the relationship between tumor genomic subtypes, proposed by Verhaak et al, 2010, and novel features that capture the shape of abnormalities as seen in fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images. In our study, we used data from 54 patients with glioblastomas from four institutions provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). We explore five shape features calculated by computer algorithms implemented in our laboratory that assess shape both in individual slices and in rendered three-dimensional tumor volumes. The association between each feature and molecular subtype was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. We show that the two dimensional measures of edge complexity are significant discriminators between mesenchymal and classical tumors. These preliminary findings show promise for an imaging-based surrogate of molecular subtype and contribute to the understanding of the relationship between tumor biology and its radiology phenotype.

  2. Investigation of the stochastic nature of wave processes for renewable resources management: a pilot application in a remote island in the Aegean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Evangelos; Manou, Georgia; Georganta, Xristina; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Tyralis, Hristos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Tsoukala, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    The large energy potential of ocean dynamics is not yet being efficiently harvested mostly due to several technological and financial drawbacks. Nevertheless, modern renewable energy systems include wave and tidal energy in cases of nearshore locations. Although the variability of tidal waves can be adequately predictable, wind-generated waves entail a much larger uncertainty due to their dependence to the wind process. Recent research has shown, through estimation of the wave energy potential in coastal areas of the Aegean Sea, that installation of wave energy converters in nearshore locations could be an applicable scenario, assisting the electrical network of Greek islands. In this context, we analyze numerous of observations and we investigate the long-term behaviour of wave height and wave period processes. Additionally, we examine the case of a remote island in the Aegean sea, by estimating the local wave climate through past analysis data and numerical methods, and subsequently applying a parsimonious stochastic model to a theoretical scenario of wave energy production. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  3. A Pilot Study to Investigate the Role of Thymidylate Synthase as a Marker of Prognosis for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Gastric and Gastro-Oesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background. Patients in the United Kingdom with operable gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ tumours receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our aim was to study the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS enzyme in pre-treatment diagnostic biopsy specimens and investigate its clinical usefulness. Methods. A single-centre study was carried out in 45 patients with gastric and GOJ adenocarcinoma treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy according to the MAGIC protocol. TS expression was determined using immunohistochemistry. >10% tumour nuclei expression of TS was used as cut-off for positivity. Results. Forty-one (91% of the 45 tumours expressed TS. There was no association between TS expression and lymph node status (P = 0.80, histological response (P = 0.30, and recurrence (P = 0.55. On univariate analysis, only N-stage (P = 0.02 and vascular invasion (P = 0.04 were associated with a poor prognosis. Patients with negative tumour TS expression had better outcome than those with positive expression. The overall 5-year survival rate was 100% in the TS negative versus 56% in TS positive group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.17. Conclusion. TS expression should be studied in a larger series of gastro-oesophageal cancers as a potential prognostic marker of prognosis to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Pilot experimental investigation on preparation of nanometer calcium carbonate with microstructure reactor%微反应器制备纳米碳酸钙的中试实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁涛; 郑长征; 陈绪奎

    2011-01-01

    利用微反应器制备纳米碳酸钙,得到平均粒径在25 ~ 55nm之间的超细CaCO3颗粒.研究了不同操作条件对颗粒粒径的影响,并使用XRD、TEM、比表面积仪(BET)等仪器对样品进行了分析.结果表明,在优化条件下制得的纳米CaCO3颗粒有很好的分散性能,同时CO2的利用率可达到80%以上.%Using the preparation of nanometer calcium carbonate microstructure reactor pilot experiment, Ultra-fine calcium carbonate particles with average crystal between 25-SSmn are produced by membrane dispersion precipitation technology. The influence of the different operating conditions on the particle size are investigated and the samples are analyzed by using XRD, TEM, specific surface area instrument (BET). The results show that the prepared nanometer calcium carbonate particles have good dispersibility under the optimum conditions,at the same time the utilization of CO2 up to 80%.

  5. Mixed Model Association with Family-Biased Case-Control Ascertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayeck, Tristan J; Loh, Po-Ru; Pollack, Samuela; Gusev, Alexander; Patterson, Nick; Zaitlen, Noah A; Price, Alkes L

    2017-01-05

    Mixed models have become the tool of choice for genetic association studies; however, standard mixed model methods may be poorly calibrated or underpowered under family sampling bias and/or case-control ascertainment. Previously, we introduced a liability threshold-based mixed model association statistic (LTMLM) to address case-control ascertainment in unrelated samples. Here, we consider family-biased case-control ascertainment, where case and control subjects are ascertained non-randomly with respect to family relatedness. Previous work has shown that this type of ascertainment can severely bias heritability estimates; we show here that it also impacts mixed model association statistics. We introduce a family-based association statistic (LT-Fam) that is robust to this problem. Similar to LTMLM, LT-Fam is computed from posterior mean liabilities (PML) under a liability threshold model; however, LT-Fam uses published narrow-sense heritability estimates to avoid the problem of biased heritability estimation, enabling correct calibration. In simulations with family-biased case-control ascertainment, LT-Fam was correctly calibrated (average χ(2) = 1.00-1.02 for null SNPs), whereas the Armitage trend test (ATT), standard mixed model association (MLM), and case-control retrospective association test (CARAT) were mis-calibrated (e.g., average χ(2) = 0.50-1.22 for MLM, 0.89-2.65 for CARAT). LT-Fam also attained higher power than other methods in some settings. In 1,259 type 2 diabetes-affected case subjects and 5,765 control subjects from the CARe cohort, downsampled to induce family-biased ascertainment, LT-Fam was correctly calibrated whereas ATT, MLM, and CARAT were again mis-calibrated. Our results highlight the importance of modeling family sampling bias in case-control datasets with related samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience.

  7. Patients' attitudes towards online dental information and a web-based virtual reality program for clinical dentistry: a pilot investigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Luo, En; Song, Enming; Xu, Xiangyang; Tan, Hongbao; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Yining; Li, Zhiyong

    2009-03-01

    This research investigated (1) the attitudes of dental patients toward searching online for dental information and (2) patients attitudes and expectations towards a web-based 3D virtual reality program for clinical dentistry. A questionnaire survey was conducted in six clinics across two cities in China. Dental patients visiting the six clinics were invited to participate in the study. All subjects browsed a webpage containing the 3D virtual reality dental program. The new media was supplemented as a consultive system for patients into the traditional pattern of seeking dental care procedure. Subjects then completed a questionnaire detailing their attitudes toward their experience with the software. The questionnaire responses were then collected and analyzed. 45% of respondents reported having searched information online before receiving dental care. Respondents held different attitudes towards the online dental information, with a majority reporting a reliance on it but with reservations. Over 50% of respondents held positive attitudes to the web-based virtual reality dental information program, while 21% reported negative views toward the new method. Most respondents reported that the web-based virtual reality program was superior to traditional static web pages, but only as a supplementary material. Respondents also indicated that internet speed may likely be a major determinant to their future usage of such a system. These findings indicate that a considerable portion of respondents conduct their own internet searches for related dental information before seeking professional advice on dental care. Most of the respondents reported positive attitudes towards a web-based virtual reality program for clinical dentistry. However, the current speed of internet connections in China is a major area of concern for the future application and uptake of web-based virtual reality dental software.

  8. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90...... with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and age (+/-5...

  9. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities, and 38 151 babies without any detected congenital abnormalities (control group). Results: Seventeen pregnant women (0.07%) were treated with sulfasalazine in the case group, and 26 (0.07%) in the control group. The overall adjusted adds ratio of congenital abnormalities after sulfasalazine...

  10. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes; Túlio Silva Pereira; Monize Ferreira Figueiredo de Carvalho; Joana Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2) was conducted. The case group included all children...

  11. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L. Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n=42 and healthy controls (CON, n=20 participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n=18, general fitness training (GFT, n=16, or a reference group without physical training (REF, n=8. Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle.

  12. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  13. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  14. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  15. Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, R R; Bunin, G R; Nass, C C; Meadows, A T

    1990-05-01

    Gestational and familial risk factors were investigated for their association with astrocytoma, the most frequently occurring brain tumor in children. A case-control study of 163 matched pairs was performed. Cases under 15 years of age at diagnosis in 1980-1986 were identified through the tumor registries of 8 hospitals in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases for age, race, and telephone area code and exchange. Maternal antinausea medications increased the risk of childhood astrocytoma [OR (odds ratio) = 2.0, P = 0.04]. Cured meat consumption during pregnancy was more common among cases (OR = 1.9, P = 0.07), and a significant trend with increasing frequency of consumption was observed (P = 0.04). Results for gestational exposure to marijuana (OR = 2.8, P = 0.07) were of borderline significance. Gestational exposure to neurally active medications, alcohol, and tobacco were not risk factors. There was a significant trend for cases to be of higher birth weight (P = 0.03). Mental retardation (OR = 3.0, P = 0.04) and cancer (OR = 1.7, P = 0.02) in a relative of the child significantly increased the risk of astrocytoma. Significantly increased risks were observed for brain tumors in relatives of children 0-4 years of age at diagnosis (OR = 6/0, P = 0.04). A significant protective effect was observed for maternal history of miscarriage or stillbirth (OR = 0.5, P = 0.01). The results of this study suggest that some gestational and familial factors may increase the risk of childhood astrocytoma.

  16. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034

  17. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real. © 2015 UICC.

  18. A case-control study of the relationship between gastric cancer and meat consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Neda; Hajifaraji, Majid; Fazel-tabar Malekshah, Akbar; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Despite the descending trends of gastric cancer in many parts of the world, its mortality rate has still remained high globally. Meat, red and processed meat in particular, may induce gastric carcinogenesis through potential mechanisms. However, the role of this dietary aspect in the risk of gastric cancer has not well been investigated so far. Therefore, we designed a study to assess the relation between meat consumption and the risk of gastric cancer in Golestan Province, a high- risk area for gastric malignancies in Iran. Subjects of this population-based case-control study included 190 histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer and 647 controls. Meat consumption was evaluated using a 116-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A lifestyle questionnaire also collected data concerning demographic features, anthropometric measures, and other known risk factors of gastric cancer. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation between meat intake and gastric cancer. After being adjusted for potential confounders, red meat intake was positively associated with gastric cancer which reached statistical significance (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01-3.47, Ptrend = 0.073). On the other hand, individuals in the highest quartile of white meat consumption had a statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer compared to those in the lowest quartile (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.68, Ptrend = 0.005).  We observed a positive association between red meat consumption and the risk of gastric cancer, and a reverse relationship regarding white meat intake and the risk of this malignancy.

  19. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The incidence of gastric cardia cancer has greatlyincreased in the past 2-3 decades, however, the risk factorsfor the disease are still not clearly understood. Theinvestigations among Chinese population on the risk factorsof gastric cardia cancer were also scarcely reported. Wetherefore conducted a case-control study in Fujian province,China, to investigate the potential risk and protective factorsof this disease.METHODS: 191 cardia and 190 non-cardia gastric cancercases, and a total of 222 control cases were included in thisstudy. Standard questionnaires were used in collectingepidemiological factors and the data were then analyzed bythe unconditional logistic regression model.RESULTS: As the factors such as age, gender, smoking,alcohol consumption, and family history of gastric cancerwere controlled, a multivariable analysis was conducted,which revealed that there was a significant correlationbetween the dietary habits such as irregular meal, over andfast eating, and the gastric cardia cancer with the odds ratios(ORs) of 4.2 (95 % confidence interval: 2.3-7.7), 4.7 (2.1-10.8), and 2.7 (1.3-5.3) respectively. Other correlations werealso observed between the gastric cardia cancer and theconsumption of salty fish or pickled vegetable, smoking,and the family cancer history with the ORs of 5.5 (1.4-19.5),1.8 (1.0-3.0), 2.1 (1.3-3.5), and 3.8 (2.3-6.2) respectively.In contrast, the negative correlations were found existingbetween the intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, the useof refrigerator, and the gastric cardia cancer, with the ORsof 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.2 (0.1-0.5), and 0.2 (0.1-0.4),respectively. However, dietary habits were associated lesswith non-cardia gastric cancer compared with its cardiacounterpart.CONCLUSION: Dietary habits might be one of the riskfactors for the cardia carcinogenesis among Chinesepopulation.

  20. Breast cancer risk and drinking water contaminated by wastewater: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Christopher H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated by wastewater is a potential source of exposure to mammary carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds from commercial products and excreted natural and pharmaceutical hormones. These contaminants are hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has a history of wastewater contamination in many, but not all, of its public water supplies; and the region has a history of higher breast cancer incidence that is unexplained by the population's age, in-migration, mammography use, or established breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to drinking water contaminated by wastewater increases the risk of breast cancer. Methods Participants were 824 Cape Cod women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988–1995 and 745 controls who lived in homes served by public drinking water supplies and never lived in a home served by a Cape Cod private well. We assessed each woman's exposure yearly since 1972 at each of her Cape Cod addresses, using nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N levels measured in public wells and pumping volumes for the wells. Nitrate-N is an established wastewater indicator in the region. As an alternative drinking water quality indicator, we calculated the fraction of recharge zones in residential, commercial, and pesticide land use areas. Results After controlling for established breast cancer risk factors, mammography, and length of residence on Cape Cod, results showed no consistent association between breast cancer and average annual nitrate-N (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.6 – 5.0 for ≥ 1.2 vs. Conclusion Results did not provide evidence of an association between breast cancer and drinking water contaminated by wastewater. The computer mapping methods used in this study to link routine measurements required by the Safe Drinking Water Act with interview data can enhance individual-level epidemiologic studies of multiple health

  1. Preeclampsia and toxic metals: a case-control study in Kinshasa, DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elongi Moyene, Jean-Pierre; Scheers, Hans; Tandu-Umba, Barthélémy; Haufroid, Vincent; Buassa-Bu-Tsumbu, Baudouin; Verdonck, Fons; Spitz, Bernard; Nemery, Benoit

    2016-04-05

    Preeclampsia is frequent in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), especially during the dry season. We tested whether preeclampsia was associated with exposure to environmental metals. Using a case-control design, 88 women hospitalized with preeclampsia (cases) and 88 healthy pregnant women from the antenatal clinic (controls) were included in the study; 67 and 109 women were enrolled during the rainy and dry season, respectively. The concentrations of 24 elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 24-h urine collections. Differences in the urinary excretion of metals were investigated between cases and controls, and the interaction with season was assessed. Cases and controls were well matched regarding age, parity and duration of pregnancy. In controls, the urinary concentrations of most elements were substantially higher than reference values for adults from industrially developed countries, e.g. for lead: geometric mean (GM) 8.0 μg/L [25(th)-75(th) percentile 3.1-13.8]. The daily urinary excretions of 14 metals were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia than in control women, e.g. for lead: GM 61 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 8-345) in women with preeclampsia vs 9 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 3-21) in controls (p toxic metals, especially lead, than control women, but also that this excretion exhibits seasonal variation, thus possibly explaining the high incidence and seasonal variation of preeclampsia in Kinshasa. Although the exact sources of this exposure are unknown, these findings underscore the need for preventing environmental exposures to lead and other toxic metals.

  2. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  3. Diet and alcohol as risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.

  4. Association of interleukin-22 polymorphisms with the colon cancer: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Xu, Weili; Zhang, Guojian; Ren, Pengtao; Zhao, Jing; Yan, Qinghui

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22), an IL-10 family cytokine produced by T cells and innate lymphoid cells, is implicated in inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of IL-22 polymorphisms with the colon cancer in a Chinese population. Five hundred forty colon cancer cases and 540 healthy controls were recruited in the case-control study. The fluorogenic 5' exonuclease assays were used for genotype analysis of three common polymorphisms (-429C/T, +1046T/A and +1995A/C) of the IL-22 gene. Colon cancer cases had a significantly higher frequency of IL-22-429 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24, 2.30; P=0.001] and -429T allele (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.14, 1.60; P=0.001) than healthy controls. The findings are still emphatic by the Bonferroni correction (Pcolon cancer, we found that colon cancer cases with poor differentiation had a significantly higher frequency of IL-22-429 TT genotype (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02, 2.07; P=0.04). When stratifying by the tumor location, tumor size, growth pattern and TNM stage of colon cancer, we found no statistical association. The IL-22 +1046T/A and IL-22 +1995A/C gene polymorphisms were not associated with colon cancer. Our findings suggested that the IL-22 -429C/T gene polymorphisms might be associated with colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  6. Sleep characteristics in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebela, Antonin; Novak, Tomas; Kemlink, David; Goetz, Michal

    2017-05-26

    Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. In addition, the participants completed 14 days of actigraphy to characterise sleep and wake patterns. The current psychopathology profile was assessed using Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher among OB than controls (headache after waking up, 17.9% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03; excessive daytime sleepiness, 38.5% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.004; apparent tiredness at wake-up times, 43.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.007 and nightmares, 21.6% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.01), but the differences between groups were not significant after adjusting for current psychopathology. OB had higher GBISS total score (parental version, p parents experience sleep disturbance symptoms, which was associated with psychopathology in this study. Prospective longitudinal sleep studies would clarify whether sleep disturbance could be a predictor of mood disorder onset in this high-risk population.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection and liver disease: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesenfeld Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii may cause liver disease. However, the impact of the infection in patients suffering from liver disease is unknown. Therefore, through a case-control study design, 75 adult liver disease patients attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and 150 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in patients (10/75; 13.3% and controls (16/150; 10.7%. Two (2.7% patients and 5 (3.3% controls had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies (P = 0.57. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma did not show any association with the diagnosis of liver disease. In contrast, seropositivity to Toxoplasma in patients was associated with consumption of venison and quail meat. Toxoplasma seropositivity was more frequent in patients with reflex impairment (27.8% than in patients without this impairment (8.8% (P = 0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma seropositivity in patients was associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 8.69; 95% CI: 1.02-73.71; P = 0.04 and rabbit meat (OR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.06-19.98; P = 0.04. Conclusions Seropositivity to Toxoplasma was comparable among liver disease patients and controls. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of Toxoplasma with liver disease. Consumption of venison, and rabbit, sheep, and quail meats may warrant further investigation.

  8. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  9. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - a matched case control study.

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    Madaras, Lilla; Kovács, Kristóf Attila; Szász, Attila Marcell; Kenessey, István; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Székely, Borbála; Baranyák, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Orsolya; Dank, Magdolna; Kulka, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), associated in situ lesions and IHC charcteristics: ER, PgR, HER2, Ki67, p53 were recorded, IHC-based subtype was assessed, clinical, management and outcome data were analysed. Thirty-one breast cancer cases were pregnancy related. Clinical management data did not differ in cases and controls. Histopathology of disease at presentation was not significantly different, but NPI assessed the PABC group as having poor, whereas controls as having intermediate prognosis. Associated in situ lesion was more often high grade Extensive Intraductal Carcinoma Component (EIC) in PABC. Triple negative and LuminalB prol tumors predominated in PABC. Disease-free and overall survival was inferior compared to controls. PABC patients with LuminalB prol and Triple negative tumors had inferior outcomes. On multivariate analysis inferior prognosis of PABC was associated with pregnancy. Our study has demonstrated inferior outcome of PABC. Difference in tumor biology is reflected by the predominance of triple negative and LuminalB tumors in PABC. The strength of the study is the analysis of complete pathology and IHC data.

  10. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

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    Wagner Brant Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Centro de Quimioterapia Antiblástica e Imunoterapia in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 87 PABC and 252 control patients. The influence of covariables (interval between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor histology, size of primary tumor, distant metastasis, grade of malignancy, hormone receptor status and axillary lymph node involvement and the pregnancy variable on overall survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival for PABC patients of 30.1 months (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.4-40.9 months was significantly different (P = 0.005 from that of the control group (53.1 months; 95% CI: 35.1-71.0 months. The cumulative overall survivals after five and ten years were, respectively, 29.7 and 19.2% for PABC patients, and 47.3 and 34.8% for control patients (P = 0.005. Tumor size, grade of malignancy, distant metastasis and pregnancy were independent factors that significantly modified disease prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy was an independent prognostic factor. The overall survival of PABC patients was shorter than that of non-pregnant patients.

  11. Correlation of serum fructosamine and recurrent pregnancy loss: Case-control study.

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    Romero, Stephanie T; Sharshiner, Rita; Stoddard, Gregory J; Ware Branch, D; Silver, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Pre-gestational diabetes is associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy loss, but it is unclear whether subclinical glucose intolerance is associated with pregnancy loss, especially recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of this study was therefore to compare maternal serum fructosamine (a marker of glycemic control) in patients with and without RPL. A case-control study was carried out of 117 women with unexplained RPL, defined as two or more pregnancy losses with no more than one live birth, and 117 age-matched controls with at least one full-term uncomplicated pregnancy and no more than one pregnancy loss. No RPL patients or controls had a clinical diagnosis of pre-gestational or gestational diabetes. Maternal serum was analyzed for fructosamine on quantitative spectrophotometry. Mean body mass index (BMI) of RPL patients was 26.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) compared with 26.6 ± 5.8 kg/m(2) (P = 0.40). Fructosamine was higher in women with RPL (224.1 ± 28.79 μmol/mL) compared with controls (188.9 ± 19.3 μmol/mL, P 285 μmol/L) was similar in RPL patients and controls. The RPL patients and controls had a similar proportion of women with elevated fructosamine considered diagnostic of diabetes. Serum fructosamine was increased in women with RPL compared with controls. Thus, subclinical glucose intolerance may be associated with an increased risk of RPL. These data support further investigation into the mechanisms of RPL associated with glucose intolerance, but do not support testing for subclinical glucose intolerance in women with RPL. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct

  13. Speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with septic shock: a case control study (SPECKSS).

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    Ng, Pauline Yeung; Sin, Wai Ching; Ng, Andrew Kei-Yan; Chan, Wai Ming

    2016-05-14

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a well-recognized condition and confers worse outcomes in septic patients. Echocardiographic assessment by conventional parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often affected by ongoing changes in preload and afterload conditions. Novel echocardiographic technologies such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have evolved for direct assessment of the myocardial function. We investigate the measurement of myocardial strain by speckle tracking echocardiography for the diagnosis of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction. This is a case-control study at a university-affiliated medical intensive care unit. Consecutive adult medical patients admitted with a diagnosis of septic shock were included. Patients with other causes of myocardial dysfunction were excluded. They were compared to age-matched, gender-matched, and cardiovascular risk-factor-matched controls, who were admitted to hospital for sepsis but did not develop septic shock. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all patients within 24 hours of diagnosis, and a reassessment echocardiogram was performed in the study group of patients upon recovery. Patients with septic shock (n = 33) (study group) and 29 matched patients with sepsis but no septic shock (control group) were recruited. The mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score for the study and control groups were 10.2 and 1.6, respectively (P Speckle tracking echocardiography can detect significant left ventricular impairment in patients with septic shock, which was not otherwise detectable by conventional echocardiography. The reversible nature of myocardial dysfunction in sepsis was also demonstrable. This echocardiographic technique is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction.

  14. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

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    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  15. Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas: a multicentric case-control study in Europe.

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    Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bertoni, Franco; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Buemi, Antoine; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Kaerlev, Linda; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Merler, Enzo; Miranda, Ana; Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsson, Håkan; Fletcher, Tony; Olsen, Jorn

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the association between occupational factors and risk of bone sarcoma, a rare tumor with a largely unknown aetiology. A multicentric case-control study was conducted in 7 European countries in 1995-97. Ninety-six cases aged 35-69 years with a centrally reviewed diagnosis of bone sarcoma (68 chondrosarcomas and 28 osteosarcomas) were compared to 2,632 population (68%) or colon cancer (32%) controls. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on occupational, medical and reproductive history, smoking and alcohol consumption and selected exposures including use of pesticides. Response proportions were 90% among cases and 66% among controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for selected categories of job titles and branches of industry and for use of pesticides. We found an increased OR for bone sarcoma among blacksmiths, toolmakers, machine-tool operators (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.26), woodworkers (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.36-5.29) and construction workers (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 0.92-2.87). Ever users of pesticide had an OR of 2.33 (95% CI 1.31-4.13), with similar risks for exposure to insecticides and exposure to herbicides. Neither duration of employment in any of the analyzed occupational categories nor duration of use of pesticides showed an increasing trend in the risk of bone sarcoma. ORs of bone sarcoma were 1.03 (95% CI 0.23-4.57), 3.13 (95% CI 1.26-7.76) and 1.44 (95% CI 0.43-4.85) for the first, second and third tertile of days of use of pesticides. Our study suggests that novel and previously reported (woodworking) occupational factors play a role in the aetiology of bone sarcomas.

  16. Effects of unplanned pregnancy on neonatal health in Turkey: a case-control study.

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    Karaçam, Zekiye; Şen, Emine; Amanak, Keziban

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of unplanned pregnancy on neonatal health. This is a retrospective case-control study and included 314 babies selected with a non-probability method. Data were collected with a questionnaire of descriptive characteristics and neonatal health and Parent Infant Interaction Assessment Scale. A significantly higher rate of the babies born to the women with unplanned pregnancy had meconium in their amniotic fluid (14.6% vs. 7.0%; P = 0.029), needed special care (20.4% vs. 11.5%; P = 0.031) and were kept in the incubators (12.7% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.009). Both the babies born to the women with unplanned pregnancy and the babies born to the women with planned pregnancy were first fed with breast milk (96.8% of the unplanned group; 98.1% of the planned group), but a higher rate of the babies born to the women with unplanned pregnancy had problems with breast-feeding. (19.1% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.000). The babies born to the women with unplanned pregnancy got significantly lower scores on Parent Infant Interaction Assessment Scale (4.86 ± 1.98 in the unplanned group; 8.52 ± 1.43 in the planned group; P = 0.000). We found that a higher rate of the babies born to the women with unplanned pregnancy needed special care, had problems with breast-feeding and negative parent-infant interaction. We recommend that women with unplanned pregnancy should be given priority on prenatal, intrapartum and postpartum care and that measures which protect and promote neonatal health should be taken.

  17. Postnatal risk factors for testicular cancer: The EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, Giovenale; Zugna, Daniela; Grasso, Chiara; Mirabelli, Dario; Lista, Patrizia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-07-12

    Testicular cancer is considered to originate from an impaired differentiation of fetal germ cells, but puberty could represent another time window of susceptibility. Our study aimed at investigating the association between environmental exposures acting during puberty/adolescence (13-19 years of age) and the risk of testicular cancer. We used data of the EPSAM study, a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer conducted in the province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 255) and controls (n = 459) completed a postal questionnaire focusing in particular on the pubertal period (namely age 13 years) with questions on physical activity (competitive sports, gardening), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking), occupational history and medical conditions. All analyses were adjusted for the matching variables, cryptorchidism and educational level. Having done at least one competitive sport during puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.00), gardening activities during puberty (OR: 0.62, 0.42-0.94) and having a lower weight than peers during puberty (OR: 0.64, 0.42-0.97) were all inversely associated with the risk of testicular cancer. No evidence of association between smoking or alcohol consumption during puberty and the risk of testicular cancer was observed. Regarding agriculture-related occupations, we found an association with the risk of testicular cancer both for occasional jobs during puberty (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.08-5.29) and ever employment in adolescence (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.83-8.10). Our results suggest that postnatal exposures could play a role in testicular cancer aetiology, at least when acting in puberty or adolescence. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

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    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  19. Case-control study of student-perpetrated physical violence against educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberich, Susan G; Nachreiner, Nancy M; Ryan, Andrew D; Church, Timothy R; McGovern, Patricia M; Geisser, Mindy S; Mongin, Steven J; Watt, Gavin D; Feda, Denise M; Sage, Starr K; Pinder, Evette D

    2014-05-01

    Although prior research focused primarily on student-on-student school violence, educators are also at risk. This study was designed to identify risk factors for assaults against educators. Kindergarten-grade 12 educators (n = 26,000), randomly selected from a state license database, were screened for eligibility (6,469, eligible) by mailed questionnaire. Phase 1 (12-month recall) identified eligible assault cases (n = 372) and controls (n = 1,116), June 2004 to December 2005; phase 2 (case-control study; response, 78%) enabled identification of exposures through 1-month recall before student-perpetrated assaults (cases) and randomly selected months (controls). Directed acyclic graphs enabled confounder selection for multivariable logistic regression analyses; reweighting adjusted for potential biases. Risks (odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals) increased for working in: Special Education (5.84; 4.07-8.39) and School Social Work (7.18; 2.72-18.91); kindergarten to second grade (1.81; 1.18-2.77); urban (1.95; 1.38-2.76) schools; schools with less than 50 (8.40; 3.12-22.63), 50-200 (3.67; 1.84-7.34), 201-500 (2.09; 1.32-3.29), and 501-1000 (1.94; 1.25-3.01) students versus more than 1000; schools with inadequate resources always/frequently (1.62; 1.05-2.48) versus infrequently/never; inadequate building safety always/frequently (4.48; 2.54-7.90) versus infrequently/never; and environments with physical barriers (1.50; 1.07-2.10). Risks decreased with routine locker searches (0.49; 0.29-0.85) and accessible exits (0.36; 0.17-0.74). Identification of assault risk factors provides a basis for further investigation and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Duration of labor and the risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage: A case-control study

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    Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Forsén, Lisa; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our main objective was to investigate the association between duration of active labor and severe postpartum hemorrhage. We examined the effect of the total duration of active labor, the effect of each stage of active labor, and the gradient effect of duration of labor on severe postpartum hemorrhage. Methods A case-control study was generated from a source population of all women admitted for delivery at Oslo University Hospital and Drammen Hospital in Buskerud municipality during the time period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011. The study population included all cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage (n = 859) and a random sample of controls (n = 1755). Severe postpartum hemorrhage was defined as postpartum blood loss ≥1500 mL or need for blood transfusion. Prolonged labor was defined as duration of active labor >12 hours according to the definition of the World Health Organization. We used logistic multivariable regression in the analysis. Results We observed a significantly longer mean duration of labor in women who experienced severe postpartum hemorrhage compared to controls (5.4 versus 3.8 hours, plabor compared to controls. The association between the duration of active labor and severe postpartum changed from a linear dose-response association to a threshold association after adjusting for augmentation with oxytocin, induction of labor, primiparity, and fever during labor. Compared to controls, women with severe postpartum hemorrhage were more likely to have a prolonged labor >12 hours (adjusted odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.69–3.53, plabor (duration >12 hours) was associated with severe postpartum hemorrhage. Increased vigilance seems required when the labor is prolonged to reduce the risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:28384337

  1. Clinical features and risk factors for atazanavir (ATV-associated urolithiasis: a case-control study.

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    Matthieu Lafaurie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical features and risk factors for atazanavir (ATV-associated urolithiasis have not been fully investigated. METHODS: We reviewed all cases of ATV-containing urolithiasis identified by infrared spectrophotometry among HIV-infected patients over a 5-year period to describe their clinical features and outcome. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with ATV-associated urolithiasis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: 30 cases of ATV-associated urolithiasis were analyzed. Patients were mostly men (87%, median age: 45.5 years, median CD4 cell count: 443 cells/µL and 97% had plasma HIV RNA level <50 cp/mL. Median time between the initiation of ATV-containing regimen and the diagnosis of urolithiasis was 3.1 years. Patients presented with flank pain in 90% and macroscopic hematuria in 82.6%, 34% had renal dysfunction and 44.8% needed ureteroscopic treatment. In univariate analysis, chronic hepatitis C, a history of urolithiasis, prior use of indinavir, ATV duration, undetectable plasma HIV RNA, use of ritonavir as a booster and serum free bilirubin level were associated with ATV-urolithiasis. Multivariate models retained serum free bilirubin level (OR: 2.31, p<0.02 and either ATV duration (OR:  = 1.42, p = <0.03 or a history of urolithiasis (OR = 4.79, p<0.02 when adjusting on serum free bilirubin level as risk factors associated with urolithiasis. CONCLUSIONS: ATV-containing urolithiasis are associated with frank clinical symptoms and may require surgical intervention. A high serum bilirubin level, a long exposure to ATV and a history of urolithiasis are risk factors for this rare adverse event.

  2. Caregiver-related predictors of thermal burn injuries among Iranian children: A case-control study

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    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza; Ayubi, Erfan; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Pakzad, Reza; Sullman, Mark J. M.; Safiri, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Burns are a common and preventable cause of injury in children. The aim of this study was to investigate child and caregiver characteristics which may predict childhood burn injuries among Iranian children and to examine whether confounding exists among these predictors. Methods A hospital based case-control study was conducted using 281 burn victims and 273 hospital-based controls, which were matched by age, gender and place of residence (rural/urban). The characteristics of the children and their caregivers were analyzed using crude and adjusted models to test whether these were predictors of childhood burn injuries. Results The age of the caregiver was significantly lower for burn victims than for the controls (Pcaregiver spent outdoors with the child and their economic status had a significant positive association with the odds of a burn injury (Pcaregivers was independently associated with the child's odds of suffering a burn injury (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.21). The research also found that children with ADHD (Inattentive subscale: Crude OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.16–3.95, Adjusted OR = 5.65, 95% CI: 2.53–12.61; Hyperactive subscale: Crude OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23–2.41, Adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.65–3.87) also had increased odds of suffering a burn injury. However, several variables were identified as possible negative confounder variables, as the associations were stronger in the multivariate model than in the crude models. Conclusion The caregiver's characteristics which were predictors of burn injuries among Iranian children were: being younger, high socio-economic status, Type A behavioural pattern and spending more time outdoors. In addition, the relationship between a child's ADHD scores and the odds of a burn injury may be negatively confounded by the caregivers predictor variables. PMID:28151942

  3. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

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    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  4. Dietary inflammatory index and odds of colorectal cancer in a case-control study from Jordan.

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    Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Steck, Susan E; Hofseth, Lorne J; Shehadah, Ihab; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis; Tayyem, Reema

    2017-07-01

    Dietary components that promote inflammation of the colon have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The possible link between inflammatory potential of diet and CRC has been investigated in several developed or Western countries. Despite the fact that dietary choices in the Middle East differ markedly from those in the West, results have not been reported from any study conducted in a Middle-Eastern population. We examined the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores and CRC in a case-control study conducted in Jordan. This study included 153 histopathologically confirmed CRC cases and 202 disease-free control subjects' frequency matched on age, sex, and occupation. Data were collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interviewer-administered questionnaires. DII scores were computed from dietary data reported using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, education, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, and family history of CRC. Subjects with higher DII scores were at increased odds of CRC, with the DII being used both as a continuous variable (ORcontinuous = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.13-1.85; 1-unit increase corresponding to ≈20% of its range in the current study) and as a categorical variable (ORtertile 3 vs tertile 1 = 2.13, 95%CI: 1.23-3.72). Our results, based on a Jordanian population, add to the growing literature indicating that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased odds of CRC.

  5. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for premature myocardial infarction in Iranian patients: A case control study

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    Mohammad Shojaie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Shojaie, Morteza Pourahmad, Ahad Eshraghian, Hamid Reza Izadi, Farzan NaghshvarPeymanieh Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Fars, IranBackground: Premature myocardial infarction with life-threatening complications may become epidemic in some Asian and African countries and especially Iran. Fibrinogen is considered as one of the probable risk factors of myocardial infarction. The aim of our study was to assess fibrinogen levels as an etiology of premature myocardial infarction in young Iranian men.Findings: A case-control study was conducted between May 2005 and May 2007 to investigate the association between serum total fibrinogen level and myocardial infarction in men aged younger than 55 years admitted to the cardiac care units of Peymanieh and Motahari Hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The mean age of patients was 45.2 ± 4 years in patients with premature myocardial infarction and 47.06 ± 4.5 years in the control group (p = 0.085. There were no statistically significant relationships between the two groups in history of premature myocardial infarction in their first-degree relatives (p = 0.05, cigarette smoking (p = 0.46, diabetes (p = 0.49, or hypertension (p = 1. The mean plasma fibrinogen in patients (354.9 ± 60 mg/dL was elevated markedly compared with the control group (329 ± 73 mg/dL. Hyperfibrinogenemia (>340 mg/dL was detected in 81.8% of patients and 57.5% of controls (95% confidence interval, odds ratio = 3.3; p = 0.036.Conclusion: This study introduced fibrinogen as a risk factor for premature coronary artery disease in Iranian men.Keywords: myocardial infarction, cigarette, hypertension, diabetes, fibrinogen

  6. Gender Specific Association of RAS Gene Polymorphism with Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

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    Kh. Dhanachandra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renin-angiotensin system (RAS polymorphisms have been studied as candidate risk factors for hypertension with inconsistent results, possibly due to heterogeneity among various genetic and environmental factors. A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three RAS genes: AGT M235T (rs699, ACE I/D (rs4340 and G2350A (rs4343, and AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186 in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 211 cases and 211 controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (OR-CI = 2.62 (1.24–5.76, P=0.006; OR-CI = 0.699 (0.518–0.943, P=0.018, respectively. When the samples were segregated based on sex, the 235TT genotype and T allele were predominant in the female patients (OR-CI = 5.68 (1.60-25.10, P=0.002; OR-CI = 0.522 (0.330–0.826, P=0.005 as compare to the male patients (OR-CI = 1.54 (1.24–5.76, P=0.34; OR-CI = 0.874 (0.330–0.826, P=0.506, respectively. For ACE DD variant, we found overrepresentation of “I”-allele (homozygous II and heterozygous ID in unaffected males which suggest its protective role in studied population (OR-CI = 0.401 (0.224–0.718; P=0.0009. The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with female hypertensives and ACE DD variant could be a risk allele for essential hypertension in south India.

  7. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

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    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  8. Food intake and colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Malaysia.

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    Ramadas, Amutha; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that almost all colorectal cancers arise from benign, neoplastic adenomatous polyps. In previous studies, intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes were found to decrease the risk for colorectal adenomas (CRA) and colorectal cancer. This case-control study aimed to evaluate the roles of a variety of foods in contributing to the risk of CRA in Malaysian subjects. One hundred and eighteen subjects were recruited into case (n=59) and control (n=59) groups at Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). A pre-tested quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to record the types of food items and frequency consumed. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios of the independent variables. Soy bean and soy products were associated with a reduced risk for CRA (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.98), while tubers were associated with increase in risk four-fold (OR = 4.14, 95% CI = 1.60-10.70) and red meat intake was found to increase the risk two and a half-fold (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.02-6.28). Higher servings of fruits and vegetables were found to significantly decrease the risk (OR fruits = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.30-0.74; OR vegetables = 0.49, 95% = 0.29-0.80). In conclusion, our data support protective roles for soy, fruits and vegetables in the aetiology of colorectal adenomas and increase in risk in those with high intakes of red meat and tubers. Food intake of an individual may have an influence on one's risk for developing CRA. This finding warrants further investigation before the protective effect of these food items is to be accepted. New studies should explore the possibility of these associations among individuals in the general population especially with regard to different ethnic or other groups in Malaysia with low fruit and vegetable consumption.

  9. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds.

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    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

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    Pessah Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders.

  11. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

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    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  12. Genetic association between BDNF gene polymorphisms and phobic disorders: a case-control study among mainland Han Chinese.

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    Xie, Bing; Wang, Binbin; Suo, Peisu; Kou, Changgui; Wang, Jing; Meng, Xiangfei; Cheng, Longfei; Ma, Xu; Yu, Yaqin

    2011-07-01

    Phobic disorders are a common group of syndromes comprising persistently recurring, irrational severe anxiety of specific objects, activities, or situations with avoidance behavior of the phobic stimulus. The present study investigated the association between whole region polymorphisms, (including the Val66Met variant), in the BDNF gene and phobic disorders among Han Chinese young adults. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the genetic association between BDNF polymorphisms and phobic disorders among mainland Chinese. One hundred and twenty young adults with phobic disorders and 267 matched controls were recruited. Three tag SNPs of BDNF were successfully genotyped by using PCR-based ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR). We found significant differences in allele distributions of SNP rs10835210 (Pphobic disorders and BDNF haplotype CAC (P=0.004). Association was significant after 10(4) permutation tests (Petiology of phobic disorders in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A pilot investigation into associations between indoor airborne fungal and non-biological particle concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Megan; Parappukkaran, Sandhya; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; He, Congrong; Gilbert, Dale

    2003-08-01

    Indoor air contains a complex mixture of bioaerosols such as fungi, bacteria and allergens, as well as non-biological particles including products from various combustion processes. To date little work has been done to investigate the interactions and associations between particles of biological and non-biological origin, however, any occurring interactions could affect pollutant behaviour in the air and ultimately the effect they have on health. The aim of this work was to examine associations between the concentration levels of airborne particles and fungi measured in 14 residential suburban houses in Brisbane. The most frequently isolated fungal genus was Cladosporium, Curvularia, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium. The average outdoor and indoor (living room) concentrations of fungal colony forming units were 1133+/-759 and 810+/-389, respectively. Average outdoor and indoor (normal ventilation) concentrations of submicrometre and supermicrometre particles were 23.8 x 10(3) and 21.7 x 10(3) (particles/cm(3)), 1.78 and 1.74 (particles/cm(3)), respectively. The study showed that no statistically significant associations between the fungal spore and submicrometre particle concentrations or PM(2.5) were present, while a weak but statistically significant relationship was found between fungal and supermicrometre particle concentrations (for the outdoors R(2)=0.4, P=0.03 and for a living room R(2)=0.3, P=0.04). A similarity in behaviour between the submicrometre particle and fungal spore concentrations was that the fungal spore concentrations were related directly to the distance from the source (a nearby park), in a very similar way in which the submicrometre particles originating from vehicle emissions from a road, were dependent on the distance to the road. In the immediate proximity to the park, fungal concentrations rose up to approximately 3100 CFU/m(3), whereas for houses more than 150 m away from the park the concentrations of fungi were below 1000 CFU/m(3

  14. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  15. Effects of errorless skill learning in people with mild-to-moderate or severe dementia: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Hensken, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examines whether learning without errors is advantageous compared to trial-and-error learning in people with dementia using a procedural task and a randomized case-control design. A sample of 60 people was recruited, consisting of 20 patients with severe dementia, 20 patients with m

  16. Effects of errorless skill learning in people with mild-to-moderate or severe dementia: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Hensken, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study examines whether learning without errors is advantageous compared to trial-and-error learning in people with dementia using a procedural task and a randomized case-control design. A sample of 60 people was recruited, consisting of 20 patients with severe dementia, 20 patients with m

  17. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  18. Selective chromosome analysis in couples with two or more miscarriages : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, MTM; Korevaar, JC; Leschot, NJ; Bossuyt, PMM; Knegt, AC; Gerssen-Schoorl, KBJ; Wouters, CH; Hansson, KBM; Hochstenbach, R; Madan, K; van der Veen, F; Goddijn, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify additional factors, such as maternal age or factors related to previous reproductive outcome or family history, and the corresponding probability of carrying a chromosome abnormality in couples with two or more miscarriages. Design Nested case-control study. Setting Six centres

  19. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    2016-01-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A case-co