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Sample records for pilot case-control investigation

  1. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

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    Malhotra Nidhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview. Results There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57% than men (43%. Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese, curd (plain yogurt, and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively. Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340, as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431, and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741. Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43. Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23. Conclusions In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D

  2. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

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    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  3. Qat use and esophageal cancer in Ethiopia: A pilot case-control study.

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    Maria E Leon

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis chewing is reported to induce lesions in the buccal mucosa, irritation of the esophagus, and esophageal reflux. Case series suggest a possible etiological role in oral and esophageal cancers. This pilot study aimed to generate preliminary estimates of the magnitude and direction of the association between qat use and esophageal cancer (EC risk and to inform the logistics required to conduct a multi-center case-control study.Between May 2012 and May 2013, 73 EC cases (including 12 gastro-esophageal junction cases and 133 controls matched individually on sex, age, and residence were enrolled at two endoscopy clinics and a cancer treatment hospital in Addis Ababa. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered. Qat use was defined as ever having chewed qat once a week or more frequently for at least one year. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression.Only 8% of cases resided in Addis Ababa. Qat use was more frequent in cases (36% than in controls (26%. A 2-fold elevation in EC risk was observed in ever qat chewers compared with never users in unadjusted conditional logistic regression (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.94, 4.74, an association that disappeared after adjusting for differences in tobacco use, consumption of alcohol and green vegetables, education level, and religion (OR = 0.95; 0.22, 4.22. Among never tobacco users, however, a non-significant increase in EC risk was suggested in ever qat users also after adjustment. Increases in EC risk were observed with ever tobacco use, alcohol consumption, low consumption of green vegetables, a salty diet, illiteracy, and among Muslims; the four latter associations were significant.This pilot study generated EC risk estimates in association with a habit practiced by millions of people and never before studied in a case-control design. Results must be interpreted cautiously in light of possible selection bias, with some demographics such as education level

  4. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

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    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  5. A case-control pilot study of low-intensity IVF in good-prognosis patients.

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    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Barad, David H

    2012-04-01

    Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is rapidly gaining in popularity. Yet studies comparing LI-IVF to standard IVF are lacking. This is a case-control pilot study, reporting on 14 first LI-IVF and 14 standard IVF cycles in women with normal age-specific ovarian reserve under age 38, matched for age, laboratory environment, staff and time of cycle. LI-IVF cycles underwent mild ovarian stimulation, utilizing clomiphene citrate, augmented by low-dose gonadotrophin stimulation. Control patients underwent routine ovarian stimulation. LI-IVF and regular IVF patients were similar in age, body mass index, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Standard IVF utilized more gonadotrophins (PIVF demonstrated better odds for pregnancy (OR 7.07; P=0.046) and higher cumulative pregnancy rates (63.3% versus 21.4%; OR 6.6; P=0.02). Adjustments for age, ethnicity and diagnosis maintained significance but oocyte adjustment did not. Cost assessments failed to reveal differences between LI-IVF and standard IVF. In this small study, LI-IVF reduced pregnancy chances without demonstrating cost advantages, raising questions about its utility. In the absence of established clinical and/or economic foundations, LI-IVF should be considered an experimental procedure. Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is increasingly propagated as an alternative to standard IVF. LI-IVF has, however, never been properly assessed in comparison to standard IVF. Such a comparison is presented in the format of a small pilot study, matching LI-IVF cycles with regular IVF cycles and comparing outcomes as well as costs. The study suggests that LI-IVF, at least in this setting, is clinically inferior and economically at best similar to standard IVF. LI-IVF should, therefore, as of this point not be offered as routine IVF treatment but only as an experimental procedure. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cephalometric risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot case-control study.

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    Davoudmanesh, Zeinab; Bayat, Mohamad; Abbasi, Mohsen; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its craniofacial anatomic risk factors might play a role in several cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI). However, there are no data about cephalometric findings among OSA patients with MI. In this pilot case-control study, about 2000 individuals referred to the sleep center were evaluated according to apnea - hypopnea index (AHI) and other inclusion criteria. Included were 62 OSA male patients (AHI > 10), of whom 6 had an MI history. In both control (n = 56) and MI groups (n = 6), 18 cephalometric parameters were traced. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Compared with control OSA patients, OSA patients with MI showed a significantly larger tongue length (p = 0.015). The other cephalometric variables were not significantly different between the two groups. An elongated tongue might be considered a risk factor for MI in OSA patients. The role of other variables remains inconclusive and open to investigation with larger samples (determined based on pilot studies such as this report) collected in longitudinal fashion.

  7. Radiographic Measurements of the Affected and Unaffected Feet in Patients with Unilateral Hallux Limitus A Case-Control Pilot Study.

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    Knox, Andrew F; Bryant, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the structural and functional causes of hallux limitus, including metatarsus primus elevatus, a long first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, the shape of the first metatarsal head, and the presence of hallux interphalangeus. Some articles have reported on the radiographic evaluation of these measurements in feet affected by hallux limitus, but no study has directly compared the affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. This case-control pilot study aimed to establish whether any such differences exist. Dorsoplantar and lateral weightbearing radiographs of both feet in 30 patients with unilateral hallux limitus were assessed for grade of disease, lateral intermetatarsal angle, metatarsal protrusion distance, plantar gapping at the first metatarsocuneiform joint, metatarsal head shape, and hallux abductus interphalangeus angle. Data analysis was performed using a statistical software program. Mean radiographic measurements for affected and unaffected feet demonstrated that metatarsus primus elevatus, a short first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, a flat metatarsal head shape, and hallux interphalangeus were prevalent in both feet. There was no statistically significant difference between feet for any of the radiographic parameters measured (Mann-Whitney U tests, independent-samples t tests, and Pearson χ(2) tests: P > .05). No significant differences exist in the presence of the structural risk factors examined between affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. The influence of other intrinsic factors, including footedness and family history, should be investigated further.

  8. Autism in children and correlates in Lebanon: a pilot case-control study.

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    Hamadé, Aline; Salameh, Pascale; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna; Hajj-Moussa, Elie; Saadallah-Zeidan, Nina; Rizk, Francine

    2013-09-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder typically appearing before the age of three. The exact cause of autism remains uncertain, and several factors may be involved in its onset: genetic factors and possible environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the correlates of autism in the Lebanese population. We investigated the association of autism with several factors in 86 autism cases from specialized schools for children with developmental disabilities and 172 control children from regular public schools in the same regions. Several risk factors for autism were investigated after comparison with a cohort control on parental age, sex, maternal unhappy feeling during pregnancy, consanguineous marriage, and province of residence. The Chi-square test was used to compare nominal variables, and Fisher exact test was used in case expected values within cells were inferior to five. For quantitative variables, we used t-test to compare means between two groups, after checking their distribution normality. For multivariate analysis, we used a forward stepwise likelihood ratio logistic regression. We observed male predominance (79.1%) among autistic infants. There was a significant association between autism and older parents age (OR=1.27), male sex (OR=3.38), unhappy maternal feeling during pregnancy (OR=5.77), living close to industry (OR=6.58), previous childhood infection (OR=8.85), but none concerning maternal age, paternal age and consanguinity. In this pilot epidemiological study of autism in Lebanon, we found several prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism that could be modified.

  9. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 13a: case-control investigation in Hertsmere, United Kingdom.

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    Morgan, O; Milne, L; Kumar, S; Murray, D; Man, W; Georgiou, M; Verlander, N Q; de Pinna, E; McEvoy, M

    2007-07-01

    Cases of illness were reported to Hertsmere Borough Council among attendees of a children's charity event in June 2006. Initial laboratory investigation identified Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a as a possible cause of the outbreak. We carried out an unmatched case-control investigation. The population at risk included all individuals who attended the event. Self-completion questionnaires were sent to 53 presumptive cases and 212 randomly selected potential controls. Information was available for 49 cases and 128 controls (overall response rate=75%). We calculated odds ratios from single and multivariable analysis and tested for all two-way interactions. Risk factors for diarrhoea were eating egg mayonnaise bagels (OR=34.1, 95%CI 10.5 - 111.3) and drinking apple juice (OR=16.1, 95% CI 3.5 - 74.2). There was weak statistical evidence to suggest that the risk of diarrhoea after eating egg mayonnaise bagels was greater in the afternoon. No food samples were available to confirm which food item might have caused this outbreak. Eggs from Spain were used by the caterer. The ecology of salmonella, experience from previous outbreaks and epidemiological findings from this case-control investigation suggest that the most likely cause of the outbreak was contaminated eggs.

  10. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

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    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  11. The Rorschach test and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a pilot case-control study.

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    Balottin, Umberto; Rossi, Maura; Rossi, Giorgio; Viganò, Lucia; Nanti, Marta; Salini, Silvia; Lanzi, Giovanni; Termine, Cristiano

    2009-10-01

    To date only three studies, all lacking a control group, have investigated the personality style underlying tic disorders or Tourette's syndrome (TS), using the projective Rorschach test. Despite the recent controversy about its proper use in clinical practice and research, the Rorschach test may be useful to explore personality organization in TS. The research hypothesis under investigation in this exploratory study was that young TS patients exhibit a peculiar personality organization, with significantly increased indicators of poor emotional control, aggression, anxiety and depression, on the Rorschach test, compared to healthy controls. We analyed the Rorschach protocols of 17 newly diagnosed paediatric TS patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared with the controls young TS patients recorded significantly lower mean percentages of F and F+ responses and a significantly higher number of FM and FC responses, thus showing reduced control of emotions and difficulty in integrating aggressivity. Furthermore, associations emerged between comorbidity with ADHD and increased emotional instability and between severity of tics and of OCD and a pattern of emotional hyper-control and application of rigid defensive mechanisms. These results seem to confirm the existence of a peculiar personality style in young TS patients and may have important implications, both pathogenetic and therapeutic.

  12. Risk and protective factors for spasmodic dysphonia: a case-control investigation.

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    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M; Kimber, Kamille; Sauder, Cara; Houtz, Daniel R; Doman, Darrin; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and often disabling voice disorder of unknown pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify possible endogenous and exogenous risk and protective factors uniquely associated with SD. Prospective, exploratory, case-control investigation. One hundred fifty patients with SD and 150 medical controls (MCs) were interviewed regarding their personal and family histories, environmental exposures, illnesses, injuries, voice use patterns, and general health using a previously vetted and validated epidemiologic questionnaire. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression analyses (α<0.15) identified several factors that significantly increased the likelihood of having SD. These factors included (1) a personal history of mumps, blepharospasm, tremor, intense occupational and avocational voice use, and a family history of voice disorders; (2) an immediate family history of meningitis, tremor, tics, cancer, and compulsive behaviors; and (3) an extended family history of tremor and cancer. SD is likely multifactorial in etiology, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Viral infections/exposures, along with intense voice use, may trigger the onset of SD in genetically predisposed individuals. Future studies should examine the interaction among genetic and environmental factors to determine the pathogenesis of SD. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ambulatory (24 h) blood pressure and arterial stiffness measurement in Marfan syndrome patients: a case control feasibility and pilot study.

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    Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.

  14. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

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    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  15. Abnormal Cortical Plasticity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Case-Control Pilot Study.

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    Pedapati, Ernest V; Gilbert, Donald L; Erickson, Craig A; Horn, Paul S; Shaffer, Rebecca C; Wink, Logan K; Laue, Cameron S; Wu, Steve W

    2016-09-01

    This case-control study investigated the use of a low-intensity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to measure motor cortex (M1) plasticity in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). We hypothesized that impairments in long-term potentiation-like properties represent a neurophysiological biomarker of abnormal cortical function in ASD. We studied youth with ASD aged 11-18 years and matched controls (TDC). Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) was delivered to the dominant M1 at an intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold. Suprathreshold single-pulse TMS was performed to compare amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials (MEP) measured from surface electromyography electrodes on a target muscle before (20 pulses) and after (10 pulses/time point) iTBS at predefined timepoints (up to 30 minutes) to measure any potentiation effects. A linear mixed model was used to examine group differences in MEP amplitudes over time following iTBS. Nine youth with ASD (mean age 15.6; 7 males; 6 right-hand dominant) and 9 TDC (mean age 14.5; 5 males; 9 right-hand dominant) participated. All subjects tolerated the procedure well. Both groups had a mean increase in excitability after iTBS for 30 minutes; however, the time course of excitability changes differed (F9,144 = 2.05; p = 0.038). Post-hoc testing identified a significant decrease in amplitude of the ASD group at 20 minutes following iTBS compared with the TDC after correcting for multiple comparisons. In this study, we demonstrate early evidence for a potential physiological biomarker of cortical plasticity in youth with ASD using a rapid low-intensity rTMS protocol with a discriminate measure at 20 minutes following stimulation. The procedure was well tolerated by all 18 participants. Future work will include modification of the protocol to improve the ability to distinguish subtypes of ASD based on behavioral and cognitive testing.

  16. Is case-chaos methodology an appropriate alternative to conventional case-control studies for investigating outbreaks?

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    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2014-08-15

    Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012. Using case-chaos methodology, we calculated odds ratios 1,000 times for each exposure. We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman's correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45). Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman ρ = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Reward-related genes and personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals: a pilot case control study.

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    Landgren, Sara; Berglund, Kristina; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Fahlke, Claudia; Balldin, Jan; Berggren, Ulf; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Engel, Jörgen A

    2011-01-01

    Components of the brain reward system, i.e. the mesolimbic dopamine, laterodorsal cholinergic and ghrelin signaling systems, have been implicated in alcohol reward in preclinical studies. Genetic variants of these systems have previously been linked to alcohol dependence. Here, we genotyped 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 1 SNP in the dopamine D₂ receptor (DRD2) gene, 20 SNPs in 5 different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRN*) genes, and 10 SNPs in the genes encoding pro-ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR), in a pilot study of type 1 alcoholics (n = 84) and healthy controls (n = 32). These individuals were characterized using the Temperament and Character Inventory. None of the SNPs were associated with risk of alcohol dependence in this population. The GG genotype of SNP rs13261190 in the CHRNB3 was associated with increased novelty seeking, while SNPs of the ghrelin signaling system were associated with decreased self-directedness (AA of rs495225, GHSR) and alterations in self-transcendence (AA of both rs42451 and rs35680, GHRL). In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that reward-related genes are associated with altered personality scores in type 1 alcohol dependence, which warrants future studies of these associations in larger study samples. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

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    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  19. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

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    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  20. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

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    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  1. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

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    Lance A Bare

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations.Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction.We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  2. Comparison of proposed frameworks for grouping polychlorinated biphenyl congener data applied to a case-control pilot study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Justine M.; Vial, Scott L.; Fuortes, Laurence J.; Robertson, Larry W.; Guo, Haijun; Reedy, Victoria E.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the commercial synthesis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the United States for several decades, they are persistent in the environment with exposure mainly being through diet. The biologic and toxic effects of PCBs and their metabolites are due in part to their ability to interact with several cellular and nuclear receptors, thereby altering signaling pathways and gene transcription. These effects include endocrine modulation and disruption. Therefore, the natural history of cancer in tissues expressing these receptors may be modulated by PCB congeners, which are known to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and other hormonal effects. Several frameworks for grouping PCB congeners based on these interactions have been proposed. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control pilot study of 58 prostate cancer cases and 99 controls to evaluate the association between the proposed PCB groupings and the risk of prostate cancer. Serum samples were analyzed for a total of 30 PCBs. In multivariate analyses, the odds of prostate cancer among men with the highest concentrations of moderately chlorinated PCBs or PCBs with phenobarbital-like activities (constitutively active receptor (CAR) agonists) was over two times that among men with the lowest concentrations. Increasing trends in risk across the concentration levels were also observed. These results suggest that a higher burden of PCBs that are CAR agonists may be positively associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and they encourage further research in this area

  3. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Jeong Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor (IGF pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2, key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2 were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.46–0.95 and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89. Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94. These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males.

  4. Investigation to identify a resource-efficient case-control methodology for determining antibiotics associated with Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Philip; Currie, Brian; Guo, Yi; Talansky, Moshe; Brown, Shakara; Ostrowsky, Belinda

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial exposure remains an important risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Efficient method to identify antibiotics associated with CDI is important for formulating strategies to curtail their use. As a prelude to a more extensive Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded project (Evaluation & Research on Antimicrobial Stewardship's Effect on Clostridium difficile), we undertook an exploratory evaluation to determine a resource-efficient method for identifying antibiotic targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The study compared a series of 6 focused case-control studies. Cases consisted of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI admitted from July-October 2009. Controls were selected from patients without CDI hospitalized during the same period. Five groups of controls were matched to cases (2:1 ratio) using group-specific matching criteria, including admission date, age, type of admission, length of stay (LOS) to discharge, and/or LOS to CDI diagnosis. The final control group was selected from patients who received antibiotics during hospitalization. Data, including demographics and antibiotic usage, were compared between case and control groups. A total of 126 cases were matched to 6 groups of 252 controls. For control groups 1-5, the use of piperacillin and tazobactam, ceftriaxone or cefepime, ciprofloxacin or moxifloxacin, intravenous vancomycin, azithromycin, and antibiotics of last resort were significantly more frequent in case than control patients. For the final control group, the associations between ceftriaxone or cefepime, and ciprofloxacin or moxifloxacin use and CDI no longer persisted. This could in part be explained by differences in comorbidities between case and control patients even with stringent matching criteria. Use of a simple matching strategy to conduct case-control studies is an efficient and feasible compromise strategy, especially in resource-limited settings, to identify high

  5. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age ≥ 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  6. Punishment and psychopathy: a case-control functional MRI investigation of reinforcement learning in violent antisocial personality disordered men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sarah; Blair, R James; Ffytche, Dominic; Simmons, Andrew; Kumari, Veena; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    Men with antisocial personality disorder show lifelong abnormalities in adaptive decision making guided by the weighing up of reward and punishment information. Among men with antisocial personality disorder, modification of the behaviour of those with additional diagnoses of psychopathy seems particularly resistant to punishment. We did a case-control functional MRI (fMRI) study in 50 men, of whom 12 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, 20 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 were healthy non-offenders. We used fMRI to measure brain activation associated with the representation of punishment or reward information during an event-related probabilistic response-reversal task, assessed with standard general linear-model-based analysis. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy displayed discrete regions of increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula in response to punished errors during the task reversal phase, and decreased activation to all correct rewarded responses in the superior temporal cortex. This finding was in contrast to results for offenders without psychopathy and healthy non-offenders. Punishment prediction error signalling in offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy was highly atypical. This finding challenges the widely held view that such men are simply characterised by diminished neural sensitivity to punishment. Instead, this finding indicates altered organisation of the information-processing system responsible for reinforcement learning and appropriate decision making. This difference between violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without psychopathy has implications for the causes of these disorders and for treatment approaches. National Forensic Mental Health Research and Development Programme, UK Ministry of Justice, Psychiatry Research Trust, NIHR

  7. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  8. Online market research panel members as controls in case-control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks: early experiences and lessons learnt from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; McCormick, J; Kanagarajah, S; Adak, G K; Cleary, P; Elson, R; Gobin, M; Hawker, J; Inns, T; Sinclair, C; Trienekens, S C M; Vivancos, R; McCarthy, N D

    2018-03-01

    Established methods of recruiting population controls for case-control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks can be time consuming, resulting in delays in identifying the source or vehicle of infection. After an initial evaluation of using online market research panel members as controls in a case-control study to investigate a Salmonella outbreak in 2013, this method was applied in four further studies in the UK between 2014 and 2016. We used data from all five studies and interviews with members of each outbreak control team and market research panel provider to review operational issues, evaluate risk of bias in this approach and consider methods to reduce confounding and bias. The investigators of each outbreak reported likely time and cost savings from using market research controls. There were systematic differences between case and control groups in some studies but no evidence that conclusions on the likely source or vehicle of infection were incorrect. Potential selection biases introduced by using this sampling frame and the low response rate are unclear. Methods that might reduce confounding and some bias should be balanced with concerns for overmatching. Further evaluation of this approach using comparisons with traditional methods and population-based exposure survey data is recommended.

  9. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  10. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Toby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP, remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. Methods/Design Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. Discussion The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying

  11. Circulating levels of carbamylated protein and neutrophil extracellular traps are associated with periodontitis severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A pilot case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ito, Satoshi; Sugita, Noriko; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2018-01-01

    An interrelationship between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis has been suggested due to their common pathogenic mechanisms. Protein carbamylation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation have been shown to be related to autoimmune conditions, including RA, but their association with periodontitis has not been elucidated. Therefore, we assessed whether or not circulating levels of carbamylated protein (CarP) and NETs are associated with periodontitis severity and influenced by periodontal treatment. We conducted a retrospective case-control study that included 40 patients with RA and periodontitis, 30 patients with periodontitis, and 43 systemically and periodontally healthy controls to assess the circulating levels of CarP and NETs and rheumatologic and periodontal conditions. The same assessments were also performed in 22 patients with RA and periodontitis after 2 months of periodontal treatment, including oral hygiene instruction and full-mouth supragingival scaling. Patients with RA and periodontitis showed significantly higher serum levels of CarP and NETs than the control group (P = 0.04 and P periodontitis. Multiple logistic regression analyses also revealed significantly positive associations between the serum levels of CarP and NETs and moderate to severe periodontitis (P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of CarP and NETs in patients with RA and periodontitis (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The circulating levels of CarP and NETs are associated with periodontitis severity and influenced by periodontal treatment in patients with RA.

  12. Comparing the oral health status of diabetic and non-diabetic children from Puerto Rico: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López del Valle, Lydia M; Ocasio-López, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have infrequently been the subjects of studies examining oral health status (caries and gingival diseases); in addition, no study of this type has ever been on Puerto Rican children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of Puerto Rican children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) either with or without type 1 diabetes and compare the two groups with regard to that status. This was a matched case-control study. A convenience sample of 25 children with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 25 non-diabetic children (controls), all ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and matched by age and gender, was evaluated by a calibrated dentist for caries, bleeding on probing, and plaque and calculus indexes. A sample of saliva was taken from each subject and analyzed to determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and assess the data. We used the caries index to evaluate the teeth of the children participating in our study; we found significant differences in the number of lesions in the permanent teeth of diabetic children compared to the number found in the permanent teeth of non-diabetic children (1.43 and 0.56, respectively; p = 0.05). The mean number of sites of bleeding on probing for diabetic children was 23.9; for non-diabetic children it was 4.2. Diabetic children had more plaque than did the control children (plaque index = 2.5 vs. 0.8; p = 0.007) and more bleeding on probing (p = 0.001). High levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic children were statistically significantly associated with a greater number of sites with bleeding on probing. Diabetic children are at higher risk for caries and gum disease than are non-diabetic children.

  13. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  14. Pilot investigation - Nominal crew induced forces in zero-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents pilot-study data of test subject forces induced by intravehicular activities such as push-offs and landings with both hands and feet. Five subjects participated in this investigation. Three orthogonal force axes were measured in the NASA KC-135 research aircraft's 'zero-g' environment. The largest forces were induced during vertical foot push-offs, including one of 534 newtons (120 lbs). The mean vertical foot push-off was 311 newtons (70 lbs). The vertical hand push-off forces were also relatively large, including one of 267 newtons (60 lbs) with a mean of 151 newtons (34 lbs). These force magnitudes of these forces would result in a Shuttle gravity environment of about 1 x exp 10 -4 g's.

  15. Investigating sexual problems, psychological distress and quality of life in female patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Mårtensson, Jan; Malm, Dan; Burri, Andrea; Fridlund, Bengt; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-10-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TSCM) has detrimental effects on both physical and psychological health of sufferers. However, little is known whether TSCM also affects sexual functioning in female patients. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress (depression and anxiety), health-related quality of life, and sexual functioning in women with TSCM and compare them with women with acute myocardial infarction and with healthy controls. A three group prospective case-control design was used. Female patients with TSCM or acute myocardial infarction, as well as healthy controls (94 in each group), were recruited across eight Iranian university hospitals. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 18 months using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form-12, the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted. The TSCM group showed worst sexual functioning and the highest level of anxiety and depression at baseline ( pquality of life at baseline, which was lower in both groups compared with the healthy controls ( pquality of life showed a significant change over time, especially in the TSCM group, with health-related quality of life decreasing, while anxiety and depression were increasing. Compared with the acute myocardial infarction and healthy control groups, the TSCM group showed a higher prevalence of sexual problems (odds ratios = 3.10 and 2.28, respectively) across time. Moreover, sexual functioning was found to be a mediator between anxiety and health-related quality of life in the TSCM group. Depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and sexual dysfunction tend to increase over time in female patients with TSCM; thus, healthcare providers should pay attention to these problems and provide appropriate treatment where necessary.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  17. Investigation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G promoter polymorphism in Indian venous thrombosis patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudesai, Aniket; Shetty, Shrimati; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Kulkarni, Bipin

    2017-09-01

    The role of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in venous thrombosis has been contradictory. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype is associated with elevated levels of PAI-1 resulting in a hypofibrinolytic state and a higher thrombotic risk. In this study, the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in Indian patients with different types of venous thrombosis was investigated for its role in development of thrombosis. A total of 87 portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 71 Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), 156 cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT), and 163 deep vein thrombosis (DVT) patients were studied alongside 251 healthy controls for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Frequency of 4G/4G genotype was higher in all groups in comparison with controls. 4G/4G was associated with PVT risk (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.29-4.96, P=.0075), BCS risk (OR=5.98, 95% CI=2.68-13.42, P<.0001), and DVT risk (OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.98-3.02, P=.0225). This is the first case-control study from India establishing PAI-1 4G/4G as a strong risk factor for abdominal thrombosis (PVT and BCS). Statistically significant association was not found between 4G/4G genotype and CVT risk. PAI-1 4G/4G is a strong risk factor for venous thrombosis in Indian patients and should be included in laboratory testing panel of thrombophilia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  19. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project's present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ''confirmatory'' and monitoring nature

  20. An Investigation of Sensory Information, Levels of Automation, and Piloting Experience on Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Development.of. NASA - TLX .(Task.Load.Index):.Results.of.empiri- cal.and.theoretical.research ..In.P .A ..Hancock.&.N .. Meshkati.(Eds .),.Human...8 Automated Manual Level of Automation Hi gh Z oo m M an ip ul at io n Pilot Non-pilot Figure 4. Number of participants with high levels of zoom

  1. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate

  2. An epidemiological investigation of the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak in Canadian swine herds in 2014: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Amanda M; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Harding, John C S; O'Sullivan, Terri L

    2018-02-01

    The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in Canada was diagnosed in January 2014 in Ontario, approximately 9 months after PED emerged in the United States. An early investigation of the Canadian outbreak suspected that the probable source of the virus was contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of feed and other possible factors in the early phase of the PED outbreak in Canadian swine herds. The study period of interest for this case-control study was January 22nd to March 1st, 2014. A case herd was defined as a swine herd with a confirmed positive laboratory diagnostic test (RT-PCR) results for PED virus, along with pigs exhibiting typical clinical signs at the herd level during the study period. A questionnaire was administered to participating producers from the 22 Canadian swine herds enrolled (n = 9 case and n = 13 control herds). Case herd producers were asked to provide information from the initial day of onset of clinical signs and 30 days prior to that day. Control herds were matched to a case herd on the basis of province, herd type and approximate size. The period of interest for a control herd was matched to the initial day of clinical signs of PED for the case herd, along with the 30 days prior to this day. The questionnaire questions focused on herd demographics, biosecurity protocols, live animal movements onto and off sites, deadstock movements, feed and people movements for both the case and control herds. The questionnaire for control herds were based on their matched case's period of interest, and together with case herds formed a matched stratum. Multivariable exact conditional logistic regression and mixed multivariable logistic regression models, with the matched stratum as a random effect, were used to assess the association between various risk factors and the odds of PED introduction into a herd. After adjusting for biosecurity practices, the odds of a PED occurrence was 38.1 (95% CI: 2

  3. Pilot Investigation of a Virtual Gastric Band Hypnotherapy Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greetham, Stephanie; Goodwin, Sarah; Wells, Liz; Whitham, Claire; Jones, Huw; Rigby, Alan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This 24-week-long pilot investigation of 30 men and women with a BMI > 27 kg/m(2) aimed to determine whether virtual gastric band (VGB) hypnotherapy has an effect on weight loss in overweight adults, compared to relaxation hypnotherapy and a self-directed diet. Levels of weight loss and gain ranged from -17 kg to +4.7 kg in the VGB hypnotherapy group and -9.3 kg to +7.8 kg in the relaxation group. There was no significant difference between VGB hypnotherapy as a main effect on weight loss, (X(2) = 0.67, p = .41, df = 1) and there was no evidence of differential weight loss over time, (X(2) = 4.2, p = .64, df = 6). Therefore, the authors conclude that there was no significant difference between VGB hypnotherapy and the relaxation hypnotherapy.

  4. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siem, Frederick M; Murray, Michael W

    1997-01-01

    .... The present research was designed to examine the relationship between personality and combat performance using the "Big Five" model of personality and a multicomponent model of pilot combat performance...

  5. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  6. Differential epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal: a matched case control investigation in a highly endemic enteric fever setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Karkey

    Full Text Available Enteric fever, a systemic infection caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is endemic in Kathmandu, Nepal. Previous work identified proximity to poor quality water sources as a community-level risk for infection. Here, we sought to examine individual-level risk factors related to hygiene and sanitation to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of enteric fever in this setting.A matched case-control analysis was performed through enrollment of 103 blood culture positive enteric fever patients and 294 afebrile community-based age and gender-matched controls. A detailed questionnaire was administered to both cases and controls and the association between enteric fever infection and potential exposures were examined through conditional logistic regression. Several behavioral practices were identified as protective against infection with enteric fever, including water storage and hygienic habits. Additionally, we found that exposures related to poor water and socioeconomic status are more influential in the risk of infection with S. Typhi, whereas food consumption habits and migration play more of a role in risk of S. Paratyphi A infection.Our work suggests that S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A follow different routes of infection in this highly endemic setting and that sustained exposure to both serovars probably leads to the development of passive immunity. In the absence of a polyvalent vaccine against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, we advocate better systems for water treatment and storage, improvements in the quality of street food, and vaccination with currently available S. Typhi vaccines.

  7. Investigation of established genetic risk variants for glioma in prediagnostic samples from a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibom, Carl; Späth, Florentin; Dahlin, Anna M; Langseth, Hilde; Hovig, Eivind; Rajaraman, Preetha; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2015-05-01

    Although glioma etiology is poorly understood in general, growing evidence indicates a genetic component. Four large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked common genetic variants with an increased glioma risk. However, to date, these studies are based largely on a case-control design, where cases have been recruited at the time of or after diagnosis. They may therefore suffer from a degree of survival bias, introduced when rapidly fatal cases are not included. To confirm glioma risk variants in a prospective setting, we have analyzed 11 previously identified risk variants in a set of prediagnostic serum samples with 598 cases and 595 matched controls. Serum samples were acquired from The Janus Serum Bank, a Norwegian population-based biobank reserved for cancer research. We confirmed the association with glioma risk for variants within five genomic regions: 8q24.21 (CCDC26), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1), 11q23.3 (PHLDB1), 17p13.1 (TP53), and 20q13.33 (RTEL1). However, previously identified risk variants within the 7p11.2 (EGFR) region were not confirmed by this study. Our results indicate that the risk variants that were confirmed by this study are truly associated with glioma risk and may, consequently, affect gliomagenesis. Though the lack of positive confirmation of EGFR risk variants may be attributable to relatively limited statistical power, it nevertheless raises the question whether they truly are risk variants or markers for glioma prognosis. Our findings indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of glioma risk loci with respect to prolonged survival versus etiology. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A pilot investigation of natural radiation in Danish houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Majborn, B.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1985-04-01

    As a prelude to a nationwide survey a pilot study was carried out to establish techniques and procedures for the measurement of indoor radiation in Denmark. A passive cup dosemeter was designed containing CR39 track detectors and TLD's to measure radon and external radiation, respectively. The adequate performance of the dosemeter was verified in a radon intercalibration in 1984 carried out at the National Radiological Protection Board, UK. A total of 82 dwellings were selected covering most regions of the country. The dwellings were monitored in two three-month periods, one in winter and the other in summer. The average dose rate in air from external radiation was 0.09 μGy h -1 . In the winter the average radon concentrations were 88 Bq m -3 and 24 Bq m -3 for single-family houses and flats, respectively; and in the summer the corresponding values were 52 Bq m -3 and 19 Bq m -3 . (author)

  9. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The

  11. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Cook (Angus); A.J.B.M. Devos (Annemarie); G. Pereira; L. Jardine (Laura); P. Weinstein (Philip)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study had two principal objectives: (i) to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii) to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative

  12. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  13. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobden, Mark R.; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M.; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R.; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), an...

  14. Seismic investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrows, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Evaporite rocks in the Delaware Basin in southeastern New Mexico are being investigated as a possible site for nuclear waste disposal. Seismic studies have been conducted to establish seismic design criteria and to investigate relations between seismicity and geologic structures. In the initial phase of this study, historical and available seismic data were interpreted with respect to geology. Local instrumentation became available in 1974 when New Mexico Tech installed and began operating a seismic station in the area. Data and interpretation for 1974 through 1979 have been published. In 1980 seismic monitoring of the Northern Delaware Basin was extended to include a six station network of self-contained radio-telemetered seismometers. 9 references, 13 figures

  15. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  16. Investigation of Parameters Affecting Gypsum Dewatering Properties in a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2012-01-01

    of impurities (0.002 M Al2F6; 50 g quartz/L; 0.02 M Al3+, and 0.040 M Mg2+) were investigated. In addition, slurry from a full-scale wet FGD plant, experiencing formation of flat shaped crystals and poor gypsum dewatering properties, was transferred to the pilot plant to test if the plant would now start...... to time. In this work, the particle size distribution, morphology, and filtration rate of wet FGD gypsum formed in a pilot-scale experimental setup, operated in forced oxidation mode, have been studied. The influence of holding tank residence time (10–408 h), solids content (30–169 g/L), and the presence...... to produce low quality gypsum. The crystals formed in the pilot plant, on the basis of the full-scale slurry did, however, show acceptable filtration rates and crystal morphologies closer to the prismatic crystals from after pilot plant experiments with demineralized water. The gypsum slurry filtration rates...

  17. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO 2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO 2 . Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO 2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  18. Health service utilisation and investigations before diagnosis of cancer of unknown primary (CUP): A population-based nested case-control study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajdic, Claire M; Schaffer, Andrea L; Dobbins, Timothy A; Ward, Robyn L; Er, Chuang C; Pearson, Sallie-Anne

    2015-08-01

    Population-based data on the use of health services and diagnostic investigations for patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is scarce. It is uncertain whether the pathways to diagnosis are different for CUP compared to other cancers. We performed a population-based nested matched case-control study using linked routinely collected records for Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We compared health care consultations, hospitalisations, emergency department visits, and diagnostic procedures in the three months prior and the month of diagnosis for 281 clients registered with a diagnosis of CUP (C809) and 1102 controls randomly selected from clients registered with a first diagnosis of metastatic cancer of known primary. Overall, the median age at cancer diagnosis was 83 years. CUP patients were slightly older and had significantly more comorbidities prior to diagnosis than those with known primary. Compared to known primary, a diagnosis of CUP was significantly more likely after an emergency department visit, less specialist input, fewer invasive diagnostic procedures such as resection or endoscopy, and more non-invasive procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging. There were no differences in primary care or allied health consultations and hospitalisations. This health care pathway suggests delayed recognition of cancer and scope for improvement in the medical management of high-risk individuals presenting to primary care. The pattern of diagnostic investigations reveals under-investigation in some CUP patients but this is likely to reflect recognition of limited treatment options and poor prognosis and is consistent with clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited Investigation of the Effects of Elevator Rate Limiting and Stick Dynamics on Longitudinal Pilot Induced Oscillations (HAVE GRIP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of the HAVE GRIP flight test program. This program performed a limited investigation of the effects of stick dynamics and elevator rate limiting on longitudinal pilot induced oscillations (PIOs...

  20. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Concentraciones de DDT/DDE y riesgo de hipospadias: un estudio piloto de casos y controles DDT/DDE concentrations and risk of hypospadias: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Flores-Luévano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre los niveles séricos maternos de DDT/DDE y el riesgo de hipospadias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles, efectuado en la Ciudad de México durante el periodo 1997-1999, con 41 casos de hipospadias y 28 controles. La informacion obtenida por cuestionario y las muestras sanguíneas fueron evaluadas mediante modelos multivariados de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones materna de DDT y DDE no mostraron asociación con el riesgo de hipospadias (RM 1.13; IC 95% 0.24-5.29 y RM 0.48; IC 95% 0.15-1.60, respectivamente. Los predictores encontrados fueron hijos de madres con mayor edad (RM 8.69; IC 95% 1.69-44.9, y la actividad laboral durante el embarazo (RM, 4.68; IC 95% 1.15-18.9. CONCLUSIONES: Dado que se cuenta con escasa información sobre los efectos endocrinos a diferentes concentraciones de DDT/DDE en humanos, la dosis pudiera ser un factor determinante sobre el tipo de efecto.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal serum DDT/DDE levels and risk of hypospadias. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study in Mexico City was conducted during 1997-1999 among 41 subjects with hypospadias and 28 controls. Blood samples were obtained from study subjects. Information was obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Maternal DDT and DDE levels showed no association with hypospadias (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.24-5.29 and OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.15-1.60, respectively. Associated factors were older age of mothers (OR 8.69; 95% CI 1.69-44.9, and working during pregnancy (OR 4.68; 95% CI 1.15-18.9. CONCLUSIONS: Information about the endocrine effects of different levels of DDT/DDE in human subjects is scarce; dosage may be a determinant factor of the type of effect.

  2. An independent investigation into the deployment of the federal communications commissions' rural health care pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Pamela; Holtz, Bree; Laplante, Carolyn; Alverson, Dale; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    the goal of this study was to provide an independent and objective evaluation of the implementation of the Federal Communications Commission's Rural Health Care Pilot Program. thirty-nine of the programs that were provided funding through this program were interviewed and asked about their project deployment, network planning, and the involvement of their state in implementation. RESULTS showed that programs recruited project team members from a variety of fields to fulfill different roles. Network partners were often chosen because they were stakeholders in the outcome of the project and because they had a past working relationship with the grant-receiving programs. In terms of deployment, many programs had made progress in filling out necessary paperwork and were tracking milestones, but had experienced changes since first receiving funding, such as losing participants. Additionally, many encountered challenges that inhibited deployment, such as coping with rule fluctuations. Many of the programs received support from their respective state governments in project development, often through matching funds, but few states were involved in the actual management of projects. as rural healthcare facilities often lack the information technology infrastructure compared with many urban facilities, it is important to understand the implementation process for programs such as the Rural Health Care Pilot Program and to examine what contributes to progress, stagnation, or disintegration. Although the programs reported some success, almost all had encountered challenges that inhibited implementation. A follow-up study is planned to further investigate deployment and determine the implications of Federal Communications Commission funding.

  3. A pilot investigation in constructing crisis communications: what leads to best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Rachel M; Everly, George S

    2013-01-01

    Crisis communications can play an important role in mitigating, or exacerbating, the psychological and behavioral reactions to critical incidents and disasters. Effective crisis communications can serve to mitigate anxiogenesis and direct rapid and focused rescue, recovery, and rehabilitative operations. Ambiguous and/or deceptive communications can serve to worsen mental health reactions and delay operational response and recovery (Everly, Strouse, & Everly, 2010). It seems, therefore, that inquiry into the content of acute crisis communications would be warranted Said more simply, given limited time, cryptic messaging in social media, and the "sound bite" mentality that seems to govern news dissemination, it is important to identify the most important content to convey in the wake of critical incidents and disasters. This paper reports on a pilot investigation into "best practices" for the construction of acute crisis communications.

  4. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Mark R; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R; Kennedy, Orla B

    2017-01-01

    Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), and (ii) the duration between mid-morning preload and ad libitum lunch meal, on morning appetite scores and energy intake at lunch. Participants attended a single study visit. Female participants consumed a 214-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10) or 266-kcal breakfast ( n  = 10), equivalent to 10% of recommended daily energy intakes for females and males, respectively. Male participants ( n  = 20) consumed a 266-kcal breakfast. All participants received a 250-ml orange juice preload 2 h after breakfast. The impact of different study timings was evaluated in male participants, with 10 males following one protocol (protocol 1) and 10 males following another (protocol 2). The duration between preload and ad libitum lunch meal was 2 h (protocol 1) or 2.5 h (protocol 2), with the ad libitum lunch meal provided at 12.00 or 13.00, respectively. All female participants followed protocol 2. Visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires were used to assess appetite responses and food/drink palatability. Correlation between male and female appetite scores was higher with the provision of a gender-specific breakfast, compared to non-gender-specific breakfast (Pearson correlation of 0.747 and 0.479, respectively). No differences in subjective appetite or ad libitum energy intake were found between protocols 1 and 2. VAS mean ratings of liking, enjoyment, and palatability were all > 66 out of 100 mm for breakfast, preload, and lunch meals. The findings of this pilot study confirm the acceptability

  5. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  6. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  7. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  8. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  9. A pilot investigation of acute inhibitory control training in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William S; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R

    2017-05-01

    Disrupted response inhibition and presence of drug-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals have predicted poor treatment outcomes. Inhibitory control training could help improve treatment outcomes by strengthening cognitive control. This pilot study assessed the effects of acute inhibitory control training to drug- and non-drug-related cues on response inhibition performance and cocaine-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals. Participants who met criteria for a cocaine-use disorder underwent five sessions of inhibitory control training to either non-drug-related cues (i.e., rectangles) or cocaine cues (n=10/condition) in a single day. Response inhibition and attentional bias were assessed prior to and following training using the stop-signal task and visual-probe task with eye tracking, respectively. Training condition groups did not differ on demographics, inhibitory control training performance, response inhibition, or cocaine-cue attentional bias. Response inhibition performance improved as a function of inhibitory control training in both conditions. Cocaine-cue attentional bias was observed, but did not change as a function of inhibitory control training in either condition. Response inhibition in cocaine-using individuals was augmented by acute inhibitory control training, which may improve treatment outcomes through better behavioral inhibition. Future studies should investigate longer-term implementation of inhibitory control training, as well as combining inhibitory control training with other treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oil-based compositions as saliva substitutes: A pilot study to investigate in-mouth retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-03-30

    This pilot study aimed to compare the in-mouth retention of an oil-based saliva substitute (emulsion, consisting of rice bran oil, soy lecithin and water) with water and a 1% w/v methylcellulose suspension (polymer) in healthy volunteers. Each formulation was tagged with 1 mmol/L lithium and participants (n=30) rinsed their mouth with one randomly assigned formulation (emulsion, polymer or water) for 30s, before expectorating into a cup. Concentration of lithium expectorated was measured and amount of each formulation remaining in the mouth was estimated. Patient acceptability was investigated using questionnaires, and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine the presence of oil in expectorated samples. Immediately after rinsing, taste was rated lower in the emulsion group compared to the polymer or water groups (p>0.05), although variability was high. Mean retention was highest in the emulsion group, with a difference of 8.34 ± 2.71% (p=0.003) and 4.57 ± 2.71% (p=0.06) compared with the water and polymer groups, respectively. FTIR confirmed the presence of oil in all expectorated emulsion samples. The emulsion was not inferior to the polymer in terms of retention immediately after rinsing. The next step is to conduct larger clinical studies over longer time periods in participants with salivary hypofunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case-Control Studies - An Efficient Observational Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    Case-control studies are an efficient research method for investigating risk factors of a disease. The method involves the comparison of the odds of exposure in a patient group with that of the odds of exposure in a control group. As only a minority of the population is included in the study, less

  12. Case-control studies in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvick, Cody L; Thompson, Clinton J; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies, such as cohort and case-control studies, are valuable instruments in evidence-based medicine. Case-control studies, in particular, are becoming increasingly popular in the neurosurgical literature due to their low cost and relative ease of execution; however, no one has yet systematically assessed these types of studies for quality in methodology and reporting. The authors performed a literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE to identify all studies that explicitly identified themselves as "case-control" and were published in the JNS Publishing Group journals (Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, and Neurosurgical Focus) or Neurosurgery. Each paper was evaluated for 22 descriptive variables and then categorized as having either met or missed the basic definition of a case-control study. All studies that evaluated risk factors for a well-defined outcome were considered true case-control studies. The authors sought to identify key features or phrases that were or were not predictive of a true case-control study. Those papers that satisfied the definition were further evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. The search detected 67 papers that met the inclusion criteria, of which 32 (48%) represented true case-control studies. The frequency of true case-control studies has not changed with time. Use of odds ratios (ORs) and logistic regression (LR) analysis were strong positive predictors of true case-control studies (for odds ratios, OR 15.33 and 95% CI 4.52-51.97; for logistic regression analysis, OR 8.77 and 95% CI 2.69-28.56). Conversely, negative predictors included focus on a procedure/intervention (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.998) and use of the word "outcome" in the Results section (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.082-0.65). After exclusion of nested case-control studies, the negative correlation between focus on a procedure

  13. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project overview of the pilot borehole investigation of the ventilation shaft (PB-V01). Hydrogeological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Ijiri, Yuji; Matsuoka, Kiyoyuki; Ibara, Tetsuo; Matsunami, Shinjiro; Makino, Akiya

    2009-02-01

    The Pilot Borehole Investigation of the Ventilation Shaft was conducted in Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan from October 2007 to March 2008. Main purpose of the investigation is to understand geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical properties of the formation where the Ventilation Shaft has been excavated. Hydraulic packer tests show that hydraulic conductivity lies in the range from 1.1E-11 to 1.4E-7 m/sec down to 500m in depth. This heterogeneity mainly depends on the distribution and permeability of groundwater inflow points, which were detected by Fluid Electric Conductivity logging. High conductive zones were found between 263m and 290m, 355m and 370m of the depth in the pilot borehole. An effective method for reducing groundwater inflow should be considered for the deeper Ventilation Shaft excavation. (author)

  14. The development of eye tracking in aviation (ETA) technique to investigate pilot's cognitive processes of attention and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Chin; Lin, John J. H.; Braithwaite, Graham; Greaves, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Eye tracking device had provided researchers a promising way to investigate what pilot‘s cognitive processes when they see information present on the flight deck. There are 35 participants consisted by pilots and avionics engineers participated in current research. The research apparatus include an eye tracker and a flight simulator divided by five AOIs for data collection. The research aims are to develop cost-efficiency of eye tracking technique in order to facilitate scientific research of...

  15. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  16. Clinician–Investigator Training and the Need to Pilot New Approaches to Recruiting and Retaining This Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alison K.; Lund, P. Kay

    2017-01-01

    Clinician–investigators, also called physician–scientists, offer critical knowledge and perspectives that benefit research on basic science mechanisms, improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, population and outcomes medicine, health policy, and health services, yet few clinically trained health professionals pursue a research career. Sustaining this workforce requires attention to the unique challenges faced by investigators who must achieve clinical and research competence during training and their careers. These challenges include the duration of required clinical training, limited or discontinuous research opportunities, high levels of educational debt, balancing the dual obligations and rewards of clinical care and research, competition for research funding, and the need for leadership development after training. Women and individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups comprise a small percentage of this workforce. The authors summarize the recent literature on training for clinician–investigators, emphasizing approaches with encouraging outcomes that warrant broader implementation. Using this overview as background, they convened three workshops at the National Institutes of Health in 2016 to identify and refine key priorities for potential new pilot programs to recruit and retain the clinician–investigator workforce. From these workshops emerged three priorities for future pilot programs: (1) support for research in residency, (2) new research on-ramps for health professionals at multiple career stages, and (3) national networks to diversify and sustain clinician–investigator faculty. Implementation of any pilot program will require coordinated commitment from academic health centers, medical licensing/certification boards, professional societies, and clinician–investigators themselves, in addition to support from the National Institutes of Health. PMID:28767499

  17. Clinician-Investigator Training and the Need to Pilot New Approaches to Recruiting and Retaining This Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alison K; Mills, Sherry L; Lund, P Kay

    2017-10-01

    Clinician-investigators, also called physician-scientists, offer critical knowledge and perspectives that benefit research on basic science mechanisms, improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, population and outcomes medicine, health policy, and health services, yet few clinically trained health professionals pursue a research career. Sustaining this workforce requires attention to the unique challenges faced by investigators who must achieve clinical and research competence during training and their careers. These challenges include the duration of required clinical training, limited or discontinuous research opportunities, high levels of educational debt, balancing the dual obligations and rewards of clinical care and research, competition for research funding, and the need for leadership development after training. Women and individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups comprise a small percentage of this workforce.The authors summarize the recent literature on training for clinician-investigators, emphasizing approaches with encouraging outcomes that warrant broader implementation. Using this overview as background, they convened three workshops at the National Institutes of Health in 2016 to identify and refine key priorities for potential new pilot programs to recruit and retain the clinician-investigator workforce. From these workshops emerged three priorities for future pilot programs: (1) support for research in residency, (2) new research on-ramps for health professionals at multiple career stages, and (3) national networks to diversify and sustain clinician-investigator faculty. Implementation of any pilot program will require coordinated commitment from academic health centers, medical licensing/certification boards, professional societies, and clinician-investigators themselves, in addition to support from the National Institutes of Health.

  18. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Pe...

  19. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  20. Experimental investigations of the effect of pilot injection on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Karanja biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Atul; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of multiple injections on CRDI engine performance, emission and combustion. • Effect of multiple injections, injection pressures and injection timings on biodiesel. • Lower biodiesel blends showed lower BSCO, BSHC but higher BSNOx emissions. • Maximum cylinder pressure at higher FIP was higher at same SOPI and SOMI. • Combustion duration of KOME50 was higher than mineral diesel. - Abstract: Pilot and post injections are being used in modern diesel engines for improving engine performance in addition to meeting stringent emission norms. Biodiesel produced from different feedstocks is gaining global recognition as partial replacement for mineral diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines. In this study, 10%, 20% and 50% Karanja biodiesel blends were used for investigation of pilot injections, injection pressures and injection timings on biodiesel blends. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder CRDI research engine in multiple injection mode at 500 and 1000 bar fuel injection pressure (FIP) under varying start of pilot injection (SOPI) and start of main injection (SOMI) timings. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with increasing Karanja biodiesel concentration in test fuels however brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of biodiesel blends was slightly higher than mineral diesel. Lower biodiesel blends showed lower brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) emissions than mineral diesel. Brake specific nitrogen oxides (BSNOx) emissions from KOME20 and KOME10 were higher than mineral diesel. Combustion duration of KOME50 was also higher than mineral diesel

  1. Wind-tunnel investigation of an armed mini remotely piloted vehicle. [conducted in Langley V/STOL tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of a full scale remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) armed with rocket launchers was conducted. The model had unacceptable longitudinal stability characteristics at negative angles of attack in the original design configuration. The addition of a pair of fins mounted in a V arrangement on the propeller shroud resulted in a configuration with acceptable longitudinal stability characteristics. The addition of wing mounted external stores to the modified configuration resulted in a slight reduction in the longitudinal stability. The lateral directional characteristics of the model were generally good, but the model had low directional stability at low angles of attack. Aerodynamic control power was very strong around all three axes.

  2. A piloted simulation investigation of several command concepts for transport aircraft in the approach and landing

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    With the introduction of modern fly-by-wire aircraft, the response of an aircraft to a pilot’s input can be augmented to something other than that for a conventional aircraft, with the resultant benefits and problems. The issue of what commanded response a pilot desires has received considerable attention, however no clear conclusions have yet emerged. The requirements for up and away flight and for the flare and landing seem to be different. Away from the ground rate command systems such...

  3. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO2, slurry pH-profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual...

  4. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  5. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias.

  6. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  7. Ho:YAG laser in reshaping tracheal cartilage: a pilot investigation using ex vivo porcine and rabbit cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Anthony; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Carbone, Nicholas; Li, Chao; Jackson, Ryan; Wong, Brian J.

    2004-07-01

    Stenotic, collapsed, and flow-restricted tracheal airways may result from blunt trauma, chronic infection, and the prolonged endotracheal intubation. This pilot investigation characterizes the degree of shape change produced by Ho:YAG laser (λ=2.12 μm) irradiation of rabbit and pig trachea tissue as a function of laser dosimetry and application protocol. Force displacement curves were generated using fresh lagomorph and porcine tracheal cartilage rings secured in a modified single beam cantilever geometry. These specimens were then irradiated for varying amounts of time and power with the objective of straightening these curved specimens. The degree of shape change was documented photographically. Force and surface temperature were monitored. Confocal microscopy was then used in combination a vital staine ("live-dead assay") to determine the level of viability of straightened cartilage for selected exposure time-power pairs. Laser Cartilage Reshaping of the trachea may provide a new method to treat severe tracheal injuries without the need for classic open surgical techniques. This pilot investigation is the first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. Long-term, the design of stents combined with laser irradiation may provide a means to alter tracheal shape.

  8. Pilot Study on the Investigation of Tear Fluid Biomarkers as an Indicator of Ocular, Neurological, and Immunological Health in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephen; Crucian, Brian; Hagan, Suzanne; Satyamitra, Merriline; Daily, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the collection, preparation, and analysis of tear biomarkers as a means of assessing ocular, neurological, and immunological health. At present, no published data exists on the cytokine profiles of tears from astronauts exposed to long periods of microgravity and space irradiations. In addition, no published data exist on cytokine (biomarker) profiles of tears that have been collected from irradiated non-human biological systems (primates and other animal models). A goal for the proposed pilot study is to discover novel tear biomarkers which can help inform researchers, clinicians, epidemiologist and healthcare providers about the health status of a living biological system, as well as informing them when a disease state is triggered. This would be done via analysis of the onset of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading up to the full progression of a disease (i.e. cancer, loss of vision, radiation-induced oxidative stress, cardiovascular disorders, fibrosis in major organs, bone loss). Another goal of this pilot study is to investigate the state of disease against proposed medical countermeasures, in order to determine whether the countermeasures are efficacious in preventing or mitigating these injuries. An example of an up and coming tear biomarker technology, Ascendant Dx, a clinical stage diagnostic company, is developing a screening test to detect breast cancer using proteins from tears. The team utilized Liquid Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry with Mass analysis (LC MS/MS) as a discovery platform followed by validation with ELISA to come up with a panel of protein biomarkers that can differentiate breast cancer samples from control ("cancer free") samples with results far surpassing the results of imaging techniques in use today. Continued research into additional proteins is underway to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the test and development efforts are on the way to transfer the

  9. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Lori; May, April C; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N; Hickman, Steven D; Liu, Thomas T; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes' ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes.

  10. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness and brain infarction : the Etude du Profil Génétique de l'Infarctus Cérébral (GENIC) case-control study. The GENIC Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, P J; Elbaz, A; Koller, C; Lucas, C; Adraï, V; Chédru, F; Amarenco, P

    2000-07-18

    BACKGROUND-The use of intima-media thickness (IMT) as an outcome measure in observational studies and intervention trials relies on the view that it reflects early stages of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. There is little knowledge concerning the relation between IMT and brain infarction (BI). METHODS AND RESULTS-We investigated the relation of IMT with BI and its subtypes in 470 cases and 463 controls. Cases with BI proven by MRI were consecutively recruited and classified into subtypes by cause of BI. Controls were recruited among individuals hospitalized at the same institutions and matched for age, sex, and center. IMT was measured at the far wall of both common carotid arteries (CCA) using an automatic detection system. Adventitia-to-adventitia diameters and CCA-IMT were measured on transverse views; lumen diameter was computed using these measures. Mean (+/-SEM) CCA-IMT was higher in cases (0.797+/-0.006 mm) than in controls (0.735+/-0.006 mm; P<0. 0001). This difference remained after adjustment for lumen diameter and when analyses were restricted to subjects free of previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular history. The difference in CCA-IMT between cases and controls was significant in the main subtypes. The risk of BI increased continuously with increasing CCA-IMT. The odds ratio per SD increase (0.150 mm) was 1.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 2.15); adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors slightly attenuated this relation (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 2.07). CONCLUSIONS-An increased CCA-IMT was associated with BI, both overall and in the main subtypes. An increased IMT may help select patients at high risk for BI.

  11. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  12. Start-up period investigation of pilot-scale submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) treating raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shadi W; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-02-01

    Submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) is a new hybrid technology for wastewater treatment employing electrical field and microfiltration in a nutrient-removing activated sludge process. A pilot SMEBR system was located at the wastewater treatment plant in the City of l'Assomption (Quebec, Canada) with the objective of investigating the start-up period performance under variable organic loadings and environmental conditions with respect to effluent quality, membrane fouling, and sludge properties. The pilot SMEBR facility was fed with the raw de-gritted municipal wastewater. At steady state operation, the removal efficiencies of ammonia (as NH3(+)-N), phosphorus (as PO4(3-)-P), and COD were 99%, 99%, and 92%, respectively. No substantial increase in the monitored transmembrane pressure as 0.02kPad(-1) was reported. The time necessary to filter 100mL of the sludge sample has decreased by 78% after treatment whilst the sludge volume index averaged 119mLg(-1). Energy requirements were in the range of 1.1-1.6kWhm(-3) of wastewater. It was concluded that the SMEBR is a very competitive technology when compared to conventional membrane systems as it can enhance treatment performance to an appreciable extent, remove phosphorus and reduce fouling. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  14. Using network metrics to investigate football team players' connections: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Manuel Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of football teams. These metrics were organized on "meso" and "micro" analysis levels. Five official matches of the same team on the First Portuguese Football League were analyzed. An overall of 577 offensive plays were analyzed from the five matches. From the adjacency matrices developed per each offensive play it were computed the scaled connectivity, the clustering coefficient and the centroid significance and centroid conformity. Results showed that the highest values of scaled connectivity were found in lateral defenders and central and midfielder players and the lowest values were found in the striker and goalkeeper. The highest values of clustering coefficient were generally found in midfielders and forwards. In addition, the centroid results showed that lateral and central defenders tend to be the centroid players in the attacking process. In sum, this study showed that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches to understanding the specific team's properties, thus supporting decision-making and improving sports training based on match analysis.

  15. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori eHaase

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1 elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2 greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3 increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; (4 increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS identifying feelings subscale; (5 decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the

  16. Managing simple food allergy in community settings: A pilot study investigating a new model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Margaret; De Bono, Natalie; Allen, Katrina; Tang, Mimi; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in Australia has increased, paralleled by an increase in waiting time to access tertiary paediatric allergy care. We aimed to test whether a new model of care, based on serum specific IgE testing, was feasible and acceptable to Australian families. A prospective pilot intervention study was conducted in community paediatric practices within 20-40 km of The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Children ≤7 years with likely food allergy referred to the Department of Allergy and Immunology at RCH were included; children with anaphylaxis, drug allergy or complex food allergy (>three food groups) were excluded. Community general paediatricians, recruited through the Australian Paediatric Research Network, were trained via webinars on the management of four common food allergy-related scenarios. Paediatrician and child and family parameters were assessed at baseline and 3 months, including safety. 34/45 (76%) eligible families and 10/12 (83%) paediatricians participated. Paediatricians managed 27/34 (80%) of children independently, with 7/34 (20%) requiring referral to an allergist for more complex food allergy. Paediatricians reported improved knowledge and competency in managing food allergy: (mean (standard deviation) scores pre = 35 (5.3) and post = 43.3 (3.9) training). The majority of children received appropriate management; there were no anaphylaxis episodes. There was no significant change in child quality of life or parent mental health. Management of simple food allergy by community paediatricians appears feasible and acceptable to paediatricians and families alike. Future research will evaluate this approach in an adequately powered and controlled trial. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. A pilot investigation of food insecurity among children seen in an outpatient pediatric nephrology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Starr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (FI is common - affecting one in six American households with children. FI is defined as limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. Awareness of food insecurity and its impact on health has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy statement, “Promoting Food Security for All Children.” Though FI is frequently addressed in general pediatric primary care, it is not routinely identified in patients with chronic medical problems. Patients with complex care needs, prescription medication, or restrictive nutritional requirements may be at higher risk of food insecurity. The prevalence of FI in patients with chronic disease, including pediatric patients with kidney disease, remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of FI among our pediatric nephrology clinic patients with a cross-sectional screening pilot study. Nearly 35% of 118 children seen in our pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic lived in food insecure households, a prevalence rate more than double the general pediatric population (16%. Barriers to food security were variable; common themes included challenges with restricted diet and available food, identifying and accessing community resources, and not qualifying for support. For physicians, dietitians, and other health providers that counsel patients with kidney disease on dietary interventions, it is important to be aware of food security status. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of food insecurity in pediatric patients with kidney disease. Further studies of food insecurity and social determinants of heath in this patient population are needed. Keywords: Kidney disease, Pediatrics, Child, Healthcare utilization, Food insecurity, Nutritional status

  18. Eavesdropping on the family: a pilot investigation of corporal punishment in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Williamson, Paul A; Holland, Grant W O

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using audio recorders to collect novel information about family interactions. Research into corporal punishment (CP) has relied, almost exclusively, on self-report data; audio recordings have the promise of revealing new insights into the use and immediate consequences of CP. So we could hear how parents respond to child conflicts, 33 mothers wore digital audio recorders for up to 6 evenings. We identified a total of 41 CP incidents, in 15 families and involving 22 parent-child dyads. These incidents were evaluated on 6 guidelines culled from the writings of CP advocates. The results indicated, contrary to advice, CP was not being used in line with 3 of the 6 recommendations and for 2 others, the results were equivocal. The last recommendation could not be assessed with audio. Latency analyses revealed children, after being hit, were misbehaving again within 10 minutes after 73% of the incidents. Mothers' self reports about whether they used CP were found to correspond to the audio data in 81% of the cases. Among the mothers who were hitting, CP occurred at a much higher rate than the literature indicates. These results should be viewed as preliminary because of the small sample of families and the even smaller number of families who used CP. Nevertheless, this pilot study demonstrates that audio recording naturally occurring momentary processes in the family is a viable method for collecting new data to address important questions about family interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  20. Primary chronic osteomyelitis of the jaw--a microbial investigation using cultivation and DNA analysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Paula; Tornes, Knut; Nielsen, Øyunn; Skaug, Nils

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the infectious etiology of primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaw using an extraoral sampling approach and molecular methods. In this pilot study, bone biopsies from the mandibles of 5 patients with PCO were sampled with an extraoral sterile approach. Cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. Two of the biopsies yielded growth of Propionebacterium acnes. One biopsy also demonstrated Staphylococcus capitis. The biopsies with bacterial growth were also positive for the same bacteria by PCR analysis. No specific bacterial etiology was demonstrated. However, the results of bacterial cultivation and PCR analysis were in agreement. Based on these findings, the molecular procedure used in this study can be considered to be suitable for identification of bacterial specimens in mandibular biopsies. Further studies are needed with larger patient populations to confirm these findings.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. Methods and materials One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. Results It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant. PMID:26604836

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant - a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant.

  3. Case-control studies in diabetes. Do they really use a case-control design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Analía; Mendoza, Lilian Cristina; Rabasa, Fernanda; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Puig, Teresa; Corcoy, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    Studies defined as case-control do not always use this design. We aimed to estimate the frequency of mislabelled case-control studies in published articles in the area of diabetes and to identify the predictors of incorrect labelling. We searched Medline and Web of Science for articles with "diabetes" and "case control" in title and filtered for language (English/Romance) and period (January 2010-December 2014). Inclusion criteria were: (1) statement to use a case-control design in title, (2) to be a final full-length publication and (3) to have original data in the area of diabetes. Three independent reviewers went through titles, looked for full texts and reviewed them. Discrepancies were settled with a fourth reviewer. Expert epidemiologist advice was requested in case of doubt. case-control mislabelling; addressed predictors: publication year, journal impact factor and journal subject. proportion of mislabelled CC articles and assessment of predictors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We retrieved 362 articles, 251 of them fulfilling inclusion criteria. The proportion of mislabelled CC studies was 43.8% (confidence interval 95% 37.7-50.0%). Most mislabelled studies had a cross-sectional design (82.7%). Predictors of mislabelling were publication year, journal impact factor and journal area. A relevant subset of studies defined as case-control in the area of diabetes correspond to mislabelled cross-sectional studies. Incorrect labelling misleads readers regarding the interpretation of results and the cause-effect hypothesis. Researchers, reviewers and editors should be aware of and commit to settle this issue.

  4. [Pilot study to investigate sleep disorders in the blind and persons with relevant visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, C; Grünewald, D; Young, P; Heidbreder, A

    2018-05-22

    Sleep disorders are associated with serious health problems in blind and visually impaired persons. Loss of light perception may result in a shift of sleep-wake pattern, which may lead to significant impairments in daily life--the so-called non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. To date, epidemiologic data on non-24 only exist for the USA. This pilot study was conducted to provide first epidemiologic data for the prevalence of non-24 and other sleep disorders among blind and visually impaired persons in Germany. Recruited were 111 blind and visually impaired subjects (36 subjects without light perception; male [m] = 56, 27-85 years, average [Mx] = 59.53, standard deviation [SD] = 14.69) and 111 sighted controls (m = 41, 27-88 years, Mx = 58.32, SD = 14.21), who answered a set of validated questionnaires referring to general health status (SF-36), sleep characteristics (PSQI), and daytime sleepiness (ESS). In addition, a questionnaire to predict non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder, which is not yet validated in German, was provided. The prevalence of 72.2% for the non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in blind people is in accordance with results from the USA. In contrast, our results indicated non-24 in only 21.3% of the subjects with residual light perception. Furthermore, other sleep disorders like problems falling asleep (100% vs. 79.9%), maintaining sleep (90% vs. 88.1%), sleep-disordered breathing (19.4% vs. 32%), or sleep-related movement disorders (28.1% vs. 32.9%) were also common in the group of blind or visually impaired persons. The non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder is a frequent problem among people with no light perception, associated with problems falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and daytime sleepiness. The perception of light as an external cue for our circadian rhythm plays a key role. However, sleep disruption is not fully explained by non-24, making a detailed sleep history essential.

  5. Cognitive and physical rehabilitation of intensive care unit survivors: results of the RETURN randomized controlled pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C; Ely, E Wesley; Morey, Miriam C; Anderson, Venice M; Denne, Laural B; Clune, Jennifer; Siebert, Carol S; Archer, Kristin R; Torres, Renee; Janz, David; Schiro, Elena; Jones, Julie; Shintani, Ayumi K; Levine, Brian; Pun, Brenda T; Thompson, Jennifer; Brummel, Nathan E; Hoenig, Helen

    2012-04-01

    Millions of patients who survive medical and surgical general intensive care unit care every year experience newly acquired long-term cognitive impairment and profound physical and functional disabilities. To overcome the current reality in which patients receive inadequate rehabilitation, we devised a multifaceted, in-home, telerehabilitation program implemented using social workers and psychology technicians with the goal of improving cognitive and functional outcomes. This was a single-site, feasibility, pilot, randomized trial of 21 general medical/surgical intensive care unit survivors (8 controls and 13 intervention patients) with either cognitive or functional impairment at hospital discharge. After discharge, study controls received usual care (sporadic rehabilitation), whereas intervention patients received a combination of in-home cognitive, physical, and functional rehabilitation over a 3-month period via a social worker or master's level psychology technician utilizing telemedicine to allow specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Interventions over 12 wks included six in-person visits for cognitive rehabilitation and six televisits for physical/functional rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured at the completion of the rehabilitation program (i.e., at 3 months), with cognitive functioning as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine differences in 3-month outcomes between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline scores. Patients tolerated the program with only one adverse event reported. At baseline both groups were well-matched. At 3-month follow-up, intervention group patients demonstrated significantly improved cognitive executive functioning on the widely used and well-normed Tower test (for planning and strategic thinking) vs. controls (median [interquartile range], 13.0 [11.5-14.0] vs. 7.5 [4.0-8.5]; adjusted p improving cognitive performance and functional outcomes in just 3 months. Future investigations

  6. Evaluating the benefits of a youth mental health curriculum for students in Nicaragua: a parallel-group, controlled pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Arun V; Herrera, Andres; da Silva, Tricia L; Henderson, Joanna; Castrillo, Magda Esther; Kutcher, Stan

    2018-01-01

    High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua. High school and university students (aged 14-25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n   =  567) and control (wait-list; n   =  346) groups in a non-randomized design. Both groups completed measures of mental health knowledge, stigma and function at baseline and 12 weeks. Multivariate analyses and repeated measures analyses were used to compare group outcomes. At baseline, intervention students showed higher substance use (mean difference [MD]  =  0.24) and lower perceived stress (MD = -1.36) than controls ( p   mental health knowledge (MD  =  1.75), lower stigma (MD  =  1.78), more adaptive coping (MD  =  0.82), better lifestyle choices (MD  =  0.06) and lower perceived stress (MD = -1.63) ( p   mental health knowledge, small to moderate for stigma and modest for the other variables. Substance use also decreased among intervention students to similar levels as controls (MD  =  0.03) ( p  > 0.05). This pilot investigation demonstrates the benefits of the MHC in a low-and-middle-income youth population. The findings replicate results found in Canadian student populations and support its cross-cultural applicability.

  7. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... of a birth cohort study investigating the effects of urbanisation in South Africa. S. FONN, M. DE ... is to determine the biological, environmental, economic and psychological factors that are associated with ... the South African Medical Research Council, Parowvallei,. CP. S. FONN, M.B. B.CH., D.O.H., D.EPL, ...

  8. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Miguel A. Martínez-González; Jorge E. Chavarro; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  9. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots ( n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence ( n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  10. Strategy for investigation of fluid migration in evaporites (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.; Shefelbine, H.C.

    1980-03-01

    The proposed strategy for WIPP project investigations of fluid migration in evaporites focuses upon a quantitative evaluation of each of several processes. Potential short- and long-term problems arising from fluid migration are complication of waste retrieval and mobilization of waste nuclides. The strategy will attempt to determine the degree to which these potentials are realized with respect to five hypothetical types of waste-rock interactions: movement of waste containers, migration of nuclides, formation of radioactive brine pocket, radiolytic generation of gas, and degradation of waste container. Of eight identified processes whose combinations could lead to the five types of interactions, only five are to be quantitatively investigated by the studies of fluid migration per se: presence of fluids, fluid mobilization toward heat-producing and contact-handled waste, encounter of fluids with influence of waste form, reversal of direction of fluid mobilization, and entrainment of nuclides in fluids. Methods of investigation entail an iterative combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling

  11. Accuracy of preemptively constructed, Cone Beam CT-, and CAD/CAM technology-based, individual Root Analogue Implant technique: an in vitro pilot investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moin, D.A.; Hassan, B.; Parsa, A.; Mercelis, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro pilot investigation is to assess the accuracy of the preemptive individually fabricated root analogue implant (RAI) based on three-dimensional (3D) root surface models obtained from a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, computer-aided designing (CAD), and

  12. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study. ...

  13. A pilot audit of a protocol for ambulatory investigation of predicted low-risk patients with possible pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A H; Murphy, R

    2011-09-01

    Patients with possible pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly present to acute medical services. Research has led to the identification of low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory management. We report on a protocol designed to select low-risk patients for ambulatory investigation if confirmatory imaging is not available that day. The protocol was piloted in the Emergency Department and Medical Assessment Area at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. We retrospectively analysed electronic patient records in an open observational audit of all patients managed in the ambulatory arm over five months of use. We analysed 45 patients' records. Of these, 91.1% required imaging to confirm or refute PE, 62.2% received a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). In 25% of patients, PE was confirmed with musculoskeletal pain (22.7%), and respiratory tract infection (15.9%) the next most prevalent diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses was provided by CTPA in 32% of cases. We identified no adverse events or readmissions but individualised follow-up was not attempted. The data from this audit suggests this protocol can be applied to select and manage low-risk patients suitable for ambulatory investigation of possible PE. A larger prospective comparative study would be required to accurately define the safety and effectiveness of this protocol.

  14. Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Zielak

    Full Text Available Introduction : The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the investigation of biomechanics via correlation of the findings of colorimetric photoelastic analysis (stress transition areas; STAs of design details between two types of short dental implants under axial loads. Methods Implants were embedded in a soft photoelastic resin and axially loaded with 10 and 20 N of force. Implant design features were correlated with the STAs (mm2 of the colored fringes of colorimetric photoelastic analysis. Results Under a 10 N load, the surface area of the implants was directly related to STA, whereas under a 20 N load, the surface area and thread height were inversely related to STA. Conclusion A smaller external thread height seemed to improve the biomechanical performance of the short implants investigated.

  15. Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Gavin; Lawlis, Tanya

    2017-11-01

    Protein-based sports supplements are among the more common types of nutrition supplements consumed by athletes; however, there is currently limited data investigating the knowledge, motivations and occurrence of use among the adolescent population (13-18 years). This pilot study looks to obtain initial data regarding the use of protein supplements in this population. This study investigates the understanding and occurrence of protein supplement use in 87 adolescent athletes based in an Australian capital city who compete in a variety of sports. Sources of information, regularity of use, purchasing habits, associated risk knowledge and supplement beliefs were examined using a self-reported, written questionnaire. A total of 60% (n = 52) of athletes reported using protein supplements, with a positive relationship between age and use (P supplement consumption, with the most common risk reported as 'I don't know' (22%). Coaches were found to initiate protein supplement use more than other figures in the athlete's life (50%) and were the primary source of information regarding supplements (58%). It was found that 19% of adolescent athletes obtained information about protein supplements from the Internet, and 17% of all consumers purchase their supplements online. The evident lack of knowledge regarding protein supplements demonstrates a necessity for further education of athletes, coaches and families regarding the responsible purchasing and use of protein supplements in the current landscape of sports nutrition. Future research should further explore the role of the Internet in protein supplement purchase and education. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  16. Pilot Study An Investigating Proficiency Learners Attitudes Towards English Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ozge Razy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate foreign students feeling and behaviour towards learning English and different other languages. The study found out that there is any significant difference in the students aspects attitudes positive and negative towards learning English language inside and outside the school based on their response to 25 items. A total of participants were 18 took a questionnaire as an instrument to qualify their attitudes. The participants showed positive attitudes in the high level towards foreign languages such as English. The study presented recommendation to improve other languages in the future as English.

  17. A pilot investigation of the effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on humans' heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Emilio; Baldi, Claudio; Lithgow, Brian J

    2007-01-01

    The question whether pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can affect the heart rhythm is still controversial. This study investigates the effects on the cardiocirculatory system of ELF-PEMFs. It is a follow-up to an investigation made of the possible therapeutic effect ELF-PEMFs, using a commercially available magneto therapeutic unit, had on soft tissue injury repair in humans. Modulation of heart rate (HR) or heart rate variability (HRV) can be detected from changes in periodicity of the R-R interval and/or from changes in the numbers of heart-beat/min (bpm), however, R-R interval analysis gives only a quantitative insight into HRV. A qualitative understanding of HRV can be obtained considering the power spectral density (PSD) of the R-R intervals Fourier transform. In this study PSD is the investigative tool used, more specifically the low frequency (LF) PSD and high frequency (HF) PSD ratio (LF/HF) which is an indicator of sympatho-vagal balance. To obtain the PSD value, variations of the R-R time intervals were evaluated from a continuously recorded ECG. The results show a HR variation in all the subjects when they are exposed to the same ELF-PEMF. This variation can be detected by observing the change in the sympatho-vagal equilibrium, which is an indicator of modulation of heart activity. Variation of the LF/HF PSD ratio mainly occurs at transition times from exposure to nonexposure, or vice versa. Also of interest are the results obtained during the exposure of one subject to a range of different ELF-PEMFs. This pilot study suggests that a full investigation into the effect of ELF-PEMFs on the cardiovascular system is justified.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredén Jansson KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Johan Fredén Jansson,1 Bo Håkansson,1 Sabine Reinfeldt,1 Cristina Rigato,1 Måns Eeg-Olofsson2 1Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, 2Deptartment of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Purpose: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO, total harmonic distortion (THD, and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated.Methods and materials: One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI.Results: It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant.Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that the present BCI

  19. Linkage to care among adults being investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa: pilot study of a case manager intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraba, Noriah; Chihota, Violet; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Churchyard, Gavin J; Grant, Alison D

    2018-05-24

    We piloted an intervention to determine if support from a case manager would assist adults being investigated for tuberculosis (TB) to link into TB and HIV care. Pilot interventional cohort study. Patients identified by primary healthcare clinic staff in South Africa as needing TB investigations were enrolled. Participants were supported for 3 months by case managers who facilitated the care pathway by promoting HIV testing, getting laboratory results, calling patients to return for results and facilitating treatment initiation. Linkage to TB care was defined as starting TB treatment within 28 days in those with a positive test result; linkage to HIV care, for HIV-positive people, was defined as having blood taken for CD4 count and, for those eligible, starting antiretroviral therapy within 3 months. Intervention implementation was measured by number of attempts to contact participants. Among 562 participants (307 (54.6%) female, median age: 36 years (IQR 29-44)), most 477 (84.8%) had previously tested for HIV; of these, 328/475 (69.1%) self-reported being HIV-positive. Overall, 189/562 (33.6%) participants needed linkage to care (132 HIV care linkage only; 35 TB treatment linkage only; 22 both). Of 555 attempts to contact these 189 participants, 407 were to facilitate HIV care linkage, 78 for TB treatment linkage and 70 for both. At the end of 3-month follow-up, 40 participants had not linked to care (29 of the 132 (22.0%) participants needing linkage to HIV care only, 4 of the 35 (11.4%) needing to start on TB treatment only and 7 of the 22 (31.8%) needing both). Many people testing for TB need linkage to care. Despite case manager support, non-linkage into HIV care remained higher than desirable, suggesting a need to modify this intervention before implementation. Innovative strategies to enable linkage to care are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial

  20. External data required timely response by the Trial Steering-Data Monitoring Committee for the NALoxone InVEstigation (N-ALIVE pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M. Bird

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prison-based N-ALIVE pilot trial had undertaken to notify the Research Ethics Committee and participants if we had reason to believe that the N-ALIVE pilot trial would not proceed to the main trial. In this paper, we describe how external data for the third year of before/after evaluation from Scotland's National Naloxone Programme, a related public health policy, were anticipated by eliciting prior opinion about the Scottish results in the month prior to their release as official statistics. We summarise how deliberations by the N-ALIVE Trial Steering-Data Monitoring Committee (TS-DMC on N-ALIVE's own interim data, together with those on naloxone-on-release (NOR from Scotland, led to the decision to cease randomization in the N-ALIVE pilot trial and recommend to local Principal Investigators that NOR be offered to already-randomized prisoners who had not yet been released.

  1. Investigation of polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels as a neuronal scaffold: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymer crosslinked aerogels are an attractive class of materials for future implant applications particularly as a biomaterial for the support of nerve growth. The low density and nano-porous structure of this material combined with large surface area, high mechanical strength, and tunable surface properties, make aerogels materials with a high potential in aiding repair of injuries of the peripheral nervous system. however, the interaction of neurons with aerogels remains to be investigated. METHODOLOGY: In this work the attachment and growth of neurons on clear polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA coated with: poly-L-lysine, basement membrane extract (BME, and laminin1 was investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. After comparing the attachment and growth capability of neurons on these different coatings, laminin1 and BME were chosen for nerve cell attachment and growth on PCSA surfaces. The behavior of neurons on treated petri dish surfaces was used as the control and behavior of neurons on treated PCSA discs was compared against it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that: 1 untreated PCSA surfaces do not support attachment and growth of nerve cells, 2 a thin application of laminin1 layer onto the PCSA discs adhered well to the PCSA surface while also supporting growth and differentiation of neurons as evidenced by the number of processes extended and b3-tubulin expression, 3 three dimensional porous structure of PCSA remains intact after fixing protocols necessary for preservation of biological samples and 4 laminin1 coating proved to be the most effective method for attaching neurons to the desired regions on PCSA discs. This work provides the basis for potential use of PCSA as a biomaterial scaffold for neural regeneration.

  2. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis within human dental calculus: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Nicolino; Galgut, Peter; Mordan, Nicola

    2007-10-01

    Dental calculus is considered to be simply a "plaque-retentive factor", and therefore only a secondary aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Recent studies have suggested a more active role for calculus. Our objective was to demonstrate the presence of periodontal pathogens in the non-mineralised areas of supra- and subgingival dental calculus. Subjects for the study were derived from patients with substantial amounts of supragingival calculus in the lower anterior region who had moderate periodontal disease, having been referred to the periodontal department at the Eastman Dental Hospital for periodontal care. Calculus was removed in as large pieces as possible by the use of a sickle or a push scaler placed underneath the apical or facial border of the calculus and fracturing it from the tooth surface in a single stroke. The orientation and absence of dental plaque was confirmed using light microscopy for each sample prior to inclusion in this study. Samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation after immunogold staining with polyclonal antibodies for the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g.) and Treponema denticola (T. d.). Most of the samples contained at least one of the bacterial species examined, either in the lacunae or in the covering dental plaque. T. d. was the most frequently identified species and was found in nearly all of the subgingival samples, whilstA. a. was rarely observed. In this limited study, supra- and subgingival dental calculus appears to be capable of maintaining periodontal pathogens within the deep recesses of its structural lacunae and channels. Therefore, calculus could possibly play a relevant role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis. The presence of T. d. in the majority of specimens requires further investigation as its pathogenic potential may be underestimated in current published microbiological research, and

  3. A pilot study investigating the association between sleep and cognitive function among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafiq; Bashir, Shahid

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function among adolescent subjects in Riyadh. The sample consisted of 98 (44% female) subjects aged 10-16 years. Each participant filled in a well-structured pre-coded questionnaire regarding demographic data, including a sleep questionnaire; cognitive function was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive function outcome variables were response times in the attention-switching task (AST) and the percentage of correct answers in the pattern recognition memory (PRM) task. There were significant differences in measures of AST-latency (p=0.005), AST-congruent (p=0.012), and AST-incongruent (p=0.009), while no significant difference was found in the PRM task score (p=0.336) within gender groups. There was a significant correlation between sleep and AST switching cost (0.277, p=0.006) and sleep and AST latency (0.188, p=0.063) across the group. This study showed that gender differences in cognitive function were significant in the group of adolescents. Additionally, this study shows that insufficient sleep can impair attention and accuracy in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the Concussion Goggle™ Education Program with Secondary School Athletic Teams: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Payne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have investigated different types of concussion education programs within various populations with mixed results. To date, no research has been published using the Concussion Goggles™ educational program Objective: To compare secondary school student-athletes’ knowledge about concussions before and after attending a concussion education program using the Concussion Goggles™. Design: Pre- posttest. Setting: Public secondary school. Patients or Other Participants: 41 secondary school students (14 girls soccer players, 14 boys basketball players, and 13 girls basketball players with a mean age of 15.37 ± 1.22 years. Intervention(s: Participants completed the Concussion Goggles™ concussion educational program consisting of PowerPoint slides with 3 activities and short video segments within the presentation. Participants completed a test developed by the manufacturers of the Concussion Goggles™ educational program prior to and following the intervention to measure change in concussion knowledge. Main Outcome Measure(s: A 3-way mixed factorial analysis of variance (sport x grade level x gender for repeated measures was utilized to determine statistical significance. Results: A statistically significant difference between the overall pretest (9.37 ± 1.20 and posttest (9.63 ± 1.04 scores was not found (p = 0.28. Repeated measures analysis did not indicate significant interaction effects for test score x grade (p = 0.18, test score x sport (p = 0.63, nor test score x grade x sport (p = 0.96. Conclusion: The Concussion Goggle™ education program did not affect participant knowledge of concussions in the posttest. In its current form, the Concussion Goggle™ program may not be an effective concussion education program.

  5. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  6. A pilot study investigating the effect of parathyroidectomy on arterial stiffness and coronary artery calcification in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Cem; Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Seicean, Andreea; Yigitbas, Hakan; Thomas, George; Yazici, Pinar; Shoenhagen, Paul; Doshi, Krupa; Halliburton, Sandra; Berber, Eren

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness (AS) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are predictors of cardiovascular risk and can be measured noninvasively. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of parathyroidectomy on AS and CAC in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). This prospective, institutional review board-approved study included 21 patients with PHP, who underwent parathyroidectomy. Before and 6 months after parathyroidectomy, AS was assessed by measuring central systolic pressure (CSP), central pulse pressure, augmentation pressure (AP), and augmentation index (AIx); the CAC score (Agatston) was calculated on noncontrast computed tomography. AS parameters were compared with unaffected controls from donor nephrectomy database. Preoperative CSP and AIx parameters in PHP patients were higher than those in donor nephrectomy patients (P = .004 and P = .039, respectively). Preoperative total CAC score was zero in 15 patients (65%) and ranged from the 72nd to the 99th percentile in 6 patients (26%). Although there were no changes in CAC or AS after parathyroidectomy on average, there was variability in individual patient responses on AS. This pilot study demonstrates that CAC is not altered in PHP patients at short-term follow-up after parathyroidectomy. The heterogeneous changes in AS after parathyroidectomy warrant further investigation in a larger study with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-09-01

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  8. Pilot Study of A Novel Biobehavioral Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participational

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-25

    Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participation presented at...Pilot Study of a Novel Biobehavioral lntervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of Laughter Yoga MHSRS...was to explore the practice of the evidence-based biobehavioral interv~ntion, laughter yoga, as a means to lessen the physiologic and psychological

  9. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemann, Boris; Lavolé, Armelle; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Nunes, Hilario; Benzakin, Sylvain; Lefevre, Marine; Kambouchner, Marianne; Périé, Sophie; Valeyre, Dominique; Cadranel, Jacques

    2014-10-20

    We undertook a study on a series of laryngeal sarcoidosis (LS), a very rare and often threatening localization to better specify laryngeal manifestations, sarcoidosis clinical expression and long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective case-control study. All LS patients from two French centers were included and compared to sarcoidosis patients without laryngeal localization with two controls for one patient. Twelve consecutive LS patients were recruited between 1993 and 2011. LS revealed sarcoidosis in eight cases (67%). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (77%), inspiratory dyspnea (38%) and dysphagia (38%). Epidemiological characterisics were not different. Extrapulmonary localizations were significantly more common in LS patients than in controls (92% vs. 54%, p=0.02), particularly lupus pernio (25% vs. 0%, p=0.03) and nasosinusal involvement (83% vs. 4%, p<0.01) while thoracic involvement was less frequent (58% vs 100%, p < 0.01). Treatment rates were higher in the LS group (92% vs. 58%, p=0.04), and treatment duration was longer (median: 81 vs. 13 months, p=0.04), with frequent long-term treatment (67%, N=8/12). Two patients underwent surgery. One patient needed temporary tracheostomy during the course of the disease; Remission rates were lower in LS patients (9% vs. 58% at 2 years p<0.01). Eventually, there was no death nor definitive tracheotomy. LS is a rare condition that is often associated to other loco-regional localizations. LS are often difficult to manage. Survival is good but may require a medico-surgical approach.

  10. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; McKay, James D; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quirós, José Ramon; Sala, Núria; Martínez-García, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Hallmans, Göran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on 1359 breast cancer cases and 2389 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, to examine the association of common genetic variants in the genes coding for ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor (GHSR) with anthropometric measures, circulating insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 and breast cancer risk. Pair-wise tagging was used to select the 15 polymorphisms that represent the majority of common genetic variants across the GHRL and GHSR genes. A significant increase in breast cancer risk was observed in carriers of the GHRL rs171407-G allele (odds ratio: 1.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.4; P = 0.02). The GHRL single-nucleotide polymorphism rs375577 was associated with a 5% increase in IGF-I levels (P = 0.01). A number of GHRL and GHSR polymorphisms were associated with body mass index (BMI) and height (P between GHRL variations are associated with BMI. Furthermore, we have observed evidence for association of GHRL polymorphisms with circulating IGF-I levels and with breast cancer risk. These associations, however, might also be due to chance findings and further large studies are needed to confirm our results.

  11. Investigation of pathogenic genes in peri-implantitis from implant clustering failure patients: a whole-exome sequencing pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Lee

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is a frequently occurring gum disease linked to multi-factorial traits with various environmental and genetic causalities and no known concrete pathogenesis. The varying severity of peri-implantitis among patients with relatively similar environments suggests a genetic aspect which needs to be investigated to understand and regulate the pathogenesis of the disease. Six unrelated individuals with multiple clusterization implant failure due to severe peri-implantitis were chosen for this study. These six individuals had relatively healthy lifestyles, with minimal environmental causalities affecting peri-implantitis. Research was undertaken to investigate pathogenic genes in peri-implantitis albeit with a small number of subjects and incomplete elimination of environmental causalities. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on collected saliva samples via self DNA collection kit. Common variants with minor allele frequencies (MAF > = 0.05 from all control datasets were eliminated and variants having high and moderate impact and loss of function were used for comparison. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed to reveal functional groups associated with the genetic variants. 2,022 genes were left after filtering against dbSNP, the 1000 Genomes East Asian population, and healthy Korean randomized subsample data (GSK project. 175 (p-value <0.05 out of 927 gene sets were obtained via GSEA (DAVID. The top 10 was chosen (p-value <0.05 from cluster enrichment showing significance of cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and metal ion binding. Network analysis was applied to find relationships between functional clusters. Among the functional groups, ion metal binding was located in the center of all clusters, indicating dysfunction of regulation in metal ion concentration might affect cell morphology or cell adhesion, resulting in implant failure. This result may demonstrate the feasibility of and provide pilot data for a larger research

  12. Investigating the micromorphological differences of the implant-abutment junction and their clinical implications: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheos, Nikos; Li, Xiaona; Zampelis, Antonios; Ma, Li; Janda, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the morphological micro-features of three commercially available implant-abutment joints, using compatible and original prosthetic components. Furthermore, possible correlations between the micromorphology and potential functional complications were investigated with the use of finite element analysis. Three abutments (one original and two compatibles) were torqued on original Straumann RN implants, as according to each of the manufacturer's instructions. The implant-abutment units were sliced in the microtome and photographed under different magnifications (10×-500×) through a scanning electron microscope. Finite element analysis models were reconstructed for each of the implant-abutment units using the precise measurements from the SEM. Differences in stress, strain and deformation for the three different abutments were then calculated using ANSYS Workbench v13. Major dimensional differences were identified between all studied contact areas of the three units. The tight contact in the implant shoulder was similar in all three units, but engagement of the internal connection and, in particular, the anti-rotation elements was seriously compromised in the compatible abutments. One compatible abutment demonstrated compromised engagement of the abutment screw as well. Equivalent stress and strain in the FEA were much higher for the compatible abutments. An evaluation of the sequence of preload application revealed differences in the pattern of deformation between the original and compatible abutments, which can have serious clinical implications. Compatible abutments can present critical morphological differences from the original ones. The differences in the cross-sectional geometry result in large differences in the overall contact areas, both in terms of quality and quantity which could have serious implications for the long-term stability of the prosthesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  13. Piloting a programme tool to evaluate malaria case investigation and reactive case detection activities: results from 3 settings in the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Chris; Sudathip, Prayuth; Herdiana, Herdiana; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yaobao; Luo, Alex; Ranasinghe, Neil; Bennett, Adam; Cao, Jun; Gosling, Roly D

    2017-08-22

    Case investigation and reactive case detection (RACD) activities are widely-used in low transmission settings to determine the suspected origin of infection and identify and treat malaria infections nearby to the index patient household. Case investigation and RACD activities are time and resource intensive, include methodologies that vary across eliminating settings, and have no standardized metrics or tools available to monitor and evaluate them. In response to this gap, a simple programme tool was developed for monitoring and evaluating (M&E) RACD activities and piloted by national malaria programmes. During the development phase, four modules of the RACD M&E tool were created to assess and evaluate key case investigation and RACD activities and costs. A pilot phase was then carried out by programme implementers between 2013 and 2015, during which malaria surveillance teams in three different settings (China, Indonesia, Thailand) piloted the tool over a period of 3 months each. This study describes summary results of the pilots and feasibility and impact of the tool on programmes. All three study areas implemented the RACD M&E tool modules, and pilot users reported the tool and evaluation process were helpful to identify gaps in RACD programme activities. In the 45 health facilities evaluated, 71.8% (97/135; min 35.3-max 100.0%) of the proper notification and reporting forms and 20.0% (27/135; min 0.0-max 100.0%) of standard operating procedures (SOPs) were available to support malaria elimination activities. The tool highlighted gaps in reporting key data indicators on the completeness for malaria case reporting (98.8%; min 93.3-max 100.0%), case investigations (65.6%; min 61.8-max 78.4%) and RACD activities (70.0%; min 64.7-max 100.0%). Evaluation of the SOPs showed that knowledge and practices of malaria personnel varied within and between study areas. Average monthly costs for conducting case investigation and RACD activities showed variation between study

  14. Case-control study of mesothelioma in the shipyard industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Villasenor, A.

    1987-01-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to asbestos and low-level gamma radiation and mesothelioma. One hundred nineteen cases and four hundred fifty-two latency-matched controls were selected. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio and conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The results from the analyses revealed a relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma; the strength of this relationship increased with the intensity and duration of the asbestos exposure. Exposure to low-level gamma radiation was also associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. There was no interaction between asbestos and radiation. Shipyard employment in non-asbestos jobs and male gender were also found to be associated with mesothelioma

  15. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-08-27

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO{sub 2}. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO{sub 2} can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  16. Pilot study on indoor climate investigation and computer simulation in historical museum building: Amerongen Castle, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The indoor climate is one of the most important factors contributing to climate-induced damage to the building materials and cultural collections of a monumental building. The Dutch monumental building - Amerongen Castle, and the collections housed in it show severe deterioration caused by inappropriate historical indoor environment. Assessments of the indoor climate, especially on the room temperature and relative humidity, are necessary to analyze the causes and impacts of climate change. As the building was flooded in year 1993 and 1996, extra attention is paid to investigate the effects of flooding to it. This pilot study was aimed to identify the buildup linkages between the known past, historical data on indoor environment and indoor climate performance in the building through simulation based-prediction. This paper focuses on the methodology of indoor climate investigation from the past to the current situation. A hypothesis was developed on backcasting-based prediction simulation which can be used to identify the accepted historical indoor climate where during those times there probably was no damage to the building and the collection. A simulation method based on heat, air and moisture transport is used with the HAMBase program. The computer model representing the Grand Salon of Amerongen Castle was calibrated by comparing real measurements to simulation results. It shows that the differences were only to the minimum of -1.8C and maximum of 3.2C. The data for the historical outdoor weather files was obtained by interpolating outdoor ancient climatology constructed by MATLAB. Based on archival research, indoor thermal history was gathered as input for the profiles used in simulation. Further, the calibrated computer model can be used to simulate past indoor climate and investigate the process of the deterioration of the room and the collections mainly due to the fluctuation of indoor temperature and relative humidity. At the end

  17. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  18. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Data collection, analysis and reporting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a 'real world' context, and are commonly used to guide vaccine policy decisions. However, the potential for bias and confounding are important limitations to this method, and the results of a poorly conducted or incorrectly interpreted case-control study can mislead policies. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating vaccine effectiveness; we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for data collection, analysis, and presentation of the results of case-control vaccine effectiveness studies. Vaccination status is the primary exposure of interest, but can be challenging to assess accurately and with minimal bias. Investigators should understand factors associated with vaccination as well as the availability of documented vaccination status in the study context; case-control studies may not be a valid method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness in settings where many children lack a documented immunization history. To avoid bias, it is essential to use the same methods and effort gathering vaccination data from cases and controls. Variables that may confound the association between illness and vaccination are also important to capture as completely as possible, and where relevant, adjust for in the analysis according to the analytic plan. In presenting results from case-control vaccine effectiveness studies, investigators should describe enrollment among eligible cases and controls as well as the proportion with no documented vaccine history. Emphasis should be placed on confidence intervals, rather than point estimates, of vaccine effectiveness. Case-control studies are a useful approach for evaluating vaccine effectiveness; however careful attention must be paid to the collection

  19. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  20. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  1. Investigation on the effects of pilot injection on low temperature combustion in high-speed diesel engine fueled with n-butanol–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Yang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Tianru; Zhao, Ruiqing; Wang, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of pre-injected timing and pre-injected mass were studied in CI engine. • The addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals, which delayed the ignition time. • With the increase of n-butanol, the BSFC and MPRR increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the advance of pilot injection timing, the BSFC increased, NO_x and soot decreased. • With the increase of pilot injection mass, NO_x increased, soot decreased then increased. - Abstract: The effect of pilot injection timing and pilot injection mass on combustion and emission characteristics under medium exhaust gas recirculation (EGR (25%)) condition were experimentally investigated in high-speed diesel engine. Diesel fuel (B0), two blends of butanol and diesel fuel denoted as B20 (20% butanol and 80% diesel in volume), and B30 (30% butanol and 70% diesel in volume) were tested. The results show that, for all fuels, when advancing the pilot injection timing, the peak value of heat release rate decreases for pre-injection fuel, but increases slightly for the main-injection fuel. Moreover, the in-cylinder pressure peak value reduces with the rise of maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), while NO_x and soot emissions reduce. Increasing the pilot injection fuel mass, the peak value of heat release rate for pre-injected fuel increases, but for the main-injection, the peak descends, and the in-cylinder pressure peak value and NO_x emissions increase, while soot emission decreases at first and then increases. Blending n-butanol in diesel improves soot emissions. When pilot injection is adopted, the increase of n-butanol ratio causes the MPRR increasing and the crank angle location for 50% cumulative heat release (CA50) advancing, as well as NO_x and soot emissions decreasing. The simulation of the combustion of n-butanol–diesel fuel blends, which was based on the n-heptane–n-butanol–PAH–toluene mixing mechanism, demonstrated that the addition of n-butanol consumed OH free radicals

  2. Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to anthropometry, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and breast cancer risk : a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Mckay, James D.; Canzian, Federico; Wilkening, Stefan; Rinaldi, Sabina; Biessy, Carine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnes; Linseisen, Jakob; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Georgila, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Sala, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hallmans, Goran; Lenner, Per; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay Tee; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role of ghrelin in cancer development. We conducted a case-control study on

  3. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  4. A Note on Penalized Regression Spline Estimation in the Secondary Analysis of Case-Control Data

    KAUST Repository

    Gazioglu, Suzan; Wei, Jiawei; Jennings, Elizabeth M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease (D) and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated due to the case-control sampling, and to avoid the biased sampling that arises from the design, it is typical to use the control data only. In this paper, we develop penalized regression spline methodology that uses all the data, and improves precision of estimation compared to using only the controls. A simulation study and an empirical example are used to illustrate the methodology.

  5. A Note on Penalized Regression Spline Estimation in the Secondary Analysis of Case-Control Data

    KAUST Repository

    Gazioglu, Suzan

    2013-05-25

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease (D) and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated due to the case-control sampling, and to avoid the biased sampling that arises from the design, it is typical to use the control data only. In this paper, we develop penalized regression spline methodology that uses all the data, and improves precision of estimation compared to using only the controls. A simulation study and an empirical example are used to illustrate the methodology.

  6. Association Between Anemia and Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Gaartman, Aafke E.; Dikstaal, Arienne A.; Stam, Jan; Middeldorp, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is often considered to be a risk factor for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but this assumption is mostly based on case reports. We investigated the association between anemia and CVT in a controlled study. Unmatched case-control study: cases were adult patients with CVT included in a

  7. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  8. Indices of language outcome 11 years after intrathecal chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a sibling case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Su, I-Fan; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2012-03-01

    Studies are emerging that suggest that major language indices do not differentiate children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with risk-adapted intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) from control children matched on age, gender, and educational level. No study to date has controlled for cognitive environment, an important variable influencing language achievement and outcome. This case-control study applies the deconfounding principle by using a sibling as a control to investigate language outcomes in a male child 11 years after administration of ITC for ALL at the age of 2 years 3 months. A comprehensive behavioral language test battery failed to differentiate the siblings on current language performance when descriptively compared, but neurophysiological assessment revealed that the ITC-treated child required more time and elicited a smaller N400 component compared to his sibling during picture-word matching. The findings suggest that in the absence of pretreatment performance indices, comparison with sibling achievement may supplement what is known on posttreatment language skill development drawn from comparative studies using children matched on age, sex, and educational level drawn from the community. The study's findings offer pilot data of language outcomes following ITC beyond the early stage of survivorship. The benefits and limitations of using siblings in research where the cognitive environment is known to make an important contribution to skill development are discussed.

  9. Hypothyroidism among SLE patients: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Gertel, Smadar; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothyroidism in SLE patients varies considerably and early reports were mainly based on small cohorts. To investigate the association between SLE and hypothyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hypothyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age and sex-matched controls. The proportion of hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (15.58% and 5.75%, respectively, Phypothyroidism (odds ratio 2.644, 95% confidence interval 2.405-2.908). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hypothyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  11. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  12. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S.

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed

  13. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  14. Investigations into the operating behavior of separation nozzle cascades for uranium-235 enrichment in a 10-stage pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, P.; Hein, H.; Linder, G.

    1984-03-01

    The separation nozzle method developed by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center is based on the centrifugal force in a curved jet consisting of uranium hexafluoride and a light auxiliary gas. To determine in experiments the operating and controlling behavior of separation nozzle cascades a 10-stage pilot plant was erected some year ago. This plant was transferred to the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) in Belo Horizonte as a donation made within the framework of the German-Brazilian Agreement on scientific cooperation in the field of uranium enrichment. The plant previously equipped with single deflection systems was modified to operate with the double deflection system envisaged for commercial plants. A controlling concept meanwhile developed and improved for separation nozzle cascades equipped with single and double deflection systems was verified experimentally and optimized at the pilot plant of the CDTN. A comparison of the experimental operating behavior with the operating behavior calculated by simulation programs has confirmed the faithfulness of simulation of the computer codes developed to apply to cascades with double deflection systems as well. (orig.) [de

  15. Toxocara infection in psychiatric inpatients: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is poor knowledge about the epidemiology of toxocariasis in psychiatric patients. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Through a case-control seroprevalence study, 128 psychiatric inpatients and 276 control subjects were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies in Durango, Mexico. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of inpatients associated with toxocariasis were also investigated. RESULTS: Six of the 128 (4.7% psychiatric inpatients, and 3 (1.1% of the 276 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (P = 0.03. Stratification by age showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.02 higher in patients aged ≤50 years old (6/90∶6.7% than controls of the same age (2/163∶1.2%. While Toxocara seroprevalence was similar in patients and controls aged >50 years old. Stratification by gender showed that Toxocara seroprevalence was significantly (P = 0.03 higher in female patients (2/37∶5.4% than in female controls (0/166∶0%. No statistically significant associations between Toxocara seropositivity and clinical characteristics were found. In contrast, Toxocara seropositivity was associated with consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of toxocariasis in psychiatric inpatients in Mexico. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with psychiatric diseases. The role of the consumption of goat meat and raw sea snail in the transmission of Toxocara deserve further investigation.

  16. Bio-adsorption (Pilot-scale). Investigation of cleansing effect and sludge formation. [Municipal wastes]. Biosorption. Pilot-skala. Undersoegelse af renseeffekt og slamudbytte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-15

    The aim of the project was to investigate the process of bioadsorption in relation to the purifying of sewage waste where the oxygen levels were 0%, 2.5% and 10%. Cleansing results for 2.5% oxygen saturation was 50-70% for BOD and 30-50% for COD. Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus was 15-20% and 20-25%. 40% of the removed nitrogen, and the organic bound phosphorus, was returned to the system via the internal reject-flow and thus to the biological processing. The tendence to sludge production was heightened where oxygen saturation was moderate. It is reckoned that operational costs were reduced by 10 Danish oere per cubic meter waste water where the unprocessed waste had a content of 250mg BOD/1. (AB).

  17. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  18. Investigation of biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple chemical contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Katherine E; Lew, Julia; Dickenson, Eric R V; Wert, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    The evolving demands of drinking water treatment necessitate processes capable of removing a diverse suite of contaminants. Biofiltration can employ biotransformation and sorption to remove various classes of chemicals from water. Here, pilot-scale virgin anthracite-sand and previously used biological activated carbon (BAC)-sand dual media filters were operated for ∼250 days to assess removals of 0.4 mg/L ammonia as nitrogen, 50-140 μg/L manganese, and ∼100 ng/L each of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) spiked into pre-ozonated Colorado River water. Anthracite achieved complete nitrification within 200 days and started removing ibuprofen at 85 days. Limited manganese (10%) removal occurred. In contrast, BAC completely nitrified ammonia within 113 days, removed all manganese at 43 days, and exhibited steady state removal of most TOrCs by 140 days. However, during the first 140 days, removal of caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, naproxen, and trimethoprim decreased, suggesting a shift from sorption to biotransformation. Acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole were removed at consistent levels, with complete removal of acetaminophen achieved throughout the study; ibuprofen removal increased with time. When subjected to elevated (1 μg/L) concentrations of TOrCs, BAC removed larger masses of chemicals; with a subsequent decrease and ultimate cease in the TOrCs spike, caffeine, DEET, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim notably desorbed. By the end of operation, anthracite and BAC exhibited equivalent quantities of biomass measured as adenosine triphosphate, but BAC harbored greater microbial diversity (examined with 16S rRNA sequencing). Improved insight was gained regarding concurrent biotransformation, sorption, and desorption of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  20. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  1. Robust estimation for homoscedastic regression in the secondary analysis of case-control data

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei

    2012-12-04

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease D and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, which is often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated owing to the case-control sampling, where the regression of Y on X is different from what it is in the population. Previous work has assumed a parametric distribution for Y given X and derived semiparametric efficient estimation and inference without any distributional assumptions about X. We take up the issue of estimation of a regression function when Y given X follows a homoscedastic regression model, but otherwise the distribution of Y is unspecified. The semiparametric efficient approaches can be used to construct semiparametric efficient estimates, but they suffer from a lack of robustness to the assumed model for Y given X. We take an entirely different approach. We show how to estimate the regression parameters consistently even if the assumed model for Y given X is incorrect, and thus the estimates are model robust. For this we make the assumption that the disease rate is known or well estimated. The assumption can be dropped when the disease is rare, which is typically so for most case-control studies, and the estimation algorithm simplifies. Simulations and empirical examples are used to illustrate the approach.

  2. Robust estimation for homoscedastic regression in the secondary analysis of case-control data

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Jiawei; Carroll, Raymond J.; Mü ller, Ursula U.; Keilegom, Ingrid Van; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2012-01-01

    Primary analysis of case-control studies focuses on the relationship between disease D and a set of covariates of interest (Y, X). A secondary application of the case-control study, which is often invoked in modern genetic epidemiologic association studies, is to investigate the interrelationship between the covariates themselves. The task is complicated owing to the case-control sampling, where the regression of Y on X is different from what it is in the population. Previous work has assumed a parametric distribution for Y given X and derived semiparametric efficient estimation and inference without any distributional assumptions about X. We take up the issue of estimation of a regression function when Y given X follows a homoscedastic regression model, but otherwise the distribution of Y is unspecified. The semiparametric efficient approaches can be used to construct semiparametric efficient estimates, but they suffer from a lack of robustness to the assumed model for Y given X. We take an entirely different approach. We show how to estimate the regression parameters consistently even if the assumed model for Y given X is incorrect, and thus the estimates are model robust. For this we make the assumption that the disease rate is known or well estimated. The assumption can be dropped when the disease is rare, which is typically so for most case-control studies, and the estimation algorithm simplifies. Simulations and empirical examples are used to illustrate the approach.

  3. Sensory impairments and wrist fractures: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergthora Baldursdottir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate vestibular function, foot sensation, postural control and functional abilities, and to evaluate whether these variables are associated with fall-related wrist fracture. Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 98 subjects, age range 50–75 years, who had sustained a fall-related wrist fracture. Forty-eight sex-, age- and physical activity-matched individuals, with no previous history of wrist fracture, served as controls. Measurements included: head-shake test (HST, tuning fork, biothesiometer, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (MF, Sensory Organization Test (SOT, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS, 10-m walk test (10MWT, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI scales. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations of variables with a fall-related wrist fracture. Results: Vestibular asymmetry was apparent in 82% of wrist fracture subjects and 63% of controls (p = 0.012. Plantar pressure sensation (p <0.001, SOT composite scores (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p <0.001, FTSTS (p <0.001, ABC (p <0.001 and DHI (p <0.005 were significantly poorer among cases than controls. A positive HST (odds ratio (OR 5.424; p = 0.008 and monofilament sensation (OR 3.886; p = 0.014 showed the strongest associations with having a fall-related wrist fracture. Conclusion: Asymmetrical vestibular function and reduced plantar pressure sensation are associated with fall-related wrist fractures among the ageing population. These factors are potential targets for future interventions.

  4. Case-Control Studies of Sporadic Enteric Infections: A Review and Discussion of Studies Conducted Internationally from 1990 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Kathleen E.; Scallan, Elaine; Kirk, Martyn D.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Angulo, Frederick J.; de Valk, Henriette; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Gauci, Charmaine; Hauri, Anja M.; Majowicz, Shannon; O’Brien, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologists have used case-control studies to investigate enteric disease outbreaks for many decades. Increasingly, case-control studies are also used to investigate risk factors for sporadic (not outbreak-associated) disease. While the same basic approach is used, there are important differences between outbreak and sporadic disease settings that need to be considered in the design and implementation of the case-control study for sporadic disease. Through the International Collaboration on Enteric Disease “Burden of Illness” Studies (the International Collaboration), we reviewed 79 case-control studies of sporadic enteric infections caused by nine pathogens that were conducted in 22 countries and published from 1990 through to 2009. We highlight important methodological and study design issues (including case definition, control selection, and exposure assessment) and discuss how approaches to the study of sporadic enteric disease have changed over the last 20 years (e.g., making use of more sensitive case definitions, databases of controls, and computer-assisted interviewing). As our understanding of sporadic enteric infections grows, methods and topics for case-control studies are expected to continue to evolve; for example, advances in understanding of the role of immunity can be used to improve control selection, the apparent protective effects of certain foods can be further explored, and case-control studies can be used to provide population-based measures of the burden of disease. PMID:22443481

  5. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  6. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  7. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Shiffman, Dov; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variants in the human genome. SNPs are known to modify susceptibility to complex diseases. We describe and discuss methods used to identify SNPs associated with disease in case-control studies. An outline on study population selection, sample collection and genotyping platforms is presented, complemented by SNP selection, data preprocessing and analysis.

  8. Aetiology of handball injuries : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirx, M.; Bouter, L. M.; de Geus, G. H.

    This article presents the results of a case-control study regarding the background to handball injuries among players of 12 years and older. Data were collected by means of a written questionnaire on the nature, location and direct causes of the injuries as well as information on risk factors.

  9. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-1/4 inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12)

  10. An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Protective Isolation for Patients with Haematological Malignancies: A Pilot Study Investigating Patients' Distress and Use of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, O; Pensieri, C; Tomarchio, V; Biagioli, V; Pennacchini, M; Tendas, A; Tambone, V; Tirindelli, M C

    2017-10-01

    Background: Patients with haematological malignancies are often hospitalized in protective isolation until full neutrophil recovery in order to prevent infections. This descriptive pilot study evaluate the level of isolation-related distress and the use of free time in a sample of Italian onco-haematological patients who were hospitalized in protective isolation. Materials and Methods: Participants were 18 patients hospitalized in hematologic ward to receive induction therapy (n=12) or autologous stem cell transplant (n=6). They completed a self-report questionnaire before discharge. Results: Participants reported a moderate level of isolation-related distress, anxiety, and boredom: the more the anxiety and the boredom, the more the distress (r=.77; Psurfing in Internet or using PC (33.3%), and playing games or making cross-words (16.7%). Participants who reported pessimistic thinking had higher isolation-related distress (P=.004) as well as anxiety (P<.001) and boredom (P=.001). Conclusion: Haematology Units should support isolated patients in spending their time in recreational activities, allowing more contacts with immediate relatives and friends, providing free TV and Wi-Fi connection inside the room. In addition, patients should have to keep themselves physically active. Isolation-related distress could also be reduced by providing psychological support.

  12. Standing Up for Learning: A Pilot Investigation on the Neurocognitive Benefits of Stand-Biased School Desks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana K. Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing desks have proven to be effective and viable solutions to combat sedentary behavior among children during the school day in studies around the world. However, little is known regarding the potential of such interventions on cognitive outcomes in children over time. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the neurocognitive benefits, i.e., improvements in executive functioning and working memory, of stand-biased desks and explore any associated changes in frontal brain function. 34 freshman high school students were recruited for neurocognitive testing at two time points during the school year: (1 in the fall semester and (2 in the spring semester (after 27.57 (1.63 weeks of continued exposure. Executive function and working memory was evaluated using a computerized neurocognitive test battery, and brain activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex were obtained using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Continued utilization of the stand-biased desks was associated with significant improvements in executive function and working memory capabilities. Changes in corresponding brain activation patterns were also observed. These findings provide the first preliminary evidence on the neurocognitive benefits of standing desks, which to date have focused largely on energy expenditure. Findings obtained here can drive future research with larger samples and multiple schools, with comparison groups that may in turn implicate the importance of stand-biased desks, as simple environmental changes in classrooms, on enhancing children’s cognitive functioning that drive their cognitive development and impact educational outcomes.

  13. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association Between Zolpidem Use and Glaucoma Risk: A Taiwanese Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. Methods We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (?5 years). Zolpidem exposu...

  15. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  16. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  17. Pilot investigation of two-stage biofiltration for removal of natural organic matter in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Lee, Wan-Ning; Coleman, Clark; Meyer, Melissa; Carter, Jason; Nowack, Kirk; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2017-01-01

    A pilot study employing two parallel trains of two-stage biofiltration, i.e., a sand/anthracite (SA) biofilter followed by a biologically-active granular activated carbon (GAC) contactor, was conducted to test the efficiency, feasibility and stability of biofiltration for removing natural organic matter (NOM) after coagulation in a drinking water treatment plant. Results showed the biofiltration process could effectively remove turbidity (24% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), >57% of UV 254 , and >44% of SUVA 254 ), where the SA biofilters showed a strong capacity for turbidity removal, while the GAC contactors played the dominant role in NOM removal. The vertical profile of water quality in the GAC contactors indicated the middle-upper portion was the critical zone for the removal of NOM, where relatively higher adsorption and enhanced biological removal were afforded. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis of NOM showed that the GAC contactors effectively decreased the content of humic-like component, while protein-like component was refractory for the biofiltration process. Nutrients (NH 4 -N and PO 4 -P) supplementation applied upstream of one of the two-stage biofiltration trains (called engineered biofiltration) stimulated the growth of microorganisms, and showed a modest effect on promoting the biological removal of small non-aromatic compositions in NOM. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated influent UV 254 was the most explanatory water quality parameter for GAC contactors' treatment performance, and a high load of UV 254 would result in significantly reduced removals of UV 254 and SUVA 254 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  19. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    ), or transferred (i.e. had unplanned changes in place of training/ward due to failure to thrive or due to inadequate development of competences), or dropped out (i.e. were dismissed from, had resigned from, or changed their speciality). Controls were a random sample of doctors in the source population, who were......Abstract summary The aim of this cummulative incidence case-control study was to examine: if struggling trainees in medical specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to non-struggling controls, and which performance indicators during medical school...... seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...

  20. Sample size calculations for case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This R package can be used to calculate the required samples size for unconditional multivariate analyses of unmatched case-control studies. The sample sizes are for a scalar exposure effect, such as binary, ordinal or continuous exposures. The sample sizes can also be computed for scalar interaction effects. The analyses account for the effects of potential confounder variables that are also included in the multivariate logistic model.

  1. Nutritional risk assessment for Hip fracture, A Case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Torbergsen, Anne Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Patients were included from September 2009 until April 2011. In total 116 patients and 73 healthy non-fractured controls participated. The study has 3 parts. In the first part, we studied micronutrients and the risk of hip fracture in a case control study. In the second part, we conducted a randomized controlled nutrition intervention trial and finally, in the third part, we studied if micronutrients were associated with delirium in...

  2. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate as a slow-release carbon source for in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers: From laboratory investigation to pilot-scale testing in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Lucia; Matturro, Bruna; Rossetti, Simona; Sagliaschi, Marco; Sucato, Salvatore; Alesi, Eduard; Bartsch, Ernst; Arjmand, Firoozeh; Papini, Marco Petrangeli

    2017-07-25

    A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Prior to field testing, PHB was experimentally verified as a suitable electron donor for biological reductive dechlorination processes at the investigated site by microcosm studies carried out on site aquifer material and measuring the quantitative transformation of detected CAHs to ethene. Owing to the complex geological characteristics of the aquifer, the use of a groundwater circulation well (GCW) was identified as a potential strategy to enable effective delivery and distribution of electron donors in less permeable layers and to mobilise contaminants. A 3-screened, 30-m-deep GCW coupled with an external treatment unit was installed at the site. The effect of PHB fermentation products on the in situ reductive dechlorination processes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results from the first 4 months of operation clearly demonstrated that the PHB fermentation products were effectively delivered to the aquifer and positively influenced the biological dechlorination activity. Indeed, an increased abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (up to 6.6 fold) and reduced CAH concentrations at the installed monitoring wells were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K

    2016-10-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. - Highlights: • Residence time distributions of liquid phase were measured in a trickle bed reactor. • Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. • Mean residence times, holdups and radial distribution of liquid phase were quantified. • Axial dispersion with exchange model was used to simulate the measured data. • The trickle bed reactor behaved as a plug flow reactor.

  6. Associations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms With Marijuana and Synthetic Cannabis Use Among Young Adult U.S. Veterans: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    This study involves a pilot investigation of associations between marijuana and synthetic cannabis use with PTSD symptoms among a young adult sample of U.S. veterans. In a cross-sectional survey of a community sample of 790 young adult U.S. veterans, we assessed demographics, combat severity, marijuana and synthetic cannabis use, expectancies of marijuana use, and PTSD symptoms. Overall, 61.8% and 20.4% of our sample reported lifetime and past-month marijuana use, whereas 17.0% and 3.4% reported lifetime and past-month synthetic cannabis use. Veterans screening positive for PTSD were more likely to use marijuana and synthetic cannabis in their lifetime and in the past month. Positive PTSD screens, as well as greater expectancies that marijuana leads to relaxation and tension reduction, were associated with past-month marijuana use in logistic regression analyses. Expectancies moderated the relationship between PTSD and marijuana use, such that those with positive PTSD screens reporting higher levels of relaxation and tension-reduction expectancies were most likely to report past-month marijuana use. Our findings suggest an association of PTSD symptoms with marijuana and synthetic cannabis use among young adult U.S. veterans. Future research should further investigate the link between PTSD and marijuana use, as well as the rates and consequences of synthetic cannabis use among veterans.

  7. An Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium in an Acute Care Pediatric Hospital: Lessons from Environmental Screening and a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Drews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study describes a vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE outbreak investigation and a case-control study to identify risk factors for VRE acquisition in a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

  8. A Grounded Theory Investigation Into Sophomore Students' Recall of Depression During Their Freshman Year in College: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandy, Julie M; Kessler, Theresa A; Grabarek, Christina H

    2018-04-17

    Using a grounded theory approach, the current descriptive qualitative design was conducted with sophomore students to understand the meaning participants gave their freshman experiences with depression. Twelve participants were recruited using scripted class announcements across campus. After informed consent, interviews began with the question: What was the experience of your freshman year in college? All interviews were completed with the primary investigator and transcribed verbatim. Interviews were analyzed using constant comparative methodology. Data collection continued until saturation was achieved. Four major categories emerged, including the category of symptoms and emotions. This category included the subcategories expressions of stress, changes in eating habits, sleep issues, and procrastination. Descriptive examples of each were found throughout the interview data. With greater understanding of living with depression as a college freshman, health care and college student affairs professionals will have additional evidence to guide their practices. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x),xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  10. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding

  11. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia--a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Dohn, Birthe

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  12. Increasing levels of free thyroxine as a risk factor for a first venous thrombosis: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Bregje; Squizzato, Alessandro; Huijgen, Roeland; van Zanten, Anton P.; Fliers, Eric; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Büller, Harry R.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    A hypercoagulable state exists in hyperthyroidism, but the association with venous thrombosis (VT) is not fully explored. We aimed to investigate VT risk for different plasma levels of thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies. We used a case-control study on leg vein thrombosis conducted between

  13. Screening detected celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : Effect on the clinical course - (A case control study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rami, B; Sumnik, Z; Schober, E; Waldhor, T; Battelino, T; Bratanic, N; Kurti, K; Lebl, J; Limbert, C; Madacsy, L; Odink, RJH; Paskova, M; Soltesz, G

    Objective: To investigate clinical and metabolic characteristics of diabetic children with screening detected celiac disease in a multicenter case-control study. Methods: Cases: 98 diabetic patients were diagnosed as having silent celiac disease by screening with endomysial antibodies and subsequent

  14. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

  15. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

  16. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, William; Marshall, Gill; Coals, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation

  17. THE BIAS (BULLYING IN SICILIAN SCHOOL PILOT STUDY: INVESTIGATING THE PREVALENCE OF BULLYING IN SCHOOL OF PALERMO CITY. A RESEARCH STUDY PROTOCOL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Costantino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying in school, being a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents all over the world, represents an important public health issue. In Italy, since 2007, the Italian Ministry of Education promotes activities to fight against and to prevent bullying in schools of all levels and, at the same time, also Health Authorities are trying to implement effective social-health responses. However, to date, the lack of consistent data, from national to local level, that could help in describing the problem in a proper manner, does not allow a systematic bullying surveillance and so also measuring the effectiveness of the public health strategy that could be implemented. The Bias pilot study’s aim is to evaluate the prevalence of bullying in a sample of schools in the city of Palermo, the largest in Sicily, and to investigate its characteristics in relation to different types of school. Finally, the Bias study aim to evaluate the feasibility of alternative methods for the detection of the prevalence of bullying phenomenon in schools. Here we present the research protocol and the questionnaires that will be used.

  18. A pilot investigation of a mobile phone application and progressive reminder system to improve adherence to daily prevention treatment in adolescents and young adults with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rachelle R; Holbein, Christina E; Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Kacperski, Joanne; Shepard, Jeffrey; Hommel, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Background Effective management of migraine requires adherence to treatment recommendations; however, adolescents with migraine take their daily medications only 75% of the time. Low-cost adherence-focused interventions using technology may improve adherence, but have not been investigated. Methods Thirty-five adolescents and young adults (13-21 years) with migraine participated in an AB-design pilot study to assess the use of a mobile phone adherence-promotion application ("app") and progressive reminder system. Adherence was calculated using electronic monitoring during the baseline period and medication adherence intervention. Results Relative to baseline, adherence significantly improved during the first month of the intervention. Specifically, improvements existed for older participants with lower baseline adherence. Self-reported app-based adherence rates were significantly lower than electronically monitored adherence rates. Participants rated the intervention as acceptable and easy to use. Conclusions "Apps" have the potential to improve medication adherence and are a promising intervention for adolescents and young adults with low adherence. Involving parents in the intervention is also helpful. Providers should assess barriers to adherence and use of technology-based interventions, encourage parents to incorporate behavioral incentives, and provide referrals for more intensive interventions to improve long-term outcomes. Further, tracking adherence in an app may result in an underestimation of adherence. Future full-scale studies should be conducted to examine adherence promotion app interventions.

  19. A pilot investigation of the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation upon low back pain in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, J; Warke, K; Wilson, I; Cramp, A F L; Noble, G; Walsh, D M; Lowe-Strong, A S

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) upon low back pain (LBP) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical pilot study. Fifteen people with MS were recruited and randomly allocated to one of the following groups under double blind conditions (n = 5 per group): TENS 1 (4 Hz, 200 micros), TENS 2 (110 Hz, 200 micros), placebo TENS. Treatment was applied for 45 minutes three times a week for six weeks with a four-week follow-up. The following outcome measures were taken at weeks 1, 6, and 10: visual analogue scale (VAS) (for current LBP, right leg pain, left leg pain); Leeds Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Questionnaire; Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire; Short Form-36 (SF-36) Version 1; and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). VAS for current LBP, right and left leg pain were also taken before and after treatment, and once a week during the follow-up period. Analysis showed no statistically significant effects for any of the data. However, both active treatment groups showed a trend of improvement in the majority of the outcome measures. Active TENS was more effective than placebo TENS in decreasing VAS scores following each treatment although results were not statistically significant. Further work in this area is warranted and should include a larger number of participants in the form of a randomized controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of this modality.

  20. Pilot Study: Unique Response of Bone Tissue During an Investigation of Radio-Adaptive Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Iwaniec, U.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We obtained bone tissue to evaluate the collateral effects of experiments designed to investigate molecular mechanisms of radio-adaptation in a mouse model. Radio-adaptation describes a process by which the prior exposure to low dose radiation can protect against the toxic effect of a subsequent high dose exposure. In the radio-adaptation experiments, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either a Sham or a priming Low Dose (5 cGy) of Cs-137 gamma rays before being exposed to either a Sham or High Dose (6 Gy) 24 hours later. ANALYSIS: Bone tissue were obtained from two experiments where mice were sacrificed at 3 days (n=3/group, 12 total) and at 14 days (n=6/group, 24 total) following high dose exposure. Tissues were analyzed to 1) evaluate a radio-adaptive response in bone tissue and 2) describe cellular and microstructural effects for two skeletal sites with different rates of bone turnover. One tibia and one lumbar vertebrae (LV2), collected at the 3-day time-point, were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and micro-CT to evaluate the cellular response and any evidence of microarchitectural impact. Likewise, tibia and LV2, collected at the 14-day time-point, were analyzed by micro-CT alone to evaluate resulting changes to bone structure and microarchitecture. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA to evaluate the effects of the priming low dose radiation, of the high dose radiation, and of any interaction between the priming low and high doses of radiation. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the cancellous bone (aka trabecular bone) compartments of the proximal tibial metaphysis and of LV2. RESULTS: Cellular Response @ 3 Days The priming Low Dose radiation decreased osteoblast-covered bone perimeter in the proximal tibia and the total cell density in the bone marrow in the LV2. High Dose radiation, regardless of prior exposure to priming dose, dramatically reduced total cell density in bone marrow of both the long bone and vertebra. However, in the proximal

  1. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals...... with a hip fracture during the period 1996-2004. Controls (n = 27,575) were frequency matched by age and gender. Information on use of AEDs, other drugs, and hospital contacts was available from local registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hip fracture were estimated...

  2. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  3. Investigating the impact of the properties of pilot points on calibration of groundwater models: case study of a karst catchment in Rote Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, Dua K. S. Y.; Imteaz, Monzur Alam

    2017-09-01

    A robust configuration of pilot points in the parameterisation step of a model is crucial to accurately obtain a satisfactory model performance. However, the recommendations provided by the majority of recent researchers on pilot-point use are considered somewhat impractical. In this study, a practical approach is proposed for using pilot-point properties (i.e. number, distance and distribution method) in the calibration step of a groundwater model. For the first time, the relative distance-area ratio ( d/ A) and head-zonation-based (HZB) method are introduced, to assign pilot points into the model domain by incorporating a user-friendly zone ratio. This study provides some insights into the trade-off between maximising and restricting the number of pilot points, and offers a relative basis for selecting the pilot-point properties and distribution method in the development of a physically based groundwater model. The grid-based (GB) method is found to perform comparably better than the HZB method in terms of model performance and computational time. When using the GB method, this study recommends a distance-area ratio of 0.05, a distance-x-grid length ratio ( d/ X grid) of 0.10, and a distance-y-grid length ratio ( d/ Y grid) of 0.20.

  4. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdin, I.A.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Ekidin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m 3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  5. Urine metabolomics in neonates with late-onset sepsis in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, Kosmas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Thomaidou, Agathi; Gika, Helen; Mikros, Emmanouel; Benaki, Dimitra; Diamanti, Elisavet; Agakidis, Charalampos; Raikos, Nikolaos; Drossou, Vasiliki; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Although late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, biomarkers evaluated in LOS lack high diagnostic accuracy. In this prospective, case-control, pilot study, we aimed to determine the metabolic profile of neonates with LOS. Urine samples were collected at the day of initial LOS evaluation, the 3rd and 10th day, thereafter, from 16 septic neonates (9 confirmed and 7 possible LOS cases) and 16 non-septic ones (controls) at respective time points. Urine metabolic profiles were assessed using non-targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Multivariate statistical models with data from either analytical approach showed clear separation between the metabolic profiles of septic neonates (both possible and confirmed) and the controls. Metabolic changes appeared to be related to disease progression. Overall, neonates with confirmed or possible LOS exhibited comparable metabolic profiles indicating similar metabolic alternations upon the onset of clinical manifestations. This methodology therefore enabled the discrimination of neonates with LOS from non-septic individuals, providing potential for further research toward the discovery of LOS-related biomarkers.

  6. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  7. Factors associated with suicide: Case-control study in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Innamorati, Marco; Baldessarini, Ross J; De Leo, Diego; de Giovannelli, Francesca; Pycha, Roger; Conca, Andreas; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    As suicide is related to many factors in addition to psychiatric illness, broad and comprehensive risk-assessment for risk of suicide is required. This study aimed to differentiate nondiagnostic risk factors among suicides versus comparable psychiatric patients without suicidal behavior. We carried out a pilot, case-control comparison of 131 cases of suicide in South Tyrol matched for age and sex with 131 psychiatric controls, using psychological autopsy methods to evaluate differences in clinically assessed demographic, social, and clinical factors, using bivariate conditional Odds Risk comparisons followed by conditional regression modeling controlled for ethnicity. Based on multivariable conditional regression modeling, suicides were significantly more likely to have experienced risk factors, ranking as: [a] family history of suicide or attempt≥[b] recent interpersonal stressors≥[c] childhood traumatic events≥[d] lack of recent clinician contacts≥[e] previous suicide attempt≥[f] non-Italian ethnicity, but did not differ in education, marital status, living situation, or employment, nor by psychiatric or substance-abuse diagnoses. Both recent and early factors were associated with suicide, including lack of recent clinical care, non-Italian cultural subgroup-membership, familial suicidal behavior, and recent interpersonal distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  9. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  10. Can routine chest radiography be used to diagnose mild COPD? A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, A M; Snoek, A M; Leiner, T; Suyker, W J; de Heer, L M; Budde, R P J; Lammers, J W J; de Jong, P A; Gondrie, M J A

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether mild stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be detected on chest radiography without substantial overdiagnosis. A retrospective nested case-control study (case:control, 1:1) was performed in 783 patients scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery who underwent both spirometry and a chest radiograph preoperative. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography for diagnosing mild COPD was investigated using objective measurements and overall appearance specific for COPD on chest radiography. Inter-observer variability was investigated and variables with a kappa >0.40 as well as baseline characteristics were used to make a diagnostic model which was aimed at achieving a high positive predictive value (PPV). Twenty percent (155/783) had COPD. The PPV of overall appearance specific for COPD alone was low (37-55%). Factors in the diagnostic model were age, type of surgery, gender, distance of the right diaphragm apex to the first rib, retrosternal space, sternodiaphragmatic angle, maximum height right diaphragm (lateral view) and subjective impression of COPD (using both views). The model resulted in a PPV of 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 82%, sensitivity of 10% and specificity of 100% with an area under the curve of 0.811. Detection of mild COPD without substantial overdiagnosis was not feasible on chest radiographs in our cohort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and testing of a theory-based behavioural change intervention: a pilot investigation in a nursery school in a deprived area of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, A; Swanson, V; Merrett, M; Power, K; Marley, L

    2012-03-01

    Investigate the effect of a theory-based intervention on oral-health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of early years staff (EYS), parents and nursery children. Qualitative research with staff and parents from eight nurseries through interviews/focus groups. An intervention was developed and piloted using pre-posttest design. Nurseries in deprived communities in Dundee, Scotland. 111 children aged 3-5 years attending nursery, including 79 parents and 8 nursery staff. Staff session targeted outcome expectancies, subjective norms and self-efficacy for tooth-brushing in nursery using information provision, modelling and goal-setting, followed by a three-week intervention. Parent-child dyads received a leaflet with instructions for goal-setting, planning and monitoring home brushing. Tooth-brushing self-monitoring materials (e.g. two-minute timer, diaries) were used and certificates provided in the nursery as rewards. EYS knowledge, attitudes and behaviours were assessed before and after the intervention using self-report questionnaires. Parents completed interviews assessing beliefs about tooth-brushing and their children's tooth-brushing behaviour at baseline and post-intervention follow-up. Significant improvements in staff knowledge, but not attitudes, self-efficacy, or nursery tooth-brushing were reported. Parent-child dyads completing the intervention were not more likely to report their child carried out twice-daily tooth-brushing at home. The intervention did not improve parents' intentions to brush their child's teeth twice a day or beliefs about the ease of twice-daily tooth-brushing. Only past behaviour significantly predicted posttest brushing. Parents who found brushing easier at baseline were more likely to complete the intervention. Recommendations are made regarding implementing psychological theory and methods into oral-health interventions.

  12. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

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    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  13. Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study: An integrative population-based case-control study of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombi Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and impact survival have remained obscure. A new framework of research is needed to address the challenges offered by this complex disease. Methods/Design We designed a large population-based case-control study that combines a traditional molecular epidemiology design with a more integrative approach to investigate the dynamic process that begins with smoking initiation, proceeds through dependency/smoking persistence, continues with lung cancer development and ends with progression to disseminated disease or response to therapy and survival. The study allows the integration of data from multiple sources in the same subjects (risk factors, germline variation, genomic alterations in tumors, and clinical endpoints to tackle the disease etiology from different angles. Before beginning the study, we conducted a phone survey and pilot investigations to identify the best approach to ensure an acceptable participation in the study from cases and controls. Between 2002 and 2005, we enrolled 2101 incident primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls, with 86.6% and 72.4% participation rate, respectively, from a catchment area including 216 municipalities in the Lombardy region of Italy. Lung cancer cases were enrolled in 13 hospitals and population controls were randomly sampled from the area to match the cases by age, gender and residence. Detailed epidemiological information and biospecimens were collected from each participant, and clinical data and tissue specimens from the cases. Collection of follow-up data on treatment and survival is ongoing. Discussion EAGLE is a new population-based case-control study that explores the full spectrum of lung cancer etiology, from smoking addiction to lung cancer outcome, through

  14. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study

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    Rutuja Pundkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of the study was to find the risk factors leading to Anemia in pregnancy. The main objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia. And to assess the knowledge about anemia among study participants. Material and methods: The present Case control study was carried out at Primary Health Centre, to determine the risk factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 308 pregnant females were registered. Among them two groups were made, group I cases and group II controls. Each group had 50 cases each. Laboratory test were done and females having hemoglobin less than 11mg/dl were considered anemic. Anemic females were considered cases and females having Hb >11mg/dl were considered controls. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen that among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would seem that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida and parity are associated with anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.

  16. Accounting for control mislabeling in case-control biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, Mattias; Holmes, Chris C

    2011-12-02

    In biomarker discovery studies, uncertainty associated with case and control labels is often overlooked. By omitting to take into account label uncertainty, model parameters and the predictive risk can become biased, sometimes severely. The most common situation is when the control set contains an unknown number of undiagnosed, or future, cases. This has a marked impact in situations where the model needs to be well-calibrated, e.g., when the prediction performance of a biomarker panel is evaluated. Failing to account for class label uncertainty may lead to underestimation of classification performance and bias in parameter estimates. This can further impact on meta-analysis for combining evidence from multiple studies. Using a simulation study, we outline how conventional statistical models can be modified to address class label uncertainty leading to well-calibrated prediction performance estimates and reduced bias in meta-analysis. We focus on the problem of mislabeled control subjects in case-control studies, i.e., when some of the control subjects are undiagnosed cases, although the procedures we report are generic. The uncertainty in control status is a particular situation common in biomarker discovery studies in the context of genomic and molecular epidemiology, where control subjects are commonly sampled from the general population with an established expected disease incidence rate.

  17. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  18. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

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    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  19. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  20. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

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    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  1. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

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    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  2. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  3. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  4. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can iridology detect susceptibility to cancer? A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; El-Safadi, Samer; Brück, Friedel; Zygmunt, Marek; Hackethal, Andreas; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    This prospective case-control study aimed to investigate the value of iridology as a diagnostic tool in detecting some common cancers. One hundred ten (110) subjects were enrolled in the study: 68 subjects had histologically proven cancers of the breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, or colorectum, and 42 were control subjects. All subjects were examined by an experienced practitioner of iridology, who was unaware of their gender or medical details. He was allowed to suggest up to five diagnoses for each subject and his results were then compared with each subject's medical diagnosis to determine the accuracy of iridology in detecting malignancy. Iridology identified the correct diagnosis in only 3 cases (sensitivity, 0.04). Iridology was of no value in diagnosing the cancers investigated in this study.

  6. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or

  7. Investigations of the Effects of Biocide Dosing and Chemical Cleaning on the Organic Carbon Removal in an Integrated Ultrafiltration - Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Khojah, Bayan A.

    2017-12-01

    Membrane desalination has become one of the most important desalination technologies used in the world. It provides high water quality for numerous applications and it demonstrates excellent desalination efficiency. One of the most troubling drawbacks of membrane desalination is membrane fouling. It decreases the performance of the membranes and increases the energy requirement. Two of the most important causes of fouling are microbes and organic matter. Hence, to maintain an optimized desalination performance, routine inspection of microbial and organic contents of water is crucial for desalination plants. In this study, water samples were obtained from different treatment points in an ultrafiltration (UF)/nanofiltration (NF) seawater desalination pilot plant. This was performed to better understand how the water quality changes along the desalination scheme. The effect of fouling control techniques, including Chemically Enhanced Backwash (CEB), Cleaning in Place (CIP), and the addition of a biocide (DBNPA) was studied. Different analytical tools were applied, including Bactiquant, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC), and Liquid Chromatography for Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD). Out results showed that UF did not decrease TOC but it was sufficient in removing up to 99.7% of bacteria. Nanofiltration, removed up to 95% of TOC. However, NF permeate had a high increase in AOC as compared to the raw seawater sample. The LC-OCD results suggested that this might be due to the increased low molecular weight neutrals which were the most common organic species in the NF permeate. The fouling control techniques showed various effects on the desalination efficiency. Daily CEB did not cause a reduction in TOC or bacteria but decreased AOC in the UF filtrate. The biocide addition resulted in an adequate membranes protection from fouling and it did not affect the investigated water parameters. When the dosing of biocide was stopped, the water quality

  8. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  9. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  10. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

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    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  11. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

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    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  12. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  13. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  14. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep disturbance in psoriasis - a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, C; Skov, L; Zachariae, R

    2018-04-28

    Sleep is essential for daytime functioning and health. Given the physical symptoms of psoriasis, a higher prevalence of sleep disorders could be expected. So far, the studies examining sleep disturbance in psoriasis have been of less-than-optimal methodological quality and with mixed results. We aimed to: 1) examine the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with plaque psoriasis compared to controls, 2) evaluate associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and 3) examine possible disease-related predictors of disturbed sleep. We used a cross-sectional, case-controlled design. Participants included 179 consecutively recruited patients with plaque psoriasis and 105 controls. Measures included psoriasis severity (Psoriasis Area and Severity index [PASI]); HRQoL (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]); insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]); sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]); stress (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]); Itch (Itch Severity Scale [ISS]); and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Analyses included group comparisons and regression analyses to identify predictors of sleep disturbance. Twenty-five per cent of patients with psoriasis reported clinical insomnia (ISI > 15), compared with 10.5% of controls. In all, 53.9% of patients with psoriasis were poor sleepers (PSQI > 5), compared with 21.9% of controls. Itch was statistically significantly associated with all sleep-related outcomes. A higher proportion of patients with psoriasis suffer from poor sleep than controls from the general population. Itch was the main predictor of impaired sleep. Improved control of psoriasis with decreased itch may improve sleep disturbance in psoriasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  17. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Salameh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered. Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source. Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  18. White rice consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between white rice consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in remote northwest China, where the cancer incidence is known to be high. A case-control study was conducted during 2008?2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual white rice consumption was obtained by personal interview using a validated semi-qu...

  19. Risk factors for Buruli ulcer in Côte d'Ivoire: Results of a case-control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case-control study was carried out in 3 highly endemic regions of Côte d'Ivoire to study risk factors for Buruli ulcer. A case was defined as a Buruli ulcer occurring less than one year before the date of survey, resident in one of the regions investigated and there was no history of Buruli ulcer illness. Controls were selected ...

  20. Occupational Lifting Tasks and Retinal Detachment in Non-Myopics and Myopics: Extended Analysis of a Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mattioli, Stefano; Curti, Stefania; De Fazio, Rocco; Cooke, Robin Mt; Zanardi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lifting heavy weights involves the Valsalva manoeuvre, which leads to intraocular pressure spikes. We used data from a case-control study to further investigate the hypothesis that occupational lifting is a risk factor for retinal detachment. Methods: The study population included 48 cases (patients operated for retinal detachment) and 84 controls (outpatients attending an eye clinic). The odds ratios (OR) of idiopathic retinal detachment were estimated with a logistic regressi...

  1. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  2. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  3. Prolonged outbreak of Serratia marcescens in Tartu University Hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Vivika; Mitt, Piret; Pisarev, Heti; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Telling, Kaidi; Naaber, Paul; Maimets, Matti

    2012-10-31

    The aim of our study was to investigate and control an outbreak and identify risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens in two departments in Tartu University Hospital. The retrospective case-control study was conducted from July 2005 to December 2006. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to confirm the relatedness of Serratia marcescens strains. Samples from the environment and from the hands of personnel were cultured. The outbreak involved 210 patients, 61 (29%) developed an infection, among them 16 were invasive infections. Multivariate analysis identified gestational age, arterial catheter use and antibiotic treatment as independent risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens. Molecular typing was performed on 83 Serratia marcescens strains, 81 of them were identical and 2 strains were different. Given the occasionally severe consequences of Serratia marcescens in infants, early implementation of aggressive infection control measures involving patients and mothers as well as the personnel is of utmost importance.

  4. Case Control Study of Impulsivity, Aggression, Pesticide Exposure and Suicide Attempts Using Pesticides among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chun Ping; Pei, Jian Ru; Beseler, L Cheryl; Li, Yu Ling; Li, Jian Hui; Ren, Ming; Stallones, Lorann; Ren, Shu Ping

    2018-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. Questionnaires were used to collect information; impulsivity and aggression were measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Aggression Inventory (AI). A greater number of OP symptoms was associated with an increased odds of a suicide attempt after adjusting for marital status and income (OR = 1.45; CI 1.14-1.86). Attempted suicide was significantly associated with high impulsivity scores (means: 72.4 vs. 60.6, P controls and scored higher on scales of impulsivity and aggression. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been...... related to depression. Lipid-lowering therapies and calcium-channel blockers have also been linked to an increased risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide using population-based register data. METHODS: We performed...... a nested case-control study in the county of Funen, Denmark, that consisted of 743 cases of completed suicide identified in a Death Registry for the period 1991-1998 and 14,860 age- and sex-matched controls. Information on previous drug use was retrieved from prescription data and the association between...

  6. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower…

  8. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  9. Health issues in the Arab American community. Male infertility in Lebanon: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Inhorn, Marcia C

    2007-01-01

    The impact of risk factors, such as consanguinity and familial clustering, reproductive infections, traumas, and diseases, lifestyle factors and occupational and war exposures on male infertility, was investigated in a case-controlled study conducted in Lebanon. One-hundred-twenty males and 100 controls of Lebanese, Syrian or Lebanese-Palestinian descents were selected from two in-vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics located in Beirut, Lebanon. All cases suffered from impaired sperm count and function, according to World Health Organization guidelines for semen analysis. Controls were the fertile husbands of infertile women. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview, laboratory blood testing and the results of the most recent semen analysis. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis, along with checks for effect modification and control of confounders. Consanguinity and the familial clustering of male infertility cases, as well as reproductive illnesses and war exposures were independently significant risk factors for male infertility. The odds of having infertility problems in the immediate family were 2.6 times higher in cases than controls. The odds of reproductive illness were 2 times higher in cases than controls. The odds of war exposures were 1.57 times higher in cases than controls. Occupational exposures, such as smoking and caffeine intake, were not shown to be important risk factors. This case-controlled study highlights the importance of investigating the etiology of male infertility in Middle Eastern communities. It suggests the need to expand research on male reproductive health in the Middle East in order to improve the prevention and management of male infertility and other male reproductive health problems.

  10. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  11. Hepatic Dysfunction in Asphyxiated Neonates: Prospective Case-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine the occurrence of hypoxic hepatitis in full-term neonates after perinatal asphyxia and to correlate between the rise in enzymes and severity of asphyxia with Apgar score and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE grading of the neonates. Method and Material This prospective case-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in India for a period of 12 months. The study group A comprised 70 newborns suffering from birth asphyxia, while 30 healthy neonates were included in group B (control. All biochemical parameters of liver function, ie, serum alanine transferase (ALT, aspartate transferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, total protein, serum albumin, bilirubin (total and direct, and international normalized ratio (INR, were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, and 10 in both study and control groups. Results In group A, 22.8% newborns had severe (Apgar score 0–3, 47.1% had moderate (Apgar score 4–5, and 30% had mild (Apgar score 6–7 birth asphyxia at five minutes. In all, 14.28% babies were in HIE stage I, 25.73% babies were in HIE stage II, and 11.42% babies were in HIE stage III. The rest of the newborns, 48.57%, were normal. The prevalence of liver function impairment was seen in 42.85% of asphyxiated neonates. On day 1, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, PT, and INR were significantly higher, and total protein and serum albumin were significantly lower in group A than in group B. However, ALT and AST correlated well with increasing severity of HIE score. On day 3, there was a rising trend observed in the concentration of mean LDH as HIE staging of neonates progressed from stage 0 to stage III, and among various HIE stages, the difference in LDH was statistically significant. Conclusion We concluded that AST, ALT at 24 hours, and LDH at 72 hours of animation can be a utilitarian diagnostic tool to differentiate asphyxiated neonates from non-asphyxiated neonates and

  12. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Smith, S Jay; Stroup, Donna F; Steinberg, Karen K; Mueller, Patricia W; Thacker, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocyst(e)ine are thought to increase the risk of vascular diseases including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We searched MEDLINE (1966-1999), EMBASE (1974-1999), SciSearch (1974- 1999), and Dissertation Abstracts (1999) for articles and theses about homocyst(e)ine concentration and coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We included 57 publications (3 cohort studies, 12 nested case-control studies, 42 case-control studies) that reported results on 5518 people with coronary heart disease (11,068 control subjects) and 1817 people with cerebrovascular disease (4787 control subjects) in our analysis. For coronary heart disease, the summary odds ratios (OR) for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.06 (95% CI : 0.99-1.13) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.23 (95% CI : 1.07-1.41) for 10 publications of nested case-control studies, and 1.70 (95% CI : 1.50-1.93) for 26 publications of case-control studies. For cerebrovascular disease, the summary OR for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.10 (95% CI : 0.94-1.28) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.58 (95% CI : 1.35-1.85) for 5 publications of nested case-control studies, and 2.16 (95% CI : 1.65-2.82) for 17 publications of case-control studies. Prospective studies offer weaker support than case-control studies for an association between homocyst(e)ine concentration and cardiovascular disease. Although other lines of evidence support a role for homocyst(e)ine in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, more information from prospective epidemiological studies or clinical trials is needed to clarify this role.

  13. Sympathetic skin response in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritella, Nicolò; Mendozzi, Laura; Garegnani, Massimo; Gilardi, Elisabetta; Nemni, Raffaello; Pugnetti, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    The usefulness of sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been advocated by several studies in the last 20 years; however, due to a great heterogeneity of findings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies is in order to pinpoint consistencies and investigate the causes of discrepancies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for case-control studies comparing SSR absence frequency and latency between patients with MS and healthy controls. Thirteen eligible studies including 415 MS patients and 331 healthy controls were identified. The pooled analysis showed that SSR can be always obtained in healthy controls while 34% of patients had absent SSRs in at least one limb (95% CI 22-47%; p studies (I 2  = 90.3%). Patients' age explained 22% of the overall variability and positive correlations were found with Expanded Disability Status Scale and disease duration. The pooled mean difference of SSR latency showed a significant increase in patients on both upper (193 ms; 95% CI 120-270 ms) and lower (350 ms; 95% CI 190-510 ms) extremities. We tested the discriminatory value of SSR latency thresholds defined as the 95% confidence interval (CI) upper bound of the healthy controls, and validated the results on a new dataset. The lower limb threshold of 1.964 s produces the best results in terms of sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.67, positive predicted value 0.75 and negative predicted value 0.80. Despite a considerable heterogeneity of findings, there is evidence that SSR is a useful tool in MS.

  14. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-07-27

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  15. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  16. Association between Myocardial Infarction and Periodontitis: a Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: Many clinical researches have been carried out to investigate the relationship between myocardial infarction (MI and periodontitis. Despite most of them indicated that the periodontitis may be associated with an increased risk of MI, the findings and study types of these studies have been inconsistent. The goal of this meta-analysis was to critically assess the strength of the association between MI and periodontitis in case-control studies.Methods: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible case-control studies reporting relevant parameters that compared periodontal status between MI and control subjects. The odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs from each study were pooled to estimate the strength of the association between MI and periodontitis. The mean differences and 95% CIs for periodontal-related parameters were calculated to determine their overall effects.Results: Seventeen studies including a total of 3456 MI patients and 3875 non-MI control subjects were included. The pooled OR for the association between MI and periodontitis was 2.531 (95% CI: 1.927-3.324. The mean differences (95% CIs for clinical attachment loss, probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index, and the number of missing teeth were 1.000 (0.726-1.247, 1.209 (0.538-1.880, 0.342 (0.129-0.555, 0.383 (0.205-0.560, and 4.122 (2.012-6.232, respectively. Conclusion: With the current evidence, the results support the presence of a significant association between MI and periodontitis. Moreover, MI patients had worse periodontal and oral hygiene status and fewer teeth than did control subjects. More high-quality and well-designed studies focusing on the casual relationship between MI and periodontitis should be conducted in the future.

  17. [Case control trial on putative factors antagonising the successful project course of MD thesis projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, J; Schaper, K; Krummenauer, F

    2015-05-01

    Award of the degree MD has special relevance in Germany since the underlying research project can be started during the qualification for admission to doctoral training. This leads to a large number of thesis projects with a not always sufficiently pronounced enthusiasm and thus poor chances of success. Accordingly a case control study was undertaken in the Department of Human Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University to investigate reported drop-outs of thesis projects. In autumn 2012 all students in the clinical phases of human medicine education were surveyed using a self-conceived questionnaire on previously initiated or terminated thesis projects, "terminated" is defined as the unsuccessful ending of a project after working for at least 3 months. Individually reported thesis terminations were evaluated using defined items in a 4-stage Likert scale regarding thesis plan and project, subsequently, graduate students who successfully completed a project received the same questionnaire. The items possibly corresponding to process determinants were averaged to a total of 7 dimensions prior to the analysis; the resulting scores were normalised in value ranges 0.0 to 1.0 (1.0 = optimal project situation) whereby individual items could be included in several scores. By means of 5 items a primary endpoint from the faculty's perspective on "compliance with formal procedures" was aggregated; by means of a two-sided Wilcoxon test at the 5 % level students with unsuccessful and successful courses were compared along the corresponding scores. 181 of 276 students from 7 study semesters participated in the screening; details of 17 terminations and 23 currently successful courses could be evaluated in the case control study. For significant differences (p thesis projects to the responsible committees. A weakness is the low number of evaluable self-reported drop-outs as well as the overall moderate response rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C.; Braff, David L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. Methods The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Results Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs. PMID:25432636

  19. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  20. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  1. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Raquel E

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs.

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Nested case-control sampling is designed to reduce the costs of large cohort studies. It is important to estimate the parameters of interest as efficiently as possible. We present a new maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for nested case-control sampling in the context of Cox's proportional hazard...

  3. Heat and nuclear radiation as risk factors for male infertility: results of a French case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonneau, P.F.; Rachou, E.; Ducot, B.; Multigner, L.; Velez de la Calle, J.P.; Le Martelot, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the possible effects of environmental radiation and heat exposure on male reproductive function. We conducted a case control study to evaluate the various infertility risk factors in the military population of the french town of Brest to investigate an apparently high incidence of infertility in couples in which the man may have been exposed to occupational nuclear radiation. These findings suggest that in addition to well known medical factors, 'potential' exposure to heat or nuclear radiation could also be risk factors for infertility. (N.C.)

  4. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  5. Estimating time-varying exposure-outcome associations using case-control data: logistic and case-cohort analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; Mangtani, Punam; Rodrigues, Laura; Nguipdop Djomo, Patrick

    2016-01-05

    Traditional analyses of standard case-control studies using logistic regression do not allow estimation of time-varying associations between exposures and the outcome. We present two approaches which allow this. The motivation is a study of vaccine efficacy as a function of time since vaccination. Our first approach is to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations by fitting a series of logistic regressions within successive time periods, reusing controls across periods. Our second approach treats the case-control sample as a case-cohort study, with the controls forming the subcohort. In the case-cohort analysis, controls contribute information at all times they are at risk. Extensions allow left truncation, frequency matching and, using the case-cohort analysis, time-varying exposures. Simulations are used to investigate the methods. The simulation results show that both methods give correct estimates of time-varying effects of exposures using standard case-control data. Using the logistic approach there are efficiency gains by reusing controls over time and care should be taken over the definition of controls within time periods. However, using the case-cohort analysis there is no ambiguity over the definition of controls. The performance of the two analyses is very similar when controls are used most efficiently under the logistic approach. Using our methods, case-control studies can be used to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations where they may not previously have been considered. The case-cohort analysis has several advantages, including that it allows estimation of time-varying associations as a continuous function of time, while the logistic regression approach is restricted to assuming a step function form for the time-varying association.

  6. Estimating time-varying exposure-outcome associations using case-control data: logistic and case-cohort analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H. Keogh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional analyses of standard case-control studies using logistic regression do not allow estimation of time-varying associations between exposures and the outcome. We present two approaches which allow this. The motivation is a study of vaccine efficacy as a function of time since vaccination. Methods Our first approach is to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations by fitting a series of logistic regressions within successive time periods, reusing controls across periods. Our second approach treats the case-control sample as a case-cohort study, with the controls forming the subcohort. In the case-cohort analysis, controls contribute information at all times they are at risk. Extensions allow left truncation, frequency matching and, using the case-cohort analysis, time-varying exposures. Simulations are used to investigate the methods. Results The simulation results show that both methods give correct estimates of time-varying effects of exposures using standard case-control data. Using the logistic approach there are efficiency gains by reusing controls over time and care should be taken over the definition of controls within time periods. However, using the case-cohort analysis there is no ambiguity over the definition of controls. The performance of the two analyses is very similar when controls are used most efficiently under the logistic approach. Conclusions Using our methods, case-control studies can be used to estimate time-varying exposure-outcome associations where they may not previously have been considered. The case-cohort analysis has several advantages, including that it allows estimation of time-varying associations as a continuous function of time, while the logistic regression approach is restricted to assuming a step function form for the time-varying association.

  7. Final Results from A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Manson, J. Russell; King, David; Decicco, Nicolas; Prince, Alyssa; di Mercurio, Alexis; Rios, Manual

    2017-01-01

    Wake Vortex Turbulence is the turbulence generated by an aircraft in flight. This turbulence is created by vortices at the tips of the wing that may decay slowly and persist for several minutes after creation. These vortices and turbulence are hazardous to other aircraft in the vicinity. The strength, formation and lifetime of the turbulence and vortices are effected by many things including the weather. Here we present the final results of the pilot project to investigation of low level wind fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and an analysis of historical data. The findings from the historical data and the data simulations were used as inputs for the computational fluid dynamics model (OpenFoam) to show that the vortices could be simulated using OpenFoam. Presented here are the updated results from a research grant, ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Stockton University and the FAA''.

  8. Advantages of the nested case-control design in diagnostic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoes Arno W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its benefits, it is uncommon to apply the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. We aim to show advantages of this design for diagnostic accuracy studies. Methods We used data from a full cross-sectional diagnostic study comprising a cohort of 1295 consecutive patients who were selected on their suspicion of having deep vein thrombosis (DVT. We draw nested case-control samples from the full study population with case:control ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (per ratio 100 samples were taken. We calculated diagnostic accuracy estimates for two tests that are used to detect DVT in clinical practice. Results Estimates of diagnostic accuracy in the nested case-control samples were very similar to those in the full study population. For example, for each case:control ratio, the positive predictive value of the D-dimer test was 0.30 in the full study population and 0.30 in the nested case-control samples (median of the 100 samples. As expected, variability of the estimates decreased with increasing sample size. Conclusion Our findings support the view that the nested case-control study is a valid and efficient design for diagnostic studies and should also be (reappraised in current guidelines on diagnostic accuracy research.

  9. A prospective, multicenter pilot study to investigate the feasibility and safety of a 1-year controlled exercise training after adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piringer, Gudrun; Fridrik, Michael; Fridrik, Alfred; Leiherer, Andreas; Zabernigg, August; Greil, Richard; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Tschmelitsch, Jörg; Lang, Alois; Frantal, Sophie; Burgstaller, Sonja; Gnant, Michael; Thaler, Josef

    2018-04-01

    Despite advances in adjuvant chemotherapy, 20-30% of patients in stages II-III colorectal cancer will eventually relapse. Observational studies showed a reduction in relapse rate, colon cancer-specific mortality, and overall mortality by physical activity. Results from prospective randomized interventional studies to confirm these observational data are lacking. The aims of this prospective single-arm multicenter pilot study are to evaluate feasibility and safety of exercise training after adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. The training was performed three times per week for 1 year and was increased gradually in three phases until reaching 18 metabolic equivalent task hours per week. Overall, 30 patients were included. The planned training intensity could be achieved in all three phases. Patients experienced a performance increase of median 35.5 watt, a weight-loss of a median of 3.0 kg, and a reduction in body fat content of median 1.0% during this exercise training. The analysis showed early study termination due to non-compliance in 10/30 patients (33.3%), disease progression in 4 patients (13.3%), and serious adverse events in 2 patients (6.7%). About half of patients (46.7%) completed the pilot study as planned. Biomarker analysis from 20 patients showed a non-significant reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) levels, significant increases in adiponectin and leptin levels, and a non-significant increase in C-peptide levels. Exercise training is feasible in patients with colorectal cancer after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. The main problem encountered during the study was compliance. To improve compliance of exercise training, several measures were adapted for the upcoming prospective randomized ABCSG C08 Exercise II study.

  10. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Shechter

    Full Text Available Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03 worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025 increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05 decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

  11. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  12. A case-control study of wicket spikes using video-EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Maya; Baldassari, Laura E; Scribner, James T; Cho, Yong Won; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2013-01-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics associated with wicket spikes in patients undergoing long-term video-EEG monitoring. A case-control study was performed in 479 patients undergoing video-EEG monitoring, with 3 age- (±3 years) and gender-matched controls per patient with wicket spikes. Logistic regression was utilized to investigate the association between wicket spikes and other factors, including conditions that have been previously associated with wicket spikes. Wicket spikes were recorded in 48 patients. There was a significantly higher prevalence of dizziness/vertigo (p=0.002), headaches (p=0.005), migraine (p=0.015), and seizures (p=0.016) in patients with wickets. The majority of patients with wicket spikes did not exhibit epileptiform activity on EEG; however, patients with history of seizures were more likely to have wickets (p=0.017). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures between the groups. Wickets were more common on the left, during sleep, and more likely to be first recorded on day 1-2 of monitoring. Patients with wicket spikes are more likely to have dizziness/vertigo, headaches, migraine, and seizures. Patients with history of seizures are more likely to have wickets. The prevalence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures is not significantly higher in patients with wickets. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  14. Case-control study of lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to radiation resulting from the inhalation of uranium dust and the dust of uranium-bearing compounds and death due to lung cancer. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of white male workers employed at one uranium processing plant during World War II. The 330 cases consisted of all lung cancer deaths occurring in the cohort between 1943 and 1973. Level of exposure to radiation and other potential workplace carcinogens was determined for each worker using process manuals, industrial hygiene reports, air monitoring data and individual work histories. Smoking status and information regarding medical variables was determined from employee medical records. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Data were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis and logistic regression. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of lung dose exposure even after controlling for age, smoking status and other workplace exposures, but only for those who were over the age of 44 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this hire age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads or more. The risk associated with the overall work environment was also investigated using a summary measure of total workplace exposure called chemical rank. A similar relationship existed between chemical rank and lung cancer to that found for cumulative lung dose and lung cancer

  15. Fragrance allergy and quality of life - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-02-01

    Fragrance ingredients can cause contact allergy, which may affect quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have investigated this topic. To investigate QoL life among subjects with a fragrance allergy as compared with other eczema patients. A case-control survey was sent to subjects with a positive patch test reaction to a fragrance ingredient/marker (n = 550) and to a control group (n = 1100). It contained questions on eczema and the newly developed fragrance QoL index. Participants had been consecutively patch tested at Gentofte University Hospital (2000-2010). The response rate was 65.7%. Information on patch test data was retrieved from the National Contact Dermatitis Database. An increase in impairment of QoL was observed in women with fragrance allergy as compared with the control group (p = 0.042), which was not found among men. Several factors played a significant role in impairment of QoL in women: (i) number of fragrance allergies, (ii) severity of the patch test reaction, (iii) age combined with recent diagnosis; and (iv) allergy to specific fragrance ingredients/markers. Fragrance-allergic subjects are just as affected in their QoL as other eczema patients. However, women, and in particular recently diagnosed young women, seem to be more impaired in their QoL than other eczema patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  17. Experience gained with a case control study of risk factors in bronchial carcinoma - would the approach be suitable for assessment of the radon problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the USA and in Sweden, case control studies are being done for investigating the incidence of lung cancer and a possible association with indoor exposure to radon daughters. In the F.R.G., methods and results of a case control study of other risk factors in bronchial carcinoma are available, and the question currently discussed is whether the data obtained by this study, together with additional measurements, could be used to assess the radon problem, or whether an individual radon study should be done, and what its requirements would be. (orig.) [de

  18. Studies of CTNNBL1 and FDFT1 variants and measures of obesity: analyses of quantitative traits and case-control studies in 18,014 Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla Helene; Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    of obesity-related quantitative traits, and case-control studies in large study samples of Danes. METHODS: The FDFT1 rs7001819, CTNNBL1 rs6013029 and rs6020846 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising 18,014 participants ascertained from; the population...... and a previous study. FDFT1 rs7001819 showed no association with obesity, neither when analysing quantitative traits nor when performing case-control studies of obesity.......). The most significantly associating variants within CTNNBL1 including rs6013029 and rs6020846 were additionally confirmed to associate with morbid obesity in a French Caucasian case-control sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these three variants on obesity, through analyses...

  19. Opium consumption and risk of bladder cancer: A case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Yousof; Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Erfan; Hooshyar, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between opium consumption and bladder cancer (BC) in a case-control study of an Iranian population. In a hospital-based case-control study of 179 patients with BC and 179 cancer-free controls frequency-matched by age, sex, and smoking status, we investigated the relationship between opium consumption and BC. A comprehensive epidemiologic interview was conducted on all participants to collect personal information, such as demographics and smoking status. Overall, we found significant age, sex, cigarette smoking adjusted association between BC risk and opium consumption, [odds ratio (OR) = 4.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.53-6.28]. The elevated risk was more evident in older individuals (OR = 5.42; 95% CI, 4.12-7.28) than younger individuals (OR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.76-4.76) (P = 0.01). Heavy smokers with the opium consumption exhibited a 6-fold elevated risk for BC (OR = 6.16; 95% CI, 3.34-8.32) (P = 0.0001). When stratified according to different grades of BC, a 3.4-fold increased risk was associated with the opium consumption in grade III with an OR of 3.44 (95% CI, 2.82-8.28) (P = 0.001). A similar but slightly higher risk was also seen in case of grade IV tumors (OR = 3.86; 95% CI, 2.14-10.16) (P = 0.001). Invasive bladder tumors were more common among the opiates users (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.44-5.42) (P = 0.01). Cumulative risk of BC in women with opium consumption (OR = 4.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.001) was slightly less than in men (OR = 5.10 95% CI, 3.54-5.88) (P = 0.0001). Based on Pearson correlations, the risk of BC significantly correlated with opium dependence duration (r = 0.74, P = 0.001), type of opiate used (r = 0.65, P = 0.001), and simultaneous cigarette smoking (r = 0.74, P = 0.0001). The results indicated that there is about 5-fold increase in risk of developing this cancer in the presence of opium consumption. Further research is needed to investigate the functional implications of the opium consumption in BC

  20. Evaluation of two methods for assessing gene-environment interactions using data from the Danish case-control study of facial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etheredge, Analee J; Christensen, Kaare; Del Junco, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological investigations have begun to consider gene-environment (GE) interactions as potential risk factors for many diseases, including several different birth defects. However, traditional methodological approaches for the analysis of case-control data tend to have low power ...

  1. Dietary intake of folate and riboflavin, MTHFR C677T Genotype, and colorectal adenoma risk: a Dutch case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, van den M.; Buijsse, G.M.; Berg, van den S.W.; Ocké, M.C.; Harryvan, J.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the associations between dietary intake of folate and vitamin B2, MTHFR C677T genotype, and colorectal adenomas in a Dutch case-control study. Data of cases with at least one histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma (n = 768) and controls with no history of any type of colorectal

  2. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had

  3. Childhood leukaemia in relation to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from television and radio broadcast transmitters: epidemiological aspects of a case-control study in Germany; Leukaemie bei Kindern in der Umgebung von Sendestationen des Rundfunks. Anforderungen an das Studiendesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzenich, H.; Bennack, S.; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Schmiedel, S.; Schuez, J. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology; Brueggemeyer, H. [Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz, AB35 - Strahlenschutz in Niedersachsen, Hannover (Germany); Philipp, J. [Suedwestrundfunk, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Frequenz- und Versorgungsplanung; Spix, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister

    2007-07-01

    Leukaemia is the most common type of cancer in children accounting for about a third of all cancers in children under the age of 15 years. Environmental factors such as non-ionising radiation exposure might play a role in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. However, data to support such hypotheses are inconsistent. A case control study has been set up in West Germany (University of Mainz) in order to determine whether there is an increased risk of childhood leukaemia in populations exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from TV and/or Radio towers. Cases are children aged 0 to 14 years with a primary leukaemia diagnosed between 1984 and 2003 who lived in the vicinity of these TV- and/ or Radio towers. Cases have been identified through the German Childhood Cancer Registry. Three controls per case have been individually matched by age at diagnosis, sex, time of diagnosis and study area. The study focuses on an individual retrospective exposure assessment using data from transmitter network operators. The study has started in March 2005 with a pilot investigation in order to specify the study design and the methods for exposure assessment. A total of 2009 eligible cases have been identified. The study will be finished end of 2007. (orig.)

  4. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sorensen, Inge J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected.......4; 95% CI 1.1, 38) based on two patients, who developed testis cancer >10 years before WG. The overall prevalence of malignancies diagnosed time...... interval (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.4, 12). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find clear evidence of an increased prevalence of preceding cancer in our WG cohort, indicating that shared risk factors are of minor importance for the excess of malignancies that occur in WG patients after the vasculitis diagnosis. Furthermore...

  5. Phosphate homeostasis in Bartter syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Viganò, Cristina; Provero, Maria Cristina; Barretta, Francesco; Albisetti, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Silvana; Scicchitano, Barbara; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2014-11-01

    Bartter patients may be hypercalciuric. Additional abnormalities in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones have occasionally been reported. The metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones was investigated in 15 patients with Bartter syndrome and 15 healthy subjects. Compared to the controls, Bartter patients had significantly reduced plasma phosphate {mean [interquartile range]:1.29 [1.16-1.46] vs. 1.61 [1.54-1.67] mmol/L} and maximal tubular phosphate reabsorption (1.16 [1.00-1.35] vs. 1.41 [1.37-1.47] mmol/L) and significantly increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (6.1 [4.5-7.7] vs. 2.8 [2.2-4.4] pmol/L). However, patients and controls did not differ in blood calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. In patients, an inverse correlation (P Bartter patients.

  6. Upper airway dimensions in patients with craniocervical junction malformations with and without sleep apnea. A pilot case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barbalho Guerreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with craniocervical junction malformations (CCJM tend to suffer more frequently from sleep respiratory disturbances, which are more frequent and severe in patients with basilar invagination. Here we evaluate if patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disorders (SRD present smaller airway dimensions than patients without SRD. Method Patients with CCCM with and without sleep respiratory disturbances were evaluated clinically by Bindal's score, modified Mallampati classification, full-night polysomnography and upper airway cone beam tomography. Results Eleven patients had sleep respiratory disorders (SRD, and nine patients performed control group without SRD. CCJM patients with SRD were predominantly female, older, had higher BMI, were more likely to have Mallampati grades 3 and 4 and had statistically significant smaller anteroposterior diameter of the upper airway than patients without SRD. Conclusion Patients with CCJM and sleep respiratory disturbances have higher BMI, higher Mallampati score and smaller anterior posterior diameter of the upper airway.

  7. (SWASH-D for Worms: A pilot study investigating the differential impact of school- versus community-based integrated control programs for soil-transmitted helminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Clarke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect nearly 1.5 billion individuals globally, and contribute to poor physical and cognitive development in children. STH control programs typically consist of regular delivery of anthelminthic drugs, targeting school-aged children. Expanding STH control programs community-wide may improve STH control among school-aged children, and combining deworming with improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH may further reduce transmission. The (SWASH-D for Worms pilot study aims to compare the differential impact of integrated WASH and deworming programs when implemented at primary schools only versus when additionally implemented community-wide.A two-arm, non-randomized cluster intervention study was conducted. Six communities were identified by partner WASH agencies and enrolled in the study. All communities received a school-based WASH and deworming program, while three additionally received a community-based WASH and deworming program. STH infections were measured in school-aged children at baseline and six months after deworming. Over 90% of eligible children were recruited for the study, of whom 92.3% provided stool samples at baseline and 88.9% at follow-up. The school WASH intervention improved school sanitation, while the community WASH intervention reduced open defecation from 50.4% (95% CI 41.8-59.0 to 23.5% (95% CI 16.7-32.0. There was a trend towards reduced odds of N. americanus infection among children who received the community-wide intervention (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.07-2.36, p = 0.32.This pilot study provides proof of principle for testing the hypothesis that community-wide STH control programs have a greater impact on STH infections among children than school-based programs, and supports the rationale for conducting a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial. High recruitment and participation rates and successful implementation of school WASH programs demonstrate study feasibility and

  8. A pilot, quasi-experimental, mixed methods investigation into the efficacy of a group psychotherapy intervention for caregivers of outpatients with cancer: the COPE study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok

    2015-11-19

    Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the psychosocial concerns of caregivers, as well as for researchers

  9. Pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify older Malaysian people at risk of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad Hibatullah; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-08-16

    The relationship between home hazards and falls in older Malaysian people is not yet fully understood. No tools to evaluate the Malaysian home environment currently exist. Therefore, this study aimed to pilot the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) to identify hazards in Malaysian homes, to evaluate the feasibility of using the HOME FAST in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study and to gather preliminary data about the experience of falls among a small sample of Malaysian older people. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted. An urban setting in Kuala Lumpur. 26 older people aged 60 and over were recruited from the control group of a related research project in Malaysia, in addition to older people known to the researchers. The HOME FAST was applied with the baseline survey for the MELoR study via a face-to-face interview and observation of the home by research staff. The majority of the participants were female, of Malay or Chinese ethnicity and living with others in a double-storeyed house. Falls were reported in the previous year by 19% and 80% of falls occurred at home. Gender and fear of falling had the strongest associations with home hazards. Most hazards were detected in the bathroom area. A small number of errors were detected in the HOME FAST ratings by researchers. The HOME FAST is feasible as a research and clinical tool for the Malaysian context and is appropriate for use in the MELoR study. Home hazards were prevalent in the homes of older people and further research with the larger MELoR sample is needed to confirm the validity of using the HOME FAST in Malaysia. Training in the use of the HOME FAST is needed to ensure accurate use by researchers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  12. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  13. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  14. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  15. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  16. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  17. Idiopathic epistaxis and meteorological factors: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavic, B; Majstorovic, Z; Kordić, M; Leventić, M; Grgić, M V; Baudoin, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of idiopathic epistaxis and daily values of air pressure, temperature, and humidity. We also investigated whether biometeorological forecasts should be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis. We analyzed consecutive idiopathic epistaxis events over a 3-year period. Patients were included if they had been in the municipality of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina at least 24 hours before the epistaxis occurrence. The monthly variation in epistaxis events was determined. Epistaxis days (Days "0", 0 = day with epistaxis occurrence) and selected nonepistaxis days (Days "-1", -1 = each first single day without epistaxis prior to Day 0) were compared according to daily values of mean, minimum, and maximum temperature; diurnal temperature range; minimum and maximum atmospheric pressure; diurnal pressure range; and mean relative humidity. The greatest and smallest percentage of epistaxis events occurred in the months of March and August, respectively. There were no significant differences between Days 0 and Days -1 with respect to the examined meteorological factors. In this region with a Mediterranean climate, we found a seasonal variation with an incidence peak during the spring transition months, but we did not identify any meteorological trigger factors for epistaxis. Thus, there is no need for biometeorological forecasts to be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis.

  18. Vascular anomalies in the mesenteric circulation of patients with Crohn’s disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Zamboni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease and its pathogenesis is still not well understood. Previous studies suggested the possibility of the involvement of vascular system, but, todate, the mesenteric circulation has poor been investigated, especially in complicated CD cases requiring colectomy. We investigated the mesenteric circulation in a case-control pilot study, including 19 controls and 7 patients affected by complicated cases of CD. Cases and controls underwent selective angiography of both superior and inferior mesenteric district. Transit time was found either significantly shortened in 2/7 cases (29%, or prolonged 5/7 (71% (P=0.0034 in the superior mesenteric district; P=0.0079 in the inferior mesenteric district, respectively due to the presence of A-V malformations and of a miscellaneous of venous abnormalities, which included thrombosis, hypoplasia and extra-truncular venous malformations. Our study demonstrates the presence of congenital or acquired vascular anomalies in a small sample of CD patients not responder to current treatment and with severe complications. The present pilot study warrants further investigations.

  19. On the Analysis of Case-Control Studies in Cluster-correlated Data Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Rivera-Rodriguez, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, long-term evaluation of national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs often relies on aggregated data, the analysis of which may be subject to ecological bias. As researchers and policy makers consider evaluating individual-level outcomes such as treatment adherence or mortality, the well-known case-control design is appealing in that it provides efficiency gains over random sampling. In the context that motivates this article, valid estimation and inference requires acknowledging any clustering, although, to our knowledge, no statistical methods have been published for the analysis of case-control data for which the underlying population exhibits clustering. Furthermore, in the specific context of an ongoing collaboration in Malawi, rather than performing case-control sampling across all clinics, case-control sampling within clinics has been suggested as a more practical strategy. To our knowledge, although similar outcome-dependent sampling schemes have been described in the literature, a case-control design specific to correlated data settings is new. In this article, we describe this design, discuss balanced versus unbalanced sampling techniques, and provide a general approach to analyzing case-control studies in cluster-correlated settings based on inverse probability-weighted generalized estimating equations. Inference is based on a robust sandwich estimator with correlation parameters estimated to ensure appropriate accounting of the outcome-dependent sampling scheme. We conduct comprehensive simulations, based in part on real data on a sample of N = 78,155 program registrants in Malawi between 2005 and 2007, to evaluate small-sample operating characteristics and potential trade-offs associated with standard case-control sampling or when case-control sampling is performed within clusters.

  20. Recall bias in a case-control surveillance system on the use of medicine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to study possible teratogenic effects of drugs used during pregnancy. Many studies of this type rely upon case-control designs in which drug intake is recalled by the mothers after having given birth. Recall bias in this situation may lead to spurious associations. We looked...... study. A case-control surveillance system of this type may frequently cause spurious associations, with biased odds ratios up to a factor of 1.9....

  1. Suicide and chronic kidney disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Han; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Weng, Shu-Chuan; Bai, Meng-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen

    2017-09-01

    The association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis with suicide is not well established. The objectives of this study were to assess the association of suicide with CKD and dialysis and investigate whether differences exist between dialysis modalities or the durations of dialysis. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 51 642 patients who died from suicide between 2000 and 2012 and 206 568 living control patients matched by age, gender and residency area were examined. Known risk factors included sociodemographic characteristics, physical comorbidities and psychiatric disorders, which were controlled for as covariates in the analysis. The crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs (aORs) for various risk factors were obtained using conditional logistic regression. After potential confounders were controlled for, CKD was significantly associated with an increased risk of suicide [aOR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.34]. End-stage renal disease patients on haemodialysis (HD) had an increased risk of suicide compared with controls (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI = 3.02-3.72). Moreover, patients who initially underwent dialysis within 0-3 months had a significantly increased risk of suicide (aOR = 20.26, 95% CI = 15.99-25.67). CKD and HD are positively associated with suicide. Suicide is preventable; therefore, assessing mental and physical disorders is essential and recommended to all physicians, particularly those treating patients in the early phase of HD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray fluorescence investigation of heavy-metal contamination on metal surfaces in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Draugelis, A.K.; Schneider, J.F.; Billmark, K.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    A field program using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument was carried out to obtain data on loadings of RCRA-regulated heavy metals in paint on metal surfaces within the Pilot Plant Complex at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Measured loadings of heavy metals were sufficiently small that they do not present problems for either human exposure or the disposition of building demolition rubble. An attempt to develop an external calibration of the XRF instrument for cadmium, chromium, and lead was unsuccessful. Significant substrate effects were observed for cadmium and chromium; for accurate results for these elements, it appears necessary to calibrate by using a sample of the actual metal substrate on which the paint is located. No substrate effects were observed for lead, but the use of lead L-shell x-ray emission lines in the instrument mode utilized in this study appears to result in a significant underestimate of the lead loading due to self-absorption of these emissions.

  3. A pilot study investigating whether focusing on body functionality can protect women from the potential negative effects of viewing thin-ideal media images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica M; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Martijn, Carolien

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study explored whether focusing on body functionality (i.e., everything the body can do) can protect women from potential harmful effects of exposure to thin-ideal images. Seventy women (Mage=20.61) completed an assignment wherein they either described the functionality of their body or the routes that they often travel (control). Afterward, participants were exposed to a series of thin-ideal images. Appearance and functionality satisfaction were measured before the assignment; appearance and functionality satisfaction, self-objectification, and body appreciation were measured after exposure. Results showed that participants who focused on body functionality experienced greater functionality satisfaction and body appreciation compared to control participants. Therefore, focusing on body functionality could be a beneficial individual-level technique that women can use to protect and promote a positive body image in the face of thin-ideal images. Research including a condition wherein participants are exposed to (product-only) control images is necessary to draw firmer conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  5. A pilot study investigating the feasibility of symptom assessment manager (SAM), a Web-based real-time tool for monitoring challenging behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Wanasinghage, Sangeeth; Goh, Anita; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Darby, David G; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Improving and minimizing challenging behaviors seen in psychiatric conditions, including behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are important in the care of people with these conditions. Yet there is a lack of systematic evaluation of these as a part of routine clinical care. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory is a validated and reliable tool for rating the severity and disruptiveness of challenging behaviors. We report on the evaluation of a Web-based symptom assessment manager (SAM), designed to address the limitation of previous tools using some of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory functions, to monitor behaviors by staff caring for people with dementia and other psychiatric conditions in inpatient and residential care settings. The SAM was piloted in an 8-bed inpatient neuropsychiatry unit over 5 months. Eleven nurses and 4 clinicians were trained in usage of SAM. Primary outcomes were usage of SAM and perceived usability, utility, and acceptance of SAM. Secondary outcomes were the frequencies of documented behavior. Usage data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. The SAM was used for all admitted patients regardless of diagnosis, with a usage rate of 64% for nurses regularly employed in the unit. Staff provided positive feedback regarding the utility of SAM. The SAM appeared to offer individualized behavior assessment by providing a quick, structured, and standardized platform for assessing behavior in a real-world setting. Further research would involve trialing SAM with more staff in alternative settings such as in home or residential care settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reports on 1977 result of research. Investigation for selecting site location of pilot plant for 7,000Nm{sup 3}/day class high calorie gasification; 1977 nendo sunshine keikaku ni kakawaru plant kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokoku. 7,000Nm{sup 3}/nichi kyu kokarori gas ka pilot plant yochi no ricchi sentei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-20

    A report was made on the result of investigation for selecting a suitable site for a coal gasification pilot plant. The high calorie gasification plant under the Sunshine Project is scheduled to have a parallel operation of two methods. It could be decided on one only method depending on the future studies. One is the 'water gasification method' using coal only as the raw material, with hydrogen gas added to contrive methanization. The other is the 'hybrid gasification method' using mixed slurry of powdered coal and heavy oil as the raw material, with oxygen supplied to it to form a clean gas. The sites proposed for the pilot plant are the cities of Yubari, Iwaki, Kita-Ibaraki, Tagawa, Iizuka and Imari. The items for assessment of cost effectiveness are the expenses of development of a site, road construction, removal of existing obstacles, plant construction, power receiving equipment construction, irrigation supply facilities construction, wastewater treatment system construction, ash discharging system construction, transportation, and supply/processing-related maintenance. As a result of the assessment, Iwaki city was picked up as the area almost free from drawbacks to cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  7. Reports on 1977 result of research. Investigation for selecting site location of pilot plant for 7,000Nm{sup 3}/day class high calorie gasification; 1977 nendo sunshine keikaku ni kakawaru plant kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokoku. 7,000Nm{sup 3}/nichi kyu kokarori gas ka pilot plant yochi no ricchi sentei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-20

    A report was made on the result of investigation for selecting a suitable site for a coal gasification pilot plant. The high calorie gasification plant under the Sunshine Project is scheduled to have a parallel operation of two methods. It could be decided on one only method depending on the future studies. One is the 'water gasification method' using coal only as the raw material, with hydrogen gas added to contrive methanization. The other is the 'hybrid gasification method' using mixed slurry of powdered coal and heavy oil as the raw material, with oxygen supplied to it to form a clean gas. The sites proposed for the pilot plant are the cities of Yubari, Iwaki, Kita-Ibaraki, Tagawa, Iizuka and Imari. The items for assessment of cost effectiveness are the expenses of development of a site, road construction, removal of existing obstacles, plant construction, power receiving equipment construction, irrigation supply facilities construction, wastewater treatment system construction, ash discharging system construction, transportation, and supply/processing-related maintenance. As a result of the assessment, Iwaki city was picked up as the area almost free from drawbacks to cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  8. Association of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Osteoporosis and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Case Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Abdullah; Acar Yüceant, Gülşah; Yüce, Turgut; Hacı, Cemal; Cebi, Işıl Taylan; Salviz, Mehti

    2017-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common type of vertigo caused by the peripheral vestibular system. The majority of cases are accepted as idiopathic. Calcium metabolism also plays a primary role in the synthesis/absorption of otoconia made of calcium carbonate and thus might be an etiological factor in the onset of BPPV. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of osteoporosis and vitamin D in the etiology of BPPV by comparing BPPV patients with hospital-based controls. This is a case-control study comparing the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in 78 BPPV patients and 78 hospital-based controls. The mean T-scores and serum vitamin D levels were compared. The risk factors of osteoporosis, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and blood pressure were all compared between the groups. To avoid selection bias, the groups were stratified as subgroups according to age, sex, and menopausal status. In this study, the rates of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency detected in BPPV patients were reasonably high. But there was no significant difference in mean T-scores and vitamin D levels, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency prevalence between the BPPV group and controls. The prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is reasonably high in the general population. Unlike the general tendencies in the literature, our study suggests that osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency are not risk factors for BPPV; we conclude that the coexistence of BPPV with osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is coincidental.

  9. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  10. Association between zolpidem use and glaucoma risk: a Taiwanese population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Hao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    To date, the relationship between zolpidem use and subsequent risk of glaucoma in a Taiwanese population has not been assessed. We used data from the National Health Insurance system to investigate whether zolpidem use was related to glaucoma risk. A 1:4 matched case-control study was conducted. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma from 2001 to 2010. The controls were randomly selected non-glaucoma subjects matched by sex and age (± 5 years). Zolpidem exposure and/or the average dosage of zolpidem used (mg/year) were evaluated. Medical comorbidities were considered as confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the potential risk of zolpidem exposure on glaucoma with/without adjustment for the effects of confounding variables. The exposure rate of zolpidem use in the glaucoma group was significantly higher than that of the control group (2.8% vs. 2.0%, P zolpidem use vs. those without was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38). Compared to non-zolpidem users, zolpidem users with an average dose of more than 200 mg/year had significantly increased risk of glaucoma (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.68). This study suggests that the use of zolpidem might increase the risk of subsequent glaucoma. Further confirmatory studies are recommended to clarify this important issue.

  11. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  12. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron metabolism in critically ill patients developing anemia of inflammation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Margit; Binnekade, Jan M; Nota, Benjamin; van de Groep, Kirsten; Cremer, Olaf L; Tuinman, Pieter R; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2018-05-02

    Anemia occurring as a result of inflammatory processes (anemia of inflammation, AI) has a high prevalence in critically ill patients. Knowledge on changes in iron metabolism during the course of AI is limited, hampering the development of strategies to counteract AI. This case control study aimed to investigate iron metabolism during the development of AI in critically ill patients. Iron metabolism in 30 patients who developed AI during ICU stay was compared with 30 septic patients with a high Hb and 30 non-septic patients with a high Hb. Patients were matched on age and sex. Longitudinally collected plasma samples were analyzed for levels of parameters of iron metabolism. A linear mixed model was used to assess the predictive values of the parameters. In patients with AI, levels of iron, transferrin and transferrin saturation showed an early decrease compared to controls with a high Hb, already prior to the development of anemia. Ferritin, hepcidin and IL-6 levels were increased in AI compared to controls. During AI development, erythroferrone decreased. Differences in iron metabolism between groups were not influenced by APACHE IV score. The results show that in critically ill patients with AI, iron metabolism is already altered prior to the development of anemia. Levels of iron regulators in AI differ from septic controls with a high Hb, irrespective of disease severity. AI is characterized by high levels of hepcidin, ferritin and IL-6 and low levels of iron, transferrin and erythroferrone.

  14. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-26

    To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women), aged 50-75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory function. Information on demographics, lifestyle characteristics and habitual food consumption was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Total soy consumption was positively correlated with observed lung function measures. The mean soy intake was significantly higher among controls (59.98, SD 50.23 g/day) than cases (44.84, SD 28.5 g/day). A significant reduction in COPD risk was evident for highest versus lowest quartile of daily intake of total soybean products, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.392, 95% CI 0.194-0.793, p for trend 0.001. Similar decreases in COPD risk were associated with frequent and higher intake of soy foods such as tofu and bean sprouts, whereas respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with high consumption of soy foods, especially for breathlessness (OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.982-0.996). Increasing soy consumption was associated with a decreased risk of COPD and breathlessness.

  15. Study of environmental and genetic factors in children with craniosynostosis: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes one or more sutures on an infant's skull to close earlier than normal. Though both genetic and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis, there is no published Indian data to verify this. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we investigated the association of craniosynostosis with parental age in 50 children with craniosynostosis attending the surgical outpatient department of a tertiary care institution in North India. Results: There was a significant association of craniosynostosis with advanced parental [OR 2.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 4.36)] but not maternal age. Education status of parents also revealed that those having a higher education had an increased risk of having a child with craniosynostosis [maternal education, OR 2.32 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.76); paternal education, OR 2.51 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.0)]. Molecular analysis by sequencing confirmed following amino-acid substitution in different Exons of the FGFR2 gene. Besides these, we found other novel identical mutations in FGFR2 gene in both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostoses. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in India that provides evidence that, advanced paternal age and higher parental education level might be associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis. New mutations were identified in cases of both syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis. PMID:24082921

  16. Apolipoprotein E in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Manjari; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Srinivas, M.; Luthra, Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship of apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype, plasma levels of apoE and lipids in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients in Asian Indians. Status of plasma levels of Apo E in epilepsy patients has not been reported till date. Methods: ApoE gene polymorphism was analyzed in 58 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 57 age and sex approximated controls using Polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Levels of plasma apoE and lipids were measured using ELISA and enzymatic kits respectively. Results: The distribution of ApoE genotype in epilepsy patients and controls was comparable. Higher levels of plasma ApoE were observed in TLE patients as compared to controls (p = 0.0001). Individuals with plasma levels of apoE > 190 mg/L were at 20 times higher odds (95%CI = 2.46–163.34, p = 0.005), while those with levels of apoE between 150–190 mg/L were at 4.9 times higher odds (95% CI = 1.85–13.9, p = 0.001), to develop TLE. Conclusions: We have observed for the first time, high levels of plasma apoE in epilepsy patients. The findings of this case-control study suggest that apolipoprotein E may play an important role in epilepsy. PMID:17264404

  17. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  18. Hyperthyroidism association with SLE, lessons from real-life data--A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Cohen, Arnon D; Comaneshter, Doron; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Amital, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Despite the frequently encountered association between thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well known, it is of surprise that only several reports compromised of small population size support this observation. To investigate the association of comorbid SLE and hyperthyroidism. Using the database of the largest health maintenance organization (HMO) in Israel, the Clalit Health Services, we searched for the co-existence of SLE and hyperthyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the prevalence of hyperthyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age- and sex- matched controls. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (2.59% and 0.91%, respectively, p hyperthyroidism (odds ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval 2.028-3.137). Patients with SLE have a greater prevalence of hyperthyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of this possibility of this thyroid dysfunction.

  19. Organizing pneumonia and occupational and environmental risk factors: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobard, Stéphanie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Lasfargues, Gérard; Diot, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    A single-center case-control study was carried out to investigate the relationship between occupational and environmental exposure and organizing pneumonia (OP). Thirty-seven cases of OP, including 25 cases of cryptogenic OP, and 111 controls were included. Occupational exposure was assessed retrospectively by an industrial hygienist and an occupational physician, through semi-quantitative estimates of exposure. An exposure score was calculated for each subject, based on probability, intensity, daily frequency, and duration of exposure for each period of employment. The final cumulative exposure score was obtained by summing exposure scores for all periods of employment. Significant associations with all-cause OP were observed for exposure to tetrachloroethylene (OR 13.33, CI 95% 1.44-123.5) and silica (OR 6.61, CI 95% 1.16-37.71). A significant association with cryptogenic OP was observed only for tetrachloroethylene (OR 31.6, CI 95% 1.64-610.8). No associations were found for environmental exposure. Despite its low statistical power, this work suggests that occupational risk factors could be involved in OP.

  20. Tularaemia outbreaks in Sakarya, Turkey: case-control and environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric, M; Sayan, M; Dundar, D; Willke, A

    2010-08-01

    Tularaemia is an important zoonotic disease that leads to outbreaks. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of two tularaemia outbreaks that occurred in the Sakarya region of Turkey, analyse the risk factors for the development of outbreaks and identify Francisella (F.) tularensis in the water samples. Two tularaemia outbreaks occurred in the Kocadongel village in 2005 and 2006. A field investigation and a case-control study with 47 cases and 47 healthy households were performed during the second outbreak. Clinical samples from the patients and filtrated water samples were analysed for F. tularensis via real-time polymerase chain reaction. From the two outbreaks, a total of 58 patients were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularaemia based on their clinical and serological results. Both outbreaks occurred between the months of January and April, and the number of patients peaked in February. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the consumption of natural spring water was the only significant risk factor for tularaemia infection (odds ratio 3.5, confidence interval 1.23-10.07). F. tularensis was detected in eight clinical samples and in the filtrated natural spring water. This study is the first report of tularaemia from this region. The results show that both tularaemia outbreaks were related to the consumption of untreated natural spring water. To prevent waterborne tularaemia, community water supplies should be treated and checked periodically.

  1. Effect of anterior cervical osteophyte in poststroke dysphagia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkook; Park, Geun-Young; Seo, Yu Jung; Im, Sun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether the concomitant presence of anterior cervical osteophytes can influence the severity and outcome of patients with poststroke dysphagia. Retrospective case-control study. Hospital. A total of 40 participants were identified (N=40). Patients with poststroke dysphagia with anterior cervical osteophytes (n=20) were identified and matched by age, sex, location, and laterality of the stroke lesion to a poststroke dysphagia control group with no anterior cervical osteophytes (n=20). Not applicable. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and Penetration-Aspiration Scale results assessed within the first month of stroke were analyzed. The FOIS at 6 months was recorded, and severity of dysphagia was compared between the 2 groups. The case group had larger degrees of postswallow residues in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses (P=.020 and Pdysphagia (OR=15.375; 95% CI, 3.195-infinity). The presence of anterior cervical osteophytes, which may cause mechanical obstruction and interfere with residue clearance at the valleculae and pyriform sinuses and result in more postswallow aspiration, may influence initial severity and outcome of poststroke dysphagia. The presence of anterior cervical osteophytes may be considered an important clinical condition that may affect poststroke dysphagia rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection is not associated with failure to thrive: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chi, Hsin; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Li, Sung-Tse; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The long-term impact of Helicobacter pylori infection is complex, and concerns about the need for eradication exist. We conducted this case control study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and failure to thrive (FTT). From January 2009 to December 2011, 53 children with FTT group and matched children with the same sex and age and similar socioeconomic status without FTT (control group) were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered to the parents/guardian, and a 13 C-urea breath test was performed to detect H. pylori infection. We found that the total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 29.2% and that there was no association between FTT and H. pylori infection (FTT group: 32%; control group: 26.4%; P =0.67). Short stature was more common in the FTT group and abdominal pain in the control group (FTT group: 37.7%; control group: 11.3%; P =0.003). In a comparison between the H. pylori -positive and -negative groups, abdominal pain (87.1% vs 64%; P =0.032) and the frequency of endoscopy (74.2% vs 32%; P <0.001) were significantly more common in the H. pylori -positive group. We found that children with H. pylori infection are at an increased risk for abdominal pain and that FTT is not associated with H. pylori infection. The decision for eradication should be evaluated carefully and individualized.

  3. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  5. Associated factors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Ayyoub; Amiri, Shahrokh; Sadegfard, Majid; Abdi, Salman; Amini, Saeedeh

    2012-09-01

    The current study attempted to investigate factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children without co-morbidities. In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children who attended the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran were compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and secondary schools. Clinical interviews based on DSM-IV-TR using K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Participants were matched for age. We used chi-square and binary logistic regression for data analysis. Among the associated factors with ADHD were gender and maternal employment. Boys (OR 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34 - 0.86) and those children with working mothers (OR 0.16: 95% confidence interval: 0.06 - 0.86) suffered more from ADHD. The birth season, family size, birth order, and parental kinship were not among risk factors for ADHD. The results of the study show that maternal employment and male gender are among the associated risk factors for ADHD.

  6. The association between Anoplocephala perfoliata and colic in Swedish horses--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, H; Nyman, A; Osterman Lind, E

    2013-11-08

    A case-control study was performed to investigate the association between colic of all types in Swedish horses and infection with the equine tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata. Colic cases were defined by clinical signs consistent with the presence of abdominal pain, and the control horses had no signs of colic within the last year but attended a clinic for other reasons. Blood and fecal samples were collected by veterinarian from 67 horses with signs of colic and 67 control horses. The sera were analyzed using serodiagnostic assay anti-12/13 kDa IgG(T) ELISA. The fecal samples, 30 g from each horse, were analyzed with a modified sugar salt flotation method with a density of 1.280. A significant association was found between the presence of A. perfoliata eggs in feces and colic with a 16 times higher risk of colic if eggs had been observed in fecal samples. However, there was no significant association between colic and the median OD-values in the serological diagnosis, nor when recommended cut-offs were used. The study concludes that A. perfoliata is a risk factor for colic in Swedish horses and it suggests that the modified flotation method can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying horses at risk. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

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    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  8. A case-control study on risk factors of breast cancer in Han Chinese women.

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    Liu, Li-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Shu-De; Tian, Fu-Guo; Fan, Zhi-Min; Geng, Cui-Zhi; Cao, Xu-Chen; Yang, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Hong; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-Chuan; Duan, Xue-Ning; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Guo-Lou; Wang, Qi-Tang; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-Hai; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-Guang; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Yu, Li-Xiang; Xiang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Liang; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Qin-Ye; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Gao, De-Zong; Li, Yu-Yang; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-Miao; Wang, Yong-Jiu; Zhou, Wen-Zhong; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2017-11-14

    This study aimed to investigate risk factors associated with breast cancer among Han Chinese women in northern and eastern China. A matched case-control study involving 1489 patients with breast cancer and 1489 controls was conducted across 21 hospitals in 11 provinces in China, from April 2012 to April 2013. We developed a structured questionnaire to record information from face-to-face interviews with participants. Student's t-tests, Pearson's chi-square tests, and univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables with significant differences between the case and control groups. Ten variables were identified (P ratio, menopause, family history of breast cancer, present life satisfaction, sleep satisfaction, milk products, behavior prevention scores, and awareness of breast cancer. We identified a comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer, among which several manageable factors may contribute to breast cancer prevention. Further prospective studies concerning psychological interventions, sleep regulation, health guidance, and physical exercise are required. A screening model for high-risk populations should be put on the agenda.

  9. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, R; Elbaz, A; Sanft, K R; Peterson, B J; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Grossardt, B R; de Andrade, M; Maraganore, D M; Rocca, W A

    2005-11-22

    To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independent sources of data: a review of the complete medical records in the system and a telephone interview. Occupations were coded using the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification. Subjects with 9 or more years of education were at increased risk of PD (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.6; p = 0.02), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing education (test for linear trend, p = 0.02; medical records data). Physicians were at significantly increased risk of PD using both sources of occupational data. By contrast, four occupational groups showed a significantly decreased risk of PD using one source of data: construction and extractive workers (e.g., miners, oil well drillers), production workers (e.g., machine operators, fabricators), metal workers, and engineers. These associations with increased or decreased risk did not change noticeably after adjustment for education. Subjects with higher education and physicians have an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD), while subjects with some occupations presumed to involve high physical activity have a decreased risk of PD.

  10. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

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    Saeid Razi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4 and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6, respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  12. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  14. Inverse association between yerba mate consumption and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Melcon, Carlos; Parisi, Virginia L; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Gonzalez, Claudio D

    2015-09-15

    Yerba mate tea is a very common beverage in some countries of South America. We conducted a case-control study on an individual basis using hospital records to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and yerba mate intake. A case was defined as an age of ≥ 40 years with ≥ 1 year of PD. Each case was individually matched by two controls. Exposure was measured by yerba mate consumption, coffee, tea, and alcohol intake and smoking status. The sample consisted of 223 PD patients (mean age 68 years and mean disease duration 7.3 years) and 406 controls. There was an inverse association between yerba mate "bombilla" consumption and PD (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76, p=0.00001). A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression adjusted by sex, alcohol intake and smoking provided the following results: yerba mate (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76), tea (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86), coffee (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73). We found an inverse association between yerba mate consumption and PD. These results led us to hypothesize that yerba mate may have a potential protective role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic autoimmune disorders are increased in coeliac disease: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbò, Stefano; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Usai-Satta, Paolo; Salis, Roberta; Soro, Sara; Quarta Colosso, Bianca Maria; Dore, Maria Pina

    2017-11-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel associated with increased risk of additional autoimmune diseases (ADs).To investigate the prevalence of ADs in a population of adult coeliac patients.This was a retrospective case-control study. Data from coeliac patients and controls referred to a tertiary center between 2013 and 2016 were collected. The frequency of ADs and the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age, gender, disease duration, and body mass index with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated.Two hundred fifty-five patients with CD (median age 37.1 years; 206 women) were matched with 250 controls. ADs were more frequent (35.3%) in coeliac patients than in controls (15.2%). Adjusted ORs for the presence of only 1, at least 1, and more than 1 AD were 3.13 (95% CI 1.81-5.42, P disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  18. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Determinants of the incidence of childhood asthma: a two-stage case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Rey, Evelyne; Malo, Jean-Luc; Perreault, Sylvie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Forget, Amélie; Blais, Lucie

    2009-01-15

    Extensive literature exists on potential risk factors for childhood asthma. To the authors' knowledge, no investigators have yet attempted to disentangle the effects of those determinants within a single study setting. The authors aimed to evaluate the independent effects of 47 potential determinants (from the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods) of asthma development in children within the first 10 years of life. From a Canadian birth cohort of 26,265 children (1990-2002), a 2-stage case-control study was conducted. In the first stage, 20 controls per case were selected from 3 administrative databases. In the second stage, selected mothers were mailed questionnaires for assessment of additional determinants. Increased risks of childhood asthma were found for > or =1 previous diagnosis of bronchopulmonary disease and atopic dermatitis in the child, oxygen administration after birth, prescription of antibiotics within the first 6 months of life, male gender, asthma during pregnancy, use of antibiotics during pregnancy, maternal receipt of social aid, paternal asthma, and asthma in siblings. Protective effects included use of intranasal corticosteroids during pregnancy, having a wood-burning fireplace, having pets in the home prior to the index date, breastfeeding, and day-care attendance. This study allowed the authors to identify, within a single setting, the most influential determinants of childhood asthma among 47 predictors assessed for the prenatal, perinatal, and childhood periods.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  1. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  2. Correlation of Serum Zinc Level with Simple Febrile Seizures: A Hospital based Prospective Case Control Study

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    Imran Gattoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizures are one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. It seems that zinc deficiency is associated with increased risk of febrile seizures.Aim: To estimate the serum Zinc level in children with simple Febrile seizures and to find the correlation between serum zinc level and simple Febrile seizures.Materials and Methods: The proposed study was a hospital based prospective case control study which included infants and children aged between 6 months to 5 years, at Post Graduate Department of Pediatrics, (SMGS Hospital, GMC Jammu, northern India. A total of 200 infants and children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. Patients were divided into 100(cases in Group A with simple febrile seizure and 100(controls in Group B of children with acute febrile illness without seizure. All patients were subjected to detailed history and thorough clinical examination followed by relevant investigations.Results: Our study had slight male prepondance of 62% in cases and 58% in controls . Mean serum zinc level in cases was 61.53±15.87 ugm/dl and in controls it was 71.90+18.50 ugm/dl .Serum zinc level was found significantly low in cases of simple febrile seizures as compaired to controls ,with p value of

  3. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism. PMID:27087607

  4. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

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    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  5. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Pituitary tumor risk in relation to mobile phone use: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mithila; Raitanen, Jani; Salminen, Tiina; Lahkola, Anna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    The number of mobile phone users has grown rapidly, which has generated mounting public concern regarding possible health hazards. This study aims to assess pituitary tumor risk, as it has rarely been investigated. A case-control study was conducted with 80 eligible cases identified from all five university hospitals in Finland and frequency-matched 240 controls from the national population register. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, region of residence and date of interview. A detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained using a structured interview. Several indicators of mobile phone use were assessed using conditional logistic regression. A reduced odds ratio was seen among regular mobile phone users [OR 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.72] relative to never/non-regular users, possibly reflecting methodological limitations. Pituitary tumor risk was not increased after 10 or more years since first use (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.25, 1.89). The risk was not increased in relation to duration, cumulative hours of use, or cumulative number of calls. The results were similar for analog and digital phones. We found no excess risk associated with self-reported short- or medium-term use of mobile phones. This is consistent with most of the published studies. However, uncertainties remained for longer duration of use, as a very small proportion of study participants reported use beyond 10 years.

  7. A case-control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-11-23

    Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. In a case-control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003-2009 at ages 18-59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open.

  8. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  10. Outbreak of acute renal failure in Panama in 2006: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, E Danielle; Lewis, Lauren; Mujica, Oscar J; Barr, Dana B; Schier, Joshua G; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kuklenyik, Peter; McGeehin, Michael; Osterloh, John; Wamsley, Jacob; Lum, Washington; Alleyne, Camilo; Sosa, Nestor; Motta, Jorge; Rubin, Carol

    2008-10-01

    In September 2006, a Panamanian physician reported an unusual number of patients with unexplained acute renal failure frequently accompanied by severe neurological dysfunction. Twelve (57%) of 21 patients had died of the illness. This paper describes the investigation into the cause of the illness and the source of the outbreak. Case-control and laboratory investigations were implemented. Case patients (with acute renal failure of unknown etiology and serum creatinine > 2 mg/dl) were individually matched to hospitalized controls for age (+/- 5 years), sex and admission date (< 2 days before the case patient). Questionnaire and biological data were collected. The main outcome measure was the odds of ingesting prescription cough syrup in cases and controls. Forty-two case patients and 140 control patients participated. The median age of cases was 68 years (range: 25-91 years); 64% were male. After controlling for pre-existing hypertension and renal disease and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a significant association was found between ingestion of prescription cough syrup and illness onset (adjusted odds ratio: 31.0, 95% confidence interval: 6.93-138). Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of diethylene glycol (DEG) in biological samples from case patients, 8% DEG contamination in cough syrup samples and 22% contamination in the glycerin used to prepare the cough syrup. The source of the outbreak was DEG-contaminated cough syrup. This investigation led to the recall of approximately 60 000 bottles of contaminated cough syrup, widespread screening of potentially exposed consumers and treatment of over 100 affected patients.

  11. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  12. Understanding marijuana's effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use disorder: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Fischer, Adina S; Henricks, Angela M; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Roth, Robert M; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I

    2018-04-01

    Nearly half of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have co-occurring cannabis use disorder (CUD), which has been associated with decreased treatment efficacy, increased risk of psychotic relapse, and poor global functioning. While reports on the effects of cannabis on cognitive performance in patients with SCZ have been mixed, study of brain networks related to executive function may clarify the relationship between cannabis use and cognition in these dual-diagnosis patients. In the present pilot study, patients with SCZ and CUD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting scans. Prior to the second scan, patients smoked a 3.6% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis cigarette or ingested a 15mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pill. We used resting-state functional connectivity to examine the default mode network (DMN) during both scans, as connectivity/activity within this network is negatively correlated with connectivity of the network involved in executive control and shows reduced activity during task performance in normal individuals. At baseline, relative to controls, patients exhibited DMN hyperconnectivity that correlated with positive symptom severity, and reduced anticorrelation between the DMN and the executive control network (ECN). Cannabinoid administration reduced DMN hyperconnectivity and increased DMN-ECN anticorrelation. Moreover, the magnitude of anticorrelation in the controls, and in the patients after cannabinoid administration, positively correlated with WM performance. The finding that DMN brain connectivity is plastic may have implications for future pharmacotherapeutic development, as treatment efficacy could be assessed through the ability of therapies to normalize underlying circuit-level dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pilot Convective Weather Decision Making in En Route Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Gooding, Cary L.; Shelley, Alexandra E.; Duong, Constance G.; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates characteristics exhibited in pilot convective weather decision making in en route airspace. In a part-task study, pilots performed weather avoidance under various encounter scenarios. Results showed that the margins of safety that pilots maintain from storms are as fluid as deviation decisions themselves.

  14. Dietary iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy and the development of type 1 diabetes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ambika P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To investigate the impact of iron intake on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM. Methods Case-control study with self-administered questionnaire among families of children with T1DM who were less than 10 years old at the time of the survey and developed diabetes between age 1 and 6 years. Data on the types of infant feeding in the first 4 months of life was collected from parents of children with T1DM (n = 128 and controls (n = 67 Results The median (min, max total iron intake in the first 4 months of life was 1159 (50, 2399 mg in T1DM cases and 466 (50, 1224 mg among controls (P Conclusion In this pilot study, high iron intake in the first 4 months of infancy is associated with T1DM. Whether iron intake is causal or a marker of another risk factor warrants further investigation.

  15. Importance of methodology on (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphic image quality: imaging pilot study for RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) multicenter investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziessman, Harvey A; Majd, Massoud

    2009-07-01

    We reviewed our experience with (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy obtained during an imaging pilot study for a multicenter investigation (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) of the effectiveness of daily antimicrobial prophylaxis for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection and renal scarring. We analyzed imaging methodology and its relation to diagnostic image quality. (99m)Technetium dimercapto-succinic acid imaging guidelines were provided to participating sites. High-resolution planar imaging with parallel hole or pinhole collimation was required. Two core reviewers evaluated all submitted images. Analysis included appropriate views, presence or lack of patient motion, adequate magnification, sufficient counts and diagnostic image quality. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. We evaluated 70, (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid studies from 14 institutions. Variability was noted in methodology and image quality. Correlation (r value) between dose administered and patient age was 0.780. For parallel hole collimator imaging good correlation was noted between activity administered and counts (r = 0.800). For pinhole imaging the correlation was poor (r = 0.110). A total of 10 studies (17%) were rejected for quality issues of motion, kidney overlap, inadequate magnification, inadequate counts and poor quality images. The submitting institution was informed and provided with recommendations for improving quality, and resubmission of another study was required. Only 4 studies (6%) were judged differently by the 2 reviewers, and the differences were minor. Methodology and image quality for (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy varied more than expected between institutions. The most common reason for poor image quality was inadequate count acquisition with insufficient attention to the tradeoff between administered dose, length of image acquisition, start time of imaging and resulting image

  16. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Wong, May Chun Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53-13.00, Pchronic periodontitis was analyzed in 10 studies. The pooled result showed that HCMV also has a significant association with chronic periodontitis (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.41-9.16, P = 0.007). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was observed. Two eligible studies were included to investigate the association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and chronic periodontitis risk. The association between HSV and chronic periodontitis was inconclusive (OR = 2.81 95% CI = 0.95-8.27, P = 0.06). Only one included study investigated the association between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21-4.86). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV

  17. Psychological aspects and coping in haemophilic patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canclini, M; Saviolo-Negrin, N; Zanon, E; Bertoletti, R; Girolami, A; Pagnan, A

    2003-09-01

    Although enormous progress has been made in recent years in the field of haemophilia, some problems still await solution, such as the risk of sudden haemorrhage, the sequelae of haemophilic arthropathy and social activities. We, therefore, carried out a case-control study in which some psychological dimensions (social expectations, tendency to depression, state of anxiety and self-esteem) were evaluated in a group of 60 haemophiliacs. A control group was formed of 78 healthy subjects matched for age, socio-economic class and level of education. The methodology used was the administration of self-assessment questionnaires which investigate and provide a quantitative measure of psychological dimensions. The results can be subjected to statistical analysis. Three self-assessment questionnaires were used: (i) the Marlowe-Crowne scale, (ii) the Beck Inventory version modified by Cusinato and (iii) the S.T.A.I.-form. Our aim was to evaluate: (i) whether there are significant differences in the considered psychological aspects between haemophiliacs and healthy subjects; (ii) whether there is a significant correlation between the psychological dimensions considered in the haemophiliacs and in the healthy subjects. The results showed that the haemophiliacs have a good psychological adaptation to their disease with the exception of their greater tendency to have less self-esteem than do the healthy subjects. As far as concerns the second aim, we found than self-esteem correlated with all the psychological variables investigated. This information could indicate the enormous importance that the psychological variable 'self-esteem' plays in haemophiliacs with respect to whether or not they develop depressive disorders and/or anxiety states.

  18. Dietary inflammation potential and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Isabell; Rudolph, Anja; Shivappa, Nitin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hébert, James R; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Food Intake and Bladder Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide and the third most common cancer among Iranian males. Despite the relative high incidence of bladder cancer in Iran, no study has examined the relationship between dietary factors and bladder cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship. Methods: The present case-control study was carried out on fifty-five patients with bladder cancer and including 110 cancer-free patients as controls. Dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. To investigate the relationship between food items and bladder cancer, the subjects were classified according to the tertile of food items. The odds ratio was calculated for each tertile and the first tertile was considered as the reference group. Results: Our findings revealed that among food groups, animal fat (OR=19.76, fat (OR=12.92, junk foods (OR=8.1, organ meat (OR=5.47, processed meat (OR=5.34 and sweets (OR=3.62 were involved in the development of bladder cancer. In bladder carcinogenesis, an inverse association was recorded between consumption of low fat dairy products (OR=0.31, yoghurt (OR =0.14, fish (OR = 0.13, specific fruits (OR=0.13 and the development of bladder cancer. Conclusion: Animal products and sources of saturated fat are associated with an increased in risk of bladder cancer. The protective effect of olive oil, specific fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy fermented was observed to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

  20. Pilot and pilot-commercial plants for reprocessing spent fuels of FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaldaev, V.S.; Sokolova, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    A review of modern state of investigations on the FBR mixed oxide uranium-plutonium fuel reprocessing abroad is given. Great Britain and France occupy the leading place in this field, operating pilot plants of 5 tons a year capacity. Technology of spent fuel reprocessing and specific features of certain stages of the technological process are considered. Projects of pilot and pilot-commercial plants of Great Britain, France, Japan, USA are described. Economic problems of the FBR fuel reprocessing are touched upon

  1. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m −3 ) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m −3 ). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m −3 as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale

  2. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas Harder; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    -like growth factor I was associated with ischemic heart disease. The study was based on a population of 3784 Danes and 231 cases of ischemic heart disease where controls were matched on age and gender. We illustrate the use of the MLE for these data and show how the maximum likelihood framework can be used......Nested case-control sampling is designed to reduce the costs of large cohort studies. It is important to estimate the parameters of interest as efficiently as possible. We present a new maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for nested case-control sampling in the context of Cox's proportional hazards...... model. The MLE is computed by the EM-algorithm, which is easy to implement in the proportional hazards setting. Standard errors are estimated by a numerical profile likelihood approach based on EM aided differentiation. The work was motivated by a nested case-control study that hypothesized that insulin...

  3. Haplotype-based case-control study between human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 gene and cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Sato, Naoyuki; Fu, Zhenyan; Yamaguchi, Mai; Soma, Masayoshi; Aoi, Noriko; Usami, Ron; Doba, Nobutaka; Hinohara, Shigeaki

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral infarction (CI) and the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/REF-1) gene using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype-based case-control study. We selected 5 SNPs in the human APE1/REF1 gene (rs1760944, rs3136814, rs17111967, rs3136817 and rs1130409), and performed case-control studies in 177 CI patients and 309 control subjects. rs17111967 was found to have no heterogeneity in Japanese. The overall distribution of the haplotype-based case-control study constructed by rs1760944, rs3136814 and rs1130409 showed a significant difference. The frequency of the G-C-T haplotype was significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group (2.5% vs. 0.0%, p>0.001). Based on the results of the haplotype-based case-control-study, the G-C-T haplotype may be a genetic marker of CI, and the APE1/REF-1 gene may be a CI susceptibility gene.

  4. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  5. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  6. The relationship between nut intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoo; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2018-03-07

    Nut consumption is known to reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. However, in previous studies, portion sizes and categories of nut consumption have varied, and few studies have assessed the association between colorectal cancer risk and nut consumption. In this study, we investigated the relationship between nut consumption and colorectal cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted among 923 colorectal cancer patients and 1846 controls recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Information on dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items, including peanuts, pine nuts, and almonds (as 1 food item). Nut consumption was categorized as none, consumption and colorectal cancer risk, and a polytomous logistic regression model was used for sub-site analyses. High nut consumption was strongly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer among women (adjusted ORs: 0.30, 95%CI: 0.15-0.60 for the ≥3 servings per week group vs. none). A similar inverse association was observed for men (adjusted ORs: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47). In sub-site analyses, adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing the ≥3 servings per week group vs none were 0.25 (0.09-0.70) for proximal colon cancer, 0.39 (0.19-0.80) for distal colon cancer, and 0.23 (0.12-0.46) for rectal cancer among men. An inverse association was also found among women for distal colon cancer (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.48) and rectal cancer (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95). We found a statistically significant association between high frequency of nut consumption and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. This association was observed for all sub-sites of the colon and rectum among both men and women, with the exception of proximal colon cancer for women.

  7. Comorbidity of Internet use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Two adult case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeld, Martin; Drews, Marion; Putzig, Inken; Bottel, Laura; Steinbüchel, Toni; Dieris-Hirche, Jan; Szycik, Gregor R; Müller, Astrid; Roy, Mandy; Ohlmeier, Martin; Theodor Te Wildt, Bert

    2017-12-01

    Objectives There is good scientific evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is both a predictor and a comorbidity of addictive disorders in adulthood. These associations not only focus on substance-related addictions but also on behavioral addictions like gambling disorder and Internet use disorder (IUD). For IUD, systematic reviews have identified ADHD as one of the most prevalent comorbidities besides depressive and anxiety disorders. Yet, there is a need to further understand the connections between both disorders to derive implications for specific treatment and prevention. This is especially the case in adult clinical populations where little is known about these relations so far. This study was meant to further investigate this issue in more detail based on the general hypothesis that there is a decisive intersection of psychopathology and etiology between IUD and ADHD. Methods Two case-control samples were examined at a university hospital. Adult ADHD and IUD patients ran through a comprehensive clinical and psychometrical workup. Results We found support for the hypothesis that ADHD and IUD share psychopathological features. Among patients of each group, we found substantial prevalence rates of a comorbid ADHD in IUD and vice versa. Furthermore, ADHD symptoms were positively associated with media use times and symptoms of Internet addiction in both samples. Discussion Clinical practitioners should be aware of the close relationships between the two disorders both diagnostically and therapeutically. When it comes to regain control over one's Internet use throughout treatment and rehabilitation, a potential shift of addiction must be kept in mind on side of practitioners and patients.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:21205326

  9. Association between phytosterol intake and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wu-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-03-01

    A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, P trendphytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  10. Association between renal cysts and abdominal aortic aneurysm: A case-control study

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    Hélio Miguel de Azevêdo Bião Veiga

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To investigate the positive association between the presence of simple renal cysts (SRCs and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Method: In a retrospective case-control study including subjects aged > 50 years, we evaluated the incidence of SRCs on computed tomography (CT scan. We compared 91 consecutive patients with AAA referred from the Division of Vascular Surgery and 396 patients without AAA, randomly selected after being matched by age and gender from 3,186 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal CT. SRC was defined as a round or oval low-attenuation lesion with a thin wall and size > 4 mm on CT without obvious evidence of radiographic enhancement or septations. Patients were considered as having AAA if the size of aorta was greater than 3.0 cm. Results: Patients with AAA and without AAA were similar in terms of age (67.9± 8.41 vs. 68.5±9.13 years (p=0.889 and gender (71.4 vs. 71.2% of male subjects, respectively (p=0.999. There was no difference in the prevalence of SRC between case and controls. Among individuals with AAA, 38 (41.8%; [95CI 32.5-52.6] had renal cysts compared to 148 (37.4%; [95CI 32.7-42.2] in the control group (p=0.473, with a prevalence ratio (PR of 1.16 (95CI 0.80-1.68. Conclusion: We found no significant differences in the prevalence of SRCs among patients with AAA and controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of SRCs is not a risk factor or a marker for AAA.

  11. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

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    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  12. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

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    Wagner Brant Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Centro de Quimioterapia Antiblástica e Imunoterapia in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 87 PABC and 252 control patients. The influence of covariables (interval between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor histology, size of primary tumor, distant metastasis, grade of malignancy, hormone receptor status and axillary lymph node involvement and the pregnancy variable on overall survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival for PABC patients of 30.1 months (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.4-40.9 months was significantly different (P = 0.005 from that of the control group (53.1 months; 95% CI: 35.1-71.0 months. The cumulative overall survivals after five and ten years were, respectively, 29.7 and 19.2% for PABC patients, and 47.3 and 34.8% for control patients (P = 0.005. Tumor size, grade of malignancy, distant metastasis and pregnancy were independent factors that significantly modified disease prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy was an independent prognostic factor. The overall survival of PABC patients was shorter than that of non-pregnant patients.

  13. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

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    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  14. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

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    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  15. Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma patients beyond Milan criteria after orthotopic liver transplantation: a case control study

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    Teng Chieh-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT is one of the most effective treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC within the Milan criteria. However, for patients beyond these criteria, the recurrence rate is higher and the prognosis is worse. Sorafenib is the only drug showing survival benefits in advanced HCC patients; however, its role in patients beyond the Milan criteria after OLT remains unclear and requires further investigation. Methods As a case-control study, we retrospectively analyzed 17 Chinese patients beyond Milan criteria undergoing OLT for HCC. These patients were stratified into adjuvant (n = 5, palliative (n = 6, and control groups (n = 6. Results Nine of 11 patients who received sorafenib after OLT needed dose reduction due to more than grade 2 side effects. The disease-free survival rates for patients with or without adjuvant sorafenib were 100% versus 37.5% (p = 0.034 at 6 months, 66.7% versus 9.4% (p = 0.026 at 12 months, and 66.7% versus 0.0% (p = 0.011 at 18 months, respectively. The overall survival rates for patients in palliative and control groups were 66.7% versus 40.0% (p = 0.248 at 6 months, 66.7% versus 40.0% (p = 0.248 at 12 months, and 50.0% versus 20.0% (p = 0.17 at 18 months, respectively. Patients in the adjuvant group had better overall survival rates than those in the palliative and control groups (p = 0.031 at 24-month follow-up. Conclusions Adjuvant sorafenib could possibly extend both disease-free and overall survival for HCC patients beyond Milan criteria after OLT.

  16. Food intake and colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Amutha; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that almost all colorectal cancers arise from benign, neoplastic adenomatous polyps. In previous studies, intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes were found to decrease the risk for colorectal adenomas (CRA) and colorectal cancer. This case-control study aimed to evaluate the roles of a variety of foods in contributing to the risk of CRA in Malaysian subjects. One hundred and eighteen subjects were recruited into case (n=59) and control (n=59) groups at Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). A pre-tested quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to record the types of food items and frequency consumed. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios of the independent variables. Soy bean and soy products were associated with a reduced risk for CRA (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.98), while tubers were associated with increase in risk four-fold (OR = 4.14, 95% CI = 1.60-10.70) and red meat intake was found to increase the risk two and a half-fold (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.02-6.28). Higher servings of fruits and vegetables were found to significantly decrease the risk (OR fruits = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.30-0.74; OR vegetables = 0.49, 95% = 0.29-0.80). In conclusion, our data support protective roles for soy, fruits and vegetables in the aetiology of colorectal adenomas and increase in risk in those with high intakes of red meat and tubers. Food intake of an individual may have an influence on one's risk for developing CRA. This finding warrants further investigation before the protective effect of these food items is to be accepted. New studies should explore the possibility of these associations among individuals in the general population especially with regard to different ethnic or other groups in Malaysia with low fruit and vegetable consumption.

  17. Higher dietary diversity score is associated with obesity: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimbeiki, R; Pourmasoumi, M; Feizi, A; Abbasi, B; Hadi, A; Rafie, N; Safavi, S M

    2018-04-01

    The present study was carried out to compare dietary diversity score (DDS) among overweight, obese, and normal-weight adults. This case-control study was conducted with a total of 200 cases (100 participants with obesity and 100 participants with overweight) and 300 controls (normal weight) matched by socio-economic status (SES), older than 18 years. Dietary intakes were assessed using a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire. Data regarding physical activity and sociodemographic variables were gathered. DDS was computed based on the scoring of the five food groups emphasized in the United States Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid. Anthropometric measurements were measured, and the body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The mean ± standard deviation of DDS was higher in participants with obesity (5.65 ± 1.32) than that in overweight participants (5.23 ± 1.23), while the lowest score was reported among normal-weight individuals (4.97 ± 1.42) (P obesity increased with each unit increase in DDS (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 1.74). However, the association became slightly weaker after adjusting for potential confounding factors (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.68). It was concluded that there was a significant positive association between DDS and obesity. However, additional investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep characteristics in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebela, Antonin; Novak, Tomas; Kemlink, David; Goetz, Michal

    2017-05-26

    Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. In addition, the participants completed 14 days of actigraphy to characterise sleep and wake patterns. The current psychopathology profile was assessed using Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher among OB than controls (headache after waking up, 17.9% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03; excessive daytime sleepiness, 38.5% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.004; apparent tiredness at wake-up times, 43.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.007 and nightmares, 21.6% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.01), but the differences between groups were not significant after adjusting for current psychopathology. OB had higher GBISS total score (parental version, p < 0.001; self-assessment, p = 0.07) than the controls. OB had higher preference for eveningness than the controls (p = 0.047). According to the actigraphy, OB had longer sleep onset latency (p = 0.048) than the controls. Evidence suggests that the offspring of bipolar parents experience sleep disturbance symptoms, which was associated with psychopathology in this study. Prospective longitudinal sleep studies would clarify whether sleep disturbance could be a predictor of mood disorder onset in this high-risk population.

  19. Occupation and bladder cancer: a population-based, case-control study in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tongzhang; Cantor, Kenneth P; Zhang, Yawei; Lynch, Charles F

    2002-07-01

    While considerable efforts have been made to investigate the role of occupation and industry in the risk of bladder cancer, many reported associations have not been consistent, and strong evidence of increased risk is apparent for few occupational groups. To further examine the issue, a large, population-based, case-control study was conducted in the state of Iowa among both men and women. A total of 1452 incident bladder cancer cases and 2434 controls were included in the study. Occupational history was collected from respondents for each job held for 5 years or longer since age 16. Among men, excess risk was observed for industries including plumbing, heating, and air conditioning (odds ratio [OR], = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0); rubber and plastic products (OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.5), motor vehicle parts and supplies (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 16.5), and occupations including supervisors for transportation and material moving (OR = 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29.9), material-moving-equipment operators (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.6), automobile mechanics (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6), painters (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0 to 7.7), and metal- and plastic-working machine operators (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.4). Among women, significant excess risk was observed for secondary school teachers and record clerks. Housekeepers and butlers and workers in laundering and dry cleaning were also at increased risk. In conclusion, these results suggest that occupational exposures may play a significant role in the risk of bladder cancer.

  20. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  1. Risk factors for posterior vitreous detachment: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuo, Jean Y; Lee, Tracy Y Y; Hollands, Hussein; Morris, Andrew H; Reyes, Romina C; Rossiter, Jonathan D; Meredith, Sarah P; Maberley, David A L

    2006-12-01

    To identify possible risk factors for the development of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Retrospective case-control study. A total of 138 cases with PVD and 114 age-matched controls were accrued from two different sites. Demographic, medical, ocular, and lifestyle data were obtained through chart review, questionnaires, and clinical examination. A 108-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was also used to estimate macro- and micronutrient intake. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were employed to identify variables significantly associated with the main outcome measure of PVD. Subgroup analysis of gender-specific variables was performed. Among all patients, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, P = .016), myopic refraction (OR = 4.32, P < .0005), and higher intake of vitamin B6 (OR = 2.61, P = .001) to be associated with PVD after controlling for age. In the subgroup analysis of women, menopause (OR = 18.2, P < .0005), myopic refraction (OR = 3.42, P = .01), and higher intake of vitamin B6 (OR = 3.92, P = .005) were associated with PVD. Specifically, there was a significant association between vitamin B6 and PVD amongst premenopausal women but not amongst postmenopausal women. An association between PVD and menopause has not been documented previously. We suspect that high estrogen levels seen in premenopausal women may be protective against PVD and that hormonal changes associated with menopause may lead to changes in the vitreous, predisposing to PVD. Higher levels of intake of vitamin B6 were also associated with the development of PVD in premenopausal women possibly through an anti-estrogen effect. These findings should be investigated further with prospective studies.

  2. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  3. End-stage renal disease in Taiwan: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Tan, Hsiu-Fen; Chien, Yu-Shu; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has the highest incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. The epidemiologic features of ESRD, however, have not been investigated. In this case-control study, we evaluated the risk of ESRD associated with a number of putative risk factors. We studied 200 patients among whom ESRD had been newly diagnosed between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2005; 200 controls were selected from among relatives of patients treated in the general surgery unit. Using a structured questionnaire, we collected information related to socioeconomic factors, history of disease, regular blood or urine screening, lifestyle, environmental exposure, consumption of vitamin supplements, and regular drug use at 5 years before disease onset. Our primary multivariate risk models indicated that low socioeconomic status was a strong predictor of ESRD (education: odds ratio [OR], 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-5.19; income: OR, 2.86, 95% CI, 1.48-5.52), even after adjusting for other risk factors. Other significant predictors for ESRD were a history of hypertension (OR, 3.63-3.90), history of diabetes (OR, 3.85-5.50), and regular intake of folk remedies or over-the-counter Chinese herbs (OR, 10.84-12.51). Regular intake of a multivitamin supplement 5 years before diagnosis was associated with a decreased risk of ESRD (OR, 0.12-0.14). Our findings indicate that low socioeconomic status, history of hypertension, diabetes, and regular use of folk remedies or over-the-counter Chinese herbs were significant risk factors for ESRD, while regular intake of a multivitamin supplement was associated with a decreased risk of ESRD.

  4. Genetic Variants of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Are Linked to Autism: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzabadi, Negar; Ghazanfari, Nima; Alavi Shoushtari, Ali; Erfani, Nasrallah; Fathi, Farshid; Bazrafkan, Mozhdeh; Bahramali, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a disease of complex nature with a significant genetic component. The importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) elements in cognition and behavior besides the interaction of angiotensin II (Ang II), the main product of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), with neurotransmitters in CNS, especially dopamine, proposes the involvement of RAS in autism. Since the genetic architecture of autism has remained elusive, here we postulated that genetic variations in RAS are associated with autism. Considering the relation between the three polymorphisms of ACE (I/D, rs4343 and rs4291) with the level of ACE activity, we have investigated this association with autism, in a case-control study. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphisms were determined in DNAs extracted from venous blood of 120 autistic patients and their age and sex-matched healthy controls, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. There were strong associations between both DD genotype of ACE I/D and the D allele, with autism (P = 0.006, OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.64-5.13 and P = 0.006, OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.37-3.48 respectively). Furthermore, a significant association between the G allele of rs4343 and autism was observed (P = 0.006, OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.26-2.67). Moreover, haplotype analysis revealed an association between DTG haplotype and autism (P = 0.008). Our data suggests the involvement of RAS genetic diversity in increasing the risk of autism.

  5. Genetic Variants of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Are Linked to Autism: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Firouzabadi

    Full Text Available Autism is a disease of complex nature with a significant genetic component. The importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS elements in cognition and behavior besides the interaction of angiotensin II (Ang II, the main product of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, with neurotransmitters in CNS, especially dopamine, proposes the involvement of RAS in autism. Since the genetic architecture of autism has remained elusive, here we postulated that genetic variations in RAS are associated with autism.Considering the relation between the three polymorphisms of ACE (I/D, rs4343 and rs4291 with the level of ACE activity, we have investigated this association with autism, in a case-control study. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphisms were determined in DNAs extracted from venous blood of 120 autistic patients and their age and sex-matched healthy controls, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods.There were strong associations between both DD genotype of ACE I/D and the D allele, with autism (P = 0.006, OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.64-5.13 and P = 0.006, OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.37-3.48 respectively. Furthermore, a significant association between the G allele of rs4343 and autism was observed (P = 0.006, OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.26-2.67. Moreover, haplotype analysis revealed an association between DTG haplotype and autism (P = 0.008.Our data suggests the involvement of RAS genetic diversity in increasing the risk of autism.

  6. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  7. A case-control study of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, P; Pritchard, K; Floyd, D; Law, B

    1999-10-01

    To identify major risk factors for Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) and identify measures to reduce YE infections. A prospective case control study, group age matched, using 186 cases of YE identified by community pathology laboratories and 379 randomly selected controls. Conducted between April 1995 and June 1996 in Auckland, New Zealand. Face-to-face interviews used a standardised questionnaire examining exposures to factors potentially associated with YE infections including untreated water, unreticulated sewerage, consumption of selected foods, selected food handling practices and socio-demographic factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the potential risk factors. Population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated for significant exposures. Having more than two people living in the home was more common among cases than controls (OR = 2.2). Town supply water (OR = 0.2), reticulated sewerage (OR = 0.34) and looking after a young child (OR = 0.51) were significantly less common. Of the meats, only pork (OR = 1.34) had a higher consumption rate, while bacon (OR = 0.75) and smallgoods (OR = 0.73) were consumed less frequently by cases than controls. Eating food from a sandwich bar was more frequent among cases (OR = 1.18). Fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally less (OR = 0.98). The population attributable risk of these factors was 0.89, implying that 89% of YE would be eliminated if adverse exposures were removed. The risk of YE illness is increased by contact with untreated water, unreticulated sewerage and consumption of pork. Investigation of non-town water supply, informal sewerage systems and methods of preparation and consumption of pork are recommended to determine how YE enters the human food chain.

  8. [Influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation:a hospital-based case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuejin; Xu, Guang; Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Youjie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation and to provide evidences for prevention. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among infants with or without congenital gastrointestinal malformation at Children's hospital of Hunan province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Parents of 120 cases with congenital gastrointestinal malformation and another 170 controls were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was associated with intakes of maternal medication (OR = 3.35, 95%CI:1.51-7.41) and folic acid (OR = 0.28, 95%CI:0.15-0.52), exposure to paints (OR = 5.05, 95%CI:1.32-19.29) and pesticides (OR = 15.20, 95%CI:1.55-148.99) prior to or during pregnancy, and also associated with medication intake of the father (OR = 3.70, 95% CI:1.13-12.10), smoking (OR = 2.39, 95% CI:1.24-4.62), drinking alcohol (OR = 2.47, 95% CI:1.20-5.07), exposure to the agents for indoor cleaning (OR = 16.42, 95% CI:1.71-157.92) and exposure to paints (OR = 9.92, 95% CI:2.66-36.98) before conception. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was affected by multiple factors. Potential risk factors for congenital gastrointestinal malformation would include intakes of medication by the pregnant mother, exposure to paints exposure and pesticide exposure before or during pregnancy, and medication intake by the father, smoking, drinking alcohol, exposure to indoor cleaning agents/paint before conception. The amount of folic acid intake by mother before or during pregnancy was likely to reduce the risk for congenital gastrointestinal malformation.

  9. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine.The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression.This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct from other ASD.

  10. Self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke: a case-control study

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    Blomstrand Christian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress contributes to coronary artery disease. However, associations between stress and stroke are less clear. In this study, we investigated the possible association between ischemic stroke and self-perceived psychological stress, as measured by a single-item questionnaire, previously reported to be associated with myocardial infarction. Methods In the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke (SAHLSIS, 600 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke (aged 18 to 69 years and 600 age-matched and sex-matched population controls were recruited. Ischemic stroke subtype was determined according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST criteria. Self-perceived psychological stress preceding stroke was assessed retrospectively using a single-item questionnaire. Results Permanent self-perceived psychological stress during the last year or longer was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke (multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.06 to 5.93. Analyses by stroke subtype showed that this association was present for large vessel disease (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 9.67, small vessel disease (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.64 to 6.24, and cryptogenic stroke (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.95, but not for cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.39. Conclusion In this case-control study, we found an independent association between self-perceived psychological stress and ischemic stroke. A novel finding was that this association differed by ischemic stroke subtype. Our results emphasize the need for further prospective studies addressing the potential role for psychological stress as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In such studies ischemic stroke subtypes should be taken into consideration.

  11. Response to rocuronium and its determinants in patients with myasthenia gravis: A case-control study.

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    Fujimoto, Masafumi; Terasaki, Shuhei; Nishi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    Several previous studies using univariate analysis have suggested that the pre-anaesthetic train-of-four (TOF) ratio, concentration of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies and the presence of preoperative generalised muscular involvement are determinants of an increased response to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, the determinants of the response of patients with myasthenia gravis to rocuronium, which is expected to be used more frequently since the advent of sugammadex, have not been studied. To clarify whether previously suggested determinants of the response to other intermediate-acting NMBAs would also affect the response to rocuronium and to reveal the determinants of the increased response to rocuronium in individual patients with myasthenia gravis using multivariate analysis. Case control study. Kumamoto University Hospital, November 2010 to September 2013. Thirty-eight patients with myasthenia gravis having surgery using a total intravenous anaesthetic technique were investigated. After induction of general anaesthesia, the 95% effective dose (ED95) of rocuronium was calculated using cumulative dose-finding methods. Neuromuscular function was monitored by acceleromyographic assessment of TOF responses of the adductor pollicis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation. Patients were then divided into the increased response (ED95 rocuronium injection (baseline TOF ratio), concentration of anti-AChR antibodies, Osserman classification and treatment for myasthenia gravis in the two groups were compared. Stepwise logistic regression identified baseline TOF ratio and age of onset of myasthenia gravis as determinants of the increased response to rocuronium in patients with myasthenia gravis [odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 0.87 (0.77 to 0.98; P = 0.02) and 0.92 (0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03), respectively]. Multivariate analysis identified baseline TOF ratio and age of disease onset as determinants of

  12. Medical records documentation of constipation preceding Parkinson disease: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, R; Carlin, J M; Grossardt, B R; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Maraganore, D M; Bharucha, A E; Rocca, W A

    2009-11-24

    Parkinson disease (PD) may affect the autonomic nervous system and may cause constipation; however, few studies have explored constipation preceding the motor onset of PD. We investigated constipation preceding PD using a case-control study design in a population-based sample. Using the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to ascertain the occurrence of constipation preceding the onset of PD (or index year). Constipation preceding PD or the index year was more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 4.11; p = 0.0005). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking and coffee consumption (ever vs never), and after excluding constipation possibly induced by drugs. In addition, the association remained significant in analyses restricted to constipation documented 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms of PD. Although the association was stronger in women than in men and in patients with PD with rest tremor compared with patients with PD without rest tremor, these differences were not significant. Our findings suggest that constipation occurring as early as 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease.

  13. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently

  14. Case-control study of smoking and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollison, Dana E; Iannacone, Michelle R; Messina, Jane L; Glass, L Frank; Giuliano, Anna R; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S; Fenske, Neil A; Jonathan, Kristen A; Sondak, Vernon K

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL. Patients with histologically confirmed BCC/SCC were recruited from a university dermatology clinic (n = 215 BCC, 165 SCC). Controls were comprised of individuals with no history of skin cancer who screened negative for skin cancer upon physical examination at the affiliated cancer screening or primary care clinics (n = 315). Information on smoking and other risk factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. After adjustment for age, sex, and other skin cancer-risk factors, ever smoking was not associated with BCC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.92), but was statistically significantly associated with SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.19-3.26), with significant trends observed for SCC associated with increasing cigarettes per day (p = 0.01) and pack-years smoked (p = 0.01). Among men, smoking ≥20 pack-years was associated with non-significant increased risks of BCC (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.88-4.12) and SCC (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 0.84-4.66), whereas among women, no association was observed with BCC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.39-2.46) while a statistically significant three-fold risk was observed with SCC (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.02-8.80). Cigarette smoking is more strongly associated with SCC than BCC, particularly among women.

  15. A case-control study between interleukin-10 gene variants and periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Carlos; Morinha, Francisco; Requicha, João; Dias, Isabel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Viegas, Carlos; Bastos, Estela

    2014-04-10

    Periodontal disease (PD) refers to a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the periodontium, the organ which surrounds and supports the teeth. PD is a highly prevalent disease with a multifactorial etiology and, in humans the individual susceptibility is known to be strongly determined by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied, namely genes related with molecules involved in the inflammatory response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles, and several studies indicate an association between IL10 polymorphisms and PD. In dogs, an important animal model in periodontology, PD is also a highly prevalent naturally occurring disease, and only now are emerging the first studies evaluating the genetic predisposition. In this case-control study, a population of 90 dogs (40 dogs with PD and 50 healthy dogs) was used to study the IL10 gene, and seven new genetic variations in this gene were identified. No statistically significant differences were detected in genotype and allele frequencies of these variations between the PD cases and control groups. Nevertheless, one of the variations (IL10/2_g.285G>A) leads to an amino acid change (glycine to arginine) in the putative signal peptide, being predicted a potential influence on IL-10 protein functionality. Further investigations are important to clarify the biological importance of these new findings. The knowledge of these genetic determinants can help to understand properly the complex causal pathways of PD, with important clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Waterparks are high risk for cryptosporidiosis: A case-control study in Victoria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Gregory, Joy; Easton, Marion; Stephens, Nicola; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2017-06-30

    An increase in notifications of cryptosporidiosis was observed in Victoria between March and April 2015. Cases mostly resided in one metropolitan region and hypothesis-generating interviews identified common exposures to aquatic facilities. We conducted a case-control study to determine exposure source(s) and facilitate control measures. Laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from the region of interest notified between 1 March and 23 April 2015 were included. Controls residing in the same region were recruited from participants in a population health survey and frequency matched (2 per case) by age group. Details of exposure to potential risk factors were collected using a standardised telephone questionnaire for the 14-days prior to illness for cases, and an analogous exposure period for controls. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine risk factors associated with illness using STATA SE 13.1. Thirty cases and 66 controls were included in the study. Half the cases were less than 12 years of age and 62% were female. Illness was most strongly associated with recreational water exposure at any waterpark (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=73.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):6.74-802), and specifically at Victorian waterparks (aOR=45.6; 95% CI:5.20-399). Cases were linked with attendance at either a waterpark in the region or an adjacent region. As a result of this investigation, hyperchlorination was completed at identified facilities and swim hygiene information distributed. This study reinforces the potential for recreational water facilities, particularly waterparks, to act as a transmission source of Cryptosporidium infections. Continued communication to patrons is required to ensure healthy swimming practice in Victorian aquatic facilities.

  17. Splenectomy correlates with increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis: a case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S-W; Wang, I-K; Lin, C-L; Chen, H-J; Liao, K-F

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there was an association between splenectomy and pulmonary tuberculosis. This was a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Programme. We identified 18 960 patients (aged 20 years or older) with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis as the case group and 73 988 participants without pulmonary tuberculosis as the control group from 1998 to 2011. Both groups were matched for sex, age (per 5 years) and index year of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with splenectomy and other co-morbidities was estimated. After controlling for confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.91 in patients with splenectomy (95% CI 1.06-3.44), compared with the participants without splenectomy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (OR 3.07, 95% CI 2.94-3.21), pneumoconiosis (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.90-2.56), chronic kidney diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.33-1.67), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50-1.64) and chronic liver diseases (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.37) were associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. The sub-analysis demonstrated that the odds of pulmonary tuberculosis were 4.81 (95% CI 2.31-10.0) for patients co-morbid with splenectomy and any of the above diseases. Splenectomy is associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in Taiwan. There is a synergistic effect between splenectomy and other co-morbidities on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis: A case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Some cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported to be associated with use of methimazole. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of a systematic analysis. This was a population-based case-control study analyzing the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5764 individuals aged 20-84 years with a first attack of acute pancreatitis from 1998 to 2011 as the cases and 23,056 randomly selected sex- and age-matched individuals without acute pancreatitis as the controls. Use of methimazole was categorized as "never use" and "ever use." We estimated the relative risk of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of methimazole by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a multivariable logistic regression model. After adjustment for confounding factors, the OR of acute pancreatitis was 0.91 in individuals with ever use of methimazole, when compared with individuals with never use of methimazole (95% CI, 0.60-1.38). Unlike methimazole use, alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hypertriglyceridemia were factors significantly associated with acute pancreatitis. Our study does not detect a substantial association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of systematic analysis. There appears to be a discrepancy between case reports and our systematic analysis about the association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis.

  19. Maternal complication prevention: evidence from a case-control study in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode O. Osungbade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of strengthening maternal health services as a preventive intervention for morbidities and complications during pregnancy and delivery in developing countries cannot be over-emphasised, since use of prenatal health services improves maternal health outcomes. Aim: This study investigated differences in risk factors for maternal complications in booked and unbooked pregnant women in Nigeria, and provided evidence for their prevention. Setting: The study was carried out in a postnatal ward in a secondary health facility. Methods: This was a case-control study involving booked and unbooked pregnant women who had delivered. Consecutive enrolment of all unbooked pregnant women (cases was done, and one booked pregnant woman (control was enrolled and matched for age with each of these. Both groups were interviewed using a questionnaire, whilst records of delivery were extracted from the hospital files. Findings were subjected to logistical regression at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Booked women had a lower median length of labour (10 hours compared to unbooked women (13 hours. More women in the booked control group (139; 35.1% than in the unbooked case group (96; 23.6% reported at least one type of morbidity during the index pregnancy (p = 0.0004. Booking status was associated with a likelihood of spontaneous vaginal delivery. Young maternal age, low education, rural residence and low socio-economic status were associated with less likelihood of using prenatal services. Young maternal age, low education and intervention in the delivery were associated with a likelihood of experiencing a complication of delivery. Conclusion: Strengthening antenatal and secondary healthcare services as short- and mediumterm measures might be cost-effective as a preventive strategy in complications of pregnancy,whilst socio-economic dimensions of health are accorded priority in the long term.

  20. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica ( E. histolytica ) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  1. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight - a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Köhler, M; Philippi, M

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented.

  2. Risk factors for inguinal hernia in women: a case-control study. The Coala Trial Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, M S; van der Graaf, Y; Zwart, R C; Geurts, I; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-11-01

    Potential risk factors for inguinal hernia in women were investigated and the relative importance of these factors was quantified. In women, symptomatic but nonpalpable hernias often remain undiagnosed. However, knowledge on this subject only concerns hernia and operation characteristics, which have been obtained by review of case series. Virtually nothing is known about risk factors for inguinal hernia. The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 89 female patients with an incident inguinal hernia and 176 age-matched female controls. Activity since birth with two validated questionnaires was measured and smoking habits, medical and operation history, Quetelet index (kg/m2), and history of pregnancies and deliveries were recorded. Response for cases was 81% and for controls 73%. Total physical activity was not associated with inguinal hernia (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.1), but high present sports activities was associated with less inguinal hernia (multivariate OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Obesity (Quetelet index > 30) was also protective for inguinal hernia (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-1.0). Independent risk factors were positive family history (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.7) and obstipation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.7). In particular, smoking, appendectomy, other abdominal operations, and multiple deliveries were not associated with inguinal hernia in females. The protective effect of present sports activity may be explained by optimizing the resistance of the abdominal musculature protecting the relatively small inguinal weak spot in the female. The individual predisposition for inguinal hernia may be quantified by these risk factors, and, with this in mind, the authors advise that further evaluation might be needed for the patient with unexplained inguinal pain.

  3. Postnatal risk factors for testicular cancer: The EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, Giovenale; Zugna, Daniela; Grasso, Chiara; Mirabelli, Dario; Lista, Patrizia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Testicular cancer is considered to originate from an impaired differentiation of fetal germ cells, but puberty could represent another time window of susceptibility. Our study aimed at investigating the association between environmental exposures acting during puberty/adolescence (13-19 years of age) and the risk of testicular cancer. We used data of the EPSAM study, a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer conducted in the province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Histologically confirmed cases (n = 255) and controls (n = 459) completed a postal questionnaire focusing in particular on the pubertal period (namely age 13 years) with questions on physical activity (competitive sports, gardening), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking), occupational history and medical conditions. All analyses were adjusted for the matching variables, cryptorchidism and educational level. Having done at least one competitive sport during puberty (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.00), gardening activities during puberty (OR: 0.62, 0.42-0.94) and having a lower weight than peers during puberty (OR: 0.64, 0.42-0.97) were all inversely associated with the risk of testicular cancer. No evidence of association between smoking or alcohol consumption during puberty and the risk of testicular cancer was observed. Regarding agriculture-related occupations, we found an association with the risk of testicular cancer both for occasional jobs during puberty (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.08-5.29) and ever employment in adolescence (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.83-8.10). Our results suggest that postnatal exposures could play a role in testicular cancer aetiology, at least when acting in puberty or adolescence. © 2017 UICC.

  4. A case-control study of diet and gastric cancer in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Decarli, A; D'Avanzo, B; Franceschi, S

    1987-10-15

    Dietary factors in the aetiology of stomach cancer were investigated using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 206 histologically confirmed carcinomas and 474 control subjects in hospital for acute, non-digestive conditions, unrelated to any of the potential risk factors for gastric cancer. Dietary histories concerned the frequency of consumption per week of 29 selected food items (including the major sources of starches, proteins, fats, fibres, vitamins A and C, nitrates and nitrites in the Italian diet) and subjective scores for condiments and salt intake. Pasta and rice (the major sources of starch), polenta (a porridge made of maize) and ham were positively related with gastric cancer risk, whereas green vegetables and fresh fruit as a whole (and specifically citrus fruit) and selected fibre-rich aliments (such as whole-grain bread or pasta) showed protective effects on gastric cancer risk. Allowance for major identified potential distorting factors (chiefly indicators of socio-economic status) reduced the positive association with pasta or rice consumption, but did not appreciably modify any of the other risk estimates. When a single logistic model was fitted including all food items significant in univariate analysis, the 3 items remaining statistically significant were green vegetables (relative risk, RR = 0.27 for upper vs. lower tertile), polenta (RR = 2.32) and ham (RR = 1.60). Indices of beta-carotene and ascorbate intake were negatively and strongly related with gastric cancer risk, but the association with these micronutrients was no longer evident after simultaneous allowance for various food items. An approximately 7-fold difference in risk was found between extreme quintiles of a scale measuring major positive and negative associations.

  5. Assessment of Sleep and Breathing in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Case Control Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Brendon J.; Buchanan, Peter R.; Mahadev, Sri; Banerjee, Dev; Liu, Peter Y.; Phillips, Craig; Loughnan, Georgina; Steinbeck, Kate; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder (linked to chromosome 15q11-13) characterized by hypotonia and developmental delay, hyperphagia and obesity, hypersomnia and abnormal sleep, and behavioral problems. Such patients may also be at increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), although whether this risk is explained by known risk factors has not previously been directly tested. Our aim was to compare sleep and breathing in an older group of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome with a control group—matched on the basis of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI)—in order to determine which specific features are not explained by these known confounders. Methods: Consecutive patients with PWS attending the PWS clinic at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Sydney, Australia, were recruited. Age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls were selected from the Sleep Investigation Unit at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and polysomnography-derived sleep and other parameters were compared across the groups. Results: Nineteen subjects with PWS (14 males) were included in the study. Eighteen (95 %) had a total respiratory disturbance index (TRDI) of greater than 5 events per hour, with 4 (21%) having severe obstructive sleep apnea (TRDI ≥ 30 events/hour) and 9 (47%) having evidence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Patients with PWS, as compared with the control group, had evidence of more nocturnal hypoxemia, with lower oxyhemoglobin saturations and percentages of sleep time at less than 80% oxyhemoglobin saturation (all p values Prader-Willi syndrome: a case control series. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):713–718. PMID:18198805

  6. Body mass index kinetics around adiposity rebound in Anorexia nervosa: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Rémi; Neveu, Dorine; Carrier, Edouard; Ourrad, Nadia; Perroud, Alain; Nicolas, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with parameters involved in body mass index (BMI) regulation. Contrary to obesity, BMI kinetics around the adiposity rebound is not documented in AN. This study aimed at investigating which characteristics of BMI kinetics around the adiposity rebound are associated with AN. Multicentre case-control study with 101 inpatient women with AN onset after 10 years of age, and 101 healthy women, all free of overweight history and matched for age, level of education and fathers' socio-professional status. Age at adiposity rebound, pre- and post-adiposity rebound BMI velocities and accelerations (change in velocity over time) were estimated with linear mixed models using data recorded between 2 and 10 years of age. Patients had an earlier adiposity rebound (mean (standard deviation (SD)): 5.3 (1.3) vs 5.7 (1.1) years), a larger BMI at adiposity rebound (mean (SD): 15.3 [1] vs 14.9 (0.9) kg/m 2 ) and 29% lower BMI acceleration after adiposity rebound than controls. After adjustment, only BMI at adiposity rebound and BMI acceleration after adiposity rebound were associated with a higher risk of AN (Odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.15 [1.41-3.46] for an increase of 1 kg/m 2 and 2.44 [1.56-4.02] for an increase of 0.1 kg/(m 2 *years 2 ) respectively). These two factors were not correlated in patients (r = 0.007, p = 0.96). A flattened evolution of BMI after adiposity rebound and higher BMI at adiposity rebound were associated with AN. Further prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliances on quality of life among adolescents: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andréa A; Serra-Negra, Júnia M; Bendo, Cristiane B; Pordeus, Isabela A; Paiva, Saul M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents. A case-control study (1 ∶ 2) was carried out with a population-based randomized sample of 327 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public and private schools in the City of Brumadinho, southeast of Brazil. The case group (n  =  109) was made up of adolescents with a high negative impact on OHRQoL, and the control group (n  =  218) was made up of adolescents with a low negative impact. The outcome variable was the impact on OHRQoL measured by the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14) - Impact Short Form (ISF:16). The main independent variable was wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Malocclusion and the type of school were identified as possible confounding variables. Bivariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions were employed in the statistical analysis. A multiple conditional logistic regression model demonstrated that adolescents wearing fixed orthodontic appliances had a 4.88-fold greater chance of presenting high negative impact on OHRQoL (95% CI: 2.93-8.13; P appliances. A bivariate conditional logistic regression demonstrated that malocclusion was significantly associated with OHRQoL (P  =  .017), whereas no statistically significant association was found between the type of school and OHRQoL (P  =  .108). Adolescents who wore fixed orthodontic appliances had a greater chance of reporting a negative impact on OHRQoL than those who did not wear such appliances.

  8. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  9. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  10. Childhood risk factors in Korean women with anorexia nervosa: two sets of case-control studies with retrospective comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Heo, Si Young; Kang, Heechan; Song, Ki Jun; Treasure, Janet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) in Korean women. Two sets of case-control comparisons were conducted, in which 52 women with lifetime AN from Seoul, S. Korea, were compared with 108 Korean healthy controls and also with 42 women with lifetime AN from the UK in terms of their childhood risk factors. A questionnaire designed to conduct a retrospective assessment of the childhood risk factors was administered to all participants. The Korean AN women were more likely to report premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, and emotional undereating and were less likely to report having supportive figures in their childhood than the Korean healthy controls. There were no overall differences in the childhood risk factors between the Korean and British women with AN. Premorbid anxiety, perfectionism, less social support, and emotional undereating merit attention as risk factors in Korean AN. The current results are informative, but an epidemiologically robust prospective case-control study would be needed to validate these findings. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  12. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2006-26661; Amendment No., 141-14] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School..., certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools...: Background On August 21, 2009, the FAA published the ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School...

  13. Task rotation in an underground coal mine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Olivia F; James, Carole L

    2018-01-01

    Task rotation is used to decrease the risk of workplace injuries and improve work satisfaction. To investigate the feasibility, benefits and challenges of implementing a task rotation schedule within an underground coalmine in NSW, Australia. A mixed method case control pilot study with the development and implementation of a task rotation schedule for 6 months with two work crews. A questionnaire including The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, The Need for Recovery after Work Scale, and The Australian WHOQOL- BREF Australian Edition was used to survey workers at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A focus group was completed with the intervention crew and management at the completion of the study. In total, twenty-seven participants completed the survey. Significant improvements in the psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire were found in the intervention crew. Musculoskeletal pain was highest in the elbow, lower back and knee, and fatigue scores improved, across both groups. The intervention crew felt 'mentally fresher', 'didn't do the same task twice in a row', and 'had more task variety which made the shift go quickly'. Task rotation was positively regarded, with psychological benefits identified. Three rotations during a 9-hour shift were feasible and practical in this environment.

  14. Backfilling and closure of the deep repository. Phase 3 - pilot tests to verify engineering feasibility. Geotechnical investigations made on unsaturated backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2008-12-01

    The investigations described in this report is a part of the third phase of the joint SKB-Posiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO'. The overall objective of the BACLO project is to develop backfilling concept for the deep repository that can be configured to meet SKB's and Posiva's requirements in the chosen repository sites. The project was divided into four phases, of which two have already been performed. The second phase of the BACLO project consisted of laboratory tests and deepened analyses of the investigated backfill materials and methods and resulted in recommendation to focus on the development and testing of the block placement concept with three alternative backfill materials. The third phase investigations comprise of laboratory and large-scale experiments aiming at testing the engineering feasibility of the concept. In addition, how site-specific constraints, backfilling method and materials affect the long-term functions of the barriers will be described and analysed in order to set design specifications for the backfill. The third phase of the BACLO project is divided into several subprojects. The work described in this report belongs to subproject 1 concerning processes during installation and saturation of the backfill that may affect the long-term function of the bentonite buffer and the backfill itself. One of the main functions of backfill is to restrict buffer expansion which can lead to decrease in buffer density in the deposition hole. The criterion used as a basis for the Baclo investigations was that the buffer density at saturation should not be below 1,950 kg/m 3 at the level of the canister. The same criterion was applied for the work described in this report. The upward swelling of the buffer and the enclosed compression of the backfill was first studied assuming that both the buffer and the backfill were saturated. The main objective of this work was to study a case where the buffer is fully saturated

  15. Backfilling and closure of the deep repository. Phase 3 - pilot tests to verify engineering feasibility. Geotechnical investigations made on unsaturated backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The investigations described in this report is a part of the third phase of the joint SKB-Posiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO'. The overall objective of the BACLO project is to develop backfilling concept for the deep repository that can be configured to meet SKB's and Posiva's requirements in the chosen repository sites. The project was divided into four phases, of which two have already been performed. The second phase of the BACLO project consisted of laboratory tests and deepened analyses of the investigated backfill materials and methods and resulted in recommendation to focus on the development and testing of the block placement concept with three alternative backfill materials. The third phase investigations comprise of laboratory and large-scale experiments aiming at testing the engineering feasibility of the concept. In addition, how site-specific constraints, backfilling method and materials affect the long-term functions of the barriers will be described and analysed in order to set design specifications for the backfill. The third phase of the BACLO project is divided into several subprojects. The work described in this report belongs to subproject 1 concerning processes during installation and saturation of the backfill that may affect the long-term function of the bentonite buffer and the backfill itself. One of the main functions of backfill is to restrict buffer expansion which can lead to decrease in buffer density in the deposition hole. The criterion used as a basis for the Baclo investigations was that the buffer density at saturation should not be below 1,950 kg/m3 at the level of the canister. The same criterion was applied for the work described in this report. The upward swelling of the buffer and the enclosed compression of the backfill was first studied assuming that both the buffer and the backfill were saturated. The main objective of this work was to study a case where the buffer is

  16. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases among French Uranium Miners: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubay, Damien; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laroche, Pierre; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the

  17. Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayowa O Owolabi, ProfDrMed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and population-attributable risks (PARs with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8 for cases and 57·8 years (13·7 for controls. 1430 (68% had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32% had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1% had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0 of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93 and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7 for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38 and 35·8% (25·3–46·2 for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13 and 31·1% (13·3–48·9 for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94 and 26·5% (12·9–40·2 for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37 and 22·1% (17·8–26·4 for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26 and 18·2% (14·1–22·3 for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54 and 11·6% (6·6–16·7

  18. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  19. Self-Care for Nurse Leaders in Acute Care Environment Reduces Perceived Stress: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study Merits Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan Mac Leod; Prestia, Angela S; Marquit, Doren-Elyse; Newman, David

    2018-03-01

    Acute care practice settings are stressful. Nurse leaders face stressful demands of numerous competing priorities. Some nurse leaders experience unmanageable stress, but success requires self-care. This article presents a repeated measures intervention design study using mixed methods to investigate a self-care simple meditation practice for nurse leaders. Themes and subthemes emerged in association with the three data collection points: at baseline (pretest), after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks (posttest) from introduction of the self-care simple meditation practice. An analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant drop in perceived stress at 6 weeks and again at 12 weeks. Conducting future research is merited.

  20. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A

  1. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  2. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  3. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological

  4. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  5. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  6. Combinations of SNP genotypes from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Dam, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Combinations of genetic variants are the basis for polygenic disorders. We examined combinations of SNP genotypes taken from the 446 729 SNPs in The Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients. Methods: Parallel computing by graphics processing units, cloud computing, and data...

  7. Gout, not induced by diuretics? A case-control study from primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, H.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Janssen, M.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is taken for granted that diuretics may induce gout, but there is a general lack of evidence on this topic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of gout in patients who use diuretics, taking into account concurrent hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: A case-control

  8. [Gout not induced by diuretics in a case-control study in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, H.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Janssen, M.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between diuretics and the development of gout, taking into account the possible confounding by hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHOD: With the aid of the data on morbidity and medication from the electronic medical files ofa

  9. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of

  10. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was

  11. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  12. Risk factors for idiopathic orbital inflammation: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; van Gils, Carla H.; Paridaens, Dion; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kalmann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors involved in the development of idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI). Methods Case-control study of 69 adults who had had a first episode of IOI and 296 adult controls with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) selected from three orbital centres in The

  13. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ...

  14. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  15. Exposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma : A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Stepien, Magdalena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Werner, Mårten; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Aune, Dagfinn; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. Methods: We used a case-control study design nested within a large

  16. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  17. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A t...

  18. Practicability of patient self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy by the international normalized ratio (INR) using a portable whole blood monitor. A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkam, J M; Knudsen, L; Kimose, H H; Grønnesby, H; Attermann, J; Andersen, N T; Pilegaard, H K

    1997-01-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical conditions with increased tendency to thromboembolism, and the number of individuals subjected to OAT in the industrialised world has increased substantially in recent years. Since this therapy requires considerable resources from both the health care system and the patients, the feasibility of patients' self-monitoring and self-management of OAT has been investigated (1,2,3). The anticipated advantages of this approach include improved convenience and compliance for the patient, who may increase his apprehension for managing the treatment. In addition, self-testing allows for more frequent control compared to the conventional out-patient approach. Importantly, a prerequisite for conceiving a safe and operational concept for patient self-management (PSM) is the availability of a portable INR monitoring system with an accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and long-term reliability comparable to standard coagulometric equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available INR-monitor. CoaguChek, for patient self-testing, through a step-wise investigation of the performance characteristics of the equipment in the laboratory, in command of the patient, and during self-testing and self-adjustment of treatment at home. Laboratory INR values were used as reference.

  19. Investigation of hydrodynamic behaviour of a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor packed with hydrophobic and hydrophilic packings using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh Kumar; Sadhana Mohan; Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Mahajani, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer study was carried out in a trickle bed reactor (TBR) independently filled with two different types of packing i.e., hydrophobic and hydrophilic. The study was aimed at to estimate liquid holdup and investigate the dispersion characteristics of liquid phase with both types of packing at different operating conditions. Water and H2 gas were used as aqueous and gas phase, respectively. The liquid and gas flow rates used ranged from 0.83 x 10 -7 -16.67 x 10 -7 m 3 /s and 0-3.33 x 10 -4 m 3 (std)/s, respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase was measured using 82 Br as radiotracer and about 10 MBq activity was used in each run. Mean residence time (MRT) and holdup of liquid phase were estimated from the measured RTD data. An axial dispersion with exchange model was used to simulate the measured RTD curves and model parameters (Peclet number and MRT) were obtained. At higher liquid flow rates, the TBR behaves as a plug flow reactor, whereas at lower liquid flow rates, the flow was found to be highly dispersed. The results of investigation indicated that the dispersion of liquid phase is higher in case of hydrophobic packing, whereas holdup is higher in case of hydrophilic packing. (author)

  20. Role of drinking water copper in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Hunasgi, Santosh; Colbert, Serryth; Merkx, M A W; Brennan, Peter A

    2014-07-01

    Although oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is thought to be multifactorial in origin, the chewing of areca nut is thought to be the main cause. Alkaloids and tannins in areca nut are responsible for fibrosis, but recent evidence has suggested that copper ions are also an important mediator, and in a small pilot study we recently found that OSMF was significantly associated with a raised concentration of copper in drinking water. We have further investigated this association in a heterogeneous population in Hyderabad-Karnataka, India, a region with a high incidence of the condition. We evaluated 3 groups, each of 100 patients: those with OSMF who chewed gutkha, those who chewed gutkha but did not have OSMF, and healthy controls who did not chew gutkha. The difference between the groups in the mean concentration of copper in water measured by atomic absorption spectrometry was significant (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the groups in mean concentrations of serum copper, salivary copper, and ceruloplasmin (p<0.001). Our results confirm that copper in drinking water contributes to the pathogenesis of OSMF, but ingestion of copper is unlikely to be the sole cause. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penerbangan dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia. Penerbang terpajan antara lain pada bising dan vibrasi pesawat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor penerbangan pada tekanan darah sistolik.Metode: Penelitian nested case-control dilakukan pada penerbang Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto tahun 2003–2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, jumlah jam terbang, jenis pesawat, kadar glukosa puasa dan kadar kholesterol darah, lingkaran pinggang, tinggi dan berat badan, tinggi badan, serta tekanan darah.Hasil: Dari 336 penerbang, terdapat 16 penerbanga dengan tekanan sistolik ³ 140 mmHg. Penerbang dengan rata-rata jam penerbangan 300-622 jam per tahun dibandingkan dengan 29-299 jam per tahun mempunyai risiko peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi sebesarf 5 kali [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 5,05, 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,88 -23,30, P = 0,070]. Menurut jam terbang total, mereka yang memiliki 1.401-1,1125 jam dibandingkan 147-1.400 jam berisiko 3,6 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 3,58, 95% CI = 1,24-10,38. Selain itu, mereka dengan denyut nadi istirahat tinggi dibandingkan dengan denyut nadi normal istirahat memiliki 2,4 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 2,37, CI = 0,74-7,50 95, P = 0,147].Kesimpulan: Vibrasi pesawat terbang tinggi, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun tinggi, dan frekuensi nadi istirahat yang tinggi meningkatkan risiko tekanan sistolik tinggi.Kata kunci:tekanan darah sistolik, vibrasi pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Flight may affect the human cardiovascular system. Pilots are exposed among others to aircraft noise and vibration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aircraft flight on systolic blood pressure.Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on

  2. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  3. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    OpenAIRE

    Vienneau Danielle; Infanger Denis; Feychting Maria; Schüz Joachim; Schmidt Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti Giorgio; Klæboe Lars; Kuehni Claudia E; Tynes Tore; Von der Weid Nicolas; Lannering Birgitta; Röösli Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight length maternal age) birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction preterm delivery birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking working dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7 19 year olds. The multinational case control study in Denmark Sweden Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (particip...

  4. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J Alexander; Taylor, John S; Hangartner, Thomas N; Weinreb, Neal J; Mistry, Pramod K; Khan, Aneal

    2011-09-12

    In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry were used as an example. A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for each variable before and after matching. The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN) and controls (i.e., patients without AVN) who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age), treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  5. Adaptation of Chain Event Graphs for use with Case-Control Studies in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Claire; Thwaites, Peter Adam; Barber, Stuart; Law, Graham Richard; Baxter, Paul David

    2017-09-26

    Case-control studies are used in epidemiology to try to uncover the causes of diseases, but are a retrospective study design known to suffer from non-participation and recall bias, which may explain their decreased popularity in recent years. Traditional analyses report usually only the odds ratio for given exposures and the binary disease status. Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees which have been developed in artificial intelligence and statistics, and only recently introduced to the epidemiology literature. They are a modern Bayesian technique which enable prior knowledge to be incorporated into the data analysis using the agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm, used to form a suitable chain event graph. Additionally, they can account for missing data and be used to explore missingness mechanisms. Here we adapt the chain event graph framework to suit scenarios often encountered in case-control studies, to strengthen this study design which is time and financially efficient. We demonstrate eight adaptations to the graphs, which consist of two suitable for full case-control study analysis, four which can be used in interim analyses to explore biases, and two which aim to improve the ease and accuracy of analyses. The adaptations are illustrated with complete, reproducible, fully-interpreted examples, including the event tree and chain event graph. Chain event graphs are used here for the first time to summarise non-participation, data collection techniques, data reliability, and disease severity in case-control studies. We demonstrate how these features of a case-control study can be incorporated into the analysis to provide further insight, which can help to identify potential biases and lead to more accurate study results.

  6. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  8. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  9. A case-control study on risk of changing food consumption for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiangping; Nakama, Hidenori; Zhang, Xing; Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Leshan

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the relative risk factor of food items for colorectal cancer in four time periods through a case-control study in a Chinese rural area. Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed at a county cancer center, Hebei Province, China, and non-cancer outpatients with similar age, sex, and place of residence were selected for cases and controls, respectively. There were 102 (93.6%) colorectal cancer patients and 99 (90.8%) outpatients being the cases and controls, respectively in the present investigation, who agreed to be interviewed about their food intake, during a 20-year period, through a food frequency questionnaire. The risks of intake of different food items and lifestyle for colorectal cancer were compared between cases and controls. During the 20-year period, diets of both cases and controls changed with increase in intake of animal foods and fruits, and alcohol consumption tended to increase. In the food items, milk intake showed a protective effect in both males and females, and the odds ratios were 0.38 (95% CI 0.16-0.90) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.81) for males and females, respectively. A reduced risk of fruit intake could be seen in males, while a reduced risk of vegetables could be observed in females. Meat intake and saturated fats were the prominent risk factors for colorectal cancer in males and females, respectively. A comparison of life habits, showed that tea drinking had a consistent protective effect in females, and the odds ratios were 0.21 (0.08-0.58), 0.23 (0.08-0.67), 0.25 (0.10-0.64), and 0.11 (0.04-0.30) for periods of 20-, 10-, 5-years ago, and current time, respectively. These findings indicate that change in food consumption is strongly associated with a change in risk of colorectal cancer, and dietary meat has increased the risk of colorectal cancer. Increase in the consumption of milk and fruits may be a significant measure for colorectal cancer prevention in low-incidence areas.

  10. Leukaemia incidence among workers in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forand Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have indicated an excess of leukaemia in Broome County, New York, particularly in the Town of Union. Surveillance of cancer incidence data indicates that a large proportion of these cases occurred among males ages 65 and older. Shoe and boot manufacturing has been the largest single industry in this area throughout much of the past century. Occupational studies from Europe suggest a link between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. However, researchers have not found a positive association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe industry among workers in the United States. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between leukaemia incidence among males 65 and older and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. Thirty-six cases of leukaemia occurring between 1981–1990; among males age 65 and older; residing in the town of Union met the study case criteria. Death certificates were obtained for each of the cases. These were matched to death certificates of 144 controls on date of death and date of birth +/- 1 year. Death certificates were then examined to determine the employer and occupation of each study subject. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of leukaemia among those working in the industry. Results The risk of both leukaemia (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.70, 3.09 and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.33, 4.28 were elevated among those employed in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, however neither was statistically significant. Conclusion The results, though suggestive of an association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, were not statistically conclusive due mainly to limited study power. Several additional limitations may also have prevented the observance of more conclusive findings. Better exposure assessment, information on

  11. Ethnic variations in severe maternal morbidity in the UK- a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nair

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed a higher risk of maternal morbidity amongst black and other minority ethnic (BME groups, but were unable to investigate whether this excess risk was concentrated within specific BME groups in the UK. Our aim was to analyse the specific risks and to investigate reasons for any disparity.Unmatched case-control analysis using data from the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS, February 2005-January 2013. Cases were 1,753 women who experienced severe morbidity during the peripartum period. Controls were 3,310 women who delivered immediately before the cases in the same hospital. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to adjust for known confounders and to understand their effects.Compared with white European women, the odds of severe maternal morbidity were 83% higher among black African women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.39-2.40, 80% higher among black Caribbean (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.14-2.82, 74% higher in Bangladeshi (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.88, 56% higher in other non-whites (non-Asian (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.05-2.33 and 43% higher among Pakistani women (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07-1.92. There was no evidence of substantial confounding. Anaemia in current pregnancy, previous pregnancy problems, inadequate utilisation of antenatal care, pre-existing medical conditions, parity>3, and being younger and older were independent risk factors but, the odds of severe maternal morbidity did not differ by socioeconomic status, between smokers and non-smokers or by BMI.This national study demonstrates an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity among women of ethnic minority backgrounds which could not be explained by known risk factors for severe maternal morbidity.

  12. Investigation of Peri-Implant Bone Healing Using Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Canine Mandible After 12 Weeks: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birang, Reza; Tavakoli, Mohammad; Shahabouei, Mohammad; Torabi, Alireza; Dargahi, Ali; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Faster reconstruction of patients’ masticatory systems is the aim of modern dentistry. A number of studies have indicated that application of growth factors to the surface of a dental implant leads to accelerated and enhanced osseointegration. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma rich in growth factors on peri-implant bone healing. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, two healthy, mixed-breed canines were selected, and the premolars were extracted from both sides of the mandible. Three months after premolar removal, 12 implants, each 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, were placed in osteotomy sites on both sides of the mandible. Prior to placement, plasma rich in growth factors was applied to the surfaces of six implants, while the other six were used without plasma rich in growth factors. The implants were removed after 12 weeks along with the bone surrounding the sites using a trephine bur. One mesiodistal section containing the surrounding bone from each implant block, 50 µm in diameter, was prepared for histologic and histomorphometric investigation with an optical microscope. Results: The sites with implants treated with plasma rich in growth factors showed more bone-to-implant contact compared to control sites. Also, higher values for bone trabecular thickness and bone maturity were recorded for the PRGF-treated sites than for the control sites. Conclusion: Application of plasma rich in growth factors to the surface of an implant may enhance the bone healing process as well as bone-to-implant contact, thereby helping to achieve faster osseointegration. PMID:22145011

  13. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  14. Risk Factors for Campylobacteriosis of Chicken, Ruminant, and Environmental Origin: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A.; de Boer, Albert G.; Havelaar, Arie H.; Friesema, Ingrid H. M.; French, Nigel P.; Busani, Luca; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis contributes strongly to the disease burden of food-borne pathogens. Case-control studies are limited in attributing human infections to the different reservoirs because they can only trace back to the points of exposure, which may not point to the original reservoirs because of cross-contamination. Human Campylobacter infections can be attributed to specific reservoirs by estimating the extent of subtype sharing between strains from humans and reservoirs using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated risk factors for human campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter strains attributed to different reservoirs. Sequence types (STs) were determined for 696 C. jejuni and 41 C. coli strains from endemic human cases included in a case-control study. The asymmetric island model, a population genetics approach for modeling Campylobacter evolution and transmission, attributed these cases to four putative animal reservoirs (chicken, cattle, sheep, pig) and to the environment (water, sand, wild birds) considered as a proxy for other unidentified reservoirs. Most cases were attributed to chicken (66%) and cattle (21%), identified as the main reservoirs in The Netherlands. Consuming chicken was a risk factor for campylobacteriosis caused by chicken-associated STs, whereas consuming beef and pork were protective. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by ruminant-associated STs were contact with animals, barbecuing in non-urban areas, consumption of tripe, and never/seldom chicken consumption. Consuming game and swimming in a domestic swimming pool during springtime were risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by environment-associated STs. Infections with chicken- and ruminant-associated STs were only partially explained by food-borne transmission; direct contact and environmental pathways were also important. Conclusion/Significance This is the first case-control study in which risk factors for

  15. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis of chicken, ruminant, and environmental origin: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini Gras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacteriosis contributes strongly to the disease burden of food-borne pathogens. Case-control studies are limited in attributing human infections to the different reservoirs because they can only trace back to the points of exposure, which may not point to the original reservoirs because of cross-contamination. Human Campylobacter infections can be attributed to specific reservoirs by estimating the extent of subtype sharing between strains from humans and reservoirs using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated risk factors for human campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter strains attributed to different reservoirs. Sequence types (STs were determined for 696 C. jejuni and 41 C. coli strains from endemic human cases included in a case-control study. The asymmetric island model, a population genetics approach for modeling Campylobacter evolution and transmission, attributed these cases to four putative animal reservoirs (chicken, cattle, sheep, pig and to the environment (water, sand, wild birds considered as a proxy for other unidentified reservoirs. Most cases were attributed to chicken (66% and cattle (21%, identified as the main reservoirs in The Netherlands. Consuming chicken was a risk factor for campylobacteriosis caused by chicken-associated STs, whereas consuming beef and pork were protective. Risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by ruminant-associated STs were contact with animals, barbecuing in non-urban areas, consumption of tripe, and never/seldom chicken consumption. Consuming game and swimming in a domestic swimming pool during springtime were risk factors for campylobacteriosis caused by environment-associated STs. Infections with chicken- and ruminant-associated STs were only partially explained by food-borne transmission; direct contact and environmental pathways were also important. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first case-control study in which risk

  16. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  17. Investigation of the stochastic nature of wave processes for renewable resources management: a pilot application in a remote island in the Aegean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Evangelos; Manou, Georgia; Georganta, Xristina; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Tyralis, Hristos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Tsoukala, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    The large energy potential of ocean dynamics is not yet being efficiently harvested mostly due to several technological and financial drawbacks. Nevertheless, modern renewable energy systems include wave and tidal energy in cases of nearshore locations. Although the variability of tidal waves can be adequately predictable, wind-generated waves entail a much larger uncertainty due to their dependence to the wind process. Recent research has shown, through estimation of the wave energy potential in coastal areas of the Aegean Sea, that installation of wave energy converters in nearshore locations could be an applicable scenario, assisting the electrical network of Greek islands. In this context, we analyze numerous of observations and we investigate the long-term behaviour of wave height and wave period processes. Additionally, we examine the case of a remote island in the Aegean sea, by estimating the local wave climate through past analysis data and numerical methods, and subsequently applying a parsimonious stochastic model to a theoretical scenario of wave energy production. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  18. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0 degree, ±45 degrees relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole

  19. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

  20. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 108/158 Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a case control study in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Ghabreau, Lina; Mohamed, Ali; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Alachkar, Amal

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catechol estrogens by methylation and thus may play a protective role against mutations induced by estrogen metabolites. In this study we investigated the relationship between the Vall58Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Syria. We examined 135 breast cancer patients and 107 healthy controls in North Syria to determine the association between the functional genetic Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and female breast cancer risk. There was no significant overall association between the COMT genotype and individual susceptibility to breast cancer. Our data suggest that there may be no overall association between the COMT genotype and breast cancer.

  2. External adjustment of unmeasured confounders in a case-control study of benzodiazepine use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Pottegård, Anton; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies have reported diverging results on the association between benzodiazepine use and cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated this association in a matched case-control study including incident cancer cases during 2002-2009 in the Danish Cancer Registry (n = 94 923) and age......% confidence interval 1.00-1.19) and for smoking-related cancers from 1.20 to 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.21). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the increased risk observed in the solely register-based study could partly be attributed to unmeasured confounding....... PSs were used: The error-prone PS using register-based confounders and the calibrated PS based on both register- and survey-based confounders, retrieved from the Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: Register-based data showed that cancer cases had more diagnoses, higher comorbidity score and more co...

  3. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males...

  4. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, S R C; Schellenberg, J; Chimah, O; Ideh, R C; Ebruke, B E; Oluwalana, C; Mackenzie, G; Jallow, M; Njie, M; Donkor, S; Dionisio, K L; Goldberg, G; Fornace, K; Bottomley, C; Hill, P C; Grant, C C; Corrah, T; Prentice, A M; Ezzati, M; Greenwood, B M; Smith, P G; Adegbola, R A; Mulholland, K

    2016-10-01

    Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2-59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pneumonia, and these groups were compared to 801 neighbourhood controls. Controls were matched by age, sex, area and season. Strong evidence was found of an association between bed-sharing with someone with a cough and severe pneumonia (adjusted OR [aOR] 5.1, 95%CI 3.2-8.2, P Malnutrition and pneumonia had clear evidence of association, which was strongest between severe malnutrition and severe pneumonia (aOR 8.7, 95%CI 4.2-17.8, P malnutrition remains an important tractable determinant.

  6. Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  7. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The matched case-control study has been undertook to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be casually associated with autism in children. Cases were children to 14-year old with diagnosis of core autism or atypical autism. Controls were matched on age, sex and general practice. The 96 cases and 192 controls were included. The study provides strong evidence against association of autism with both MMR and a single measles individual vaccine. Additionally children vaccinated with MMR, regardless of age of vaccination (to 18th, 24th and 36th month of life), had risk equal half of that of single measles vaccinated (for vaccinated to 18th month OR=0.41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children.

  8. Pilot Certification, Age of Pilot, and Drug Use in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akparibo, Issaka Y; Stolfi, Adrienne

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the association between mean age of pilot, pilot license, pilot medical certificate and drug use trends in pilots fatally injured in aircraft accidents. The prevalence of prescription drugs, OTC drugs, controlled drugs and drugs that may be potentially impairing was also examined. This study was a descriptive observational study in which the NTSB Aviation Accident Database was searched from the period beginning January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. During the study period a total of 706 accidents involving 711 fatalities were investigated by the NTSB. This study included 633 of these accidents, involving 646 fatalities. Of these pilots, 42.1% had drugs in their biological samples. The prevalence of prescription drugs, controlled drugs, OTC drugs, opioids, and potentially impairing drugs in the fatally injured pilot population over the study period was 28.9%, 15.0%, 20.1%, 5.1%, and 25.5%, respectively. Pilots with any drugs in their samples were significantly older than those without drugs. Medical certificate held was associated with drug use; pilots who held third class certificates had the highest prevalence at 54.1%. Pilot license was not associated with drug use. In 3.8% of the accidents, drugs were a contributing factor in the cause. Despite current FAA medical regulations, potentially impairing drugs are frequently found in biological samples of fatally injured pilots in the U.S. More education of airmen by aviation medical examiners is needed on the safety of drug use.Akparibo IY, Stolfi A. Pilot certification, age of pilot, and drug use in fatal civil aviation accidents. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):931-936.

  9. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Possible environmental, occupational, and other etiologic factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, A; Hellenbrand, W; Robra, B P; Vieregge, P; Nischan, P; Joerg, J; Oertel, W H; Ulm, G; Schneider, E

    1996-05-01

    In a case-control study, we investigated the possible etiologic relevance to Parkinson's disease (PD) of rural factors such as farming activity, pesticide exposures, well-water drinking, and animal contacts; toxicologic exposures such as wood preservatives, heavy metals, and solvents; general anesthesia; head trauma; and differences in the intrauterine environment. We recruited 380 patients in nine German clinics, 379 neighborhood control subjects, and 376 regional control subjects in the largest case-control study investigating such factors and collected data in structured personal interviews using conditional logistic regression to control for educational status and cigarette smoking. The latter was strongly inversely associated with PD. There were significantly elevated odds ratios (OR) for pesticide use, in particular, for organochlorines and alkylated phosphates, but no association was present between PD and other rural factors. A significantly elevated OR was present for exposure to wood preservatives. Subjective assessment by the probands indicated that exposure to some heavy metals, solvents, exhaust fumes, and carbon monoxide was significantly more frequent among patients than control subjects, but this was not confirmed by a parallel assessment of job histories according to a job exposure matrix. Patients had undergone general anesthesia and suffered severe head trauma more often than control subjects, but a dose-response gradient was not present. Patients reported a significantly larger number of amalgam-filled teeth before their illness than control subjects. The frequency of premature births and birth order did not differ between patients and control subjects. Patients reported significantly more relatives affected with PD than control subjects. These results support a role for environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of PD.

  11. Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya Krishna; Mannix-Slobig, Alannah; McGee Koch, Lori; Jayaraman, Arun

    2018-03-13

    Monitoring physical activity and leveraging wearable sensor technologies to facilitate active living in individuals with neurological impairment has been shown to yield benefits in terms of health and quality of living. In this context, accurate measurement of physical activity estimates from these sensors are vital. However, wearable sensor manufacturers generally only provide standard proprietary algorithms based off of healthy individuals to estimate physical activity metrics which may lead to inaccurate estimates in population with neurological impairment like stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The main objective of this cross-sectional investigation was to evaluate the validity of physical activity estimates provided by standard proprietary algorithms for individuals with stroke and iSCI. Two research grade wearable sensors used in clinical settings were chosen and the outcome metrics estimated using standard proprietary algorithms were validated against designated golden standard measures (Cosmed K4B2 for energy expenditure and metabolic equivalent and manual tallying for step counts). The influence of sensor location, sensor type and activity characteristics were also studied. 28 participants (Healthy (n = 10); incomplete SCI (n = 8); stroke (n = 10