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Sample records for pilosella officinarum compositae

  1. Sexual reproduction as a source of ploidy level variation in the model agamic complex of Pilosella bauhini and P. officinarum (Asteraceae: Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosenbaumová, R.; Krahulec, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 1 (2015), s. 279-290 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Pilosella * residual sexuality * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2015

  2. [Compositae dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana

    2003-01-01

    Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minuta. Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew--Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in 1956 and it caused thousands of cases of so-called parthenium dermatitis. Ragweed and parthenium dermatitis became prototypes for the classic, so-called "airborne" Compositae dermatitis, that affects primarily exposed skin surfaces, and produces a universal erythroderma. The frequency of contact allergy to Compositae in Europe is higher than previously believed. It occurs most frequently in middle-aged and elderly persons, but also in all age groups. During the two past decades a more equal sex ratio has been established. The prevalence varies from 0.7-1.4% in the general population, up to 4.5% among occupationally exposed persons. Compositae allergy is among the top ten contact sensitivities in Europe. In North Europe plants were the cause of 4.4% cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS: Among cultivated Compositae plants, Chrysanthemum is considered to be a major sensitizer in Europe (60%). Among the edible types, it is lettuce--Lactuca sativa and endive Cichorium endivia (20-30%), and wild-growing feverfew--Tanace--tum parthenium (70-90%), tansy--Tanacetum vulgare (54%), and dandelion--Taraxacum officinale (65%). Sesquiterpene lactones are the main sensitizers of the Compositae family. Other components, thiophenes and acetylenes are said to elicit only phytophotodermatitis, but recent studies have demonstrated that some thiophenes and benzofuran derivates possess not only phototoxic activity, but also sensitizing properties. Photosensitivity is

  3. Compositae dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Mirjana; Poljački Mirjana N.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minute Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew - Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in...

  4. Airborne Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Jakobsen, Henrik Byrial; Paulsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted f...... for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed....

  5. Medicinal compositae from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Z.S.; Roque, N.F.; Gottlieb, O.R.; Oliveira, F.

    The family Compositae is one of the largest in the plant kingdom. Several species are used in popular medicin. Thus, the leaf extract of Calea pinnatifida Banks, known as aruca, is employed in the treatment of amoebiasis. A chemical study is carried out in order to discover the active principles of the species. (Author) [pt

  6. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. Objective. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most u...

  7. Rare hybrid swarm of Pilosella polymastix × P. officinarum: cytotype structure and modes of reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Hlaváček, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-192 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome numbers * hybrid swarm composition * reproductive models Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  8. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  9. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts - are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae-sensitive patients are routinely warned against topical use of Compositae-containing cosmetics and herbal remedies. However, the risk of elicitation of dermatitis in presensitized persons is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to assess the significance of d...

  10. Bioacetylation of alcohols catalysed by Saccharum officinarum; Bioacetilacao de alcoois catalisada por Saccharum officinarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Joao Carlos C.; Lemos, Telma Leda G.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica], e-mail: fmonte@dqoi.ufc.br

    2009-07-01

    Lipase-catalysed esterifications of alcohols using immobilized enzyme system from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) as biocatalyst afforded the corresponding esters in considerable yields (68-93%). Under optimized conditions, the material was utilized for reactions of acetylation with several advantage. It also investigated the possibility of reuse of immobilized enzymes of S. officinarum as biocatalyst under optimal reaction conditions. (author)

  11. Colophonium and Compositae mix as markers of fragrance allergy: cross-reactivity between fragrance terpenes, colophonium and compositae plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2005-01-01

    , colophonium and fragrance mix sensitization. The individual results indicated that simultaneously occurring positive reactions to essential oils, colophonium and Compositae were based on cross-reactivity rather than concomitant sensitization. Thus, all patients with positive reaction to the rare fragrance...... sensitizer beta-caryophyllene had positive colophonium reactions, and cross-reactivity between essential oils and Compositae was related to the Compositae plant extracts of the Compositae mix and not the pure sesquiterpene lactones of the standard series. The implication is that Compositae mix...... and colophonium may be markers of fragrance allergy, which is important to know when assessing the relevance of positive reactions to Compositae plant extracts and colophonium....

  12. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2012-05-01

    The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most useful as screening agents. These comprised 76 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 6% in petrolatum and 29 patients testing positive to Compositae mix 5% pet., all of whom were tested with constituents of the respective mixes. The majority of patients tested positive to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive to Roman chamomile. Even though parthenolide seems to be a suitable supplement to the baseline series, the results emphasize that it is important to patch test with extracts of native or locally grown plants, not only because of the geographical variation, but also because of the potential unknown allergens contained in short ether preparations and the variability in the individual patient's exposure and cross-reaction patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Bioactivity of two extracts from Alpinia officinarum rhizome against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... These results suggest that the A. officinarum rhizome extracts have potential for integrated pest management programs of T. castaneum population. Key words: Alpinia officinarum rhizome extract, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), fumigant activity, repellent activity, plant extract. INTRODUCTION. The red flour ...

  14. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  15. Sterol composition from inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of sterol acetates from the inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella has been isolated in the typical way from petroleum ether extract. By means of the weight method the total amount of sterols was determined (0.2659%. The mixtures of sterol acetates and free sterols were investigated using GC-MS techniques. The occurrence of about 18 sterols has been observed. Cholesterol, cholest-8(14-en-3b-ol, cholesta-5.7-dien-3b-ol, cholest-7-en-3b-ol, ergosta-5.24-dien-3b-ol, campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, fucosterol, 5a-stigmast-7-en-3a-ol were identified. The probable structures of lophenol, isofucosterol, 5a-stigmasta-7.24-dien-3b-ol, lanosta-9(11.24-dien-3b-ol and 24-ethylidene lophenol were stated on the basis of literature data. The last 4 sterols occur in a vestigial quantity, which made its identification impossible. Sitos erol and cholesterol are remarkably dominating sterols in the fraction.

  16. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. The detection, rate and manifestation of residual sexuality in apomictic populations of Pilosella (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-258 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : facultative apomixis * haploid parthenogenesis * interspecific hybridization * Pilosella * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  18. Microsatellite markers for the Pilosella alpicola group (Hieraciinae, Asteraceae) and their cross-amplification in other Hieraciinae genera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Šingliarová, B.; Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Marhold, K.; Krak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2015), s. 1-4 ISSN 2168-0450 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybridization * Pilosella apicola * simple sequence repeats (SSR) markerst Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2015

  19. Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Dachowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales, Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola (Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Höhn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii (Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L., Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L.

  20. Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing herbal remedies and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2002-10-01

    The Compositae (Asteraceae) family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe. The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a growing number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica (Arnica montana), German and Roman chamomile (Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobile), marigold (Calendula officinalis), Echinacea and elecampane (Inula helenium), have been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis. Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely with the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, but there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene. The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae-containing products in Compositae-sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown.

  1. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and ...

  2. in-vitro antimicrobial properties of aspilla africana (compositae).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The in vitro anti-microbial activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Aspilia africana. (Compositae) was studied. The bacterial used for the antimicrobial analysis consisted of 3 clinical strains of. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, 2 clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas ...

  3. Determining sucrose recovery in Saccarrum officinarum L. using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation for sucrose content on single factor basis was caused by tillers, therefore, this character was the most important to increase overall sucrose of S. officinarum L. However, second variable model exhibited that tillers and internodal length were important traits for increasing overall sucrose in sugarcane.

  4. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  5. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (III). Compositae-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, E; Søgaard, J; Andersen, K E

    1998-03-01

    The clinical part of the study aimed at describing epidemiological and diagnostic aspects of occupational Compositae dermatitis. Patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) and Compositae mixes, feverfew extract and supplementary allergens in 250 selected gardeners showed Compositae allergy in 25, 17 females and 8 males. 24 were possibly occupationally sensitized. The mean age was lower and the preponderance of women higher compared to classical Compositae dermatitis, and the distribution and course of the dermatitis most often did not differ from other occupational plant dermatoses. The Compositae mix detected 2x as many as the SL mix, and the overall detection rate with both was 76%, making aimed patch testing necessary. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema), marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Aster. Among 1657 respondents in the questionnaire part of the study, 824 had worked with Compositae, and 160 (19%) reported occupational Compositae-related symptoms of skin and mucous membranes. Possible risk factors for the development of these were assessed in a stepwise logistic regression model and a history of childhood eczema, hay fever and duration of exposure were significantly associated with Compositae-related irritant and allergic symptoms in both sexes.

  6. The agamic complex of Pilosella (Asteraceae) in Bulgaria and in the southwestern Romania: variation in ploidy level and breeding systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Vladimirov, V.; Krahulec, František; Bräutigam, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2009), s. 377-384 ISSN 1310-7771 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0059; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Pilosella * ploidy level * breeding system Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  8. Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in one year (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity, the recently-developed sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL mix) was included in the standard patch test series. Patients with positive reactions to this or patients suspected of having a Compositae allergy were supplementarily tested with a Compos...

  9. Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in 1 year (II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1993-01-01

    During our first year of routine testing with Compositae allergens and extracts, contact allergy to Compositae was frequently found in eczema patients (4.5%), especially in middle-aged or elderly persons. Based on clinical patterns, patch test reactions and the long-term course of the disease, 4 ...

  10. A review on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Alpinia officinarum Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Malami, Ibrahim; Yahaya, Yakubu; Sule, Sahabi Manga

    2018-05-25

    Alpinia officinarum Hance is a perennial plant that has been traditionally used for many decades to treat several ailments including inflammation, pain, stomach-ache, cold, amongst others. Pharmacological studies over the years have demonstrated remarkable bioactivities that could be further explored for development of new therapeutic agents against various ailments. The paper critically reviewed the ethno-medicinal uses, pharmacology, and phytochemistry of A. officinarum. Keywords including A. officinarum and its synonyms were searched using electronic databases including ISI web of knowledge, Science direct, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar and relevant database for Masters and Doctoral theses. A. officinarum is prepared in Asia, Turkey, Morocco and Iran as a decoction, infusion or juice as a single preparation or in combination with other herbs, food or drinks for the treatment of general health problems including cold, inflammation, digestive disorders, etc. Pharmacological studies revealed the potent in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of various parts of A. officinarum that include anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, homeostasis, lipid regulation, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, etc. Over 90 phytochemical constituents have been identified and isolated from A. officinarum comprising vastly of phenolic compounds especially diarylheptanoids isolated from the rhizome and considered the most active bioactive components. In vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed the potency of A. officinarum. However, further studies are required to establish the mechanisms mediating its bioactivities in relation to the medicinal uses as well as investigating any potential toxicity for future clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitization patterns in Compositae-allergic patients with current or past atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background. An association between Compositae sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been suggested on the basis of case reports and clinical studies. Objectives. To describe the characteristics of sensitization in Compositae-allergic patients with current and/or past atopic dermatitis. Patients/materials......-atopics, except that dandelion was an important allergen in children. Cobalt allergy was the most frequent other contact allergy, occurring in 37%. Conclusions. Persons with current or past atopic dermatitis may become sensitized to Compositae at any age, both occupationally and non-occupationally. They should...

  12. Do monoterpenes released from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants cause airborne Compositae dermatitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Compositae plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is an important sensitizer in Europe and has been suspected of causing airborne Compositae dermatitis. A previous investigation of substances emitted from feverfew plants detected no sesquiterpene lactones, however, but mainly monoterpenes...... airborne dermatitis, mimicking photosensitivity, and the disappearance of symptoms upon removal of feverfew plants suggest monoterpenes as a possible contributing factor. Similar associations between doubtful positive monoterpene reactions and clinical patterns, fragrance/colophonium allergy and relevance...

  13. Anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of Hieracium pilosella L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA P. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae whole plant were investigated. The total dry extracts were determined for all the investigated solvents: methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane:methanol (9:1. It was found that the highest yield was obtained by extraction with methanol (12.9 g/100 g of dry plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by the HPLC method, using external standards. Chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone were detected in the highest quantity in the extracts. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the extracts depends on the solvent used. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in the methanolic extract, both with and without incubation, EC50 = 0.012 and EC50 = 0.015 mg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts towards the bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were determined by the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for all the investigated extracts against all the mentioned microorganisms.

  14. The origin of the bifurcating style in Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinas, Liliana; Hernández, Marcelo P; Arambarri, Ana M; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-05-01

    The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) exhibits remarkable morphological variation in the styles of its members. Lack of studies on the styles of the sister families to Asteraceae, Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae, obscures our understanding of the origin and evolution of this reproductive feature in these groups. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of style morphology and to discuss the relevance of important features in the evolution of Asteraceae and its sister families. The histochemistry, venation and general morphology of the styles of members of Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae and early branching lineages of Asteraceae were analysed and put in a phylogenetic framework to discuss the relevance of style features in the evolution of these families. The location of lipophilic substances allowed differentiation of receptive from non-receptive style papillae, and the style venation in Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae proved to be distinctive. There were several stages of style evolution from Goodeniaceae to Asteraceae involving connation and elongation of veins, development of bilobation from an initially cup-shaped style, and a redistribution of the receptive and non-receptive papillae. These developments resulted in bifurcation in the styles of Asteraceae, with each branch face having a different function, and it is suggested here as a mechanism that promoted outcrossing, which in turn led to the great diversification in the family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Chromosome numbers and reproductive systems of selected representatives of Pilosella from the Krkonoše Mts (the Sudetes Mts). Part 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František; Bräutigam, S.; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-192 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA ploidy level * hybridization * Pilosella Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2013

  16. Patterns of genetic variation in Pilosella echioides and its selected relatives: results of variation in ploidy level, facultative apomixis and past and present hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Plačková, Ivana; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 9 (2014), s. 2091-2104 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GP13-18610P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Pilosella * allozymes * apomixis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  17. Most Compositae (Asteraceae) are descendants of a paleohexaploid and all share a paleotetraploid ancestor with the Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michael S; Li, Zheng; Kidder, Thomas I; Reardon, Chris R; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Scascitelli, Moira; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-07-01

    Like many other flowering plants, members of the Compositae (Asteraceae) have a polyploid ancestry. Previous analyses found evidence for an ancient duplication or possibly triplication in the early evolutionary history of the family. We sought to better place this paleopolyploidy in the phylogeny and assess its nature. We sequenced new transcriptomes for Barnadesia, the lineage sister to all other Compositae, and four representatives of closely related families. Using a recently developed algorithm, MAPS, we analyzed nuclear gene family phylogenies for evidence of paleopolyploidy. We found that the previously recognized Compositae paleopolyploidy is also in the ancestry of the Calyceraceae. Our phylogenomic analyses uncovered evidence for a successive second round of genome duplication among all sampled Compositae except Barnadesia. Our analyses of new samples with new tools provide a revised view of paleopolyploidy in the Compositae. Together with results from a high density Lactuca linkage map, our results suggest that the Compositae and Calyceraceae have a common paleotetraploid ancestor and that most Compositae are descendants of a paleohexaploid. Although paleohexaploids have been previously identified, this is the first example where the paleotetraploid and paleohexaploid lineages have survived over tens of millions of years. The complex polyploidy in the ancestry of the Compositae and Calyceraceae represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term evolutionary fates and consequences of different ploidal levels. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  19. GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Constituents in the Leaves of 14 Compositae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiguang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The green organs, especially the leaves, of many Compositae plants possess characteristic aromas. To exploit the utility value of these germplasm resources, the constituents, mainly volatile compounds, in the leaves of 14 scented plant materials were qualitatively and quantitatively compared via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 213 constituents were detected and tentatively identified in the leaf extracts, and terpenoids (especially monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives, accounting for 40.45–90.38% of the total compounds, were the main components. The quantitative results revealed diverse concentrations and compositions of the chemical constituents between species. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that different groups of these Compositae plants were characterized by main components of α-thujone, germacrene D, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene, and camphor, for example. On the other hand, cluster memberships corresponding to the molecular phylogenetic framework, were found by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA based on the terpenoid composition of the tested species. These results provide a phytochemical foundation for the use of these scented Compositae plants, and for the further study of the chemotaxonomy and differential metabolism of Compositae species.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  2. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. I. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS WITH NEW PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.Matvieieva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The review explores some of the recent advances and the author's own researchs concerning biotechnological approaches for Agrobacterium tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Compositae family plants. This paper reviews the results of genetic transformation of Compositae plants, including edible (Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, oil (Helianthus annuus, decorative (Gerbera hybrida, medical (Bidens pilosa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera etc. plant species. Some Compositae genetic engineering areas are considered including creation of plants, resistant to pests, diseases and herbicides, to the effect of abiotic stress factors as well as plants with altered phenotype. The article also presents the data on the development of biotechnology for Compositae plants Cynara cardunculus, Arnica montana, Cichorium intybus, Artemisia annua "hairy" roots construction.

  3. The effect of the extraction techniques on the kinetics, yield and antioxidative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana P.; Stanković, Mihajlo Z.; Veljković, Vlada; Cakić, Milorad D.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Ilić, Dušica P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of three extraction techniques (Reflux maceration, Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction) on the kinetics, yield and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L. was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids content was measured by spectrophotometric...

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly and the putative biosynthetic pathway of steroidal sapogenins of Dioscorea composita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    Full Text Available The plant Dioscorea composita has important applications in the medical and energy industries, and can be used for the extraction of steroidal sapogenins (important raw materials for the synthesis of steroidal drugs and bioethanol production. However, little is known at the genetic level about how sapogenins are biosynthesized in this plant. Using Illumina deep sequencing, 62,341 unigenes were obtained by assembling its transcriptome, and 27,720 unigenes were annotated. Of these, 8,022 unigenes were mapped to 243 specific pathways, and 531 unigenes were identified to be involved in 24 secondary metabolic pathways. 35 enzymes, which were encoded by 79 unigenes, were related to the biosynthesis of steroidal sapogenins in this transcriptome database, covering almost all the nodes in the steroidal pathway. The results of real-time PCR experiments on ten related transcripts (HMGR, MK, SQLE, FPPS, DXS, CAS, HMED, CYP51, DHCR7, and DHCR24 indicated that sapogenins were mainly biosynthesized by the mevalonate pathway. The expression of these ten transcripts in the tuber and leaves was found to be much higher than in the stem. Also, expression in the shoots was low. The nucleotide and protein sequences and conserved domains of four related genes (HMGR, CAS, SQS, and SMT1 were highly conserved between D. composita and D. zingiberensis; but expression of these four genes is greater in D. composita. However, there is no expression of these key enzymes in potato and no steroidal sapogenins are synthesized.

  5. A Morphological, anatomical and caryological study on endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia taxa (Bornm. & Zahn Sell & West (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sepet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant samples of Endemic Pilosella hoppeana subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn Sell&West (1975 the taxa were collected in 2013 from the Spil Mountain in Manisa, one of the natural spreading areas. A thick cover was observed on the leaves of the taxon rosette on the base. In the anatomical investigations, the radial transmission in the stem takes up a great deal of space in the bundles compared to the floem elements of the xylem elements. The body covers the epidermis cells of a thick capillary layer with dense fur, and the transmission bundles are generally arranged in a large, small bundle. The leaves are in the bifacial leaf type and accordingly the separation of palisade parenchyma and sponge parenchyma is clearly observed. The abaxial percentage is longer and more intense, and there are stoma cells that are arranged at regular intervals with cover and secretion feathers on both sides. Abdominal abdominal stomata is the upper case. The number of chromosomes was determined as 2x = 2n = 18 in karyological studies performed by Takson and chromosome measurements were made.

  6. Belowground neighbor perception in Arabidopsis thaliana studied by transcriptome analysis: roots of Hieracium pilosella cause biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Root-root interactions are much more sophisticated than previously thought, yet the mechanisms of belowground neighbor perception remain largely obscure. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses allow detailed insight into plant reactions to environmental cues.A root interaction trial was set up to explore both morphological and whole genome transcriptional responses in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence or absence of an inferior competitor, Hieracium pilosella.Neighbor perception was indicated by Arabidopsis roots predominantly growing away from the neighbor (segregation, while solitary plants placed more roots towards the middle of the pot. Total biomass remained unaffected. Database comparisons in transcriptome analysis revealed considerable similarity between Arabidopsis root reactions to neighbors and reactions to pathogens. Detailed analyses of the functional category ‘biotic stress’ using MapMan tools found the sub-category ‘pathogenesis-related proteins’ highly significantly induced. A comparison to a study on intraspecific competition brought forward a core of genes consistently involved in reactions to neighbor roots.We conclude that beyond resource depletion roots perceive neighboring roots or their associated microorganisms by a relatively uniform mechanism that involves the strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. In an ecological context the findings reveal that belowground neighbor detection may occur independently of resource depletion, allowing for a time advantage for the root to prepare for potential interactions.

  7. Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-01-01

    Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN RATHI J.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  9. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MARTIN RATHI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  10. LC-PDA-ESI/MS Identification of the Phenolic Components of Three Compositae Spices: Chamomile, Tarragon, and Mexican Arnica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) and Mexican arnica (Heterotheca inuoides) are common compositae spices and herbs found in the US market. They contain flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates that are potentially beneficial to human health. A standardized LC-PDA-ESI...

  11. On five Compositae taxa which are confusingly illustrated in fl oristic publications for Andorra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Raab-Straube, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Five Compositae taxa which are illustrated in floristic publications for Andorra are questionable records which appear to have never been collected there in the wild.

    Se comentan cinco taxones de compuestas que aparecen confusamente ilustrados en publicaciones florísticas de Andorra y que nunca se han recolectado en territorio andorrano.

  12. Revisión del género PerezIa (compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Perezia Lag. (Compositae se compone de 30 especies de hierbas perennes distribuidas principalmente en la región andino-patagónica, desde Colombia hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile, con algunas especies en el este de Brasil y de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Sus corolas bilabiadas, anteras sagitadas, estilos truncados con una coronita apical de pelos colectores y su estructura polínica ubican al género en la tribu Nassauvieae, subfamilia Mutisioideae. Se propone en este trabajo: a la rehabilitación de Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii y P. capito; b la transferencia de P. ciliosa var. dentata a la categoría de especie [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c la inclusión de Perezia catharinensis Cabrera, P. eryngioides (Cabrera Crisci y P. volcanensis Cabrera, descritas o transferidas posteriormente a la primer revisión del género en 1969; d la eliminación de subespecies en P. lactucoides; e el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pinnatifida, P. pygmaea y P. coerulescens; f el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pungens, P. ciliaris, P. mandonii, P. purpurata, P. carduncelloides y P. sublyrata; g la rehabilitación de Perezia recurvata subsp. recurvata, subsp. beckii y subsp. triceps. Se designaron dos lectotipos y cinco neotipos, y se excluyeron 86 nombres del género.Revision of the genus Perezia (Compositae. The genus Perezia Lag. (Compositae, with 30 species, is distributed in the Andean-Patagonian region from Colombia to southern Argentina and Chile, and in eastern Brasil and Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. It belongs to the tribe Nassauvieae, subfamily Mutisioideae by its bilabiate corollas, caudate anthers, truncate style branches with a crown of collector hairs, and a particular pollen structure. It is proposed in this paper: a the rehabilitation of Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii, and P. capito; b the change of P. ciliosa var. dentata to the species category [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c the

  13. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  14. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  15. Effects of cadmium stress on growth and amino acid metabolism in two Compositae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangxu; Xiao, Huayun; Guo, Qingjun; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhao, Jingjing; Yang, Dan

    2018-08-30

    Cadmium, a high toxic heavy metal, is one of the most serious contaminants in soil and a potential threat to plant growth and human health. Amino acid metabolism has the central role in heavy metal stress resistance of plants. In this paper, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 12, 30 mg kg -1 ) on the growth, Cd accumulation and amino acid metabolism in two Compositae plants (Ageratum conyzoides L. and Crassocephalum crepidioides). The results showed that under cadmium stress, C. crepidioides accumulated more Cd in its shoot and was tolerant to Cd, whereas its low Cd-accumulating relative, A. conyzoides, suffered reduced growth. The Cd content in the aerial part of C. crepidioides exceeded the threshold of Cd-hyperaccumulator. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and biological transfer factor (BTF) values for Cd in C. crepidioides were > 1. Thus, C. crepidioides can be regarded as Cd-hyperaccumulator. The comparison between both studied plants indicated that Cd stress resulted in a differential but coordinated response of amino acid levels, which are playing a significant role in plant adaptation to Cd stress. Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, Gaba, Val and Ala dominated the major amino acids. Higher Cd tolerance and Cd accumulation in C. crepidioides was associated with greater accumulation of free amino acids, especially for Gln and Asn, in C. crepidioides than in A. conyzoides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic maps of Saccharum officinarum L. and Saccharum robustum Brandes & Jew. ex grassl

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    Claudia T. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis was performed in a population composed of 100 F1 individuals derived from a cross between a cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum `LA Purple' and its proposed progenitor species (S. robustum `Mol 5829'. Various types (arbitrarily primed-PCR, RFLPs, and AFLPs of single-dose DNA markers (SDMs were used to construct genetic linkage maps for both species. The LA Purple map was composed of 341 SDMs, spanning 74 linkage groups and 1,881 cM, while the Mol 5829 map contained 301 SDMs, spanning 65 linkage groups and 1,189 cM. Transmission genetics in these two species showed incomplete polysomy based on the detection of 15% of SDMs linked in repulsion in LA Purple and 13% of these in Mol 5829. Because of this incomplete polysomy, multiple-dose markers could not be mapped for lack of a genetic model for their segregation. Due to inclusion of RFLP anchor probes, conserved in related species, the resulting maps will serve as useful tools for breeding, ecology, evolution, and molecular biology studies within the Andropogoneae.Uma progênie de 100 indivíduos F1 obtidos de um cruzamento entre cana-de-açúcar (S. officinarum `LA Purple' e seu suposto progenitor (S. robustum `Mol 5829' foi analisada utilizando marcadores moleculares em dose única. Marcadores do tipo AP-PCR, RFLP e AFLP, gerando um total de 642 polimorfismos, foram mapeados em ambas espécies. O mapa genético de LA Purple foi composto de 341 marcadores, distribuídos em 74 grupos de ligação e 1.881 cM, enquanto que o mapa de ligação de Mol 5829 continha 301 marcadores ao longo de 65 grupos de ligação e 1.189 cM. A transmissão genética nessas duas espécies apresentou polissomia incompleta devido a detecção de 15% dos marcadores em dose simples ligados em fase de repulsão e 13% desses em Mol 5829. Devido a essa polissomia incompleta, os marcadores em dose múltipla não puderam ser mapeados por falta de um modelo genético para descrever tal segregação. O

  17. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio". A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que anteriormente estavam na propriedade não foram afetados. O quadro clínico iniciou-se 8 horas após a introdução dos animais na nova pastagem e incluiu anorexia, depressão, retração abdominal ou leve timpanismo, incoordenação de membros posteriores, fezes pastosas, corrimento nasal catarral, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, coma e morte com evolução clínica entre 5 e 48 horas. Os principais achados de necropsia foram no trato digestivo com edema de serosa e da parede dos pré-estômagos principalmente na região retículo-ruminal e do abomaso, avermelhamento e desprendimento da mucosa ruminal e do retículo e intensa hemorragia na submucosa. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose do epitélio do pré-estômago, com infiltrado polimorfonuclear, congestão, hemorragia e edema, e necrose do tecido linfóide de linfonodos, baço e trato digestivo.An outbreak of Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep is reported, which occurred in November 2004 in the county of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. From a herd of 212 sheep, coming from a Baccharis coridifolia free area, in the county of Jaguarão, RS, 35 sheep died until 5 days after the arrival in the new area where the plant was found with abundance. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN SITU EVALUATION OF FRESH AND ENSILED SUGARCANE (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Reyes Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated chemical composition and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and ruminal pH of fresh (FSC and ensiled (SCS sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum forage diets. In situ digestibility was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows fitted with a rumen cannula. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugar cane and supplemented with 1 kg of commercial dairy concentrate (18% CP. Ground sample (5g for each sugar cane (FSC, and SCS were incubated in rumen for 0, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates. ESC showed significant changes (P0.05 was noted. In situ digestibility of organic matter (ISDOM, % was higher (P0.05 at 12 and 76 h of incubation. The ruminal pH showed no differences (P>0.05 between treatments. It is concluded that the silage of sugar cane is an alternative to provide forage in the season of low growth and quality of the grass. Â

  19. Alleviation of Salinity Effects by Exogenous Applications of Salicylic Acid in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Chaharlang Badil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Abiotic stresses cause 71% reduction in crop yield around the world, from which 20% is related to salinity stress. The importance of sugarcane increases every day due to greater demand for sugar. Since sugarcane has mainly grown in arid and semi-arid regions, salinity is one of the main problems for this crop due to higher evaporation in these areas. Salicylic acid (SA is classified as a phyto – hormone and belongs to a group of phenol compounds. Salicylic acid can improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. This research aimed at studying the effect of SA on the alleviating of salinity stress in sugarcane. Materials and Methods The effects of salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological responses of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv. CP69-1062 were studied under salt stress. The experiment design was a factorial of two factors, based on a randomized completely design with three replications. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Sugarcane Research and Training Institute of Khuzestan, Iran in 2012. Treatments evaluated in this study were three levels of salt stress, including (ECW

  20. Analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance in different extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Lin, L. J.; Huang, X. B.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    It was developed for the analysis of the essential oils of Alpiniae Officinarum Hance extracted by steam distillation (SD), ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with retention index (RI) method. There were multiple volatile components of the oils extracted by the three above-mention methods respectively identified; meanwhile, each one was quantified by area normalization method. The results indicated that the content of 1,8-Cineole, the index constituent, by SD was similar as SFE, and higher than UAE. Although UAE was less time consuming and consumed less energy, the oil quality was poorer due to the use of organic solvents was hard to degrade. In addition, some constituents could be obtained by SFE but could not by SD. In conclusion, essential oil of different extraction methods from the same batch of materials had been proved broadly similarly, however, there were some differences in composition and component ratio. Therefore, development and utilization of different extraction methods must be selected according to the functional requirements of products.

  1. A new diarylheptanoid from Alpinia officinarum promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; Zhang, Xiaopo; Wang, Yong; Chen, Feng; Li, Youbin; Li, Yonghui; Tan, Yinfeng; Gong, Jingwen; Zhong, Xia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Junqing

    2018-03-01

    A new diarylheptanoid, namely trans-(4R,5S)-epoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (1), and a new natural product, 7-(4″-hydroxy-3″-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-hepta-4E,6E-dien-3-one (2), were obtained from the aqueous extract of Alpinia officinarum Hance, together with three other diarylheptanoids, 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (4) and 5-methoxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (5). The structures were characterised mainly by analysing their physical data including IR, NMR and HRMS. This study highlights that the 4,5-epoxy moiety in 1 is rarely seen in diarylheptanoids. In addition, the five isolates were tested for their differentiation activity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The results showed that these compounds could dose-dependently promote adipocyte differentiation without cytotoxicity (IC 50  > 100 μM).

  2. Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae in wound care: an experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akah PA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of opacities and foreign bodies from the eyes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potentials for use of leaves of this plant in wound care. Methods The effect of the methanol extract (ME and the hexane (HF and methanol (MF fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions. Results The extract and fractions significantly (P ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145 and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600, and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Conclusion The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound healing which suggest good potentials for use in wound care.

  3. Evolution of cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and antimicrobial studies of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum) roots extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, M.; Riaz, M.; Kanwal, N.; Mahmood, I.; Khan, A.

    2017-01-01

    For health care over three-quarters of the world population mainly relies on plants and plant extracts. In this research work percentage yield, qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals, antioxidant ability, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) root extracts were analyzed. Roots of selected plant were extracted by socking in polarity base solvents i.e. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol. As a result of the qualitative determination of phytochemicals flavonoids, saponin, tannins and phlobatannins found to be present, while alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids found to be absent. Spectroscopic methods were used to determine total phenolic contents 7.58-126.04 Gallic acid equivalent mg/100g of dry extracts and flavonoid contents 1.71-25.4 Catechin equivalent mg/100g of dry extracts. The antioxidant capacity of plant extracts of free radical scavenging by DPPH, percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and reducing power assays were carried out. BHT was used as a positive control in the percentage scavenging assay. The percentage free radical scavenging by DPPH (having concentration 0.025 g/L) was found in the range of 80.13-86.74 %. The percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was also analysed. Antimicrobial activity was studied in all extracts against selected bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Hemolytic activity was also determined in plant extracts and maximum percentage of lysis was found as 1.582 % by methanol extract, while the minimum percentage of lysis was 0.010 % for n-hexane extract. (author)

  4. Constituents of the arial parts of Eupatorium odoratum L. ( Syn. Chromolaena odorata) (L.) R.M. King And H Robinson), family compositae-grown in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trang, N.T.D.; Phuong, L.V.N.; Dung, N.X.; Leclercq, P.A.; Wanner, M.J.; Koomen, C.J.; Fokkens, R.

    1994-01-01

    Eupatorium odoratum (L.), Family Compositae grows very fast in various places of the world, especially in tropical countries. This plant belonges to one of the worst plants. Some applications of this plant used for treatment of diseases such as disrrhoea, dysentery and scabies have been found in

  5. Contact sensitization to calocephalin, a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii, Compositae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Hindsén, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Cushion bush [Leucophyta brownii Cass. = Calocephalus brownii (Cass.) F. Muell.] is an Australian Compositae shrub that has been introduced into Scandinavia as a pot plant. The first case of sensitization occurred in a gardener, and the main allergen was identified as the guaianolide calocephalin....

  6. Fotosíntesis en tres poblaciones altitudinales de la planta andina Espeletia schultzii (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Castrillo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se establece una comparación de algunos parámetros fotosintéticos: actividad Rubisco (Ribulosa 1, 5-bis-fosfato carboxilasa EC 4.1.1.39 contenidos de clorofilas, azúcares solubles totales y proteínas solubles totales y área foliar específica (AFE, en tres poblaciones altitudinales de Espeletia schultzii ubicadas a 3 100, 3 550 y 4 200 msnm. De acuerdo con el análisis de varianza la población a 4 200 m presentó una actividad Rubisco significativamente mayor que las otras dos, en cuyos casos los valores no fueron diferentes. Los contenidos de clorofila a presentan una leve tendencia a la disminución con la altura; mientras que la clorofila b se mantiene constante, razón por la cual la relación a/b (R a/b disminuye con la elevación, aunque, las diferencias no son significativas. El contenido de azúcares en cada una de las poblaciones estudiadas (gm-2, aumenta con la elevación; las diferencias entre las poblaciones son significativas. Con relación al contenido de proteínas, no existen diferencias entre las poblaciones estudiadas. El área foliar específica (AFE disminuye significativamente con la altura. Es probable que el incremento en la actividad Rubisco sea producido por una mayor activación de la enzima y no por el mayor contenido de proteína. Los azúcares solubles presentan incremento significativo, este hecho es probable que se encuentre asociado con la actividad Rubisco. De los cinco parámetros fotosintéticos medidos, tres presentan diferencias significativas asociadas con la altitud. Esto representa un compromiso entre una mayor actividad metabólica mantenida en un menor volumen celularPhotosynthesis in three altitudinal populations of the Andean plant Espeletia schultzii (Compositae. Photosynthesis was compared in three altitudinal populations of Espeletia schultzii: 3 100, 3 550 and 4 200 masl. The measured parameters were Rubisco activity (EC 4.1.139, chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugars

  7. Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mariane de Mendonça; Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; de Setta, Nathalia; Kitajima, João Paulo; Cruz, Guilherme Marcelo Queiroga; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Grativol, Clícia; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Whole genome duplication has played an important role in plant evolution and diversification. Sugarcane is an important crop with a complex hybrid polyploid genome, for which the process of adaptation to polyploidy is still poorly understood. In order to improve our knowledge about sugarcane genome evolution and the homo/homeologous gene expression balance, we sequenced and analyzed 27 BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) of sugarcane R570 cultivar, containing the putative single-copy genes LFY (seven haplotypes), PHYC (four haplotypes), and TOR (seven haplotypes). Comparative genomic approaches showed that these sugarcane loci presented a high degree of conservation of gene content and collinearity (synteny) with sorghum and rice orthologous regions, but were invaded by transposable elements (TE). All the homo/homeologous haplotypes of LFY, PHYC, and TOR are likely to be functional, because they are all under purifying selection (dN/dS ≪ 1). However, they were found to participate in a nonequivalently manner to the overall expression of the corresponding gene. SNPs, indels, and amino acid substitutions allowed inferring the S. officinarum or S. spontaneum origin of the TOR haplotypes, which further led to the estimation that these two sugarcane ancestral species diverged between 2.5 and 3.5 Ma. In addition, analysis of shared TE insertions in TOR haplotypes suggested that two autopolyploidization may have occurred in the lineage that gave rise to S. officinarum, after its divergence from S. spontaneum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Radiation-induced in vitro mutagenesis system for salt tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A. Nikam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray-induced in vitro mutagenesis and selection for salt (NaCl tolerance were investigated in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Embryogenic callus cultures were irradiated (10 to 80 Gy and subjected to in vitro selection by exposure of irradiated callus to NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mmol L− 1. Increasing NaCl concentrations resulted in growth reduction and increased membrane damage. Salt-selected callus lines were characterized by the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, and Na+ and K+ concentration. Higher accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was observed in NaCl stressed callus irradiated at 20 Gy. Na+ concentration increased and K+ concentration decreased with increasing salt level. Irradiated callus showed 50–60% regeneration under NaCl stress, and in vitro-regenerated plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 80–85% survival. A total of 138 irradiated and salt-selected selections were grown to maturity and their agronomic performance was evaluated under normal and saline conditions. Of these, 18 mutant clones were characterized for different agro-morphological characters and some of the mutant clones exhibited improved sugar yield with increased Brix%, number of millable canes, and yield. The result suggest that radiation-induced mutagenesis offers an effective way to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane.

  9. Sobre la circunscripción y posición taxonómica de Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae [On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç Sáez Goñalons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se aportan datos sobre algunos táxones del grupo de Centaurea linifolia presentes en las sierras de la Comunidad Valenciana y áreas limítrofes. Como resultado se propone reconocer en C. antennata tres subespecies, con síndromes de caracteres propios, que ocupan áreas geográficas bien delimitadas y presentan un comportamiento ecológico diferenciado. Según esto, se propone la nueva combinación C. antennata subsp. caballeroi para las poblaciones del sur de Tarragona y norte de Castellón, seleccionándose además un lectótipo. Para cada taxon aceptado se indican sus caracteres morfológicos diferenciales, distribución y ecología. Además, se aporta una clave de identificación. SUMMARY: On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae: Data are reported on several taxa of the aggregate of Centaurea linifolia that grow in the mountains of the Valencian Community and neighboring areas. As a result, in the complex of C. antennata three taxa are accepted at the subspecific rank, which have their own syndromes of morphological characters, occur in well-defined territories and show different ecological behavior. The new combination C. antennata subsp. caballeroi is stated to name populations from southern Tarragona and northern Castellón provinces. Moreover, a lectotype is selected for the latter name. For each accepted taxon, its diagnostic morphological traits, distribution and ecology are commented. An identification key is also presented.

  10. Protease-inhibiting, molecular modeling and antimicrobial activities of extracts and constituents from Helichrysum foetidum and Helichrysum mechowianum (compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malolo, Fanny-Aimée Essombe; Bissoue Nouga, Achille; Kakam, Antoine; Franke, Katrin; Ngah, Lidwine; Flausino, Otavio; Mpondo Mpondo, Emmanuel; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Ndom, Jean Claude; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    from Helichrysum species (Compositae).

  11. Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity during treatment with azathioprine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, O.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in four patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity before and during treatment with azathioprine were estimated. It was found that the number of Leu 6+ Langerhans cells decreased during therapy. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, DR+, and Leu M2+ cells in the blood and a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, and DR+ cells in the skin. Concomitantly with the changes in the number of immunocompetent cells, the eczema cleared

  12. saccharum saccharum officinarum officinarum ) bagasse and parkia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    in wastewater include: suspended solids, biodegradable organic ... The seeds of the plant are enclosed in a yellowish, mealy, sweet ... and parkia biglobosa in wastewater treatment involve ..... thesis, Graduate Faculty of the Louissiana State.

  13. Actividad molusquicida del Piquerol A aislado de Piqueria trinervia (compositae sobre ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados The molluscicide activity of Piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae against eight species of pulmonate snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cruz-Reys

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available De las partes aéreas de la planta Piqueria trinervia (Compositae colectada en diveresas áereas de México, se aisló el Piquerol A. Este compuesto se probó como agente molusquicida contra ocho especies de caracoles pulmonados: Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnae sp., Pseudosuccinea columella, Stagnicola attenuata, de México; F. (B. cubensis y Physacubensis, de Cuba; P. Columella y Biomphalaria glabrata, de Brasil; B glabrata, de Puerto Rico; S. elodes, de Estados Unidos. Se utilizaron tres concentraciones 50, 25 y 5 ppm para cada una de las especies y 2 períodos de exposición, 6 y 24 horas, a 20-22ºC. En 50 ppm, después de 6 horas, y 25 ppm, después de 24 horas los ejemplares de todas las especies murieron. En 5 ppm después de 24 horas, se observaron mortalidades de 60 a 100%. En ningún caso se observó recuperación después de la exposición por 24 horas. El piquerol A es un terpeno biodegradable que presenta otras actividades biológicas. No se han hecho pruebas de toxicidad en otros animales ni pruebas de campo. Sin embargo, es una substacia con alto potencial de uso como molusquicida en zonas de transmisión focal. Es la primera que en México se hacen estudios sistemáticos sobre molusquicidas de origen vegetal.In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species. Fossaria (Fossaria humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B. cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from USA. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22ºC. A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25

  14. Saccharum officinarum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Rands et Abbott,. 1964) et à la mosaïque (Abbott, 1961), deux maladies dues à un virus, ainsi qu'à la gommose. (Hughes, 1964) provoquée par une bactérie. En réponse à cette contrainte, des hybrides interspécifiques entre S.

  15. Diversification dynamics and transoceanic Eurasian-Australian disjunction in the genus Picris (Compositae) induced by the interplay of shifts in intrinsic/extrinsic traits and paleoclimatic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovák, Marek; Kučera, Jaromír; Lack, Hans Walter; Ziffer-Berger, Jotham; Melicharková, Andrea; Záveská, Eliška; Vďačný, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Understanding transcontinental biogeographic patterns has been one of the main foci of the field of biogeography. While multiple explanations for transcontinental disjunctions have been proposed, little is still known about the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic traits for the diversification dynamics of disjunct taxa. Here, we study the evolutionary history of the genus Picris L. (Compositae), a great model for investigating the diversification dynamics of transoceanic bipolar disjunct organisms. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Picris was a semelparous and heterocarpic herb that lived in unpredictable environments of North Africa and West Asia. Diversification analyses suggest a significant shift in speciation ca. 1 million years ago, likely associated with the onset of the mid-Pleistocene revolution. Longevity characters are correlated with the evolution of particular fruit types and with environmental conditions. Heterocarpic species are mostly semelparous herbs strongly linked with unpredictable habitats, while homocarpic taxa are mostly iteroparous plants occurring in predictable environments. Binary-state speciation and extinction analyses suggest that homocarpy, iteroparity, and habitats predictability accelerate diversification. Although the combination of homocarpy and iteroparity evolved in several lineages, only members of the P. hieracioides group were able to colonise Eurasia and expand to Australia by transoceanic dispersal. Those findings indicate that large-scale colonisation events depend on a complex interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Composition, Taste, Aroma, and Antioxidant Activity of Solidified Noncentrifugal Brown Sugars Prepared from Whole Stalk and Separated Pith of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ishmael, Mutanda; Asikin, Yonathan; Hirose, Naoto; Mizu, Masami; Shikanai, Takesi; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2016-10-25

    In this study, 2 types of solidified noncentrifugal brown sugars (W-NCS and P-NCS) were prepared from the whole stalk and separated pith, respectively, of raw sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). These products were discriminated in terms of their quality attributes, including color, sugars and minerals composition, taste, aroma, and antioxidant activity. The brown color of P-NCS was clearly different compared with that of W-NCS with a color difference value (ΔE * ) of 9.36. There was no difference in the sugars and minerals composition between the 2 types of sugar, which led to very similar taste profiles. However, P-NCS had a weaker aroma intensity than W-NCS did. Moreover, P-NCS retained more than 60% of the antioxidant activity of W-NCS. The information gleaned from this study might be used to select appropriate end-uses for these 2 types of sugars. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Effect of sugar industry spentwash (diluted) on the characteristics of soil and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) growth in the subtropical environment of Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloi, Ghulam Muhiyuddin; Memon, Mehrunisa; Memon, Kazi Suleman; Ahmad, Sagheer; Sheikh, Saghir Ahmed; Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza

    2017-03-01

    Spentwash is a rich source of organic matter and essential plant nutrients in addition to excess salts. Sugar mills in Pakistan discharge about 3.48 million tons of spentwash annually, with no proper procedures for its disposal or utilization. To test the effect of diluted spentwash on soil and the soil's ability to support plant growth, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) variety CPF-237 was planted. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design involving factorial combination of four concentrations of each spentwash (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and mineral fertilizers (0, 1/3, 2/3, and the full recommended rate of NP). The 10% spentwash plus 2/3 mineral fertilizer treatment substituted 33% each of N and P and 100% of K, saving mineral fertilizer cost (Rs. 48600 ∼ US$458) in addition to 29.54% increase in yield over full NP fertilizer. The same treatment also improved the soil organic matter (65%), N (20%), P (25%), and K (230%) over full NP treatment alone. An increase in the salt content of the soil was detected within the prescribed limits, with the exception of HCO 3 .

  18. Analyses of Indole Compounds in Sugar Cane (Saccharum officinarum L. Juice by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after Solid-Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Wan Hong Yong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 10 indole compounds, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, one of the most important naturally occurring auxins and some of its metabolites, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS after solid-phase extraction (SPE was reported for the first time. The analysis was carried out using a reverse phase HPLC gradient elution, with an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid modified by methanol. Furthermore, a novel SPE procedure was developed for the pre-concentration and purification of indole compounds using C18 SPE cartridges. The combination of SPE, HPLC, and LC-MS was applied to screen for the indole compounds present in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L. juice, a refreshing beverage with various health benefits. Finally, four indole compounds were successfully detected and quantified in sugar cane juice by HPLC, which were further unequivocally confirmed by LC-MS/MS experiments operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode.

  19. One-pot green synthesis of carbon dots by using Saccharum officinarum juice for fluorescent imaging of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Vaibhavkumar N. [Applied Chemistry Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, 395 007 (India); Jha, Sanjay [Gujarat Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat, 395007 (India); Kailasa, Suresh Kumar, E-mail: sureshkumarchem@gmail.com [Applied Chemistry Department, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, 395 007 (India)

    2014-05-01

    We are reporting highly economical plant-based hydrothermal method for one-pot green synthesis of water-dispersible fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) by using Saccharum officinarum juice as precursor. The synthesized CDs were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM), and laser scanning confocal microscopic techniques. The CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of ∼ 3 nm and showed bright blue fluorescence under UV-light (λ{sub ex} = 365 nm). These CDs acted as excellent fluorescent probes in cellular imaging of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). - Highlights: • One-pot green synthesis was used for fluorescent CDs. • FT-IR, DLS, and TEM were used for the characterization of CDs. • The CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of ∼ 3 nm. • The CDs acted as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacteria and yeast cells.

  20. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((∗)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (∗)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards

  2. Effect of iso-osmotic salt and water stress in relation to adjustment on mutant sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Akash V.; Kalwade, Sachin B.; Nikam, Ashok A.; Devarumath, R.M.; Chauvan, Viraj S.; Kanse, Sangram S.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis followed by in vitro selection was employed for salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cv.CoM0265. Assimilated regenerated mutant plantlets were planted on control as well as salt affected soil. Mutants which showed relatively good response with respect to its quantitative and qualitative parameters were selected for priming experiment. Nine mutants and its respective control and parent control which are known to vary in salt tolerance under field conditions were studied. In order to discriminate between the ionic and osmotic components of salt stress, mutant plants were treated with NaCl salt (100 mM) or polyethylene glycol-PEG 8000 solutions (20%) for 10 days. Both NaCI and PEG treatment significantly reduced leaf width, number of green leaves and chlorophyll stability index. Osmotic adjustment indicated that the NaCI and PEG stress lead to accumulation of osmolytes, however sugar level changes non significantly. The ion concentration was drastically affected upon NaCI treatment, whereas PEG stress accumulated relatively less amount of Na + ions in comparison to NaCl. However, there was an increase in K + concentration upon PEG treatment, whereas NaCI stress accumulated less K + concentration with respect to PEG and control. The NaCI and PEG treated mutant plants showed increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in comparison to its control and parent control. Among the mutant selected gamma rays irradiation in corporation with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress is one of the important goals for the biotechnological improvement of crop plants. Enhanced salinity tolerance may prove beneficial to improve the competitiveness of the popular sugarcane cultivars and their commercial cultivation in saline areas. (author)

  3. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Joseph C V; Allen, Leon H

    2009-07-15

    Two cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. CP73-1547 and CP88-1508) were grown for 3 months in paired-companion, temperature-gradient, sunlit greenhouses under daytime [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (double ambient) micromol mol(-1) and at temperatures of 1.5 degrees C (near ambient) and 6.0 degrees C higher than outside ambient temperature. Leaf area and biomass, stem biomass and juice and CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of fully developed leaves were measured at harvest. On a main stem basis, leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume were increased by growth at doubled [CO2] or high temperature. Such increases were even greater under combination of doubled [CO2]/high temperature. Plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination averaged 50%, 26%, 84% and 124% greater in leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume, respectively, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. In addition, plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination were 2-3-fold higher in stem soluble solids than those at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. Although midday CER of fully developed leaves was not affected by doubled [CO2] or high temperature, plants grown at doubled [CO2] were 41-43% less in leaf stomatal conductance and 69-79% greater in leaf water-use efficiency, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]. Activity of PEPC was down-regulated 23-32% at doubled [CO2], while high temperature did not have a significant impact on this enzyme. Activity of Rubisco was not affected by growth at doubled [CO2], but was reduced 15-28% at high temperature. The increases in stem juice production and stem juice soluble solids concentration for sugarcane grown at doubled [CO2] or high temperature, or at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination, were partially

  4. Compositae dermatitis from airborne parthenolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    of the HIVAS extract by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detected PHL in a concentration of 510 ng mL(-1) in the HIVAS extract. Testing with a dilution series of PHL showed positive reactions down to 8.1 ng in selected patients. None of the 12 patients tested positive to monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes......, obtained by fractionation of ether extracts, dynamic headspace and high-volume air sampler (HIVAS) technique, respectively. RESULTS: Among 12 feverfew-allergic patients, eight had positive patch-test reactions to a HIVAS filter extract, while two tested positive to a headspace extract. Subsequent analysis...

  5. Composita wewnątrzwspólnotowe – wyrazy złożone z cząstką евро- w języku bułgarskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Długosz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracommunitary compositas – compounds with евро- particle in Bulgarian From the observation of a contemporary Bulgarian word formation system results that the number of compounds which significant part is developed basing on new productive models is constantly increasing. Therefore the subject of this article constitute Bulgarian compounds with a disintegrated particle евро- that are thematically connected with the process of European Integration. I begin the analysis from the description of compositas’ word formation construction. Then I go to semantic dissertation (I make an attempt to classify all mentioned structures thematically and I create a dictionary definition of the евро- particle and on to stylistic ones (I pay special attention to the functioning of the discussed units both in a text, and in a lexical system.

  6. Diversidade de fungos em um vertissolo com adição de vinhaça na cultura de cana-de-açúcar ( saccharum officinarum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Rubens Pessoa de; UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE ALAGOAS

    2012-01-01

    O artigo trata do estudo da aplicação da vinhaça em solos cultivados com cana-de-açúcar (S. officinarum L.). O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da aplicação de vinhaça em solo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar sobre a densidade e diversidade de fungos presentes no solo e compará-lo com a área sem aplicação de vinhaça, em duas áreas distintas em canaviais pertencentes à Usina São José do Pinheiro, no município de Laranjeiras, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Área A – Fazenda Poção co...

  7. Caracterización espectroscópica del D-003 obtenido de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marrero Delange

    Full Text Available Introducción: el D-003 es un ingrediente farmacéutico activo purificado a partir de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. con efectos como reductor del colesterol y antioxidante, el cual está compuesto por una mezcla de ácidos grasos libres saturados de elevado peso molecular, cada uno dentro de un intervalo de concentración específica determinada por cromatografía de gases (CG. La caracterización espectroscópica del D-003, sin embargo, no ha sido previamente informada. Objetivo: caracterizar el ingrediente farmacéutico activo nombrado D-003 de acuerdo con sus espectros ultravioleta (UV, infrarrojo (FTIR, resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN y de masas (EM. Métodos: se evaluaron muestras de seis lotes de D-003 (CNIC, Cuba mediante las técnicas de UV, FTIR, RMN-¹H, RMN-13C y CG-EM. Para obtener los espectros de masas de los ácidos del D-003, estos se derivaron como ésteres metílicos y trimetilsilil. La cuantificación de los ácidos grasos libres saturados de elevado peso molecular, analizados como ésteres metílicos, se llevó a cabo por CG con detector de ionización por llama (DILL. Resultados: los espectros UV, IR, RMN-¹H y RMN-13C mostraron que el ingrediente farmacéutico activo D00-3 está constituido por una mezcla de ácidos grasos libres saturados de elevado peso molecular, mientras las técnicas de CG-EM y CG-DILL permitieron asegurar la presencia de 13 ácidos grasos libres saturados de elevado peso molecular en proporciones definidas: C24:0 (0,2-0,6 %, C25:0 (0,4-0,9 %, C26:0 (2,0-3,1 %, C27:0 (2,1-2,7 %, C28:0 (30,0-37,5 %, C29:0 (1,5-1,7 %, C30:0 (17,0-18,6 %, C31:0 (0,9-1,2 %, C32:0 (6,9-8,9 %, C33:0 (0,9-1,3 %, C34:0 (7,2-11,1 %, C35:0 (0,3-0,6 % y C36:0 (2,2-3,8 %. Conclusiones: a partir de las técnicas espectroscópicas de UV, FTIR, RMN, y CG-EM se demuestra que el D00-3 está compuesto por 13 ácidos grasos saturados de elevado peso molecular, entre los cuales el ácido octacosanoico es el

  8. TERMINAÇÃO DE BOVINOS BRANGUS INTEIROS E CASTRADOS COM CANA-DEAÇÚCAR (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM OU SILAGEM DE CAPIM MOMBAÇA (PANICUM MAXIMUM CV MOMBAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Diniz dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio, carcass quality and economic viability of using fresh sugar cane and mombaça grass silage in Brangus castrated and intact males on termination. We used 140 Brangus cattle, with an average of 21 months and 355 kg live weight, identified and randomly assigned to treatments: T1, 37 intac males and T2, 37 castrated animals receiving both fresh sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum crushed;T3, 33 intact males and T4, 33 castrated animals, both fed mombaça grass silage (Panicum maximum cv mombaça. For economic evaluation, it was estimated the production costs of bulky coming from the farm costs, expenses concentrates, diesel, hand labor, equipment maintenance and control of 46 Colloquium Agrariae, v. 10, n.1, Jan-Jun. 2014, p.45-54. DOI: 10.5747/ca.2014.v10.n1.a099 parasites were also considered. The final weight of the entire animal was higher (P <0.05 than castrated animals. And feed conversion was higher in castrated animals, indicating that the bulls were more efficient in converting food into weight gain. The higher net revenue observed in intact males (mombaça is justified by the greater weight gain and lower diet costs. Animals that received diet with mombaça grass silage had greater economic feasibility of that received diet with sugar cane.

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS MÉTODOS DE DIGESTIÓN ÁCIDA EN EL ANÁLISIS DE TEJIDO FOLIAR DE CAÑA (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mendoza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El desempeño de los métodos de digestión, vía seca (DVS y ácida asistida por microondas (DAAM fue evaluado en el análisis de muestras foliares de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.. También se evaluó el efecto de las técnicas de detección comúnmente utilizadas en el laboratorio [P: espectrometría de absorción molecular visible (UV-VIS; K: espectrometría de emisión atómica (AES; Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn: espectrofotometría de absorción atómica (FAAS] respecto a la técnica de fluorescencia de rayos X de reflexión total (TXRF sobre los resultados obtenidos a partir de los dos métodos de digestión. La exactitud y precisión de los métodos de digestión se determinó con dos muestras certificadas, Tejido vegetal N°6 y N°11 (Comisión de Normalización y Acreditación - Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo. La determinación de P vía TXRF reportó resultados mayores respecto a UV-VIS en las muestras foliares de caña de azúcar. Los métodos de digestión mostraron resultados exactos y precisos en Ca cuando se utiliza FAAS o TXRF. En Zn y Cu se presentan desviaciones y varianzas asociadas a las concentraciones bajas en las muestras y su relación con el blanco de reactivos. En general, la precisión y exactitud están relacionadas principalmente con el rango de concentración de cada elemento en las muestras y el límite de cuantificación. No se encontro diferencias apreciables en cuanto al desempeño analítico de ambos métodos de digestión. La detección por TXRF presenta menor eficiencia analítica en cuanto a exactitud y precisión en algunos elementos, pero menores costos en tiempo de análisis.

  10. Hybridization within a Pilosella population: a morphometric analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 223-238 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybridization * introgression * multivariate morphometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  11. Evaluation of sugarcane ( Saccharum officinarum L.) somaclonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of four plants which regenerated from the tolerant calli were selected but the best in vigor were grown in in vitro and hydroponic systems under salinity stress (with the previous levels) as compared to source variety. With increasing supply of NaCl in both systems, root growth was more adversely affected than shoot ...

  12. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  13. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... frontier model shows that experience of the farmer and household size had significant effect on the ... such as fertilizers and sugarcane cuttings available to farmers at a subsidized rate.

  14. Nutritional and antimicrobial evaluation of Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... and polyphenols as powerful antioxidants (Palmer, 2005;. Martinez and Martinez .... sample were determined by the methods of the Association of. Official Analytical ... Some of the phytochemical compounds were also quantified using ..... P 175. Vila FC, Colombo R, de Lira TO, Yariwake JH (2008). HPLC.

  15. The Compositae of the Malay Archipelago. I. Vernonieae and Eupatorieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1935-01-01

    The region, from which the Vernonieae and the Eupatorieae have been worked out, includes the Greater Sunda Islands, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. It is a well-known fact, that the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines have a flora, which is related to that of the Malay Archipelago, sensu

  16. Embryology and cytogenetics of Eupatorium pauciflorum and E. intermedium (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Sanches Bertasso-Borges

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryology of Eupatorium pauciflorum indicates diplospory with autonomous endosperm development. The embryo sac is of the polygonum type and the polar nuclei mostly fuse before anthesis. The occurrence of precocious embryo and endosperm development in unopened florets, and the total absence of germinated pollen grains on exposed stigmas, as well as the absence of pollen tubes in the ovules, indicate agamospermy to be obligate and embryo and endosperm development autonomous. The study of microsporogenesis revealed the total absence of pollen production in consequence of microsporocyte degeneration before the onset of meiosis, which resulted in absolute male sterility. E. pauciflorum was demonstrated to be an autotriploid with a basic set of 10 chromosomes, each represented three times. Embryological studies showed E. intermedium to undergo reductive meiosis with tetrad formation during megasporogenesis, followed by monosporic embryo sac development of the polygonum type. The polar nuclei fuse before anthesis. The egg cell invariably attains anthesis still undivided, without precocious embryony. Meiosis of microsporogenesis results in the regular formation of 10 bivalents and the subsequent stages of microsporogenesis are normal. Stigmatic loads indicate the regular occurrence of pollination with viable, functional grains. Karyotypic studies revealed a complement of 20 chromosomes separable into 10 pairs. It is concluded that E. pauciflorum, as represented by the material studied, is apomictic while E. intermedium is sexual.Os estudos embriológicos indicam que Eupatorium pauciflorum apresenta diplosporia com desenvolvimento autônomo do endosperma. O saco embrionário é do tipo polygonum e os núcleos polares se fundem antes da antese. A ocorrência de embrionia precoce e desenvolvimento do endosperma em flores fechadas, e a total ausência de grãos de pólen germinados em estigmas expostos, bem como a ausência de tubos polínicos nos óvulos, indicam que agamospermia é obrigatória e o desenvolvimento do embrião e do endosperma é autônomo. O estudo da microsporogênese revelou completa ausência de produção de pólen, em razão da degeneração dos microsporócitos antes do início da meiose, o que resulta em absoluta esterilidade masculina. E. pauciflorum demonstrou ser autotriplóide com um conjunto básico de 10 cromossomos repetidos três vezes. Os estudos embriológicos mostraram que E. intermedium sofre meiose reducional, com formação de tétrades durante a megasporogênese, seguida pelo desenvolvimento monospórico do saco embrionário do tipo polygonum. Os núcleos polares se fundem antes da antese. A oosfera invariavelmente permanece até a antese sem se dividir, impedindo a ocorrência de embrionia precoce. A meiose da microsporogênese resulta na formação regular de 10 bivalentes; os estágios subseqüentes da microsporogênese são normais e a análise da superfície estigmática indica a ocorrência regular de polinização, com grãos de pólen viáveis e funcionais. Estudos de cariótipo revelaram um complemento de 20 cromossomos separados em 10 pares. É possível concluir que E. pauciflorum, como representada pelo material estudado, é apomítica, enquanto E. intermedium é sexuada.

  17. Floral flavonoids and ultraviolet patterns in Viguiera (Compositae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieseberg, L.H.; Schilling, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    Variation occurs among species of Viguiera series Viguiera for ultraviolet (UV) absorption/reflection patterns of ligules. Floral flavonoids that cause UV absorption occur in epidermal papillae. Flavonoids are further localized to the proximal portion of the ligule in the seven taxa that have only proximal UV absorption. Floral flavonoids involved in UV absorption consist of flavone, flavonol, and anthochlor (chalcone/aurone) glycosides. Quercetin 3-methyl ether glycosides characterize the ligules of 10 taxa occurring in Baja California, Mexico, and nearby areas, and these taxa appear to form one taxonomic group. The anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, characterizes V. dentata, and the lack of ligule flavonoids distinguishes V. potosina from the remaining taxa. The presence of the anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, only in V. dentata and the lack of ligule flavonoids in V. potosina concur with other data to indicate that these species are not correctly placed with each other or with the other species currently included in series Viguiera. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56... any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons.) (ii) Epicotyl: (A... adventitious roots. (Seedlings with roots bound within tough seed coats should be left in the test until the...

  19. Revisions and key to the Vernonieae (Compositae) of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen genera and 48 species, in five subtribes, are recognized in Thailand. These include 15 endemic taxa, half of which are in the largest genus, Acilepis, with others in the genera Camchaya, Koyamasia, and Okia. A new monotypic genus, Pulicarioidea, is established with P. annamica, the new name for the species formerly known as Vernonia pulicarioides. New combinations are also made for Acilepis kerrii, Cyanthillium montanum, Koyamasia curtisii and Okia pseudobirmanica. Forty-six characters including habit, leaf, flower, achene and pollen morphology were analyzed using UPGMA. Five clusters of taxa were identified. Keys to genera, species and varieties, descriptions, vernacular names, ecological data and illustrations are provided. PMID:24843297

  20. In-vitro antimicrobial properties of Aspilla africana (compositae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more active than the soxhlet extracts. Only the cold petroleum ether extract showed a good activity against both C. albicans and A. flavus. The phytochemical screening for the whole plat of A. africana revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin glycosides and tannins but absence of steroidal nucleus and anthraquinone.

  1. A phylogenetic analysis of Jurinea (Compositae) species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Silica gel dried plant leaf samples belonging to 18 Jurinea species ..... classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. APG II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. ... of nuclearribosomal DNA: new characters for evolutionary studies.

  2. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of genera and species occurring in the country when compared with the rest of the tribes. The highest number of native species occurs in the Altoandean and Patagonian phytogeographic provinces. The most represented tribe in number of genera is Heliantheae, and in number of species is the tribe Senecioneae.

  3. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Suzan Varaschin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram analisadas e administradas aos terneiros separadamente. Os níveis de tricotecenos macrocíclicos e seus glicosídeos foram muito maiores nas plantas fêmeas em floração do que os níveis observados nas plantas não em floração e nas plantas machos em floração. Dez bovinos morreram espontaneamente ou foram sacrificados devido à toxicose. Dois terneiros que receberam a planta fêmea em floração, adoeceram e morreram, enquanto que três terneiros que receberam a planta macho em floração não adoeceram. Os sinais clínicos nos terneiros intoxicados foram anorexia, desidratação, atonia ruminal, tensão e dores abdominais, diarréia líquida, focinho seco, instabilidade dos membros posteriores e decúbito esternal. Os achados patológicos incluiram lesões necróticas no tubo gastrintestinal, particularmente nos pré-estômagos, e nos tecidos linfóides com exceção do timo. Esse último achado sugere um efeito sobre as células B do tecido linfóide. A distribuição das lesões nos sistemas digestivo e linfóide foi sistematicamente determinada. Conclui-se que os tricotecenos macrocíclicos presentes na planta são responsáveis pelas lesões observadas na toxicose e que a planta fêmea em floração é substâncialmente mais tóxica que a planta macho em floração ou das plantas que não estão em floração. Essa diferença em toxicidade é devida à diferença no conteúdo de tricotecenos macrocíclicos.Thirteen calves were fed single doses varying from 0.5 to 5g/kg of either freshly harvested or dried Baccharis coridifolia. One calf was fed 4 daily doses of 0,5g/kg of the dried plant. Two calves did not receive the plant and served as controls. The plant material was harvested each month from July 1991 to May 1992 and then in March 1993, and was analysed for its content in macrocyclic trichothecenes. When in flower the female and male plant specimens were both analysed and fed separately to calves. The levels of macrocyclic trichothecenes and their glucosides were much higher in the flowering female plants compared with the levels observed in those plants not in flower and in the flowering male plants. Ten calves either died or were euthanatized due to the toxicosis. Two calves fed the female flowering plant got sick and died, while 3 calves fed the flowering male plant did not develop the toxicosis. Clinical signs in the poisoned calves were anorexia, dehydration, ruminal atony, abdominal distension and pain, liquid diarrhea, dry muzzle, imbalance in the hindlimbs and sternal recumbency. Main pathological findings included necrosis of the gastrointestinal tube, particularly in the forestomachs and in the lymphoid tissues except for the thymus. The latter suggests an effect upon the B cells of the lymphoid tissue. The distribution of the lesions in the digestive and lymphoid systems was sistematically determined. It is concluded that the macrocyclic trichothecenes present in the plant account for the lesions observed in the toxicosis and that the female flowering plant is substantially more toxic than the flowering male plants or plants not in flower. This difference in toxicity is due to the difference in macrocyclic trichothecenes contents.

  4. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

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    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  5. Establishment of in vitro callus in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Tissue culture technique, an alternative method for solving production ... NAA). All the auxins were applied in 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. MS basal .... Data were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using computer ...

  6. Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

    2006-07-01

    Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings.

  7. Incongruent plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal ancient intergeneric hybridization in Pilosella hawkweeds (Hieracium, Cichorieae, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fehrer, Judith; Gemeinholzer, B.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Bräutigam, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 347-361 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : molecular phylogeny * Hieracium * chloroplast capture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2007

  8. Ploidy levels and reproductive behaviour in invasive Hieracium pilosella in Patagonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), s. 25-31 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Patagonia * ploidy levels * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Sexual Hieracium pilosella plants are better inter-specific, while apomictic plants are better intra-specific competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Stöcklin, Jürg; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 40 plant families. This widespread phenomenon can lead to the fixation of successful genotypes, resulting in a fitness advantage. On the other hand, apomicts are expected to lose their fitness advantage if the environment changes because of their limited evolutionary potential, which is due to low genetic variability and the potential accumulation of deleterious somatic mutations. Nonetheless, some apomicts have been extremely succe...

  10. Different effects of variation in Xanthium strumarium L. (Compositae) on two insect seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, J Daniel; Futuyma, Douglas J

    1978-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of variation in several plant characters on susceptibility to herbivores, we examined patterns of seed predation by two monophagous insect species and patterns of variation in ten populations of the cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium. Multiple regression analysis disclosed that one seed predator was most influenced by plant chemical variation, the other was significantly influenced by both chemical and morphological variation, but variation in yet another character, general burr size, was most important in conferring resistance to both insects simultaneously. The plant populations differed most in this character. Although many of the plant characters were correlated with each other, those important in determining susceptibility to each insect species were uncorrelated and independent of those conferring resistance to both insects simultaneously.These results imply that ecological similar herbivores may be influenced by different aspects of plant variation, and that predictions of evolutionary responses of local plant populations to herbivory may require knowledge of the structure of local herbivore communities and the dynamics of their establishment.

  11. Plants collected by Th. Herzog on his second Bolivian journey, 1910—1911. Part VIII. Compositae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1947-01-01

    After a paper had been published i.a. on the species of Stevia of the collection mentioned in the heading¹) another Stevia from the same collection came into the author’s hands. It proved to be new. The American genus Stevia has been treated in local revisions by B. L. Robinson (in Gray Herb.

  12. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

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    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  13. Taraxacum sect. Orientalia (Compositae-Crepidinae) and the West Himalayan dandelions: A new interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan; Zeisek, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 312, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-27 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : taxonomy * new sections and species * nrDNA ITS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  14. Sensitization and cross-reactions patterns in Danish Compositae-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    ), elecampane (Inula helenium), large yellow ox-eye (Telekia speciosa) and cosmea (Cosmos) were additional important allergenic plants. The 3 last mentioned were picked up by SL mix. Most of the lettuce-sensitized persons were CM-positive. 19% of the occupationally sensitized group were negative to both SL...... and CM, making very aimed patch testing necessary, notably when suspecting rare sensitizers such as Gerbera and star of the veldt (Osteospermum). The significance of the weeds dandelion, dog fennel and ox-eye daisy as sensitizers is not clarified, but they are probably less important than cultivated...

  15. Contribuição preliminar aos tipos polínicos da Tribo Mutisieae (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Irene Imbiríba Pastana

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é um estudo palinilógico de quartoze espécies brasileiras da Tribo Mutisieae, pertencentes ao Herbário do Museu Nacional - RJ (R. São dadas as respectivas descrições polínicas com desenhos dos grãos em vistas equatorial e polar, da L.O. e detalhe da exina. Acompanham uma tabela referente ao tratamento estatístico e dois diagramas comparativos.The present paper is a palynological study of the fourteen species of the Tribe Mutisieae, belong to the Museum Nacional Herbary - RJ (R. Several aspects relating caracteristics of Mutisieae pollen are treated such as polar and equatorial diameter, L. O.: table of statistical treatment and comparative diagrams are displayed.

  16. Yield emulsifiers exopolysaccharides produced by native halophilic bacteria concentrations molasses three Saccharum officinarum L. "sugarcane"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Fuentes, Carmen Carreño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharide with emulsifying properties are an alternative to polymers and chemicals from algae and plants. Its production in molasses as carbon source lowers costs and generates added value to this byproduct of the sugar industry, so the aim of this study was to determine the performance and productivity of EPS emulsifiers by native halophilic bacteria in 20, 30 and 40 gL-1 of molasses. In MY synthetic medium with 5 % w/v of salts, 138 isolates of bacteria obtained from soil samples of salt water and in the districts of San Jose and Santa Rosa, in Lambayeque. In 10.8 % of these gummy colony forming bacteria and grown on glucose as carbon source EPS recovered whose maximum values of the mixtures in water emulsion - oil phase were 63.3 and 56.6 % after 1 and 24 hours, respectively. The M5 bacteria identified as Halomonas C1 10-1 sp. M5 EPS synthesized emulsifiers molasses broth, reaching yields Yp/s of 0.296 gg-1 and 0.200 gg-1 with 20 and 30 gL-1 of molasses respectively, a productivity of 0.016 and 0.017 gL-1 h -1 , not differing significantly between them. With 10 gL-1 glucose was reached Yp/s of 0.171 gg-1 and a productivity of 0.018 gL-1 h -1 . It was shown that the EPS produced native halophilic bacteria utilizing molasses emulsifiers as carbon source.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of chewing sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. varieties by using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sarid Ullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an efficient and easy method was followed for the isolation of DNA from meristem cylinder in five chewing sugarcane varieties, namely Amrita, Bomaby, Babulal (Co.527, Q83 and Misrimala. The quality and quantity of DNA were assured by visual estimation using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. The highest amount of DNA was retrieved from the Amrita (3250 ng/ml and the lowest amount was attained from the variety Q83 (1450 ng/ml. The amount of recovered DNA was enough for PCR amplification and marker studies such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Using RAPD markers, bands obtained from fingerprinting (190 bp to 1200 bp showed 73.5% polymorphism. The dendrogram, based on linkage distance using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA, indicated segregation of the five chewing varieties of sugarcane into two main clusters. Amrita, Bombay and Misrimala were grouped in cluster 1 (C1 followed by sub-clusters. Babulal and Q83 were grouped in cluster 2 (C2. The results of the present investigation also revealed that the twenty RAPD primers were able to identify and classify the chewing sugarcane varieties based on their genetic relationship.

  18. Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity Via In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMID RAJABI MEMARI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture technique was used to obtain salt tolerant variants from embryogenic calluses of sugarcane (Saccharum sp. var. CP48-103 that cultured on a selective medium containing different levels of NaCl (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% NaCl. A total of four plants regenerated from the tolerant calluses were selected but the best of them in vigor grown in in vitro and hydroponic systems under salinity stress to comparison with source variety. With increasing supply of NaCl in both systems, root growth was more adversely affected than was shoot growth. Chlorophyll contents showed a decreasing trend and dry matter yield of plants reduced but in a slow rate in tolerant somaclonal than source variety. The biochemical analysis showed that at high salt concentration, Cl- and Na+ content in shoot and root increased. With rising salt concentration from 0 to 0.8%, content of Cl- in shoot and root of tolerant variant changed lower than parent showed that this variant had genetic lowest ratio of shoot/root chloride and had minimum transport of Cl- to shoots. Also this variant had high content of Ca2+ in shoot and high K+/Na+ ratio at all salinity levels. Thus it probably has genetic potential to avoid harmful ions uptake.

  19. ISOLASI cDNA SUCROSE TRANSPORTER (SUT DARI BATANG TANAMAN TEBU (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Slameto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose Transporter (SUT is kind of protein transporter that control in sucrose translocation. Sucrose Transporter is intermediate in translocation of sucrose from apoplasmic to simplasmic. SUT facilitates sucrose transportation from vascular tissues to parenchyma cells toward in node sugarcane stem. This research was purposed to isolate cDNA SUT from sugarcane stem, and cloned in Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Total RNA of sugarcane stem was isolated by single step method, then add with oligo dT in order to obtain the first strand of SUT cDNA then used as template for PCR. The primer used for PCR is 5’ –ggg ctg att gtg gcc atg tc- ‘3 (SUT-F and 5’ –tgc cct ttg tct ccg gaa cc- ‘3 (SUT-R. PCR was programmed as follow denaturation at 94°C for 2 minutes and 30 second, annealing at 54°C for 30 s, extension at 72°C 2 min and 7 min, and storage at 4°C for unlimited, It was for 30 cycles. Complementary DNA SUT from PCR ligalized to pTOPO bunt-end, then it cloned in to E. coli strain DH5α. The cloning resulted then be sequenced in order to observe the homologues with other nucleotides sequences of some plant using BLASTn program in GENE BANK NCBI and the level of homology determined by Genetyx program. The concentrated of total RNA isolated was 5,024 μg/μl, with purity of 1,85. Complementary DNA SUT fragment from PCR with size 2037 bp appropriated to the both of primer was used. Complementary DNA SUT fragment showed by analyzed some of restriction enzyme e.g. EcoRI, PstI and BamHI. Homologues of this cDNA SUT fragment was 100% to SoSUT 2A of sugarcane stem and 84% to OsSUT of rice plant (Casu et al ., 2003.

  20. Present situation concerning studies on associative n-fixation in sugarcane, 'Saccharum officinarum' L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Vose, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    High nitrogenase activity in sugarcane has been confirmed, using 15 N procedure, which indicated rapid translocation of the fixed nitrogen to the plant tissue. It is observed that there are differences in variety concerning nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of sugarcane. Basic calculations and an evaluation of possible biological N-fixation with 15 N suggest that possibly as much as 25-30% of the plant nitrogen may be derived from biological fixation. Both eight and electron microscope studies suggest that there are bacteria inside healthy roots and if such a root is surface sterilized and placed ou nitrogen-free media then bacteria stream from the cut surface [pt

  1. Optimization of Protocols for In Vitro Regeneration of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakra Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane contributes 60–70% of annual sugar production in the world. Somaclonal variation has potential to enhance genetic variation present within a species. Present study was done to optimize an in vitro propagation protocol for sugarcane. The experiments included four varieties, 9 callus induction media, 27 regeneration media, and 9 root induction media under two-factor factorial CRD. Data were recorded on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration. Statistically significant differences existed between genotypes and treatments for callus induction (%, embryogenic callus formation (%, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration (%. All parameters showed dependency on genotypes, culture media, and their interaction. Highest callus induction (95% embryogenic callus formation (95% was observed in callus induction media 5. Highest plantlet regeneration (98.9% capacity was observed in regeneration media 11 whereas maximum shoot elongation (12.13 cm and root induction (8.32 were observed in rooting media 4. G1 showed best response for all traits and vice versa for G4. Hence it was concluded that G1, callus induction media 5, regeneration media 11, and rooting media 4 are the best conditions for in vitro propagation of sugarcane.

  2. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  3. In vitro effects of policosanol (Saccharum officinarum L wax alcohols on the 5-lipooxygenase enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    Full Text Available Introduction: policosanol, a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic alcohols purified from sugarcane with octacosanol as the main component, shows cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects in addition to an inhibitory effect on type I cicloxygenase. Objective: to determine whether policosanol may inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in vitro. Methods: effects on 5-LOX enzyme activities were assessed in rat blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Vehicle or Policosanol suspensions (0.6 to 6 000 µg/mL were added to tubes containing the reaction mix and then absorbance changes at 234 nm were measured. Results: added Policosanol inhibited in vitro 5-LOX activity by 30 %, which was not a significant figure but depended on the concentration(r= 0.992; p< 0.05; it was 1 250 µg/mL. Conclusions: policosanol did not significantly inhibit 5-LOX enzyme activity in rat PMNL preparations, so that it does not seem to be a dual inhibitor of COX and-LOX enzymes. This result differs from that found for beeswax alcohols and underlines the different effects of the mixtures of long-chain fatty alcohols purified from the sugarcane and the beeswax.

  4. Palinotaxonomia de Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker e Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae Palynotaxonomy of Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker and Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Férras Peçanha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. tem sido, tradicionalmente, aceito como sinônimo de Eremanthus Less. e o gênero Albertinia Spreng. foi estabelecido para abrigar Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. O presente trabalho propõe a caracterização polínica de Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa e Eremanthus bicolor e fornece subsídios para futuros estudos taxonômicos. Foram utilizados grãos de pólen de espécimens coletados em diferentes herbários. As duas primeiras espécies são encontradas no Rio de Janeiro enquanto Eremanthus Less. não. Assim, optou-se por utilizar a espécie-tipo do gênero na análise polínica. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados usando microscopia de luz. Grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram usados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O resultado do estudo polínico mostrou que as espécies podem ser separadas utilizandose, principalmente, as características das aberturas e da ornamentação da exina e revelou uma gradação evolutiva interespecífica dos caracteres polínicos. Com relação à taxonomia das espécies estudadas, os dados palinológicos comprovam a posição taxonômica de Albertinia brasiliensis, porém não reforça a sinonimização de Vanillosmopsis em Eremanthus.Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. has been traditionally accepted as a synonym of Eremanthus Less., and Albertinia Spreng. was established to include Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. This paper characterizes the pollen of Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Eremanthus bicolor and provides information for future taxonomic studies. Pollen grains of specimens collected in different herbaria were used in this study. The two first species are found in Rio de Janeiro, but Eremanthus is not found in this state. For this reason, the type species of this genus was used for pollen analysis. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using optical microscopy. Non-acetolysed pollen grains were used for analysis in scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that these species can be distinguished using mainly exine ornamentation and aperture features, revealing an interspecific evolutionary gradation of pollen characteristics. As regards the taxonomy of the species studied, the palynological data confirm the taxonomic position of Albertinia brasiliensis, but they do not support the subordination of Vanillosmopsis to Eremanthus.

  5. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hand, M. L.; Vít, Petr; Krahulcová, Anna; Johnson, S. D.; Oelkers, K.; Siddons, H.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith; Koltunow, A. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-26 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gametophytic apomixis * Hieracium * marker inheritance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.801, year: 2015

  6. Cytotype coexistence in the field cannot be explained by inter-cytotype hybridization alone: linking experiments and computer simulations in the sexual species Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Herben, Tomáš; Rosenbaumová, R.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Krejčíková, Jana; Trávníček, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAR 23 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 87. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GP13-18610P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cytotype diversity * polyploidy * mating interactions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  7. Enriching ploidy level diversity: the role of apomictic and sexual biotypes of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) that coexist in polyploid populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Plačková, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2009), s. 281-306 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0059; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : facultative apomixis * genome instability * hybrid swarms * residual sexuality * unreduced gametes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2009

  8. Estimating paternal efficiency in an agamic polyploid complex: pollen stainability and variation in pollen size related to reproduction mode, ploidy level and hybridogenous origin in Pilosella (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotreklová, O.; Krahulcová, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2016), s. 175-186 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : autonomous apomixis * effect of pollen parent * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  9. The structure of the agamic complex of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella in the Šumava Mts and its comparison with other regions in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Fehrer, Judith; Bräutigam, S.; Schuhwerk, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-26 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005203; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/0059; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : breeding systems * chromosome number * polyhaploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2008 http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P081Kra.pdf

  10. Expressivity of apomixis in 2n + n hybrids from an apomictic and a sexual parent: insights into variation detected in Pilosella (Asteraceae: Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2011), s. 263-274 ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : inheritance of apomixis * residual sexuality * unreduced hybrids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  11. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO EM EQUINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SENECIO BRASILIENSIS COMPOSITAE: PARTE II BILIRRUBINAS, ALBUMINAS E PROTEÍNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As parte aéreas dessecadas de senecio brasiliensis, colhidas no período de brotação, foram administradas a 14 equinos de raça mista, com idade de 4 a 22 anos e pesos de 230 a 475kg. A planta era misturada à ração dada aos animais ou moída, misturada em água e administrada por sonda nasoesofágica. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue periodicamente nos 14 equinos para avaliação dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina, albumina e proteína. Oito cavalos desenvolveram a intoxicação, três morreram por causas outras e três sobreviveram sem apresentar quaisquer sinais clínicos durante o período em que foram observados. Nos animais que desenvolveram a doença os sinais clínicos tiveram evolução de um a seis dias e caracterizaram-se por anorexia, icterícia e distúrbios neurológicos. A bilirrubina total e indireta apresentam-se elevadas na fase terminal da intoxicação e a albumina e proteína mostram níveis abaixo dos valores de referência num equino que desenvolveu a forma crônica da enfermidade. Conclui-se que dentre as provas laboratoriais usadas, a bilirrubina indireta apresenta melhor indicação da alteração hepática causada por intoxicação pelo senecio brasiliensis.

  12. Re-evaluation of the Helichrysum italicum complex (Compositae: Gnaphalieae: A new species from Majorca (Balearic Islands

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    S. Herrando-Moraira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum italicum is a widely distributed species in the Mediterranean Basin, which has received controversial taxonomic treatments at infraspecific level owing to its morphological variability. In this paper we perform a detailed multivariate analysis of morphological characters using an exhaustive sampling of H. italicum. Integrating previously published molecular, chorological and newly obtained morphological data, a revised taxonomic treatment for the whole H. italicum complex is provided. On the one hand, the results obtained suggest that the Majorcan mountain populations of H. italicum subsp. microphyllum need to be considered an independent species, newly described here as Helichrysum massanellanum. On the other hand, H. italicum subspecies are recircumscribed. A new combination is proposed, H. italicum subsp. tyrrhenicum, a taxon that comprises populations from Corsica, Sardinia, Majorca coastline and Dragonera islet, whereas subsp. microphyllum is restricted to the island of Crete. With those substantial classification modifications, a complete new taxonomic treatment is presented for this group, including an identification key, synonyms, morphological descriptions, distribution areas and habitat characterization.

  13. Adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae-Madiinae). II. Cytogenetics of artificial and natural hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.D.; Kyhos, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Hawaiian silversword alliance of Argyroxiphium, Dubautia, and Wilkesia, in spite of exhibiting spectacular morphological, ecological, physiological, and chromosomal diversity, is remarkably cohesive, genetically. This is attested to by the ease of production of artificial hybrids and by the high frequency of spontaneous hybridization among such life forms as mat-forming subshrub, monocarpic rosette shrub, polycarpic shrub, cushion plant, tree, and vine. Even the least fertile of these hybrids is capable of producing backcross progeny. Moreover, first generation interspecific and intergeneric hybrids have been successfully used to produce trispecific hybrids in a number of instances. In general, the widest hybrid combinations have been as readily produced as crosses within a species. At present eight genomes or chromosome races distinguished by reciprocal translocations are recognized on the basis of meiotic analysis of artificial and spontaneous hybrids. Seven of these races are found among those species with 14 pairs of chromosomes. The eighth genome very likely characterizes all nine species of this alliance that have 13 pairs of chromosomes. The cytogenetic data indicate that redundancy of translocations involving the same chromosomes has been a recurrent theme in the chromosomal differentiation of these taxa. There appears to be little, if any, correlation between chromosomal evolution and adaptive radiation as assessed by gross habital differentiation in this group. However, within Dubautia, a novel ecophysiological trait associated with colonization of xeric habitats is restricted to species with n = 13. In contrast to the bulk of the Hawaiian flora, which is characterized by self-compatibility and chromosomal stability, it is suggested that the occurrence of self-incompatibility in the Hawaiian Madiinae may have favored selection of supergenes via chromosomal repatterning, and this may account for the diversity of chromosome structure seen in this group. (author)

  14. Efeitos da defaunação em ovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. adicionada de uréia Effects of defaunation in sheep fed sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum, L. plus urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, estudou-se o efeito da defaunação em ovinos que receberam cana-de-açúcar e uréia sobre o consumo e digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes, dinâmica da fase sólida, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal e de degradação in situ. As taxas de passagem no rúmen foram, respectivamente, de 3,05 e 1,97%/h, para ovinos faunados e defaunados. Valores mais elevados para taxa (5,4%/h e extensão (46,7% da digestão ruminal e de degradabilidade efetiva da FDN da cana (31,5% foram obtidos nos ovinos faunados. Seus consumos diários (57,7 e 32,3 g/kg0,75, respectivamente para MS e FDN foram superiores (PThe defaunation effect on feed intake, nutrient apparent digestibilities, solid phase dynamics, ruminal fermentation parameters and in situ degradation in sheep fed on sugar cane plus urea was studied in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Ruminal passage rates of 3.05 and 1.97%/h were observed for the faunated and defaunated groups, respectively. Higher values for sugar cane NDF ruminal digestion rate (5.41%/h, extension (46.7% and effective degradability (31.53% were observed for the faunated group. The faunated group daily intake (57.7 and 32.3 g/kg0.75 for dry matter and NDF residue, respectively was higher (P<0.06 than that for the defaunated group. Total VFA, acetate and propionate concentrations were higher (P<0.05 in the faunated group and were dependent on sampling time. Defaunated sheep showed higher (P<0.04 post prandial decrease in pH. Relative to apparent digestibility difference (P<0.05 between treatments was observed only for dry matter.

  15. Contribuição da cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. no sabor dos alimentos / Contribution of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L. value chain in food flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Schvarz Sobrinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitos alimentos não seriam palatáveis se não fosse à aplicação do glutamato monossódico como ingrediente alimentar. Após a descoberta do quinto sabor (sabor umami, indústrias se estabeleceram para produzi-lo e outras passaram a utilizá-lo como aditivo realçador do sabor. Amparado nesses fatos, este estudo tem por objetivo destacar a importância do glutamato monossódico na palatabilidade humana para consumo de produtos industrializados, no uso da cana-de-açúcar como matéria-prima (substrato para produção do glutamato monossódico e na utilização deste pela empresa Perdigão Agroindustrial. Propõe-se a responder a seguinte questão: a como os produtos industrializados da empresa Perdigão Agroindustrial se beneficiam da cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar e do glutamato monossódico? Para responder esta questão, fez-se necessário, inicialmente, responder às seguintes perguntas: a como a cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar contribui para a produção de glutamato monossódico?; e, b qual a importância deste realçador de sabor na palatabilidade humana? Por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica de fontes secundárias, foi possível identificar que a cadeia produtiva da cana-de-açúcar contribui com a indústria de alimentos, fornecendo matéria-prima para produção de glutamato monossódico. Este produto, por sua vez, é utilizado na indústria de alimentos prontos ou semiprontos como carne bovina, suína e de aves e outras comidas rápidas e congeladas. AbstractMost of food would not be palatable if there were not an addition of mono sodium glutamate as a food ingredient. Thus, after the discovery of the fifth flavor (umami flavour, industries were established in order to produce it while the other industries use this flavour as food highlighter additive. Based on these facts, the aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of mono sodium glutamate in human palatability for consumption of industrialized products, and in the use of sugar-cane as raw material for production of mono sodium glutamate and in its use by Perdigão Agroindustrial enterprise. Hence, the present article attempts to answer the following question: In which way does the industrialized productsof Perdigão Agroindustrial. enterprise benefit from the sugar-cane value chain and from the mono sodium glutamate? In order reply to this question it was first necessary to answer the following questions: a How did sugar-cane value chain contribute for the production of mono sodium glutamate? b What is the importance of this flavour highlighter in human palatability? From bibliography research on secondary sources, it was possible to identify that the sugar-cane value chain has contributed in food industry providing sugar-cane and molasses as raw material for mono sodium glutamate production. This product, in turn, is used in the industry of ready or semi-ready food like beef, pork and poultry, as well as other frozen and fast food.Key words: mono sodium glutamate; umami flavour; Perdigão Agroindustrial; product innovation.

  16. Evaluación de ensilajes mixtos de Saccharum officinarum y Gliricidia sepium con la utilización de aditivos Evaluation of mixed silages of Saccharum officinarum and Gliricidia sepium using additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la adición de melaza y urea en ensilajes de cogollo quemado de caña de azúcar y Gliricidia sepium, utilizando macrobolsas de 1,18 m³ de capacidad y vacío, mediante un diseño factorial 4 (tipo de ensilaje x 3 (tiempo de fermentación: 20, 40 y 60 días y cinco réplicas. Los tratamientos fueron T1 (cogollo de caña de azúcar, 75% más G. sepium, 25%; T2 (T1 más urea, 0,5%; T3 (T1 más melaza, 4% y T4 (T3 más urea, 0,5%. Se determinó el pH, la MS, la PB, el amoníaco, el nitrógeno soluble, la FB, el extracto libre de nitrógeno, el extracto etéreo, el Ca, el P y la ceniza. No hubo interacción tipo de ensilaje por tiempo de fermentación. Con la adición de urea (T2 se observaron los mayores valores de pH (5,03, PB (8,27%, NH3/Nt (18,13% y NS/Nt (38,31%. Al adicionar la melaza (T3 se constató un mayor porcentaje de MS (35,34 y de ELN (50,93, y con los dos aditivos (T4 se observó un menor contenido de EE (1,02%. Los tenores de FB, los minerales y la ceniza no presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos. A los 40 días de fermentación se observó un mayor contenido de MS (44,80% y ELN (49,72%. Sin embargo, a los 60 días se obtuvo mayor relación NH3/Nt (11,17% y NS/Nt (33,61%. Mediante la ponderación de las variables más relevantes se concluyó que los ensilajes de mayor calidad se obtuvieron cuando sólo se adicionó melaza (4% o se combinó con urea (0,5%; mientras que la calidad del material conservado fue menor a los 60 días de elaboración.A trial was conducted in Trujillo, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of the addition of molasses and urea in silages of burnt sugarcane tops and Gliricidia sepium, using macrobags of capacity 1,18 m³ and vacuum, by means of a 4 (type of silage x 3 (fermentation time: 20, 40 and 60 days factorial arrangement and five replications. The treatments were T1 (sugarcane tops, 75% plus G. sepium, 25%; T2 (T1 plus urea, 0,5%; T3 (T1 plus molasses, 4% and T4 (T3 plus urea, 0,5%. The following indicators were determined: pH, DM, CP, ammonia, soluble nitrogen, CF, nitrogen-free extract, ether extract, Ca, P and ash. There was no silage type by fermentation time interaction. With the addition of urea (T2 the highest values of pH (5,03, CP (8,27%, NH3/Nt (18,13% and SN/Nt (38,31% were observed. With the addition of molasses (T3 a higher percentage of DM (35,34 and NFE (50,93 was detected, and with the two additives (T4 a lower content of EE (1,02% was obtained. The CF, mineral and ash values did not show differences among treatments. After 40 days of fermentation a higher content of DM (44,80% and NFE (49,72% was observed. However, after 60 days a higher NH3/Nt (11,17% and SN/Nt (33,61% ratio was obtained. By pondering the most relevant variables, it was concluded that the best quality silages were obtained when adding only molasses (4% or when it was combined with urea (0,5%; while the quality of the preserved material was lower 60 days after being elaborated.

  17. Impacto del tráfico de equipos durante la cosecha de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum Impact of traffic equipment during sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el impacto del tráfico sobre el suelo, el cultivo y el consumo energético durante la cosecha de caña de azúcar en el valle del río Cauca (Colombia, se establecieron experimentos de cuatro repeticiones con diferentes sistemas de cosecha. En cada sitio se cosecharon mecánicamente parcelas con vagones de auto volteo, HD8000, HD12000 y HD20000, se evaluaron por la intensidad de tráfico (IT, el pisoteo directo sobre la cepa, la resistencia a la penetración y el consumo energético. Vagones grandes y pesados causaron mayor IT y mayor efecto por compactación y pisoteo. La IT varió entre 241 y 317 Mg km ha-1. El pisoteo en la cabecera varió de 8 a 18 m por surco y sobre la cepa los vagones pisaron entre 5 y 24% de su ancho. Hubo diferencias no significativas en productividad hasta de 13,9% favorable a los vagones livianos. En cosecha semimecánica, realizada con trenes de vagones, disminuyó la IT al rango 60-113 Mg km ha-1; pero aumentó el pisoteo en las cabeceras hasta 39 m por surco, hubo diferencias no significativas en productividad hasta del 4% entre sistemas de vagones livianos y pesados. Además, los vagones livianos con manejo adecuado de la cosecha, llegan a ser favorables por menor consumo de combustible y emisiones.This study was carried out to determine the impact of traffic on soil compaction, crop and energy consumption during the sugarcane harvest in the Cauca river valley (Colombia. Four experiments with four replicates were harvested with different systems. Plots were mechanically harvested with self tipping, HD8000, HD12000 and HD20000 trailers and evaluated by traffic intensity (IT, direct stool traffic, penetration resistance and fuel consumption. Heavy trailers caused a greater effect due to a greater IT and direct stool traffic. IT varied between 241 and 317 Mg km ha-1. Stool traffic at the end of field varied from 8 to 18 m per furrow, meanwhile stool traffic along the furrow varied from 5 to 24%. There were no significant differences for productivity up to 13.9% favoring light trailers. Semi-mechanical harvesting was realized with trains of trailers, IT fell down to a 60 - 113 Mg km ha-1 range because a larger area is harvested during one pass of the equipment, but stool traffic increased up to 39 m per furrow for the longer trains, there was a 4% non significant difference for productivity from light to heavy trailers. Furthermore, light trailers with an adequate management are better options with lower energy consumption and emissions.

  18. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from sugar cane fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.

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    E.U. Ikhuoria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is found to be higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

  19. Extraction optimization by response surface methodology: Purification and characterization of phytosterol from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Zhong, Zhou; Jiang, Lei; Tang, Kaichen

    2014-06-01

    A green, simple, and effective method for the extraction of sugarcane lipids from sugarcane rind was investigated by response surface methodology. The optimum conditions of technological progress obtained through response surface methodology were as follows: liquid-to-solid ratio 7.94: 1 mL/g, extraction temperature 50°C and extraction time 5.98 h. The practical sugarcane lipids extraction yield was 6.55 ± 0.28%, which was in good consistence with the predicted extraction yield of 6.47%. The results showed that the sugarcane lipids extraction yield obtained in optimum conditions increased by 1.16∼7.28-fold compared to the yields obtained in single-factor experiments. After saponification and SPE steps, the nonsaponifiable fraction of sugarcane lipids was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol were the prevailing phytosterols in the sample, while fucosterol, gramisterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol, (3β,5α,24S)-, stigmasta-4,6,22-trien-3α-ol, and cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol acetate were also identified as minor steroids. Furthermore, the content of β-sitosterol and a mixture of campesterol and stigmasterol (quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography) was 44.18 mg/100 g dry weight and 43.20 mg stigmasterol/100 g dry weight, respectively. Our results indicate that sugarcane rind is a good source of phytosterol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Pengaruh Variasi Mikroorganisme dan Pelarut Dalam Produksi Etanol Dari Nira Tebu (Sachharum officinarum Dengan Proses Fermentasi Ekstraktif

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    Yusfa Anugrah Baihaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan energi dari bahan bakar minyak bumi (BBM didunia semakin tahun mengalami peningkatan tajam. Salah satu energi alternatif yang didorong pemerintah Indonesia adalah dengan memproduksi bioetanol. Salah satu bahan yang sangat berpotensial sebagai bahan baku utama dalam pembuatan bioetanol adalah nira batang tebu. Upaya peningkatan produktivitas etanol dilakukan secara kontinyu dikarenakan pada fermentasi konvensional terdapat kendala pada produktivitas dan konsentrasi etanol yang rendah. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk produksi etanol dengan keunggulan keterpaduan proses dan rendah energi yang selanjutnya dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar desain untuk rancang bangun skala industri kecil. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui performa terbaik dari variasi mikroorganisme dan pelarut yang digunakan dalam memproduksi etanol dengan proses fermentasi ekstraktif dan untuk mengetahui karakteristik kinerja sistem fermentasi kontinyu dalam bioreaktor packed bed dengan variasi mikroorganisme. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan macam variasi mikroorganisme Zymomonasmobilis A3 termutasi dan campuran Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Pichiastipitis dengan sistem tanpa recycle dan pelarut n-Amyl Alcohol. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa proses fermentasi kontinyu dan ekstraksi tanpa recycle menggunakan Zymomonas mobilis A3 dan pelarut n-Amyl Alkohol memberikan hasil produktivitas dan yield yang terbaik, yaitu sebesar 133,417 g/l.jam dan 35,049%.

  1. Pemanfaatan Vinasse -Limbah Industri Alkohol- untuk Perbaikan Sifat Fisik Tanah dalam Pengembangan Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L di Lahan Pasir Pantai

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    M. Zulfan Arrodli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lahan pasir pantai merupakan lahan bermasalah untuk pertanian karena sifat tanahnya tidak mendukung pertumbuhan tanaman dan vinasse merupakan limbah industri ethanol yang jumlahnya sangat besar yang apabila dibuang di lahan terbuka akan mencemari lingkungan. Penggunaan vinasse sebagai bahan perbaikan tanah tanpa memberikan pengaruh negatif kemungkinan dapat dikerjakan untuk tanah bertekstur kasar seperti tanah di lahan pasir pantai. Oleh karena itu dalam penelitian ini, vinasse akan dicoba digunakan untuk membudidayakan tebu pada media tanah yang diambil dari lahan pasir pantai. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan percobaan pot faktorial 4x4 yang disusun dalam rancangan lingkungan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian vinasse dengan dosis 60.000 l/ha hanya sekali pada awal penanaman tebu mampu memperbaiki kemampuan tanah menyimpan air. Vinasse terbukti tidak memberikan pengaruh kurang baik terhadap tanaman yang dibudidayakan, bahkan pemberian vinasse cenderung memperbaiki pertumbuhan tebu baik dilihat pada tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, berat kering akar dan tajuk, meskipun pengaruhnya tidak berbeda nyata.

  2. The influence of altitude of the place on the vegetative growth of several varieties of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panataria, Lince R.; Lubis, Ramli

    2018-03-01

    This study is aimed at finding out vegetative growth of some varieties of sugarcane on different altitudes. The study applied Factorial Randomized Block Design comprising two factors. The first factor was varieties of consisting of three levels: BM 13579, Ps. 92-1, and Ps. 89-1. The second factor was altitudes of the land with three different levels of altitudes: Kebun Saentis (15 MASL), district of Pancurbatu (±300 MASL), and district of Sibolangit (±700 MASL). The study resulted in that variety of sugarcane, altitudes, and the interaction of both variables affected these: the leaf area on observations of 21, 42, 63, and 84 daps, number of tillers, root volume, nutrient uptake on observation 84 daps. The best quality of the sugarcane varieties was variety Ps. 92-1 on altitude 15 MASL (Kebun Saentis), followed by an altitude ±300 MASL (district of Pancurbatu), and then on ±700 MASL (district of Sibolangit); while the worst quality of the variety was variety BM 13579 of altitude 15 MASL (Kebun Saentis).

  3. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Z.; Mehmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  4. Negative cross resistance in atrazine resistant junglerice (Echinochloa colona (L. Link populations in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Elahifard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Negative and positive cross-resistance to other herbicides have been found in triazine-resistant biotypes. Thus, negative cross-resistance has been reported to bentazone for Brassica napus L. and A. retroflexus L., and to pyridate for B. napus and Epilobium ciliatum Raf.. In contrast, positive cross-resistance to bentazone has been found in Chenopodium album L. and Solanum nigrum L.. Negative cross-resistance, i.e., herbicide-resistant plants being more sensitive to herbicides than susceptible plants, has been documented in several triazine-resistant weed biotypes. The goal of this study was to search for herbicides that exert negative cross-resistance at the whole-plant level for control of atrazine-resistant populations of E. colona. Materials and Methods Suspected resistant and susceptible seeds of junglerice to atrazine were collected from sugarcane fields and adjacent areas of Karun Agro-Industry Inc., Shushtar, southwestern of Iran in 2014 - 2015 growing season. These populations were named according to their population status and abbreviated as follows: R1, R2, R3 and S (susceptible population. All the collected seeds (R- and S-populations were stored at room temperature (25 oC. Herbicides were tebuthiuron, linuron, diuron and diuron + hexazinone. For the PRE application, 10 seeds were planted in 500-ml plastic pots containing clay:sand mix, and herbicides were applied using an flood nozzle and back sprayer calibrated to deliver 350 L ha-1 to the suspected resistant and susceptible junglerice biotypes 1 d after sowing. Plants were thinned to 4 plants per pot. The aboveground biomass was harvested 28 DAT, dried at 75 °C for 48 h, and weighed. The aboveground biomass data were expressed as a percentage of the untreated control. The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four replications and was repeated. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear regression model and R software (drc add on packeges, the three and four parameters log-logistic equation was fitted to the data to describe the responses of the populations to herbicides: susceptible population was estimated as an index in order to compare the resistance levels of the tested populations. Results and Discussion The result of screening test showed that 3 populations were resistant to atrazine. The results of dose-response assay using atrazine revealed that resistance factor of R1, R2 and R3 populations were 12.26, 6.59 and 3.75 based on wet weight (% of control and 5.37, 4.22 and 4.71 based on number of survival plants (% of control, respectively. The ED50 values of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 36.85, 73.01 and 41.71 g ai ha-1 compared with 44.42 g ai ha-1 of the S-populaton of tebuthiuron. The Rf of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 0.80, 1.53 and 0.72 of tebuthiuron, respectively. The ED50 values of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 92.76, 107.73 and 106.84 g ai ha-1 compared with 152.51 g ai ha-1 of the S-populaton of linuron. The Rf of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 1, 1.89 and 3.26 of tebuthiuron, respectively. The ED50 values of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 74.21, 95.25 and 69.80 g ai ha-1 compared with 79.03 g ai ha-1 of the S-populaton of diuron. The Rf of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 0.97, 0.85 and 1.18 of diuron, respectively. The ED50 values of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 62.11, 49.48 and 54.30 g ai ha-1 compared with 88.72 g ai ha-1 of the S-populaton of diuron+hexazinone. The Rf of the R1, R2 and R3 populations were 0.62, 0.68 and 0.52 of diuron+hexazinone, respectively. The results showed that negative cross resistance to tebuthiuron, linuron, diuron and diuron + hexazinone. Resistant biotypes, also, showed the highest negative cross resistance to diuron+hexazinone. Conclusions Some herbicides that inhibit photosystem II bind more efficiently to the mutant triazine binding domain than to the wild (susceptible type. Triazine-resistant weeds frequently show negative cross-resistance to other photosystem-II inhibitors, such as bentazon and pyridate; triazine-resistant weeds can also exhibit negative cross-resistance to herbicides that do not affect photosystem II. Negative cross resistance may be the major reason that atrazine resistance did not evolve where herbicide mixtures were used, when the mixed herbicide (usually a non-PS II inhibiting acetanilide also controlled triazine-sensitive weeds. The value of negative cross-resistance linked with the general lack of fitness of almost all triazine-resistant weeds may be greater than we measured herein. The competition exerted by a crop in the field may further accentuate and exacerbate the lack of fitness and further lower the RI.

  5. Área superficial de carbones activados y modificados obtenidos del recurso agrícola Saccharum officinarum

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    Fredy Colpas C.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El carbón activado es un material utilizado industrialmente en adsorción de gases, filtrados, limpieza de líquidos y como soporte para catalizadores en medios no oxidantes. Además tiene varias aplicaciones ambientales como en la adsorción de iones metálicos de plomo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la obtención de carbones activados carbonizando biomasa de caña de azúcar a 400°C en atmósfera de nitrógeno, activando con ácido fosfórico y oxidando con ácido nítrico o peróxido de hidrógeno seguido de tratamiento térmico. La preparación de carbones activados a partir de residuos agrícolas está desarrollándose con excelentes resultados potencialmente aplicables. Bajo este contexto, se muestra un método de preparación mediante activación química con ácido fosfórico, la cual aumentó el contenido de carbono y disminuyó el de oxígeno, seguidamente con el objeto de estudiar el desarrollo del área superficial se somete a proceso de oxidación con calentamiento térmico. Los carbones obtenidos fueron caracterizados mediante análisis proximal y para la determinación de los grupos funcionales oxigenados se utilizó la espectroscopia infrarroja de reflectancia difusa-transformada de Fourier. La determinación de grupos oxigenados básicos y ácidos se realizó por el método Boehm. Para la medición del área superficial se utilizó el método BET. El área de microporos se incrementó por el tratamiento con HNO3 y H2O2 desde 278 m2/g hasta 402 y 446m2/g, respectivamente. La mayor parte del área en los carbones se debió a los microporos. El pH de los carbones fue aproximadamente de tres y los grupos COOH alcanzaron valores hasta 2,12meq/g.

  6. PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL MELALUI FERMENTASI NIRA TEBU (Saccharum officinarum MENGGUNAKAN Saccharomyces cerevisiae DENGAN PENAMBAHAN VITAMIN B KOMPLEKS SEBAGAI NUTRISI FERMENTASI

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    Wahyu Budi Utama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is alternative energy produced from the fermentation of carbohydrates like sugar cane juice. The fermentation process is influenced by several factors like nutrition of fermentation. This research to determine the addition weigh (g of vitamin B complex gr and time of fermentation as theoptimumconditions of fermentaced toproduceethanol with high concentrations. Sugar cane juice as raw material fermented using Saccharomyces cereviceaea with variation additional of vitamin B complex are 0%; 0.1%; 0.2%; and 0.3% (w/v sugar cane juice fermented during time of fermentation with the variation are 6 day, 7 day and 8 day. Purification of bioethanol by process of distillation.Alcohol content analysis using gas chromatography. The results showed optimumconditions of fermentaced are addition of Vitamin B complex is 0.1% (w/v and time of fermentation is 7 days to produced ethanol 30.177%.   Keywords: Ethanol, Fermentation, Sugar cane juice, Vitamin B complex.

  7. EFECTO DE LA BIOFERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO EN MACETA DE PLANTAS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum EFEITO DA BIOFERTILIZAÇÃO NO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS EM VASOS açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POTTED SUGARCANE PLANTS (Saccharum officinarum

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    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de microorganismos como fertilizante, ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos sobre el crecimiento de plantas y son una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes guímicos, sin embargo, cada microorganismo difiere en sus efectos benéficos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum y Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento en maceta de plantas de caña de azúcar variedad CC 934418. El crecimiento de las plantas se midió en términos de diámetro del tallo, longitud de tallo y raíces, y número de hojas y raíces a los 15, 30 y 45 días de la siembra. El crecimiento de las plantas mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. Los microorganismos fertilizantes mostraron efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de plantas de caña de azúcar, siendo Azospirillum brasilense y Trichoderma lignorum los microorganismos gue ejercieron mayor efecto sobre el diámetro del tallo y los sistemas radical y foliar de la planta. Se observaron los efectos beneficiosos de Trichoderma lignorum sobre el crecimiento de la hoja. Este es un nuevo aporte científico, ya que esta especie no ha sido reportada como promotora de crecimiento vegetal.0 uso de microrganismos como fertilizante, tem sido demonstrado gue têm efeitos benéficos no crescimento das plantas e são considerados uma alternativa ao uso de fertilizantes guímicos, no entanto, cada microrganismo possui diferentes efeitos benéficos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de microorganismos fertilizantes, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum e Trichoderma lignorum no crescimento de cana-de-açucar da variedade CC 934418 plantadas em vasos. 0 crescimento das plantas foi medido em termos do diâmetro do caule, comprimento de caule e da raiz e número de folhas e raízes nos dias 15, 30 e 45 após a semeadura. 0 crescimento da planta mostrou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Os microrganismos fertilizantes mostraram efeito positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas de cana, os microrganismos Azospirillum brasilense e Trichoderma lignorum exerceram um efeito maior em diâmetro do caule, sistema radicular e folhas da planta. Os efeitos benéficos do Trichoderma em lignorum crescimento da folha foram observadas. Esta é uma nova contribuição científica vez que esta espécie não foi relatada como a promoção de crescimento vegetal.The use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. However, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. This study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. CC 934418. Plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. Plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. Microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with Azospirillum brasilense and Trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. Beneficial effects of Trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. This is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.

  8. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  9. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  10. Dos novedades de Marruecos: Linaria imzica Gómiz, sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae: y Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech: Gómiz, comb. & stat. nov. (Compositae

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    Gómiz García, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Linaria imzica of the western end of the mountain range of Antiatlas (S of Morocco is described. The new species is characterized by its leaves proportionally quite wide (relation length/width Se describe Linaria imzica del extremo occidental de la cordillera del Antiatlas (sur de Marruecos. La nueva especie se caracteriza por sus hojas proporcionalmente bastante anchas (relación longitud/anchura <5 para lo que es habitual en la sect. Versicolores. Asimismo se propone la nueva combinación Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech Gómiz.

  11. Towards a better understanding of the Taraxacum evolution (Compositae-Cichorieae) on the basis of nrDNA of sexually reproducing species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Štěpánek, Jan; Uhlemann, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 4 (2015), s. 1135-1156 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10143; GA ČR GA13-13368S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 613697 - DRIVE4EU Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : neDNA * sexuality * Taraxacum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2015

  12. Diversita reprodukčních systémů v rodu Pilosella (chlupáček) a její odraz ve složení populací

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Rosenbaumová, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, Mat.25 (2011), s. 7-19 ISSN 1212-3323 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : facultative apomicts * hybrid swarms * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  14. Efecto de la profundidad del suelo en rottboellia cochinchinensis (lour clayton en caña de azúcar (saccharum officinarum l.

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    Ram\\u00F3n Le\\u00F3n

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestrearon cuatro lotes con diferente textura de suelo, sembrados con caña de azúcar durante cuatro años consecutivos. El lote A con suelo franco arcilloso, el lote B con suelo franco arenoso, el lote C con suelo arcilloso y el lote D con suelo franco. Se seleccionaron lotes con una población de R. cochinchinensis de 75 a 150 plantas/ m2. Se contó el número de plantas de la maleza en un área de 0,25 m2, en dos micro-hábitats: el surco y entre-surco. A cada planta se le escarbó el suelo que la rodeaba hasta encontrar la semilla de la que provenía y se midió la profundidad a la que ésta se encontró, para luego determinar qué porcentaje del total de plantas contabilizadas provenía de semillas localizadas en cada uno de los siguientes estratos: 0,0; >0,0 a 2,5; >2,5 a 5,0; >5,0 a 10 y >10,0 a 15,0 cm de profundidad. Además, se evaluó en invernadero el efecto de cada profundidad de los estratos citados. A nivel de laboratorio y en platos Petri, se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la oscuridad sobre la germinación de la semilla de R. cochinchinensis. Se encontró que la mayoría de las plantas en campo provenían de semillas que se encontraban de >0 a 2,5 cm, seguido por aquellas que estaban de >2,5 a 5,0 cm donde se dieron las mejores condiciones para la germinación. No se observaron diferencias entre los tipos de suelo o los micro-hábitats evaluados. En invernadero el tratamiento a 0,0 cm fue el que mostró la mayor germinación y esto fue producto de la exposición a la luz, lo cual se corroboró en el estudio en laboratorio donde el tratamiento con luz presentó también, la mayor germinación

  15. Identifikasi Dan Uji Antagonisme Jamur Endofit Tanaman Tebu (Saccharum Officinarum L.) Terhadap Perkembangan Xanthomonas Albilineans L. Dengan Metode Sterilisasi Autoklaf Dan Membran Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Siti Hardianti

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in a Laboratory of Agricuture Faculty and greenhouse of Agricuture Faculty, North Sumatra University, Medan, from April until December 2014. The research used completely randomized design with three factors and three replications. The first factor were endophytic fungi 1, endophytic fungi 2, endophytic fungi 3, endophytic fungi 4, endophytic fungi 5, endophytic fungi 6, endophytic fungi 7, and endophytic fungi 8. The second factor were dilution 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 da...

  16. Effect of the use of molasses and efficient microorganisms, over the rate of decomposition of the sugar cane leaf (Saccharum officinarum

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    Óscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of decomposition of sugar cane leaves mixed with an organic fertilizer compost type was evaluated, using a finite accelerator (molasses and an infinity accelerator (effective microorganisms. The trial was conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the National University of Colombia in Palmira. The results showed that molasses is a decomposition accelerator of the wastes of sugar cane leaf, since it shows a marked influence on the initial decomposition rate of the waste, but once the carbohydrates that constitute it are consumed, the rate of decomposition decreases significantly. Then the potential is evident on the waste of sugar cane leaf elements for the maintenance and/or biophysical capital improvement in the productive system of the sugar cane, as the result of their high photosynthetic efficiency.

  17. Dinâmica do herbicida metribuzin aplicado sobre palha de cana-de-açúcar (Saccarum officinarum Performance of metribuzin apllied on sugarcane straw

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    C.V.S Rossi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O herbicida metribuzin é recomendado para o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de cana-de-açúcar. Entretanto, seu comportamento em áreas com colheita mecânica, que deixa grande quantidade de palha sobre o solo, não é bem conhecido. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a dinâmica do herbicida metribuzin aplicado sobre diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, períodos e intensidades de chuvas após a aplicação. Foram realizados três ensaios para avaliar a dinâmica do metribuzin aplicado sobre a palha de cana-de-açúcar. No primeiro, foi avaliada a interceptação do herbicida por 0, 1, 2,5, 5, 7,5, 10, 15 e 20 t de palha de cana-de-açúcar por hectare. No segundo, avaliou-se a lixiviação do metribuzin em 5, 10, 15 e 20 t de palha por hectare sob simulação de chuva de 2,5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, 50 e 100 mm, um dia após a aplicação (DAA. No terceiro, foi avaliado o efeito dos intervalos de tempo entre a aplicação do herbicida e a primeira chuva na lixiviação do metribuzin (0, 1, 7, 14 e 28 dias em 10 t de palha por hectare, em função das mesmas precipitações simuladas no segundo ensaio. Os resultados obtidos no segundo e terceiro ensaios foram ajustados pelo modelo de Mitscherlich. A quantificação do herbicida foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A quantidade de metribuzin que transpõe as diferentes quantidades de palha com simulação acumulada de 100 mm de chuva é diferenciada, sendo maior para 5 t ha-1 e menor para quantidades maiores, até 20 t ha-1. A simulação média de chuvas equivalentes a de 20 a 30 mm iniciais é suficiente para promover uma transposição maior que 99% do metribuzin. Este herbicida é retido quando aplicado sobre a palha de cana-de-açúcar e permanece por períodos de até 28 DAA sem chuva.The herbicide metribuzin is recommended for weed control of sugarcane crops. However, the behavior of this herbicide on the straw left on the soil surface of mechanically- harvested sugarcane areas is not very known. This work aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the herbicide metribuzin applied on different amounts of sugarcane straw under different rainfall periods and intensities after application. Three assays were carried out to evaluate the performance of metribuzin applied on sugarcane straw: in assay 1, herbicide interception was assessed by 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20t ha-1 of straw; in assay 2, herbicide leaching through 5, 10, 15, and 20 tha-1 of straw was evaluated under rain simulation equivalent to 2.5 up to 100 mm rain, one day after application (DAA; and in assay 3, the effect of the time intervals between herbicide application and the first rain on herbicide leaching (0, 1, 7, 14, and 28days on the straw (10 t ha-1 was evaluated under the same rainfall amounts simulated in the second study. The results obtained in assays 1 and 2 were adjusted by the Mitscherlich model. The herbicide was quantified by HPLC. The amount of metribuzin passing through the different amounts of straw with simulation of 100 mm of accumulated rain is differentiated, being higher than 5tha-1 and lower than higher amounts up to 20 tha-1. The mean simulation of rainfall between 20 and 30 mm is sufficient to promote a transposition of metribuzin higher than 99%. Metribuzin is retained when applied on sugarcane straw, lasting for periods up to 28 DAA without rain.

  18. Direct saponification preparation and analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Simin; Liu, Songbai; Luo, Zisheng; Tang, Kaichen

    2015-08-15

    A simple method based on direct saponification followed by RP-HPLC analysis was developed for quantification of free and conjugated sterols in sugarcane. Acid hydrolysis prior to alkaline saponification was used to determined acylated steryl glycoside and steryl glycoside in sugarcane. The applicability and generality of this method were improved with intensive investigation. Compared to traditional solvent extraction method, this method was more time saving and appropriate for characterization of sterol fractions in sugarcane. This method was successfully applied for determination of free and conjugated sterols in different sugarcane samples. The results exhibited that stigmasterol (varied from 883.3 ± 23.5 to 1823.9 ± 24.5 μg/g dry weigh) and β-sitosterol (varied from 117.6 ± 19.9 to 801.4 ± 33.5 μg/g dry weight) were major phytosterols in the sugarcane sample, and their glycosylated forms accounted for almost 87.0% of stigmasterol and 87.5% of β-sitosterol in sugarcane, respectively. In addition, among other parts of sugarcane, tips contained the greatest amount of phytosterols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digestibilidade in situ de cana de açúcar (Saccharum officinarum nas formas natural ou ensilada, adicionadas ou não de uréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Doze ovinos com cânulas de rúmen foram empregados para comparar seis tratamentos, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3: cana de açúcar nas formas fresca (CAF ou ensilada (CAS x teores de uréia iguais a 0,0%, 0,5% e 1,0%. Foram estimadas: taxas de degradabilidade efetiva (DGE dos alimentos volumosos, concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis(AGV e de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e valores de pH do conteúdo do rúmen, além de concentrações de N-uréico no sangue. As taxas de DGE da matéria seca (MS mostraram-se semelhantes para CAF e CAS. A adição de teores crescentes de uréia às forragens resultou em diminuição linear da DGE da MS tanto da CAF como da CAS. No caso da CAS, a DGE da fibra em detergente neutro diminuiu linearmente com concentrações crescentes de uréia. Os valores de pH do conteúdo ruminal foram maiores para CAS em relação a CAF, mas não ocorreram diferenças devidas à adição de uréia. Os teores do conteúdo ruminal em total de AGV e os de ácido propiônico foram maiores para a CAF em relação a CAS; os de ácido acético, ao contrário, foram maiores para a CAS. Os teores de N-NH3 do conteúdo ruminal foram maiores para a CAS que para a CAF. Nos tratamentos com CAF e nos com CAS, as concentrações de N-NH3 no conteúdo ruminal e de N-uréico no sangue aumentaram linearmente com maiores adições de uréia. Concluiu-se que a adição de 0,5% e 1,0% uréia às forragens frescas ou ensiladas de cana-de-açucar não mostrou resultados satisfatórios e que CAF apresentou indícios de melhor qualidade nutricional que CAS.

  20. ISOLASI, KARAKTERISASI, DAN IDENTIFIKASI MIKOFLORA DARI RIZOSFER TANAH PERTANIAN TEBU (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. SEBAGAI BAHAN AJAR KINGDOM FUNGI UNTUK SISWA KELAS X SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesy Maulina Nadhifah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural area, particularly in the rhizosfer area there are various species of mold which lives mainly in the soil. The students have known molds which live in nature but they have not recognized mold which lives in the soil. It is required to develop a teaching material in the form of module which is created based on a research result. The results of this study were; (1 it has been discovered 7 species of mold, which are Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium camemberti, Aspergillus ochraceus, dan Penicillium citrinum, (2 the most dominant mold species was Trichoderma harzianum with the total number 1,8 x 104 cfu for every gram soil sample, and (3 there has been arranged of the learning module about fungi kingdom for students in high school level. Tanah pertanian, khususnya di daerah rizosfer, merupakan habitat dari berbagai spesies kapang yang hidup di dalamnya. Para siswa telah mengenal kapang yang tumbuh di alam tetapi mereka belum mengenal kapang yang hidup di dalam tanah pertanian. Perlu dikembangkan sebuah bahan ajar berupa modul yang dibuat berdasarkan hasil penelitian. Hasil penelitian ini, meliputi (1 ditemukan 7 spesies kapang, yaitu Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium camemberti, Aspergillus ochraceus, dan Penicillium citrinum, (2 spesies kapang yang paling dominan adalah Trichoderma harzianum dengan total jumlah 1,8 x 104 cfu/g sampel tanah, dan (3 telah tersusun bahan ajar Biologi berupa modul Kingdom Fungi para siswa SMA.

  1. Diversity of the Bacterial Microbiome in the Roots of Four Saccharum Species: S. spontaneum, S. robustum, S. barberi, and S. officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Dong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are nearly ubiquitously present in the internal tissues of plants, and some endophytes can promote plant growth. In this study, we sampled the roots of four ancestral species of sugarcane (two genotypes per species and two sugarcane cultivars, and used 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing to characterize the root endophytic bacterial communities and diazotroph diversity. A total of 7,198 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were detected for the endophytic bacteria community. The endophytic bacterial communities exhibited significantly different α- and β-diversities. From the 202 detected families in the sugarcane roots, a core microbiome containing 13 families was identified. The nifH gene was successfully detected in 9 of 30 samples from the four sugarcane species assayed, and 1,734 OTUs were merged for endophytic diazotrophs. In the tested samples, 43 families of endophytic diazotrophs were detected, and six families showed differences across samples. Among the 20 most abundant detected genera, 10 have been reported to be involved in nitrogen fixation in sugarcane. These findings demonstrate the diversity of the microbial communities in different sugarcane germplasms and shed light on the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane.

  2. Bagacillo de caña (Saccharum officinarum predigerido por vapor a presión como alimento básico para novillos de carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz H. Oscar

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Al someter el bagacillo a altas presiones (18.3, 19.0, 19.7 y 20.4 kg/cm2 durante 4, 6, 8 y 10 minutos se incrementó significativamente la digestibilidad "in vitro" y la degradabilidad "in situ "de la materia seca. La aceptabilidad del bagacillo predigerido al vapor-BPOJ (O, 40, 60 y 85.42% fue baja y se presentó disminución en el consumo y pérdidas de peso en novillos cebú que consumieron niveles por encima del 60%. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en la ganancia de peso promedio de novillos alimentados con BPDV y altos niveles de urea, usando una cantidad restringida de pasto rey (TI, bagazo crudo entero (T2 y melaza de caña (T3; la exclusión de fibra larga (T3 no afectó el desempeño animal. Se detectaron niveles de furfural por debajo del 1 % en el BPIN (base fresca; los análisis espectroscópicos (UV, RI, RMN registraron la presencia de grupos carboxilos e hidroxilos, indicando la probable existencia de fenoles.De-rinded sugar cane bagasse (the pith was subjected to high steam pressures (18.3, 19.0, 19.7 and 20.4 kg/cm2 during 4, 5, 8and 10 minutes. In vitro digestibilities and JD. situ degradabilities were significantly improved by the treatments. The steam pre-digested bagasse pith-SPBP (0,20, 40, 60 y 85.42% acceptability were lowand the results showed very high weight losses of steers teed 60 and 80% SPBP of their diet. No statistical difference (P < 0.05 was observed for average daily gains of steer fed on high levels of SPBP supplemented with high levels of urea, using three treatment: restricted amount of king grass (T1 whole raw bagasse (T2 and cane molasses(T3; the exclusion of the long fiber (T3 did not effect animal performance. Furfural levels below 1% SPBP (fresch basis were detected; spectrometric analysis (UV, RI and FMN registered the presence of carboxil and hidroxil groups indicating the probable existence of phenols.

  3. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bagaço hidrolisado e ponta de cana-de-açúcar (Sacharum officinarum, associados a duas fontes protéicas, na engorda de bovinos em confinamento Hydrolyzed sugar cane (Sacharum officinarum bagasse and sugar cane tops, associated with two protein sources in the fattening of feedlot steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rogério Gonçalves Magalhães

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do bagaço de cana hidrolizado e da ponta de cana-de-açúcar no desempenho de bovinos, 72 novilhos Nelore, com idade média de 18 a 30 meses e 293 kg PV, foram confinados durante 99 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 40,0% de bagaço de cana hidrolizado (BAH e 20,0% ponta de cana (tratamentos T1 e T4; 20,0 de BAH e 40,0% de ponta de cana (T2 e T5; e 30,0 de BAH e 30,0% de ponta de cana (T3 e T6. Duas fontes protéicas: levedura seca, associada aos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 e farinha de carne mais aditivo (Nutrigen, associada aos tratamentos T4, T5 e T6 também foram usadas. A ingestão média diária de matéria seca (kg/animal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso médio (kg/animal•d foram para T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, 4,01; 5,50; 5,06; 4,50; 7,33; e 12,71, 17,14; 13,09; 14,79; 8,79; 17,45; e 12,71 e 0,234; 0,420; 0,342; 0,516; 0,420; e 0,454. Os animais que receberam farinha de carne mais aditivo (Nutrigem apresentaram melhor desempenho animal.With the objective to evaluate the effect of hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane tops in the performance of cattle, 72 Nellore steers, averaging from 18 to 30 months of age and 293 kg LW were feedlot for 99 days. The treatment consisted in 40.0% hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse (BAH and 20.0% sugar cane tops (treatments T1 e T4, 20.0 BAH and 40.0% sugar cane tops (T2 and T5, and 30.0 BAH and 30.0% sugar cane tops (T3 and T6. Two protein sources: dried yeast, associated with the treatments T1, T2, and T3 and meat meal plus additive (Nutrigen, associated to T4, T5 and T6, were also used. The average daily dry matter intake (kg/ animal, the feed:gain ratio (kg DM/kg gain/animal•d and the average weight gains were for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively, 4.01, 5.50, 5.06, 4.50, 7.33, and 12.71, 17.14, 13.09, 14.79, 8.79, 17.45, and 12.71 and .234, .420, .342, .516, .420, and .454. The animals fed diets with meat meal plus Nutrigen, showed best animal performance.

  5. Degradabilidade do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. e da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. mais uréia no rúmen de vacas mestiças Holandês × Zebu em lactação Rumen degradability of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum, L. plus urea in crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Elephantgrass shows a high stocking rate only during the rainy season. Forage production is drastically reduced in the dry season. One of the alternatives to minimize this problem is the supplementation with sugarcane plus urea. In this trial the main goal was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI of elephantgrass, chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea and their degradability in three lactating (11.6kg/milk/day rumen fistulated crossbred cows (472kg/L.W. grazing elephantgrass during the dry season. The cows had access during three consecutive night to the paddocks grazed every 30 days in a stocking rate, of 4.5 cows/hectare. Between the two milking times, cows received chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. The DMI was on average 1.01%/L.W. for the elephantgrass and 0.88%/L.W. for the sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total DMI, taking into account both roughage and concentrate (2kg/cow/day was 2.25%/L.W. The effective rumen degradability (ED, considering the rate of passage in the rumen of 5%/hour was 44.46% for elephantgrass and 41.94% for sugarcane plus 1% urea, DM. The elephantgrass ED crude protein was 48.58% and its neutral detergent fiber 33.82%. During the dry season lactating crossbred cows grazing elephantgrass have to receive a roughage supplement and concentrate to produce around to 12kg of milk per day.

  6. Botanical files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) - on the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietema, de F.T.; Meijden, van der R.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium

  7. The reticulate evolutionary history of the polyploid NW Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) as inferred from nrDNA ETS sequence diversity and eco-climatological niche-modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberprieler, Christoph; Greiner, Roland; Konowalik, Kamil; Vogt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genus Leucanthemum Mill. is a species-rich polyploid complex of southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy levels ranging from 2x to 22x. The Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan, a geographically isolated species group of the NW Iberian Peninsula, comprises the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids Leucanthemumircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and Leucanthemum×corunnense (being a putative hybrid taxon based on a cross between L. pluriflorum and Leucanthemummerinoi), and the two hexaploids Leucanthemumsylvaticum and L. merinoi. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this species group, we analysed sequence variation at the external transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat (nrDNA ETS) for its members and for a number of other diploid species of Leucanthemum. Our results indicate that there are two major ETS ribotypes present in Leucanthemum, with some of the diploid species fixed for either of the two types and several species (among them L. pluriflorum) exhibiting both types. This polymorphism at the nrDNA ETS locus suggests either gene flow among some of the diploid species (possibly via polyploids) or a homoploid hybrid origin of some of those diploids. Additionally, patterns of ETS ribotype sharing among populations of the four species of the L. pluriflorum clan suggest that the tetraploid L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi have an allopolyploid origin with L. pluriflorum as the maternal parent. Eco-climatological modelling of present and past (last glacial maximum, LGM) distribution areas of the members of the L. pluriflorum clan indicates that the diploid L. pluriflorum may have undergone geographical differentiation into northern (Galician) and southern (central Portuguese) coastal lineages that could account for the two chloroplast haplotype groups observable in the tetra- and hexaploids. Later climatic changes in the Holocene could then have led to the extinction of southern diploid lineages. A distinct overlap of present and past (LGM) potential distribution ranges of L. pluriflorum with those of the N Iberian endemics Leucanthemumgallaecicum and Leucanthemumgaudinii subsp. cantabricum may indicate that one of the latter species may have acted as the paternal parent in the formation of the polyploids of the clan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimación de huella de carbono del sistema de producción de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán J. Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El vínculo entre el cambio climático actual y la producción agrícola ha dispuesto que la huella de carbono sea usada como indicador mundial para evaluar la cantidad de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI emitidos por unidad de producto. El sector azucarero en Colombia es privilegiado gracias a los climas de sus regiones, y al contrario de lo que sucede en el resto del mundo con excepciónde Hawái y el norte de Perú, se puede sembrar y cosechar caña durante todos los meses del año, no obstante es un sistema productivo netamente emisor de GEI. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la huella de carbono producida por la caña de azúcar en el municipio de Palmira, Valle del Cauca, a partir de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero durante el proceso de cultivo de caña de azúcar y la molienda. El uso de combustibles fósiles, químicos y fertilizantes orgánicos y los datos de biomasa de caña de azúcar durante el cultivo se obtuvieron a partir de estudios de campo, cuestionarios y entrevistas. Los resultados muestran que la producción de azúcar tiene una huella de carbono que emite aproximadamente 947 ± 1381 kg CO2e/ha/ciclo. Los fertilizantes nitrogenados fueron los que más aportaron a las emisiones de GEI, en un 73% del total, en contraste con el uso de combustibles fósiles y energía, cuya contribución está en 17% y 10%, respectivamente.

  9. FACTORES SOCIOECONÓMICOS Y TECNOLÓGICOS EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AGROECOSISTEMAS CON CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L. EN LA CHONTALPA, TABASCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Armida-Alcudia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La caña de azúcar es una de los cultivos pilares en la economía de Tabasco, México, pues se cultivan 27,041 ha que contribuyen con el 4 % de la producción nacional de azúcar, ocupando el tercer lugar en superficie cultivada. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar los principales factores que impactan los rendimientos en el agroecosistema cañero del Ingenio Presidente Benito Juárez. Se entrevistaron a 150 productores y se analizó la información con estadística descriptiva. Entre las características socioeconómicas de los productores destacan la edad (51 % entre 50 y 70 años, escolaridad (40 % con estudios de primaria, la escasez de mano de obra familiar, entre otras. En cuanto a las tecnológicas destacan el cultivar MEX 79-431 sembrado en menor área pero con mayor rendimiento, de entre 50 y 60 t ha1; la fertilización comúnmente aplicada es triple 17 por 30 % de los productores y la mezcla 20-10-10 es a pliada por 26 %; 58 % de los productores reportó nulo acceso a asesoría técnica.

  10. Producción y evaluación del proceso de compostaje a partir de desechos agroindustriales de Saccharum officinarum (caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDILLO, F.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad el aprovechamiento de los residuos azucareros de forma técnicamente viable por medio de la producción y evaluación del proceso de compostaje. Para lograr los objetivos se establecieron combinaciones de tres tipos de materia prima, dos fuentes de microorganismos y dos métodos de aireación. Las pilas se establecieron bajo un diseño de tres factores, y se valoraron dos veces por semana los parámetros: temperatura, pH y conductividad eléctrica. Otros parámetros como materia orgánica, población microbiana, porcentaje de humedad, macro y micronutrimentos, cromatografía de Pfeifer y relación C/N, seevaluaron al inicio y al final del proceso. El mejor método fue el de aireación por volteos, y la formulación más equilibrada para macro y micronutrimentos y mayor concentración de materia orgánica fue la formulación con 50% de bagazo, 25% de cachaza y 25% de ceniza. Al finalizar el proceso, la formulación conformada por 40% bagazo, 30% cachaza y 30% ceniza tuvo la relación C/N más cercana a los valores recomendados entre 20-30. Los microorganismos comerciales mantuvieron una mayor población microbiana durante el proceso hasta su culminación. La temperatura llegó a la temperatura inicial de 45º C; el pH para el proceso fue el óptimo de 8 a 8.5 aunque finalizó elevado 9 a 9.5.

  11. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    . The Compositae mix detected 2x as many as the SL mix, and the overall detection rate with both was 76%, making aimed patch testing necessary. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema), marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae...... comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Aster. Among 1657 respondents in the questionnaire part of the study, 824 had worked with Compositae, and 160 (19%) reported occupational Compositae-related symptoms of skin and mucous membranes. Possible risk factors...

  12. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp..., into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H...

  13. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... hawkweed gall wasp, Aulacidea subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control... United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H. aurantiacum, H... control, and the use of biological control organisms. The use of herbicides, while effective, is limited...

  14. Mating interactions between coexisting diploid, triploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Hieracium echioides (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peckert, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 323-334 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * pollen competition * reproductive barriers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  15. Comparison of simultaneous patch testing with parthenolide and sesquiterpene lactone mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orion, E; Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have pointed out that the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is a safe, though inadequate, screen for Compositae allergy. To test the usefulness of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as a supplementary Compositae screening test to the mix, both were included in the standard series...

  16. 2127-IJBCS-Article-Koffi Badou Jérémie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Determination of critical period for weed control in intensive and non-intensive sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L., Poaceae) production systems in center Côte d'Ivoire ... and chemical methods for effective and ...... Handbook Series No. 4.

  17. Synthesis and mechanical characterization of PZT/Sr based composite ceramics with addition of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}; Sintese e caracterizacao mecanica de ceramicas compositas a base de PZT/Sr com adicoes de Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M.A.P.; Santos, R.C.P.; Santos, M.C.C.; Rocha, C.D.G.; Silva, M., E-mail: cida@ipqm.mar.mil.b [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Ilha do Governador, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the Underwater Acoustics field, piezoelectric ceramics are the most usually employed materials for the conversion of mechanical energy (acoustic signal) into electric energy (electric signal) and vice-versa, in sensors (hydrophones) or hydroacoustic projectors. In the development of new compositions for these applications, piezoelectric performance is generally prioritized, to the expense of its mechanical properties. With this in mind, the object of this work was to study the effects of the addition of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the mechanical properties of PZT-Sr based electronic ceramics. Thus, a novel piezoelectric ceramic with the addition of small percentages in weight (0;0.1;1;3 and 5) of the structural ceramic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was successfully processed by the oxide mixing route ; the compounds were sintered in a conventional at 1200 deg C for 2h. The densities of the compounds thus obtained for the different percentages of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ranged from 55 to 97% and decreased with the increase of the content of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Presence of equiaxial grains with normal growth was observed in all samples. MEV/EDS analysis of the micro-structures of the compositions detected the presence of a second phase rich in Zr, confirmed by DRX, which is a result of large quantities of volatilized PbO; the sintered pieces had their mechanical properties investigated by ultra-sonic inspection. It was observed that, among the sintered compositions, the PZT-Sr ceramic with 0.1% Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} presented the smallest value for Young's Modulus E and Shear Modulus G, 75 Gpa and 28 Gpa, respectively. The Poisson's Coefficients {nu} tended to decrease with the increase of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} added to the PZT-Sr ceramic, indicating, thus, that the added compound may be used to adjust the mechanical properties of the material. (author)

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas em cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum com hexazinone e suas misturas com diuron, em pré-emergência Weed control in sugar cane with hexazinone and its mixtures with diuron in pre-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Clement

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado no ano agrícola 1976/77 um experimento em solo arenoso na Usina Utinga/LeãoAL, no qual foram testados em pré-emergência os tratamentos: hexazinone em 4 doses; hexazinone + diuron em 3 doses; diurom + 2,4 D amina e ametrina + 2,4 D amina. Aos 47, 78 e 111 dias, efetuaram-se as avaliações de fitotoxicidade à cana-de-açúcar e controle à Digitaria sanguinalis , Colopogonio sp, Paspalum distichum e Wedellia paludosa. A interpretação dos dados obtidos mostrou que os tratamentos com hexazinone (954 g/ha e hexazinone (719 g/ha + diuron (2048 g/ha apresentaram diferença estatística em relação à produção quando comparadas à testemunha, além de serem eficientes no controle às plantas daninhas presentes no experimento. Nenhum tratamento prejudicou as qualidades tecnológicas da cana-de-açúcar.In the Agricultural year 1976/77, a field trial was performed on a sandy soil in "Usina Utinga Leão-Alagoas", where the following treatments were applied: hexazinone at 4 rates; hexazinone + diuron at 3 rates; diuron + 2,4 D (amine 720 and ametrine + 2,4 (amine 720, all in pre-emergence. Phytotoxity evaluation for sugar cane and control of Digitaria sanguinalis, Colopogonio sp, Paspalum distichum and Wedellia paludosa, were made 47, 78 and 111 days after the applications. The results obtained showed that the treatments with hexazinone (945 g/ha and hexazinone (719 g/ha + diuron (2048 g/ha presented statistic differences relating to yield, when compared to check, besides being effective in the weeds control. No treatment caused any alterations on tecnologic qualities of the sugar cane.

  19. Utilização do açúcar de cana (Saccharum officinarum como fonte de energia para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias Sugar cane based diet as energy source for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Duran Cordeiro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização de cinco níveis de açúcar de cana (0; 4; 8; 16 e 32% em substituição ao milho na alimentação de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias. Trezentos e vinte pintos, metade de cada sexo, foram distribuídos casualmente em 20 boxes, com total de 16 aves/boxe. As aves receberam água e ração à vontade durante toda a fase de criação, sendo as rações isoprotéicas e isocalóricas. Aos 42 dias de idade, as aves foram pesadas e quatro aves de cada unidade experimental, dois machos e duas fêmeas, foram submetidas a um jejum de 12 horas para posterior abate e evisceração, quando foram avaliados peso e rendimento de carcaça e cortes nobres. Observou-se redução linear no ganho de peso e piora para conversão alimentar com o aumento dos níveis de açúcar, demonstrando menor eficiência de utilização do alimento. Com relação aos cortes, não houve efeito significativo para as fêmeas. Nos machos foi observado efeito quadrático para peso de carcaça, sendo o melhor nível estimado em 8,42%, alcançando o máximo de 1965,1 g. A análise econômica não demonstrou vantagens na utilização do açúcar.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of five levels of sugar (0; 4; 8; 16 and 32% in substitution to the corn in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 days. Three hundred and twenty day old chicks, half male, half female, were randomly assigned to 20 box, with a total of 16 chicks/box. Water and ration were "ad libitum" fed during all experimental period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogen and isocaloric. The birds were weighed at 42 days of age and four birds of each experimental unit, two males and two females, were fasted for 12 hours. After this period, the birds were slaughtered and eviscerated and carcass weight and yield as well as cuts yield were collected. Linear reduction was observed for weight gain and the worst for alimentary conversion, as the sugar levels increased, showing smaller efficiency of feeding use. Females showed no significant effects for cuts. Males showed quadratic effect for carcass weight, with the level of 8.42%, reaching the maximum of 1965.1g. For the economic analysis, no advantage by using sugar cane based diets was observed.

  20. Reacción de 100 variedades de caña de azúcar (saccharum officinarum) del banco de germoplasma del cincae, al carbón (ustilago scitaminea sydow), roya (puccinia melanocephala sydow) y mosaico (sugarcane mosaic virus) en la zona del cantón el triunfo

    OpenAIRE

    Fiallos Encalada, Freddy Fabian; Quilambaqui Jara, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la reacción de 100 variedades de Caña de Azúcar del Banco de Germoplasma del CINCAE inoculadas, al Carbón (Ustilago scitaminea Sydow), Roya (Puccinia melanocephala Sydow) y Mosaico (Sugarcane Mosaic Virus), las cuales son enfermedades que han causado enormes pérdidas en la producción del cultivo. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar del Ecuador (CINCAE), ubicado en el cantón El Triunfo, provincia del Guayas. ...

  1. Tolerance of cut flowers to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.

    1999-01-01

    Cut flowers were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 1000 Gy. Dianthuscaryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae), Freesia sp (Iridaceae), Limonium sinuatum Mill. (Plumbaginaceae), L. latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae), Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae), Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. (Compositae) and Rhodanthe manglesii Lindl (Compositae) were tolerant up to 1000 Gy, without visible negative changes after irradiation and during the vase-life. Callistephus chinensis (Compositae) and Lilium longiflorum Thunb. (Liliaceae) were moderately tolerant, but were modified by high doses. Anthurium sp (Araceae), Strelitzia sp (Musaceae), Matthiola incana R. Br. (Cruciferae), Aechmea distichanta (Bromeliaceae), Consolida ajacis Niew (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus sp (Ranunculaceae), Dendrobium phalenopsis (Orchidaceae) and Gerbera sp (Compositae) were not tolerant to a dose of 200 Gy. The most adequate flowers to be submitted to irradiation treatment for disinfestation purpose were those of the Caryophillaceae family and those which can be used as dried flowers, such as members of the Rhodanthe, Helichrysum and Limmonium genera. (author)

  2. Two New Flavone Glucosides from Serratula strangulata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction Genus Serratula (Compositae) consists of about 70 species distributed throughout the world[1]. Serratula species have been used as folk medicine to treat chickenpox, toxicosis,high cholesterol in China[2].

  3. Archboldia, a new Verbenaceous genus from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Archboldia, nov. gen. — Frutices; folia opposita; inflorescentiae terminales, paniculato-corymbosae, e cymis compositae; calyx plus minusve patens, infundibuliformis, 5-lobatus; corolla exserta, ventricoso-cylindrica, utrinque glabra, aetinomorpha, breviter 5-lobata; stamina 4 alternipetalia,

  4. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... to the Compositae family. The plant .... different temperatures, balance periods, and ... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  5. Parthenium the terminator: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium dermatitis is a distressing dermatitis caused by the air borne allergen of the Compositae weed Parthenium hysterophorus. Uncommon presentations, newer insights in pathogenesis and management of this "scourge" are discussed in this article.

  6. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  7. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12284-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nogaster LD14594 fu... 185 3e-45 AF107797_1( AF107797 |pid:none) Capronia mansonii DNA-dependent RN... 185 3...1( AF107798 |pid:none) Capronia pilosella DNA-dependent R... 120 9e-26 AJ634168_1( AJ634168 |pid:none) Silen..._1( AY699223 |pid:none) Musa velutina RNA polymerase II se... 120 9e-26 AF107798_

  9. Fermentação do caldo da cana de açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. var. Co. 290. Influência da adição de sais de amônio e farelo de arroz sôbre o rendimento alcoólico(* The influence of adding ammonium salts and rice polishings on the rate of alcoholic fermentaion in juice of Co. 290 sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Teixeira

    1954-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo comparativo para verificar a influência da adição de sais de amônio e de farelo de arroz sôbre o rendimento alcoólico obtido pela fermentação do caldo de cana de açúcar da variedade Co. 290. Os dados obtidos nos levaram às seguintes conclusões: 1. O caldo de cana da variedade Co. 290 é pobre em elementos nutritivos para o fermento alcoólico. 2. A adição de 0,1% de sulfato ou fosfato de amônio melhora o processo de fermentação. 3. Os rendimentos alcoólicos mais elevados são obtidos quando o caldo de cana é enriquecido com 0,1% de sulfato ou fosfato de amônio e 0,1% de farelo de arroz. O farelo de arroz parece ter sua atividade ligada ao seu alto teor em vitaminas, principalmente a B1.The sugar cane variety Co. 290 is widely distributed in the State of São Paulo. Its juice does not ferment very well because it seems to be deficient in nutrients for the yeast. Comparative tests were carried out to determine the influence of ammonium salts and rice polishings on the alcohol yield when these substances were added to the juice of this variety prior to fermentation. The following conclusions are based on the results of these tests : 1. The juice from plants of the variety Co. 290 is poor in nutrient elements for the yeast. 2. The addition of 0.1 per cent ammonium sulphate or phosphate improves the process of fermentation. 3. The best alcohol yields are obtained when the juice is enriched with 0.1 per cent ammonium sulphate or phosphate, plus rice polishings at the same rate. The rice polishings seem to be active because of their high content in vitamins, mainly vitamin B1.

  10. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism Are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, Martina; Unger, Stephan; Hellmann, Christine; Beyschlag, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD) of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions. In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic. Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant control over

  11. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Friede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions.In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic.Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant

  12. Sugarcane field residue and bagasse allelopathic impact on vegetable seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the allelopathic impact of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) var. ‘HoCP 96-540’ field residue and sugarcane baga...

  13. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Baksha R, Alam R, Karim MZ, Paul SK, Hossain MA, Miah MAS,. Rahman ABMM (2002). In vitro Shoot Tip Culture of Sugarcane. (Saccharum officinarum) Variety Isd 28. Int. Quarterly J. Biotech. 1: 67-72. Brisibe E, Miyake AH, Taniguchi T, Maeda E (1994). Regulation of somatic embryogenesis in long-term ...

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in .... h to steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus to produce the essential oil in a .... The amount of crude methanol extract was 189 mg/g dry.

  15. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  16. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A.

  18. Development of somaclones in sugarcane genotype BF-162 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pris

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Cluster and sub cluster formation further verified the presence of variability in the red rot resistant somaclones with respect to the parent. Key words: Sugarcane, callogenesis, organogenesis, somaclone, polymorphism, cluster. INTRODUCTION. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) is a major source.

  19. cas du cordon littoral Port-Bouët-Grand-Bassam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formations végétales. Espèces. Familles. Cocoteraie. Fourré littoral. Jachère. Saccharum officinarum L. Poaceae x. Salacia baumannii Loes. Celastraceae x. Sansevieria liberica Gérôme & Labroy. Agavaceae x. Sauvagesia erecta L. Ochnaceae x. Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae x x. Sesamum radiatum Schumacher.

  20. Antioxidant activity influenced by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHº)-scavenging activity) of in vitro regenerated and induced mutant sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) was investigated. Efficient callus induction and shoot regeneration were induced in bud explants when incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  1. Analysis of SSR information in EST resources of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags ( ESTs) offer the opportunity to exploit single, low -copy, conserved sequence motifs for the development of simple sequence repeats ( SSRs). The total of 262 113 ESTs of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the database of NCBI were downloaded and analyzed, which resulted in...

  2. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Beckmann, Michael; Cord, Anna F; Bindewald, Anja M

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  3. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants—Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F.; Bindewald, Anja M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants’ native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Václavík

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species and hair length (H. pilosella only. While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%, and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%. Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date were at

  5. New sections in Taraxacum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2004), s. 259-274 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/02/0346 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Compositae * Lactuceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2004

  6. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemba, D; Góra, J; Kurowska, A

    1990-04-01

    The analysis of the volatile compounds in the essential oil of SOLIDAGO CANADENSISL. sensu lato (Compositae) GC and GC-MS demonstrated the presence of at least 36 compounds, 18 of which were identified. The Major comonenets are gamma (2)- and delta-cadinenes.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiplasmodial, anti-trypanosomal, anti-leishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of selected Tanzanian medicinal plants ... Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais ...

  8. Sesquiterpene lactone dermatitis in the young: is atopy a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Otkjaer, Aksel; Andersen, Klaus E

    2008-01-01

    was to present another 2 cases in children and review the literature. Screening with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix has shown prevalence of 0.5% and 1.8% in 2 studies, while screening with 2 different Compositae mixes detected 4.2% and 2.6% positives among children and adolescents. All individual case reports...

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Allergic Effects of Arctium lappa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C. A. M.; Wijering, Selva C.; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E.; Garssen, Johan

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory

  10. Vitality and metabolic properties of binucleate and trinucleate pollen species upon dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    1979-01-01


    Chapter 1

    Effects of various components upon germination in vitro were studied in order to develop an optimal germination medium for Compositae pollen. Equilibration of pollen in humid air, preceding germination, improved the reliability of results

  11. Advancements in utilizing molecular markers in lettuce breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is globally the most popular commercially produced, leafy vegetable, farmed in moderate climates. Cultivated lettuce is a self-fertilizing, diploid (2n = 2x = 18) species from the family Compositae (Asteraceae). New cultivars of lettuce are developed by combining desirabl...

  12. Sesquiterpene lactones and inulin from chicory roots : extraction, identification, enzymatic release and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, E.

    1992-01-01

    Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the many species of the family Compositae. Chicory has been cultivated for the production of leaves or chicons, which have been used as a vegetable since approximately 300 BC, and for its roots, which can be used as a

  13. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  14. Proteomic Analysis of PEG-Fractionated UV-C Stress-Response Proteins in Globe Artichoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvo, S.; Acquadro, A.; Albo, A.G.; America, A.H.P.; Lanteri, S.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to UV stress by producing antioxidant molecules and by altering their metabolism through the regulation of specific gene family members. Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.-Compositae family) is an attractive model species for studying the protein networks involved in

  15. Biological control of whitefly on Gerbera: success or failure? : tritrophic interactions between Gerbera jamesonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Encarsia formosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sütterlin, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis fundamental and applied research is described that was initiated to develop biological control of whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa in the ornamental Gerbera jamesonii Hook (Campanulales: Compositae).

    To

  16. Carthamus tinctorius L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... family Compositae or Asteraceae, important oilseed crop of semi-arid regions and cultivated mainly for its seed. The crop is cultivated in India, Mexico Argentina,. Australia, Canada, China, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Iraq, Iran,. Egypt, and Ethiopia and is an alternative oil crop for the dry lands of these countries.

  17. Karyotype analyses of the species of the genus Jurinea Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, karyotype analyses of 13 species belonging to the genus Jurinea Cass. (Compositae) and grown naturally in Turkey were conducted. These taxa include Jurinea alpigena C. Koch, Jurinea ancyrensis Bornm., Jurinea aucherana DC., Jurinea cadmea Boiss., Jurinea cataonica Boiss. and Hausskn., Jurinea ...

  18. Numerical taxonomic study of some tribes of composite (subfamily asteroideae) from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A K [South Valley University, Faculty of Science, Qena (Egypt). Dept. of Botany

    2011-02-15

    A systematic study of 25 taxa belonging to 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae of Compositae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on 19 main pollen grains characters. On the basis of UPGMA (Unpaired Group Method off Averaging) clustering and PCO (Principal Component Analysis), two main groups and five subgroups are recognized. (author)

  19. Numerical taxonomic study of some tribes of composite (subfamily asteroideae) from Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of 25 taxa belonging to 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae of Compositae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on 19 main pollen grains characters. On the basis of UPGMA (Unpaired Group Method off Averaging) clustering and PCO (Principal Component Analysis), two main groups and five subgroups are recognized. (author)

  20. Geographical parthenogenesis, genome size variation and pollen production in the arctic-alpine species Hieracium alpinum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráz, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Šingliarová, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2009), s. 41-51 ISSN 0253-1453 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : apomixis * Compositae * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2009

  1. Routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix in Europe: a 2-year experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandão, F M

    1999-01-01

    To test the screening value of the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in Europe today and describe epidemiological and clinical features of Compositae-sensitive patients, the SL mix 0.1% pet. was included in the standard patch test series in 11 European clinics. 10,695 patients were tested, and 106 (1...

  2. Extração e isolamento de diosgenina de barbasco Extraction and isolation of diosgenin from yams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Teixeira Zullo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea composita Hemsl. e D. floribunda Mart. & Gal., introduzidas no Brasil, mostraram teores de diosgenina de 3,15 ± 1,41% e 4,72 ± 0,24% na matéria seca dos tubérculos, com pureza mínima de 54,7 e 39,2% respectivamente. lamogenina também ocorre nos tubérculos de ambas as espécies. O teor de diosgenina em D. composita é crescente com a idade da planta, mostrando um máximo pronunciado em torno do terceiro ano de cultivo e estabilizando-se ao redor do sexto ano.Dioscorea composita Hemsl. and D. floribunda Mart. & Gal., introduced in Brazil, showed diosgenin contents of 3.15 ± 1.41% and 4.72 ± 0.24% on dried tubers, and minimum purities of 54.7% and 39.2%, respectively. Yamogenin co-occurs in the tubers of both species. The diosgenin content in D. composita increases according to the age of the plant, showing a pronounced maximum around the third year and stabilizing around the sixth year of cultivation. Methods for extraction, isolation and purification are also described.

  3. Phytochemical and proximate analysis of Aspillia kotschyi (Sch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia Kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum spirit extracts of the plant material The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, ...

  4. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  5. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1997-01-01

    in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. A cross-sectional study, based on a postal questionnaire and subsequent examination and patch testing of those who had occupational eczema from their present work or occupational problems with Compositae, was carried out in 1958 gardeners and greenhouse workers...

  6. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  7. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary produ...

  8. Effect of Sugarcane Filter Muds, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Absorption of Some Macro- and Micro-Elementsand Heavy Metals by Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Monjezi; M. R Moradi-Telavat; S. A. Siadat; A. Koochakzadeh; H. Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L.) filter muds and chemical and biological fertilizers application on macro- and micronutrient elements and some heavy metals (Pb and Cd) absorption by canola (Brassica napus L.) grains, a factorial experiment was conducted in 2012 in the Experimental Farm of Ramin (Mollasani) Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Iran. A complete blocks design was used for the experiment with three replications. Differe...

  9. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A- induced hepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Q; Zhu L; Ding J; Zhuang X; Xu L; Chen F

    2015-01-01

    Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been r...

  10. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qingqiong; Zhu, Liping; Ding, Jieying; Zhuang, Xing; Xu, Lili; Chen, Fuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, an...

  11. Unraveling the genetic structure of Brazilian commercial sugarcane cultivars through microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manechini, João Ricardo Vieira; da Costa, Juliana Borges; Pereira, Bruna Turcatto; Carlini-Garcia, Luciana Aparecida; Xavier, Mauro Alexandre; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Pinto, Luciana Rossini

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry plays an important role in the worldwide supply of sugar and ethanol. Investigation into the genetic structure of current commercial cultivars and comparisons to the main ancestor species allow sugarcane breeding programs to better manage crosses and germplasm banks as well as to promote its rational use. In the present study, the genetic structure of a group of Brazilian cultivars currently grown by commercial producers was assessed through microsatellite markers and contrasted with a group of basic germplasm mainly composed of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum accessions. A total of 285 alleles was obtained by a set of 12 SSRs primer pairs that taken together were able to efficiently distinguish and capture the genetic variability of sugarcane commercial cultivars and basic germplasm accessions allowing its application in a fast and cost-effective way for routine cultivar identification and management of sugarcane germplasm banks. Allelic distribution revealed that 97.6% of the cultivar alleles were found in the basic germplasm while 42% of the basic germplasm alleles were absent in cultivars. Of the absent alleles, 3% was exclusive to S. officinarum, 33% to S. spontaneum and 19% to other species/exotic hybrids. We found strong genetic differentiation between the Brazilian commercial cultivars and the two main species (S. officinarum: [Formula: see text] = 0.211 and S. spontaneum: [Formula: see text] = 0.216, Pcommercial cultivars. Average dissimilarity within cultivars was 1.2 and 1.4 times lower than that within S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Genetic divergence found between cultivars and S. spontaneum accessions has practical applications for energy cane breeding programs as the choice of more divergent parents will maximize the frequency of transgressive individuals in the progeny.

  12. Evaluation of sugarcane introgression lines for resistance to brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Wen-Feng, Li; Ying-Kun, Huang; Xin, Lu; Zhi-Ming, Luo; Jiong, Yin; Hong-Li, Shan; Rong-Yue, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala is one of the important fungal diseases affecting sugarcane yield around the world. Cultivar resistance is the most appropriate control method for this disease. In this study, 62 introgression lines chosen from the crossing Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Ludashi x Erianthus rockii Yunnan 95-19 were evaluated for brown rust resistance using artificial inoculation. More than 30% of the introgression lines were identified as resistant. ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  14. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  15. Seeds of doubt: Mendel's choice of Hieracium to study inheritance, a case of right plant, wrong trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Ross; Catanach, Andrew; Hand, Melanie; Koltunow, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum". For this purpose, Mendel adopted Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, a phenotypically diverse taxon under botanical study at the time. What Mendel could not have known, however, is that the majority of these plants are not sexual plants like pea, but instead are facultatively apomictic. In these forms, the majority of seed arises asexually, and such progeny are, therefore, clones of the maternal parent. Mendel obtained very few hybrids in his Hieracium crosses, yet we calculate that he probably emasculated in excess of 5000 Hieracium florets to even obtain the numbers he did. Despite that effort, he was perplexed by the results, and they ultimately led him to conclude that "the hybrids of Hieracium show a behaviour exactly opposite to those of Pisum". Apomixis is now a topic of intense research interest, and in an ironic twist of history, Hieracium subgenus Pilosella has been developed as a molecular model to study this trait. In this paper, we explore further Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium, update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops.

  16. Factors Affecting Microcuttings of Stevia Using a Mist-Chamber Propagation Box

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam; Nezhadahmadi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of di...

  17. Floral Resources and Nesting Requirements of the Ground-Nesting Social Bee, Lasioglossum malachurum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), in a Mediterranean Semiagricultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Polidori, Carlo; Rubichi, Alice; Barbieri, Valeria; Trombino, Luca; Donegana, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In order to adopt correct conservation strike plans to maintain bee pollination activity it is necessary to know the species' resource utilisation and requirements. We investigated the floral resources and the nesting requirements of the eusocial bee Lasioglossum malachurum Kirby at various sites in a Mediterranean landscape. Analysis of bees' pollen loads showed that Compositae was the more exploited family, although interpopulations differences appeared in the pollen types used. From 5 to 7...

  18. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomni...

  19. Inulin in Medicinal Plants II : Determination of Inulin in Medicinal Plants by High-Performance Gel Chromatography - Seasonal Variations in Inulin Content

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 長世; 三野, 芳紀; NAGAYO, OTA; YOSHIKI, MINO; 大阪薬科大学; 大阪薬科大学; Osaka College of Pharmacy; Osaka College of Pharmacy

    1980-01-01

    A high-performance gel chromatographic procedure for the analysis of inulin in medicinal plants (0.001% for 1% absorption) was established by combining gel chromatography(TSK-G3000PW with distilled water as a mobile phase) with colorimetry (HCl-resorcin reaction). Quantitative studies on inulin contents in medicinal plants of the Gampanulaceae and Compositae families in various growth stages was performed according to the present method. In general, inulin contents of the underground parts de...

  20. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  1. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

    OpenAIRE

    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  2. Operation and Maintenance. 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 1. Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    families in the group of nine are the Gramineae, Ranunculaceae , Rosaceae, Umbelliferae, and Caprifoliaceae (Exhibit 79). 2.160 The valley forests are...included in nine families . The family Compositae comprise 10 percent of the total species in the dry mesic stands, and ferns are dominant. Other...total flora reveal that the same seven families include 50 percent of the total species. The main change in family representation as compared to the

  3. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis in Spartina alterniflora: evidence that S-methylmethionine and dimethylsulfoniopropylamine are intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, M.G.; Nolte, K.D.; Rhodes, D.; Shen, T.L.; Gage, D.A.; Hanson, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The osmoprotectant 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) occurs in Gramineae and Compositae, but its synthesis has been studied only in the latter. The DMSP synthesis pathway was therefore investigated in the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Leaf tissue metabolized supplied [35S]methionine (Met) to S-methyl-L-Met (SMM), 3-dimethylsulfoniopropylamine (DMSP-amine), and DMSP. The 35S-labeling kinetics of SMM and DMSP-amine indicated that they were intermediates and, consistent with this, the dimethylsulfonium moiety of SMM was shown by stable isotope labeling to be incorporated as a unit into DMSP. The identity of DMSP-amine, a novel natural product, was confirmed by both chemical and mass-spectral methods. S. alterniflora readily converted supplied [35S]SMM to DMSP-amine and DMSP, and also readily converted supplied [35S]DMSP-amine to DMSP; grasses that lack DMSP did neither. A small amount of label was detected in 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde (DMSP-ald) when [35S]SMM or [35S]DMSP-amine was given. These results are consistent with the operation of the pathway Met leads to SMM leads to DMSP-amine leads to DMSP-ald leads to DMSP, which differs from that found in Compositae by the presence of a free DMSP-amine intermediate. This dissimilarity suggests that DMSP synthesis evolved independently in Gramineae and Compositae

  4. A new source of elemol rich essential oil and existence of multicellular oil glands in leaves of the Dioscorea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Joy I; Odukoya, Olukemi; Yadav, Ritesh K; Chanotiya, C S; Ogbonnia, Steve; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-01-01

    Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent's diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α -terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α -farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  5. Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and UVB TL01 treatment for chronic hand dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Jensen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic eczematous hand dermatoses with and without contact allergies are complex diseases, which makes it a challenge to select the best treatment and obtain an optimal patient experience and a satisfactory treatment result. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical effect and patient experience of local treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA soaks and TL01 phototherapy for severe chronic hand dermatoses, and also to evaluate the quality of life for the subgroup of patients with allergic contact dermatitis including Compositae allergy. A retrospective evaluation of results for 94 consecutive patients having received a total of 121 treatment courses with local PUVA soaks or TL01 phototherapy for one of the following diagnoses (n=number of treatment courses: psoriasis (n=19, hyperkeratotic hand eczema (n=27, Pustulosis Palmoplantaris (PPP (n=22, vesicular eczema (n=16, Compositae dermatitis (n=24, and allergic contact dermatitis (n=13. Moreover, semi-structured interviews with 6 selected patients having multiple contact allergies including Compositae allergy were used to evaluate quality of life. As a result, we found that PUVA soaks has good effect in patients with psoriasis and hyperkeratotic hand eczema and local phototherapy for chronic hand dermatoses is a useful treatment option in selected cases.

  6. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Poljacki, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Boza, P; Vujanović, Lj; Duran, V; Stojanović, S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the value of patch testing with dandelion (Compositae) extract in addition to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in selected patients. After we detected a case of contact erythema multiforme after patch testing with dandelion and common chickweed (Caryophyllaceae), additional testing with common chickweed extract was performed. A total of 235 adults with a mean age of 52.3 years were tested. There were 66 men and 169 women: 53 consecutive patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); 43 with atopic dermatitis (AD); 90 non-atopics suffering from non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases; 49 healthy volunteers. All were tested with SL mix 0.1% petrolatum (pet.) and diethyl ether extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 0.1 and 3.0% pet. and from Stellaria media (common chickweed) 0.1 and 3% pet. A total of 14 individuals (5.9%) showed allergic reaction (AR) to at least 1 of the plant allergens, 4 (28.6%) to common chickweed extract, and 11 (78.6%) to Compositae allergens. These 11 persons made the overall prevalence of 4.7%: 8 (3.4%) were SL-positive and 3 (1.3%) reacted to dandelion extract. 5 persons (45.5%) had AD, 2 had ACD, 2 had psoriasis and 2 were healthy controls. The Compositae allergy was relevant in 8 cases (72.7%). The highest frequency of SL mix sensitivity (9.3%) was among those with AD. Half the SL mix-sensitive individuals had AD. ARs to dandelion extract were obtained only among patients with eczema. A total of 9 irritant reactions (IRs) in 9 individuals (3.8%) were recorded, 8 to SL mix and 1 to common chickweed extract 3.0% pet. No IR was recorded to dandelion extract (P = 0.007). Among those with relevant Compositae allergy, 50.0% had AR to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin) and colophonium. SLs were detected in dandelion but not in common chickweed. Our study confirmed the importance of 1 positive reaction for emerging, not fully established, Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall

  8. USO DEL BAGAZO ENRIQUECIDO CON EL HONGO Pleurotus ostreatus, EN DIETAS PARA BOVINOS ESTABULADOS EN CEBA UTILIZAÇÃO DO BAGAÇO ENRIQUECIDO COMO FUNGO Pleurotus ostreatus, EM DIETAS PARA BOVINOS ESTABULADOS EM ENGORDA Pleurotus ostreatus ENRICHED SUGAR CANEHUSKS UTILIZATION ON INDOOR CATTLEFATTENING DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA LIZETTE CASTAÑO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la elaboración de la panela, entre el 40 y 54% es bagazo, el cual se caracteriza portener baja proteína y energía, altos compuestos lignocelulósicos, acompañado de una baja digestibilidad, por ello, tradicionalmente ha sido utilizado como combustiblepara las hornillas. El presente trabajo, evaluó el uso del bagazo enriquecido con el hongo Pleurotus ostreatus, como suplemento en dietas para bovinos, frente a otros tratamientos con y sin suplementación comercial. A todos los animales se les suministró una dieta balanceada que consistía en 18 Kg de pasto king grass (Saccharum sinense, 6 Kg de caña (Saccharum officinarum, 3 Kg de cogollo de caña (Saccharum officinarum, 3 Kg de gallinaza y 0,6 Kg de miel de panela, y suplemento ofrecido ad libitum a los tratamientos que lo requerían. Se analizaron las variables ganancia diaria de peso, conversión alimenticia, consumo de materiaseca y el efecto costo beneficio de la suplementación. No se presentaron diferencias significativas (PNa elaboração da rapadura, entre o 40% e 54% é bagaço, o qual se caracteriza por ter baixa proteína e energia, alto composto lignocelulósicos, acompanhado por uma baixa digestibilidade, portanto, tradicionalmente tem sido usado como combustível para os queimadores. Este trabalho avaliou o uso do bagaço enriquecido com o fungo Pleurotus ostreatus como suplemento em dietas para bovinos, comparado com outros tratamentos com e sem suplementação comercial. Aos animais todos foi subministrado uma dieta equilibrada que consistia de 18 Kg de grama king grass (Saccharum sinense, 6 Kg de cana (Saccharum officinarum, 3 Kg de broto de cana (Saccharum officinarum, 3 Kg de estrume e 0,6 Kg de mel de rapadura e suplemento oferecido ad libitum aos tratamentos que o requeiram. Analisaram-se as variáveis: ganho diário de peso, conversão alimentar e consumo de matéria seca e o efeito de custo benefício da suplementação. Não apresentaram diferen

  9. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Rojas; Maritza Reyes; Naivy Pérez-Alonso; María I. Olóriz; Laisyn Posada-Pérez; Bárbara Ocaña; Orelvis Portal; Borys Chong-Pérez; Jorge L. Pérez Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol). In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend ...

  10. AISLAMIENTO Y CONTROL MICROBIOLÓGICO DE Leuconostoc mesenteroides, EN UN INGENIO PARA OPTIMIZAR EL RENDIMIENTO DE AZÚCAR Y ETANOL ISOLAMENTO E Leuconostoc Mesenteroides CONTROLE MICROBIOLÓGICO EM UM TALENTO PARA OTIMIZAR O DESEMPENHO DE AÇÚCAR E ETANOL ISOLATION AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF Leuconostoc mesenteroides, IN TO SUGAR REFINERY TO OPTIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR AND ETHANOL

    OpenAIRE

    RAÚL A CUERVO MULET; JOHANNY ÁNGEL LEDESMA; JORGE ANTONIO DURÁN VANEGAS; FRANCISCO E ARGOTE VEGA

    2010-01-01

    La caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L) es exprimida para obtener su jugo que después de ser purificado y neutralizado, deja cristalizar el azúcar. Considerando la importancia que representa la caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera, se hace necesario incrementar el contenido de sacarosa libre de dextrana (destrucción de sacarosa causada por la acción de microorganismos acompañantes de la caña, siendo uno de los más importantes Leuconostoc mesenteroides). En este trabajo de investigac...

  11. AISLAMIENTO Y CONTROL MICROBIOLÓGICO DE Leuconostoc mesenteroides, EN UN INGENIO PARA OPTIMIZAR EL RENDIMIENTO DE AZÚCAR Y ETANOL

    OpenAIRE

    CUERVO MULET, RAÚL A; ÁNGEL LEDESMA, JOHANNY; DURÁN VANEGAS, JORGE ANTONIO; ARGOTE VEGA, FRANCISCO E

    2010-01-01

    La caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L) es exprimida para obtener su jugo que después de ser purificado y neutralizado, deja cristalizar el azúcar. Considerando la importancia que representa la caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera, se hace necesario incrementar el contenido de sacarosa libre de dextrana (destrucción de sacarosa causada por la acción de microorganismos acompañantes de la caña, siendo uno de los más importantes Leuconostoc mesenteroides). En este trabajo de investigac...

  12. Transport biofuel yields from food and lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [IBED University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    In the near future, the lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops Miscanthus and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) are unlikely to outcompete sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in net energetic yearly yield of transport biofuel ha{sup -1}. This holds both for the thermochemical conversion into liquid hydrocarbons and the enzymatic conversion into ethanol. Currently, Miscanthus and switchgrass would also not seem able to outcompete corn (Zea mays) in net energetic yearly yield of liquid transport biofuel ha{sup -1}, but further development of these lignocellulosic crops may gradually lead to a different outcome. (author)

  13. Use of AFLP marker system on sugarcane somaclones to study their resistance to rust

    OpenAIRE

    María Ileana Oloriz; Luis Rojas; Víctor Gil; Milady Mendoza; Ariel Arencibia; Elva Rosa Carmona; Elio Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    AFLPs (amplified fragment length polymorphism) was carried out from genomic DNA of five rust resistant sugar cane somaclons and their susceptible donor, Saccharum officinarum var B 4362, using three combinations of primers (EcoRI/aca: MseI/acc; EcoRI/aca: MseI/atg and EcoRI/aca: MseI/agg). Six polymorphic bands were obtained, two of these only appeared in the resistant genotypes, which are probably DNA sequences, related to rust resistance locus. These fragments have been cloned to study thei...

  14. Diarylheptanoids suppress proliferation of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells through modulating shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-Ih; Lee, So Yoon; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer, and it has the lowest 5-year survival rates. It is necessary to develop more potent anti-pancreatic cancer drugs to overcome the fast metastasis and resistance to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combinations of these. We have identified several diarylheptanoids as anti-pancreatic cancer agents from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and Alnus japonica. These diarylheptanoids suppressed cell proliferation and induced the cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). Among them, the most potent compounds 1 and 7 inhibited the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway and their target gene expression in PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, they suppressed the expression of the cell cycle associated genes that were rescued by the overexpression of exogenous FoxM1. Taken together, (E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (1) from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and platyphyllenone (7) from Alnus japonica inhibit PANC-1 cell proliferation by suppressing the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway, and they can be potential candidates for anti-pancreatic cancer drug development.

  15. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  16. Phytochemical Characteristics, Free Radical Scavenging Activities, and Neuroprotection of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Lin Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0 μg/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinal plant source for the treatment of H2O2-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics.

  17. Phytochemical Characteristics, Free Radical Scavenging Activities, and Neuroprotection of Five Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Lin; Lin, Che San; Lai, Guia Hung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine phytochemical characteristics, chemiluminescence antioxidant capacities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for methanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Alpinia officinarum, Drynaria fortunei, and Crataegus pinnatifida. The C. pinnatifida extract (CPE) afforded the greatest yield and total phenolic content. The S. suberectus extract (SSE) yielded the greatest total flavonoid content. The U. rhynchophylla extract (URE) produced the greatest total tannin content, and the A. officinarum extract (AOE) produced the greatest total triterpenoid content. The D. fortunei extract, assayed using horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and AOE using pyrogallol-luminol assay each exhibited better antioxidant activity than the L-ascorbic acid and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid did. The CPE, SSE, and URE presented neurogrowth effects and neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0 μg/mL. The CPE represents a promising medicinal plant source for the treatment of H2O2-induced neurodegenerative disease, because of its useful phytochemical characteristics. PMID:21845204

  18. Synergistic effects of the combination of galangin with gentamicin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seob; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Oh, You-Chang; Chae, Hee-Sung; Kim, Jong Hak; Park, Hyun; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2008-06-01

    The antimicrobial killing activity toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious emerging global issue. New effective antimicrobials and/or new approaches to settle this issue are urgently needed. The oriental herb, Alpinia officinarum, has been used in Korea for several hundreds of years to treat various infectious diseases. As it is well known, one of the active constituents of Alpinia officinarum is galangin. Against the 17 strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of galangin (GAL) were in the range of 62.5 ~ 125 microg/ml, and the MICs of gentamicin (GEN) ranged from 1.9 microg/ml to 2,000 microg/ml. The fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) of GAL, in combination with GEN, against 3 test strains were 0.4, 3.9, and 250 microg/ml, and were all 15.62 microg/ml in GEN. The FIC index showed marked synergism in the value range of 0.19 to 0.25. By determining time-kill curves, also confirmed the low synergism of the GAL and GEN combination against 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h cultured MRSA. The time-kill study results indicated a low synergistic effect against 3 test strains. Thus, the mixture of GAL and GEN could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against MRSA infection.

  19. [Two novel isocoumarins from Erigeron breviscapus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, De-Quan

    2013-07-01

    Two novel isocoumarins, erigeronone C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz (Compositae). Their structures were respectively elucidated as 8, 9-dihydroxypyrano [3, 2-c] isochromen-4, 6-dione (1) and 4, 7-dihydroxy-3-(3-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-isochromen-1-one (2) on the basis of spectral analyses. Both structures of 1 and 2 possess a gamma-pyrone moiety and that is rare in natural products.

  20. Two new constituents from Erigeron breviscapus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, De-Quan

    2013-09-01

    Two novel constituents, named erigeronones A (1) and B (2), together with apigenin-7-O-β-galacturonide (3), quercetin-7-O-β-glucuronide (4), quercetin-3-O-β-galacturonide (5), and eriodictyol-7-O-β-glucuronide (6), were isolated from the whole grass of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand.-Mazz (Compositae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analyses and comparison with the literature data. Both new compounds 1 and 2 possess a γ-pyrone moiety that is rare in nature. Compound 1 showed significant protective effect on H2O2-injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  1. Desacetylmatricarin, an anti-allergic component from Taraxacum platycarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, H; Choi, E J; Yoo, G S; Kim, K M; Ryu, S Y; Ho, C

    1998-08-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of Taraxacum platycarpum (Compositae) extract led to the isolation of a desacetylmatricarin (1) as an active principle responsible for the anti-allergic property. It showed a potent inhibitory activity upon the beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 was 7.5 microM. Two structurally related guaianolide sesquiterpenes, achillin and leucodin, were also examined and their IC50 values were determined as 100 microM and 80 microM, respectively.

  2. In Vitro Multiplication of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Genotypes Using Different Explants

    OpenAIRE

    Seyis, Fatih; Yurteri, Emine; Özcan, Aysel

    2017-01-01

    In Vitro Multiplicationof Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)Genotypes by Using Different Explants Fatih Seyis1, EmineYurteri1, Aysel Özcan1 1Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Faculty of Agronomyand Natural Sciences, Field Crops Department  Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that is a member of the Compositae family is one of the most valuable  tropical medicinal plants. The origin of Stevia is South America, where it can be seen as a wild plant. Further it could be found in semi-arid habitat ranging from...

  3. Protective effects of taraxaci Herba extract against {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Hwang, Seong Hye; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The expanding usage of radiation and radioisotopes in industry, medicine, and scientific research operations has entailed the necessity of efficient radioprotectors to reduce the biological damage during medical usage or after accidental exposure. Natural products such as herbal medicines, which are relatively less toxic, have recently begun to receive some attention as possible modifiers for radiation response. Taraxaci Herba (the aerial part of Taraxacum mongolicum, Compositae family) is a medicinal herb which has been traditionally used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant and radioprotective activity of hot water extract of Traxaci Herba (TH extract) in vitro and in vivo models.

  4. La filosofia di Hans-Georg Gadamer e il problema del disagio della modernità. Ermeneutica, estetica, etica e politica

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    L’ermeneutica filosofica di Hans-Georg Gadamer – indubbiamente uno dei capisaldi del pensiero novecentesco – rappresenta una filosofia molto composita, sfaccettata e articolata, per così dire formata da una molteplicità di dimensioni diverse che si intrecciano l’una con l’altra. Ciò risulta evidente già da un semplice sguardo alla composizione interna della sua opera principale, Wahrheit und Methode (1960), nella quale si presenta una teoria del comprendere che prende in esame ...

  5. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  6. Determination of trace elements of some Egyptian crops by instrumental neutron activation, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Amrallah, A.H.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    INAA was used for the determination of Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, V and Zn, ICP-AES for the determination of Al, Ag, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, and flameless AAS for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in egg plant, potatoes, green pepper (Leguminosae), vegetable marrow (Cucurbitaceae), pears, apple (Rosaceae), castor oil plant (Euphorbiaceae), lettuce (compositae), dill, parsley, coriander (Umbelliferae), and in some soil samples collected from Aswan province. (author)

  7. Further account of the marine littoral diatoms of the Saldanha Bay Lagoon, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available of the raphe, asymmetric. Surface of the valve on both sides costate, costae 6 in 10 pm, bet~veen the costae double rows of obscure alternating puncta. Type slide 636 in the Giffen Collection. lconotype figures No.10?13. Frustu lae in visu connectivale... utrinque raphe costatis validis 6 in 10 pm cx punctis obscuris in seribus duobus et in quincuncem ordinatis compositae. Habitat: in aquis marinis OceaniA tlantici in lacunae Saldanha bet Oesterwal dicti Pro rincia Capensis. Typus: praeparatum No. 636...

  8. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  9. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  10. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  11. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  12. Erythema multiforme-like eruption from a slimming drug preparation cutaneous adverse drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tognetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 34-year-old woman presenting with an erythema multiforme (EM-like eruption. Lesions developed after a 12-day treatment with a slimming drug preparation (food integrator with thermogenic activity and a herbal remedy (pilosella tincture. Serological investigations excluded viral or bacterial infections. Patch testing with galenic preparations of both drugs demonstrated sensitization to the slimming drug preparation. According to literature reports and immune-chemical properties, those components that are likely to have triggered the skin eruption are clorazepate dipotassium and theobromine. Their interaction with other two constituents such as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and dehydrocholic acid may have caused the adverse reaction by means of a summation effect. There are no reports specifically about EM caused by a slimming drug preparation and no studies have identified thermogenic pills as cause of EM/EM-like eruption. Weight-loss compounds in slimming preparations should be kept in mind as a possible cause of drug-induced EM-like eruption.

  13. Effects of heavy-metal-contaminated soil on growth, phenology and biomass turnover of Hieracium piloselloides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Peter; Sauder, Wendy R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low levels of heavy metals on plant growth, biomass turnover and reproduction were investigated for Hieracium pilosella. Plants were grown for 12 weeks on substrates with different concentrations of heavy metals obtained by diluting contaminated soils with silica sand. To minimize effects of other soil factors, the substrates were limed, fertilized, and well watered. The more metal-contaminated soil the substrate contained, the lower the leaf production rate and the plant mass were, and the more the phenological development was delayed. Flowering phenology was very sensitive to metals. Leaf life span was reduced at the highest and the lowest metal levels, the latter being a result of advanced seed ripening. Even if the effect of low metal levels on plant growth may be small, the delayed and reduced reproduction may have large effects at population, community and ecosystem level, and contribute to rapid evolution of metal tolerance. - Flowering phenology shows a very sensitive response to heavy metal contamination of soils

  14. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  15. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Recursos vegetais usados por Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em restinga da Praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Vegetable resources used by Acromyrmex striatus (Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dunes at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Acromyrmex striatus entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material vegetal trazido para o ninho. Estas formigas usam partes de 50 espécies de plantas dispostas em 22 famílias, sendo as principais, representantes de Compositae, Gramineae e Leguminosae. Nesta última família, Stylosanthes viscosa foi a espécie mais utilizada nos dois anos de amostragem. Acromyrmex striatus corta matéria vegetal fresca, bem como se utiliza de material vegetal já caído, podendo, então se comportar como cortadeira ou como uma espécie oportunista.A total of 400 nests of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, in order to determine the vegetable substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use some parts of 50 plant species in 22 botanical families, being Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae the principal ones. In this last family, Stylosanthes viscosa Swartz was the most herbivored species in the two years samplings. Acromyrmex striatus cut fresh vegetables, as well as use decayed materials, being then a true leaf-cutter ant or a opportunistic ant.

  17. Flora da Serra de Itabirito, Minas Gerais: primeira contribuição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Brandão

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuado o levantamento das espécies ocorrentes na Serra de Itabirito, Município de Itabirito, Minas Gerais, em áreas de cerrado e campo-rupestre. Nesta primeira etapa foram coletadas e identificadas 366 espécies, pertencentes a 209 gêneros, agrupadas em 78 famílias. Compositae é a família mais representativa, com cerca de 57 espécies e 22 gêneros, vindo a seguir Leguminosae com 37 espécies e 14 gêneros e Gramineae com 14 espécies e 13 gêneros.This study is a survey of species occuring in the "cerrado" and "campo-rupreste" of Itabirito Hills, County of Itabirito, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this first stage we collected and identified 366 species, belonging to 209 genera, grouped into 78 families. Compositae was the most representative family having 57 species and 22 genera, followed by Leguminosae with 37 species and 14 genera, and Gramineae with 14 species and 13 genera.

  18. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  19. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  20. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment alternative for cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1999-01-01

    Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide to control insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens and rodents It is effective to commodity treatment designed for exportation/importation, but is also toxic for human being. Besides, it is an ozone layer depleting substance and many countries are interested in finding other less damaging alternatives. The methyl bromide shall be banned until 2015 and one promising alternative is the radiation. It can be effective for some vegetables, like fresh cut flowers. The tolerance to gamma radiation was observed in some cut flowers. Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae), Gypsophyla (Caryophyllaceae), Gomphrena (Amarantaceae), Celosia (Amarantaceae) and Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) were tolerant to 750 Gy. Heliconia and Strelitzia (Musaceae) were not tolerant, presenting a severe browning of the colored sepals. Anthurium (Araceae) was also sensitive to 750 Gy, presenting browning of the spike, discoloration and black spots on the sepals. The radiation inhibited the bud opening of Hemerocallis (Liliaceae) and Gladiolus (Iridaceae). Gerbera (Compositae) and Callistemon (Myrtaceae) wilted before the control flowers. Helianthus (Compositae) leaves wilted before the flowers because of the radiation. (author)

  1. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  3. The genome sequence of the outbreeding globe artichoke constructed de novo incorporating a phase-aware low-pass sequencing strategy of F1 progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Davide; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Acquadro, Alberto; Froenicke, Lutz; Portis, Ezio; Beitel, Christopher; Tirone, Matteo; Mauro, Rosario; Lo Monaco, Antonino; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Faccioli, Primetta; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rieseberg, Loren; Michelmore, Richard; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is an out-crossing, perennial, multi-use crop species that is grown worldwide and belongs to the Compositae, one of the most successful Angiosperm families. We describe the first genome sequence of globe artichoke. The assembly, comprising of 13,588 scaffolds covering 725 of the 1,084 Mb genome, was generated using ~133-fold Illumina sequencing data and encodes 26,889 predicted genes. Re-sequencing (30×) of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis) parental genotypes and low-coverage (0.5 to 1×) genotyping-by-sequencing of 163 F1 individuals resulted in 73% of the assembled genome being anchored in 2,178 genetic bins ordered along 17 chromosomal pseudomolecules. This was achieved using a novel pipeline, SOILoCo (Scaffold Ordering by Imputation with Low Coverage), to detect heterozygous regions and assign parental haplotypes with low sequencing read depth and of unknown phase. SOILoCo provides a powerful tool for de novo genome analysis of outcrossing species. Our data will enable genome-scale analyses of evolutionary processes among crops, weeds, and wild species within and beyond the Compositae, and will facilitate the identification of economically important genes from related species. PMID:26786968

  4. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Oral Allergy Syndrome in a Child Provoked by Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantini Paola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly has been demonstrated to have several physiological activities. However, in the literature, different reactions induced by royal jelly are reported. We describe a case of seven-year-old child that was referred to our observation for two episodes of oral allergy syndrome (OAS that appeared ten minutes after ingestion of royal jelly. Skin prick test with standard panel of inhalant and food allergens, a prick-to-prick test using the royal jelly’s extract responsible for patient’s reactions, and royal jelly patch test with extemporaneous preparation were performed. The specific IgE by ImmunoCAP System method versus Hymenoptera venom, inhalant allergens, food allergens, and lipid transfer proteins was dosed. According to the positive reactions to royal jelly both by prick-by-prick test and by a first reading patch test, royal jelly immediate hypersensitivity was diagnosed. According to the positive response for almond in both in vivo and in vitro tests we can think of the royal jelly contamination with almond pollen as possible cause of patient’s reaction. Moreover, from the results of specific IgE titers versus Compositae pollens, we have argued the possibility that this case of royal jelly allergy could be explained also by the mechanism of cross-reaction with Compositae pollens.

  6. Pyramiding genes and alleles for improving energy cane biomass yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Ray [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Nagai, Chifumi [Hawaii Agriculture Research Center; Yu, Qingyi [Texas A & M AgriLife Research

    2018-03-23

    The overall goal of this project is to identify genes and gene interaction networks contributed to the extreme segregants with 30 folds biomass yield difference in sugarcane F2 populations. Towards achieving this goal, yield trials of 108 F2 extreme segregants from S. officinarum LA Purple and S. robustum MOL5829 (LM population) were carried out in two locations in three years. A yield trial of the second F2 population from S. officinarum LA Purple and S. spontaneum US56-14-4 (LU population) was installed in the summer of 2014 and the first set of yield component data was collected. For genotyping, transcriptomes from leaves and stalks of 70 extreme segregants of the LM F2 population and 119 individuals of the LU F2 populations were sequenced. The genomes of 91 F1 individuals from the LM populations are being sequenced to construct ultra-high density genetic maps for each of the two parents for both assisting the LA Purple genome assembling and for testing a hypothesis of female restitution. The genomes of 110 F2 individuals from single F1 in the LU population, a different set from the 119 F2 individuals used for transcriptome sequencing, are being sequenced for mapping genes and QTLs affecting biomass yield and for testing a hypothesis of female restitution. Gene expression analysis between extreme segregants of high and low biomass yield showed up-regulation of cellulose synthase, cellulose, and xylan synthase in high biomass yield segregants among 3,274 genes differentially expressed between the two extremes. Our transcriptome results revealed not only the increment of cell wall biosynthesis pathway is essential, but the rapid turnover of certain cell wall polymers as well as carbohydrate partitioning are also important for recycling and energy conservation during rapid cell growth in high biomass sugarcane. Seventeen differentially expressed genes in auxin, one in ethylene and one in gibberellin related signaling and biosynthesis pathways were identified, which

  7. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  8. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  9. Projeções de risco de produção de cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo baseadas em simulações multimodelos e cenários climáticos futuros

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Maria Soares Pinto

    2015-01-01

    A cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum) é uma cultura de relevância socioeconômica para o Brasil por proporcionar divisas na balança comercial do país e figurar como pilar estratégico para a matriz energética brasileira. O Estado de São Paulo é o maior produtor nacional de cana e de seus derivados. Apesar da intensa discussão em torno das mudanças climáticas globais na última década, sabe-se que as projeções acerca do clima futuro e seu impacto na agricultura contêm uma série de incertezas o...

  10. Caracterización de hojas de mazorca de maíz y de bagazo de caña para la elaboración de una pulpa celulósica mixta

    OpenAIRE

    Prado-Martínez, Maribel; Anzaldo-Hernández, José; Becerra-Aguilar, Bruno; Palacios-Juárez, Hilda; Vargas-Radillo, José de Jesús; Rentería-Urquiza, Maite

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y morfológica de las hojas de mazorca de maíz (Zea mays) y del bagazo de caña (Saccharum officinarum L.). Se analizaron porcentajes de α-celulosa, holocelulosa, lignina y cenizas, según las Normas Tappi para cada componente y el método de Jayme-Wise. Se determinaron las propiedades biométricas de las fibras de cada planta (longitud y diámetro, grosor de la pared y diámetro del lumen). Además, se estimaron los...

  11. Biosorption treatment of brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Ali, M.; Tariq, M.I.; Rehman, F.U.; Karim, A.; Makshoof, M.; Farooq, R.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorptivity of different agricultural wastes have been evaluated for the treatment of brackish water and a new method, based on the principle of bio-sorption has been described. Wastes of the Saccharum officinarum, Moringa oleifera, Triticum aestivcum and Oryza sativa have been used in raw forms as well as after converting them into ash and activated carbon as biosorbents for treatment of brackish water in this study. Samples of brackish water have been analyzed before and after treatment for quality control parameters of water. A significant Improvement has been observed in quality control parameters of water after treatment. pH of the water samples slightly increased from 7.68 to 7.97 with different treatments. A substantial decrease in conductivity,. TDS, TH, concentrations of cations and anions was observed in the samples of brackish water after treatment with different biosorbents. (author)

  12. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  13. Use of AFLP marker system on sugarcane somaclones to study their resistance to rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana Oloriz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available AFLPs (amplified fragment length polymorphism was carried out from genomic DNA of five rust resistant sugar cane somaclons and their susceptible donor, Saccharum officinarum var B 4362, using three combinations of primers (EcoRI/aca: MseI/acc; EcoRI/aca: MseI/atg and EcoRI/aca: MseI/agg. Six polymorphic bands were obtained, two of these only appeared in the resistant genotypes, which are probably DNA sequences, related to rust resistance locus. These fragments have been cloned to study their nucleotide sequence and to investigate their roll in resistance mechanism develop by these mutants during Puccinia melanocephala infection. Key words: molecular markers, Puccinia. melanocephala, Saccharum

  14. Trace element pharmacognostical study on diuretic drugs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Loukis, A.; Philianos, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Some pharmacological properties and especially diuretic action of medicinal plants are attributed to their elemental content. The elements chlorine, manganese, potassium and sodium are determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the dry samples of the following drugs: stigmata of Zea mays, leaves of Uva ursi, rhizome of Cynodon dactylon, whole plant of Ceterach officinarum as well as in infusions, decoction of the same drugs and in the water used for these preparations. It has been found that manganese and potassium are transferred partially into prepared solutions. Sodium is not transferred into solutions from any of these drugs while only chlorine is transferred partially into infusion of Zea mays. From these results it is concluded that the diuretic action of the examined drugs should not be attributed exclusively to the presence of their potassium and chlorine content but also to other constituents. (author)

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann using different soils as source of casing materials Cultivo de Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann usando diferentes solos como fonte de material para a camada de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial productivity of the Agaricus blazei mushroom is closely related to both the quality of the compost and the choice of soil to be used as a casing material. This study aims to evaluate Agaricus blazei's productivity using two compost formulations and three soils. The two compost formulations were (i crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and Coastcross hay (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., and (ii crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and corn husk (Zea mays L.; they were amended with wheat bran, lime, gypsum, superphosphate and urea. The casing materials were extracted from three soils classed as Rhodic Hapludox, Xanthic Hapludox, and Humic Haplaquox. The Rhodic Hapludox soil material was mixed with fragments of Eucalyptus charcoal in the proportion of 4:1. The compost was prepared during six weeks and thereafter heat treated during 48 h at the end of the composting period. The sugarcane bagasse:coast-hay compost was superior to the sugarcane bagasse: corn husk compost. The Rhodic Hapludox plus charcoal casing material showed to be a better casing material than either the Xanthic Hapludox and Humic Haplaquox soil materials. The choice of the soils where the casing material is taken is an important factor to the success of the Agaricus blazei mushroom cultivation.A produtividade do cogumelo Agaricus blazei depende da qualidade do composto e da terra de cobertura. Avaliou-se a produtividade deste cogumelo utilizando-se duas formulações de composto e materiais retirados de três tipos de solo usados como camada de cobertura. As duas formulações de composto consistiram em (i bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e capim Coastcross (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., e (ii bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e palha de milho (Zea mays L.. As duas formulações foram suplementadas com farelo de trigo, calcário, gesso, superfosfato simples e uréia. Como camadas de cobertura foram

  16. An automatic on-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-high performance liquid chromatography method for high-throughput screening of antioxidants from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanzhen; Wu, Nan; Fang, Yingtong; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-10-27

    Many natural products are rich in antioxidants which play an important role in preventing or postponing a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular and inflammatory disease, diabetes as well as breast cancer. In this paper, an automatic on-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) method was established for antioxidants screening with nine standards including organic acids (4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and benzoic acid), alkaloids (coptisine and berberine), and flavonoids (quercitrin, astragalin, and quercetin). The optimal concentration of DPPH was determined, and six potential antioxidants including 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercitrin, astragalin, and quercetin, and three non-antioxidants including benzoic acid, coptisine, and berberine, were successfully screened out and validated by conventional DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The established method has been applied to the crude samples of Saccharum officinarum rinds, Coptis chinensis powders, and Malus pumila leaves, consecutively. Two potential antioxidant compounds from Saccharum officinarum rinds and five potential antioxidant compounds from Malus pumila eaves were rapidly screened out. Then these seven potential antioxidants were purified and identified as p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, phloridzin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-xyloside, quercetin-3-arabinoside, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside using countercurrent chromatography combined with mass spectrometry and their antioxidant activities were further evaluated by conventional DPPH radical scavenging assay. The activity result was in accordance with that of the established method. This established method is cheap and automatic, and could be used as an efficient tool for high-throughput antioxidant screening from various complex natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Revisiting Meiosis in Sugarcane: Chromosomal Irregularities and the Prevalence of Bivalent Configurations

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    Maria Lucia C. Vieira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum officinarum proved highly susceptible to diseases, and this led breeders to progress to interspecific crosses resulting in disease resistance. A backcrossing program to S. officinarum was then required to boost sucrose content. Clonal selection across generations and incorporation of other germplasm into cultivated backgrounds established the (narrow genetic base of modern cultivars (Saccharum spp., which have a man-made genome. The genome complexity has inspired several molecular studies that have elucidated aspects of sugarcane genome constitution, architecture, and cytogenetics. However, there is a critical shortage of information on chromosome behavior throughout meiosis in modern cultivars. In this study, we examined the microsporogenesis of a contemporary variety, providing a detailed analysis of the meiotic process and chromosome association at diakinesis, using FISH with centromeric probes. Chromosomal abnormalities were documented by examining high quality preparations of pollen mother cells (700 in total. Approximately 70% of the cells showed abnormalities, such as metaphase chromosomes not lined up at the plate, lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges, and tetrad cells with micronuclei. Some dyads with asynchronous behavior were also observed. Due to the hybrid composition of the sugarcane genome, we suggest that bivalent incomplete pairing may occur in the first prophase leading to univalency. The presence of rod bivalents showing the lagging tendency is consistent with a reduction in chiasma frequency. Finally, the presence of chromatin bridges indicates the indirect occurrence of chromosomal inversions, although chromosome fragments were not clearly recognized. Possible reasons for such meiotic abnormalities and the large prevalence of bivalent formation are discussed.

  18. Assessment of variables controlling nitrate dynamics in groundwater: is it a threat to surface aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, V; Armour, J D; Cogle, A L

    2005-01-01

    The impact of fertilised cropping on nitrate-N dynamics in groundwater (GW) was assessed in a catchment from piezometers installed: (i) to different depths, (ii) in different soil types, (iii) on different positions on landscape, and (iv) compared with the Australian and New Zealand Environmental and Conservation Council guideline values provided for different aquatic ecosystems. The GW and NO(3)-N concentration dynamics were monitored in 39 piezometer wells, installed to 5-90 m depth, under fertilized sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum-S) in the Johnstone River Catchment, Australia, from 1999 January through September 2002. The median nitrate-N concentration ranged from 14 to 1511 microg L(-1), and the 80th percentile from 0 to 1341 microg L(-1). In 34 out of the 39 piezometer wells the 80th percentile or 80% of the nitrate-N values were higher than 30 microg L(-1), which is the maximum trigger value provided in the ANZECC table for sustainable health of different aquatic ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentration decreased with increasing well depth, increasing depth of water in wells, and with decreasing relief on landscape. Nitrate-N was higher in alluvial soil profiles than on those formed in-situ. Nitrate-N increased with increasing rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season, fluctuated during the peak rainy period, and then decreased when the rain ceased. The rapid decrease in GW after the rains ceased suggested potential existed for nitrate-N to be discharged as lateral-flow into streams. This may contribute towards the deterioration in the health of down-stream aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Different zooplankton structures in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1993-06-01

    In August 1982, a net of 48 stations with altogether 208 samples was investigated in the eastern German Bight with respect to temperature, salinity, as well as the amount and species composition of the mesozooplankton (>80 μm). The data were arranged into different structures by means of a cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found: (a) a “Wadden sea water” with few holoplankton organisms but a higher amount of spionid larvae; (b) a “German Bight water” with a maximum occurrence of turbellaria ( Alaurina composita) and medium concentrations of copepods; (c) a mixing area between these two water masses with highest amounts of Oikopleura dioica, Temora longicornis, Acartia sp., mussel larvae and larvae of the spionid worms; (d) a “North Sea water” mass with highest concentrations of Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus und Oithona similis. The differences in the concentrations of the species mentioned between the four clusters were significant on the 0.1%-level.

  20. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  1. [Epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergens. The "monitoring series" of IVDK (Information Network ofDermatologic Clinics for Detection and Scientific Evaluation of Contact Allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberer, W; Komericki, P; Uter, W; Hausen, B M; Lessmann, H; Kränke, B; Geier, J; Schnuch, A

    2003-08-01

    The selection of the most important contact allergens is subject to a continuous change. Several factors may influence the sensitization rates and thus the decision, which substances to include in the standard series of the most frequent allergens. The Information Network of Departments of Dermatology adds substances of interest for a certain time period to the standard series in order to evaluate parameters such as sensitization rate, grade of reaction, and clinical relevance of positive reactions. In 6 testing periods starting in 1996, 13 test substances were evaluated. Due to the results, propolis, compositae mix, and bufexamac were included in the standard series in 1999, while lyral was added in 2002. Sorbitansesquioleat, dispers blue mix, and iodopropynyl butylcarbamate are under further discussion. Substances such as glutaraldehyde and p-aminoazobenzole should be tested in certain risk groups only, whereas the steroids budesonide and tixocortol should be tested when clinically suspected.

  2. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of butyrolactone lignans from Arctium lappa on leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Hosono-Nishiyama, K; Yamada, H

    2006-02-01

    In the course of screening for pharmacologically active substances from extracts of crude drugs used traditionally in Sino-Japanese herbal medicines, it was found that the 70 % ethanol extract from the fruits of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) showed potent antiproliferative activity against B cell hybridoma cell, MH60. By bioassay-guided purification, a new lignan, (+)-7,8-didehydroarctigenin, together with the known lignans (-)-arctigenin and (-)-matairesinol were isolated as the active ingredients from an aqueous ethanolic extract of the fruits of A. lappa. Of these active compounds, (-)-arctigenin showed the most potent antiproliferative activity against MH60 cells (IC (50) : 1.0 microM), and the activity was suggested to be due to apoptosis.

  3. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis. Pt. 3. Trace elements in African tea, ginger, canella bark, black pepper, sesame, lady's fingers, jew's mallow, tomatos, cucumber and marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, M K; Awadallah, R M; Amrallah, A H [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppM to ppB).

  4. Allelopatic Potential of Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter Mediated by VOCs: A Physiological and Metabolomic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Araniti

    Full Text Available Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter is a pioneer species belonging to the Compositae family. It is widespread in the Mediterranean basin, where it is considered invasive. It is a source of secondary metabolites, playing an important ecological role. D. viscosa plant extracts showed a phytotoxic activity on several physiological processes of different species. In the current study, the allelopathic potential of D. viscosa VOCs, released by its foliage, was evaluated on seed germination and root growth of lettuce. The VOCs effect was also studied on lettuce adult plants in microcosm systems, which better mimicked the open field conditions. D. viscosa VOCs inhibited both seed germination and root growth of lettuce. The VOCs composition revealed a large presence of terpenoids, responsible of the effects observed. Moreover, D. viscosa VOCs caused an alteration on plant water status accompanied by oxidative damages and photoinhibition on lettuce adult plants.

  5. Two cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Xanthium strumarium and their in vitro inhibitory activity on farnesyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sup; Kim, Jeoung Seob; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sang-Un; Lee, Chong Ock; Kim, Seong-Kie; Kim, Young-Kyoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Shi Yong

    2003-04-01

    Two xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactones, 8- epi-xanthatin (1) and 8- epi-xanthatin epoxide (2), isolated from the leaves of Xanthium strumarium (Compositae), demonstrated a significant inhibition on the proliferation of cultured human tumor cells, i. e., A549 (non-small cell lung), SK-OV-3 (ovary), SK-MEL-2 (melanoma), XF498 (central nervous system) and HCT-15 (colon) in vitro. They were also found to inhibit the farnesylation process of human lamin-B by farnesyltransferase (FTase), in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (IC 50 value was calculated as 64 and 58 microM, respectively). Due to the relatively high concentrations of 1 and 2 required to obtain an FTase inhibition as compared with those necessary for a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, it remains unclear whether a relationship between these two activities exists.

  6. Contact dermatitis due to xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old mining engineer at Dhanbad was having air bome contact Dermatitis suspected to be caused by Xanthium strumarium. Patch tests with a 15% aqueous extract of air dried leaves showed a severe positive reaction, but the patient also had positive patch tests with Parthenium hysterphorus and a few other weeds and trees known to cause air-borne contact dermatitis. The titre of contact hypersensitivity with the extract of Xanthium struma′rium was more than 1:100,000 and for Parthenium hysterophrous it was 1:10 indicating a high degree of hypersensitivity to Xanthium strumarium. Further tests in 14 other patients revealed a high prevalence of cross sensitivity between these two plants both of which belong to the compositae family.

  7. Induction of micronuclei in the root tip cells of Haplopappus germinating seeds by fission neutrons and X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanmoto, Hidehiro; Yonezawa, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Tetsuo; Kondo, Sohei.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of Haplopappus gracilis (2n=4), an annual Compositae, were soaked in water for 24 hr and then irradiated with fission neutrons from the 1-wattage reactor, UTR-KINKI, or X rays. The root tip cells were inspected at 48 hr post-irradiation for evidence of chromosome damage using micronucleus as endpoint. The frequency of neutron-induced micronuclei increased almost linearly as the dose increased up to as much as 1.2 Gy. X-ray-induced micronuclei showed an exponential dose-response relation. From dose-response data, we estimated that the dose necessary to induce micronuclei at a frequency of 5 per 1,000 cells was 1.2 Gy for neutrons and 8.6 Gy for X rays. Thus, to induce chromosome damage in the somatic cells of germinating Haplopappus seeds, fission neutrons were much more effective than X rays. (author)

  8. Factors affecting microcuttings of Stevia using a mist-chamber propagation box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamad; Samsudin, Nur Syamimi; Faruq, Golam; Nezhadahmadi, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH), light intensity (673-2045 lx), and temperature (28.6-30.1°C) inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P Stevia.

  9. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.

  10. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY KINETICS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST CINÉTICA DA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA IN VITRO DE EXTRATOS NATURAIS FRENTE A MICRORGANISMOS RELACIONADOS À MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia De Toni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  12. Composition of the volatile oil of Achillea conferta DC. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Top flowered aerial parts of Achillea conferta DC. (Compositae, which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Taleghan area and the volatile oil was isolateds by hydrodistillation. The oil (0.2 % V/W was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. Forty-eight components, representing 91.4% of the oil were identified. The main components were camphor (22.1% and 1,8-cineole (10.0%. The percentage of oxygenated compounds was 79.0% of the total oil. The oil o was rich in monoterpenes with two typical major components of Achillea species, camphor (22.1% and 1, 8- cineole (10.0%.

  13. [Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong

    2014-05-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.

  14. Annulate lamellae in phloem cells of virus-infected Sonchus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, M P; Hoefert, L L

    1977-07-01

    The occurrence of annulate lamellae (AL) in differentiating phloem of Sonchus oleraceus (Compositae) singly infected with sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV) and doubly infected with a combination of SYVV and beet yellow stunt virus is documented by electron microscopy. Cell types in which AL were found were immature sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. AL were found only in cells that also contained SYVV particles although a direct association between the virus and AL was not apparent. The substructure of the AL and the relationships between the AL and the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum are similar to those reported in other descriptions of this organelle in the literature. This report appears to be the first one concerning the association of AL with a plant virus disease.

  15. Diathesis sotto tensione. La sala per concerti del Centro culturale di Atene di Jan Despo / Diathesis under Tension. Concert Theatre of the Athens Cultural Center by Jan Despo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilemachos Adrianopoulos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1959, l'architetto greco Jan Despo (1903-1992 fu insignito del primo premio nella competizione per il Centro culturale di Atene, rimasto irrealizzato eccezion fatta per il Conservatorio di Atene. La sala circolare per concerti, danza e conferenze era l'edificio nodale di una ambiziosa composizione urbana: la sbalorditiva forma geometrica della sala, la funzione tipicamente composita e l'ingegnosa conformazione strutturale furono integralmente concepite all'interno di una "diathesis spaziale". / In 1959, Greek architect Jan Despo (1903-1992 was awarded First Prize in the competition for the Athens Cultural Centre -that remained unrealized, however, with the exception of the Athens Conservatory. The circular concert, dance and conference theatre was the nodal building of an ambitious urban composition: the theatre’s stunning geometric form, distinctively composite function and ingenious structural conformation were all integrally conceived—within an essentially tense spatial diathesis.

  16. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.D.; Alloway, B.J.; Dourado, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  17. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Amrallah, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb). (author)

  18. The selection of hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils and their uranium-accumulating characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Li; Ren Yamin; Xu Jun; Yao Zhongwei; Xia Chuanqin; Bo Yun; Deng Dachao

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the possibility for phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The plants of cruciferae (8 species), malvaceae or compositae were planted for 55 days in the U-contaminated soils (100 mg·kg -1 ). The samples were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The results showed that U concentration was the highest in shoots of Chinese mustard (var.Texuanzhacai, 1115 mg·kg -1 ), the highest U removal from U-contaminated soils to plants occurred in the shoots of Artemisia argyi(1113 μg per pot). For the Chinese mustard (var.Paoqingcai, var. Texuanzhacai), uranium concentration in shoots was higher than in roots, and bioaccumulation factors (BFs) and transfer factors (TFs) were more than one. They showed better suitability for phytoremediation of U than other plants due to their high U accumulation in the aboveground tissues. (authors)

  19. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  20. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-12-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  1. Effect of dispersed SiO2 on the phase behaviour of NH4HSO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, R. A.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibria and electrical conductivity of (1-xNH4HSO4-xSiO2 composites were studied by thermal and impedance measurements. Silica with particle size of 14 nm was used. The phase transitions of NH4HSO4 (AHS at 154 K and 420 K (melting point were not affected by the silica doping. No large changes in the low-temperature (T Estudiamos el equilibrio de fases y la conductividad eléctrica de las compositas (1-xNH4HSO4-xSiO2 por medidas térmicas y de impedancia. Se utilizaron partículas de silica de diámetro 14 nm. Las transiciones de fase del NH4HSO4 (AHS en 154 K y 420 K (punto de fusión no fueron afectadas con el dopaje de silica. No se observaron grandes cambios a bajas temperaturas (T < 420 K en la conductividad dc y la relajación eléctrica de las compositas al ser dopadas con silica. La parte imaginaria de la conductividad corregida (después de haber substraído la contribución de la conductividad dc, ε″(ω,T, como función de la frecuencia (f = ω/ 2π y la temperatura muestra un pico de dispersión alrededor de 1 MHz para pequeñas concentraciones de silica, cuya posición (fmax esta también térmicamente activada. Los resultados dieléctricos se discuten en términos del efecto de la polarización de las celdas sobre el movimiento de los protones.

  2. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  3. Epidemiological data on airborne contact dermatitis - results of the IVDK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Kristine; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Airborne contact dermatitis (AirbCD) is not uncommon, according to a large number of published case reports and review articles. Epidemiological data on AirbCD based on larger clinical samples have not yet been published. To investigate demographic characteristics and patch test reactivity in patients diagnosed with both occupational and non-occupational AirbCD. A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 1994-2013, including 201 344 consecutively patch tested patients, was performed. One thousand two hundred and three patients (0.6%) were diagnosed with AirbCD, 421 (35.0%) of these with an occupational background. Occupational dermatitis and face involvement were more prevalent than in patients without AirbCD (n = 200 141). Sensitization to epoxy resin and sensitization to methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) were significantly associated with AirbCD, and there was a trend for sensitization to Compositae mix and/or sesquiterpene lactone mix to be associated with AirbCD. Adhesives, plastics, construction materials, paints and varnishes in occupational cases, and plants in non-occupational cases, were the most commonly documented culprit product categories. AirbCD is more common in patients with occupational dermatitis than in patients with non-occupational dermatitis. In our clinical sample, components of epoxy resin systems, MCI/MI and Compositae allergens were the most important contact allergens associated with AirbCD. Patch testing with additional allergens is important. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Estresse salino em duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar: enzimas do sistema antioxidativo e fluorescência da clorofila Salinity stress in two varieties of sugar cane: enzymes of the antioxidant system and chlorophyll fluorescence

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    Lilia Willadino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil destaca-se por ser o maior produtor de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. e por dominar todos os estágios da tecnologia de produção de açúcar e etanol. Atualmente se observa a expansão dessa cultura para a região semiárida brasileira, a qual apresenta solos propensos à salinização. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a resposta à salinidade de duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar. O ensaio foi implantado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 com cinco repetições, correspondendo a duas variedades de cana-de-açúcar (RB867515 e RB863129 e oito níveis de NaCl (0; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150; 200 mM de NaCl. A salinidade induziu aumento na fluorescência e diminuição na concentração de clorofila em ambas as variedades. A redução da clorofila, entretanto, foi maior na variedade RB867515. Observou-se, nesta mesma variedade, aumento da atividade da peroxidase do ascorbato (APX e da catalase (CAT, enquanto na variedade RB863129 ocorreu redução na atividade dessas enzimas. Esses resultados indicam que a variedade RB867515 apresenta um mecanismo mais eficiente na proteção da planta contra danos no aparato fotoquímico e contra a ação de espécies reativas de oxigênio, em particular o H2O2.Brazil is seen as being the largest producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. and of mastering all stages in the production of sugar and ethanol. Currently this production is being expanded into the semi-arid regions of Brazil, where there are soil-types prone to salinity. This study aimed to evaluate the response to salinity in two sugarcane genotypes, RB867515 and RB863129. Salinity caused an increase in chlorophyll fluorescence and a reduction of chlorophyll concentration in both varieties. The reduction of chlorophyll however was higher in RB867515. In this same type, an increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT was observed, while in

  5. Eficiência no uso da água na cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação e níveis de zinco no litoral paraibano Water use efficiency in sugarcane crop under different depths of irrigation and zinc doses in coastal region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Carlos H. A. Farias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida em área experimental da Fazenda Capim II, localizada no Município de Capim - PB, com o intuito de determinar a eficiência no uso da água (EUA pela cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L., cultivar SP 79-1011. O delineamento experimental consistiu em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5. Os tratamentos referentes à lâmina de irrigação foram: sequeiro; 25; 50; 75 e 100% da ETc (1.026,57 mm com as respectivas precipitações efetivas de 780,06; 713,31; 487,54; 243,71 e 194,51 mm; os níveis de zinco estudados foram 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 kg ha-1. O equipamento de irrigação utilizado foi do tipo pivô central, com turno de rega de nove dias. A eficiência no uso da água (EUA na produção de colmos e de açúcar aumenta à medida que se eleva a lâmina total de água aplicada à cultura. Para a região norte-paraibana dos tabuleiros costeiros, a EUA na produção de colmo e de açúcar, de forma maximizada, é 7,12 e 0,67 kg m-3, respectivamente.The study was conducted in an experimental area of the Capim II Farm, located in the municipality of Capim - PB, Brazil, with the objective of determining the efficiency in the use of the water (WUE for the sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L., cultivar SP 79-1011. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with three replications in a 5 x 5 factorial design. The irrigation treatments were: rainfed; 25; 50; 75 and 100% of the ETc (1,026.57 mm with the respective effective precipitations of 780.06; 713.31; 487.54; 243.71 and 194.51 mm. The levels of zinc studied were 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 kg ha-1. The irrigation equipment used in the study was a central pivot with irrigation frequency of nine days. The water use efficiency (WUE of sugarcane crop in terms of cane production and of sugar increased with the depth of water applied. For the Coastal Table Lands of northern Paraiba, the maximized WUE for sugarcane and sugar production is

  6. Evaluación de indicadores productivos en conejas mestizas con una dieta basada en forraje y pienso criollo Evaluation of productive indicators in crossbred does with a diet based on forage and homemade concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de conejas mestizas se utilizaron un total de 24 reproductoras, entre 10 y 18 meses de edad, con un peso promedio superior a los 3,0 kg durante cuatro meses. Las reproductoras consumieron una dieta constituida por: forraje de morera (Morus alba: 0,30 kg; caña (Saccharum officinarum molida: 0,25 kg, glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg y pienso criollo: 0,06 kg. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, a los 20 y a los 45 días de edad. En las reproductoras se controló las crías nacidas vivas y destetadas por parto. Se obtuvo como promedio 6,4 gazapos vivos por parto con 0,054 kg de PV al nacimiento y se destetaron 5,4 crías a los 45 días de edad con un peso de 0,694 kg. Además, se encontró un 84,4% de supervivencia durante la etapa de lactación. La ganancia media diaria durante la lactancia fue de 0,014 kg/animal/día. Los resultados evidenciaron que con la dieta propuesta se obtuvieron indicadores productivos alentadores en reproductoras mestizas.With the objective of evaluating the productive performance of crossbred does, a total of 24 animals were used, between 10 and 18 months old, with average weight higher than 3,0 kg, during four months. The does ate a diet constituted by mulberry (Morus alba forage: 0,30 kg; ground sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum: 0,25 kg; glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg and homemade concentrate: 0,06 kg. The young rabbits were weighed at birth, 20 and 45 days after birth. In the does the offspring born alive and weaned per parturition, were controlled. As average, 6,4 live rabbits were obtained per parturition, with 0,054 kg LW at birth and 5,4 rabbits were weaned being 45 days old and weighing 0,694 kg. In addition, 84,4% survival was found during the lactation stage. The mean daily gain during lactation was 0,014 kg/animal/day. The results proved that with the proposed diet encouraging productive indicators were obtained in crossbred does.

  7. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

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    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  8. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates? Detritos foliares de cana-de-açúcar são bem colonizados por macroinvertebrados aquáticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo foi comparar a cinética de decomposição e a colonização de detritos de duas espécies de plantas: a nativa Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo e a exótica Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar por macroinvertebrados; MÉTODOS: Para cada substrato, três recipientes de colonização foram retirados de um riacho e os espécimes identificados até o menor nível taxonômico nos dias 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 e 75. Os detritos foram pesados no início e ao final do experimento e determinadas suas frações de parede celular; RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de mineralização indicaram maior velocidade de decaimento da matéria orgânica refratária nos detritos de T. ovata. Os dois substratos não apresentaram diferenças na estrutura taxonômica da comunidade

  9. Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Gallão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin treated cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no padrão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana.

  10. Efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semillas de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

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    Ambar Oyarzábal Yera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El policosanol, mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores obtenida de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinífera, L, producen efectos antioxidantes demostrados experimental y clínicamente. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en comparar los efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en plasma e hígado de ratas. Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos: un control y 3 tratados con policosanol, extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada, respectivamente, todos a dosis de 25 mg/kg, durante 4 semanas. Las monoterapias redujeron significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído y de grupos carbonilos asociados a proteínas con respecto al control, lo que mostró similar eficacia. La terapia combinada redujo (p The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obteined from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L. and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinífera, L. produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of proetin-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001 the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01 the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous

  11. Rural herbaceous plant diversity under different land uses in North Zhejiang Province%浙北地区不同土地利用下乡村草本层植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 张建锋; 陈光才; 汪庆兵; 王丽; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    , farming area for comparing plant diversity un-der different artificial habits, and three parameters such as Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Sorensen index were employed. The results showed that based on the investigation, there were 162 species including 47 families, 123 genera, were found in all the habits. The principal species was from Compositae and Gramineae, accounted for 31.48% of the total. The highest plant diversity was in farming area, Shannon-wiener index value reaching 2.76 and Simpson index value being 0.91, Sorensen index value of 0.57, the same with rivers. From the farming area, rivers, gardens to artificial forest habitat, the value of herbaceous species diversity overall decreased. Moreover, taking green-ing measures would lead to herbaceous species reduction. For example, from the paddy field to farming area habitat, the main herb family and genus composition did not change significantly, plants of Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gra-mineae still occupied the main body. The composition of the main species of herbaceous plant community had changed, the herb species of Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gramineae were 11, 8 and 15 in the paddy field habitat, Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gramineae species were 4, 19 and 17 in the farming area habitat. Comparison of two kinds of habitats in herbaceous species composition, species number of cyperaceae reduced, compositae species number increased. Ad-ditionally, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis and Dysphania ambrosioides, total three invasive species were found in four habitats, and their important values were so low that they could not constitute a significant impact on native species. By the research it implied that different land use types seriously affected the species composition and species diversity of herb community. The herbaceous community changed with land use types variation, diversification of land use could contribute native herbaceous species diversity protection. Hence, to study on the

  12. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  13. Integrated dynamic model of the alkaline delignification process of Lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertez, John; Ruiz, Angela; Alvarez, Hernan; Molina, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Although in the public literature there are several studies that describe models of alkaline delignification, they were originally developed for the paper industry, and do not include the effects of important operating variables such as temperature, hydroxide-ion concentration, solid to liquid weight ratio, particle size, biomass composition (hemi cellulose, lignin fraction) and mixing. This lack of detailed models of the pretreatment stages prompted the current study that describes a model which includes the variables listed above and provides an important tool for predicting the degree of lignin removal in lignocellulosic materials such as sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L). The model considers kinetic expressions available in the literature. The kinetic parameters were determined by fitting the model to experimental data obtained for that purpose in our lab. The experimental matrix considered eighteen, 24-h isothermal experiments in which bulk and residual delignification stages were observed to occur in a parallel manner. Carbohydrate removal and hydroxide consumption were related to lignin removal by effective stoichiometric coefficients that were calculated by fitting the experimental data. A mixing compartment network model that represented mixing inside the reactor was included into a temporal superstructure based on the similarity between plug flow reactors and ideal batch reactors to model a non-ideally mixed batch reactor. The kinetic model was validated with data obtained in this study.

  14. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  15. A bayesian approach to inferring the genetic population structure of sugarcane accessions from INTA (Argentina

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    Mariana Inés Pocovi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. accessions from INTA germplasm bank (Argentina will be of great importance for germplasm collection and breeding improvement as it will identify diverse parental combinations to create segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability for further selection. A Bayesian approach, ordination methods (PCoA, Principal Coordinate Analysis and clustering analysis (UPGMA, Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean were applied to this purpose. Sixty three INTA sugarcane hybrids were genotyped for 107 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and 136 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP loci. Given the low probability values found with AFLP for individual assignment (4.7%, microsatellites seemed to perform better (54% for STRUCTURE analysis that revealed the germplasm to exist in five optimum groups with partly corresponding to their origin. However clusters shown high degree of admixture, F ST values confirmed the existence of differences among groups. Dissimilarity coefficients ranged from 0.079 to 0.651. PCoA separated sugarcane in groups that did not agree with those identified by STRUCTURE. The clustering including all genotypes neither showed resemblance to populations find by STRUCTURE, but clustering performed considering only individuals displaying a proportional membership > 0.6 in their primary population obtained with STRUCTURE showed close similarities. The Bayesian method indubitably brought more information on cultivar origins than classical PCoA and hierarchical clustering method.

  16. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

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    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  17. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  18. Effect of Sugarcane Filter Muds, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Absorption of Some Macro- and Micro-Elementsand Heavy Metals by Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Monjezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sugarcane (Sacharum officinarum L. filter muds and chemical and biological fertilizers application on macro- and micronutrient elements and some heavy metals (Pb and Cd absorption by canola (Brassica napus L. grains, a factorial experiment was conducted in 2012 in the Experimental Farm of Ramin (Mollasani Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Iran. A complete blocks design was used for the experiment with three replications. Different integrated treatments of filter muds and chemical fertilizers (A1: 100% filter muds, A2: 75% filter muds + 25% chemical fertilizers, A3: 50% filter muds + 50% chemical fertilizers, A4: 25% filter muds + 75% chemical fertilizers and A5: 100% chemical fertilizers along with two levels of biological fertilizers application (with and without biological fertilizers were investigated. The biological fertilizers investigated in this study were Nitroxin and Barvar2. Application of filter muds led to decreases in nitrogen, phosphorus and Cd of canola seeds. On the other hand, increase of filter muds application led to increase of Zn, Cu, Fe and Pb content in canola seeds. Biological and chemical fertilizers application resulted in increases of nitrogen, phosphorus and cadmium contents in canola seeds. Biofertilizers also increased phosphorus and cadmium contents in canola seeds.

  19. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  20. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.R. [The Nature Conservancy, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tancig, K.J. [PO Box 116455, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Onderdonk, D.A.; Gantz, C.A. [Department of Biology, PO Box 118526, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Twelve taxa under exploration as bioenergy crops in Florida and the U.S. were evaluated for potential invasiveness using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment system (WRA) modified for separate assessment at the state and national scales. When tested across a range of geographies, this system correctly identifies invaders 90%, and non-invaders 70% of the time, on average. Predictions for Florida were the same as for the U.S. Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis, Jatropha curcas, Leucaena leucocephala, Pennisetum purpureum, and Ricinus communis were found to have a high probability of becoming invasive, while Miscanthus x giganteus, Saccharum arundinaceum, Saccharum officinarum, and the sweet variety of Sorghum bicolor have a low probability of becoming invasive. Eucalyptus amplifolia requires further evaluation before a prediction is possible. These results are consistent with reports on other tests of these taxa. Given the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species, including the carbon expended for mechanical and chemical control efforts, cultivation of taxa likely to become invasive should be avoided. (author)

  1. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on sugarcane in Colombia, with description of a new species of Tillancoccus Ben-Dov (Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alejandro; Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Kondo, Takumasa

    2017-05-02

    Herein we describe a new species, Tillancoccus koreguajae Caballero & Ramos, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Colombia collected on sugarcane. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) is also recorded on sugarcane for the first time worldwide. An updated list of seven species of Coccomorpha on sugarcane in Colombia is provided, including information on its distribution, biology, and mutualistic ants for each species. Seven species of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) have been recorded previously on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) in Colombia: Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana), D. brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell); Coccidae: Pulvinaria elongata Newstead; Diaspididae: Duplachionaspis divergens (Green) and Serenaspis minima (Maskell). However, the record of S. minima in Colombia is considered doubtful as there are no voucher specimens from Colombia and because the distribution of this species is currently limited to the Australasian region. Pseudococcus calceolariae is present in Colombia but its record on sugarcane is also doubtful. A taxonomic key for the identification of scale insects on sugarcane in Colombia is provided.

  2. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

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    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  3. Potassium nutrition in the first and second ratoon sugarcane grown in an Oxisol by a conservationist system

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    Rilner Alves Flores

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mulch on the soil surface after the mechanical harvesting of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. enhances the cycling of nutrients, especially K, which can decrease K fertilizer recommendations for the crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of K addition to an Oxisol, with an initial concentration 0.07 cmol c K kg-1, in first and second ratoon (no-till sugarcane cultures by a conservationist system, i.e. rational use of fertilizers, use of alternative inputs and especially the maintenance of residues in soil that was previously burned to facilitate cutting. The following K doses were tested: 0, 32.5, 65, 130, and 195 kg K2O ha-1, arranged in a randomized block design with five replicates. Potassium content in the soil and in the plant, as well as the yield and the quality of stalks were evaluated. Soil K application increased K concentration in soil and plant, and was reflected in the production of stalks, with higher production (87.5 and 107.5 t ha-1 with the use of 120 and 123 kg K2O ha-1 in first and second ratoon sugarcane, respectively. At the first 2 yr it was not possible to reduce the K fertilization in ratoon. Therefore, with the introduction of the conservationist system there was an increase (20 t ha-1 at the second ratoon regarding the first one with the same applied rate.

  4. Sistema radicular e produtividade de soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar sob diferentes quantidades de palhada

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    Gisele Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palhada sobre o sistema radicular e a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum, de primeira e segunda soqueiras, em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Seis tratamentos foram avaliados : 0, 5 (25%, 10 (50%, 15 (75% e 20 Mg ha-1 (100% de palhada e cana-queimada, na primeira e segunda soqueiras. Utilizou-se a cana-de-açúcar 'SP80-1816'. Avaliou-se a massa de raízes a 0,45 e 0,75 m de distância da linha de plantio, até 0,60 m de profundidade. Na primeira soqueira, os tratamentos com 50, 75 e 100% de palhada proporcionaram maior massa radicular até 0,20 m de profundidade, em comparação aos tratamentos cana-queimada, 0 e 5 Mg ha-1 (25% de palhada. Os tratamentos com 50 e 75% de palhada proporcionaram produtividades 43% maiores do que a da cana-queimada (110 Mg ha-1. O tratamento com 10 Mg ha-1 (50% foi suficiente para proporcionar aumento da massa radicular e da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar. O sistema radicular e a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar são favorecidos pela mudança do sistema de colheita de cana-queimada para o de cana sob palhada.

  5. In situ enzyme aided adsorption of soluble xylan biopolymers onto cellulosic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, J F; van Zyl, W H

    2016-06-05

    The functional properties of cellulose fibers can be modified by adsorption of xylan biopolymers. The adsorption is improved when the degree of biopolymers substitution with arabinose and 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) side groups, is reduced. α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and α-d-glucuronidase (AguA) enzymes were applied for side group removal, to increase adsorption of xylan from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L) bagasse (BH), bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) (BM), Pinus patula (PP) and Eucalyptus grandis (EH) onto cotton lint. The AguA treatment increased the adsorption of all xylans by up to 334%, whereas, the AbfB increased the adsorption of the BM and PP by 31% and 44%, respectively. A combination of AguA and AbfB treatment increased the adsorption, but to a lesser extent than achieved with AguA treatment. This indicated that the removal of the glucuronic acid side groups provided the most significant increase in xylan adsorption to cellulose, in particular through enzymatic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphogenic Regulators Baby boom and Wuschel Improve Monocot Transformation[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Keith; Wu, Emily; Cho, Myeong-Je; Lenderts, Brian; Chamberlin, Mark; Cushatt, Josh; Ryan, Larisa; Khan, Tanveer; Chow-Yiu, Julia; Hua, Wei; Banh, Jenny; Bao, Zhongmeng; Brink, Kent; Igo, Elizabeth; Rudrappa, Bhojaraja; Shamseer, PM; Shen, Bo; Zheng, Peizhong; Bidney, Dennis; Falco, Carl; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Xu, Deping

    2016-01-01

    While transformation of the major monocot crops is currently possible, the process typically remains confined to one or two genotypes per species, often with poor agronomics, and efficiencies that place these methods beyond the reach of most academic laboratories. Here, we report a transformation approach involving overexpression of the maize (Zea mays) Baby boom (Bbm) and maize Wuschel2 (Wus2) genes, which produced high transformation frequencies in numerous previously nontransformable maize inbred lines. For example, the Pioneer inbred PHH5G is recalcitrant to biolistic and Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. However, when Bbm and Wus2 were expressed, transgenic calli were recovered from over 40% of the starting explants, with most producing healthy, fertile plants. Another limitation for many monocots is the intensive labor and greenhouse space required to supply immature embryos for transformation. This problem could be alleviated using alternative target tissues that could be supplied consistently with automated preparation. As a major step toward this objective, we transformed Bbm and Wus2 directly into either embryo slices from mature seed or leaf segments from seedlings in a variety of Pioneer inbred lines, routinely recovering healthy, fertile T0 plants. Finally, we demonstrated that the maize Bbm and Wus2 genes stimulate transformation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) immature embryos, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) callus, and indica rice (Oryza sativa ssp indica) callus. PMID:27600536

  7. Utilization of vinasses as soil amendment: consequences and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, R G; Sanchez-Lizarraga, A L; Rodriguez-Campos, J; Davila-Vazquez, G; Marino-Marmolejo, E N; Dendooven, L; Contreras-Ramos, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vinasses are a residual liquid generated after the production of beverages, such as mezcal and tequila, from agave (Agave L.), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). These effluents have specific characteristics such as an acidic pH (from 3.9 to 5.1), a high chemical oxygen demand (50,000-95,000 mg L(-1)) and biological oxygen demand content (18,900-78,300 mg L(-1)), a high total solids content (79,000 and 37,500 mg L(-1)), high total volatile solids 79,000 and 82,222 mg L(-1), and K(+) (10-345 g L(-1)) content. Vinasses are most commonly discarded onto soil. Irrigation of soil with vinasses, however, may induce physical, chemical and biochemical changes and affect crop yields. Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane, might increase from soils irrigated with vinasses. An estimation of GHG emission from soil irrigated with vinasses is given and discussed in this review.

  8. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  9. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  10. Effect of Organic Amendments and Chemical Fertilization in Production of Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero Ulloa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn is grown in 135 countries, and because of its uses and nutritional benefits is the world's most important cereal. In Colombia it is grown in various agro-ecological conditions of production. The bagasse is an organic residue resulting from the grinding of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L., used for the production of jaggery (solid resulting of boiling and evaporation of the juice from sugar cane, which can be used as an amendment and is a soil conditioner, as a rich source of phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of bagasse against the application of other organic sources and chemical fertilization in maize, variety ICA-V-305. For this, a completely random statistical design with four treatments and absolute control was established. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey comparison test. Applying Bagasse + Abimgra® produced the greatest number of ears of corn, while the use of only bagasse, presented the second best results in terms of number of grains / ear and weight of 100 grains of corn, therefore bagasse becomes , through time, an important option as organic amendment, which would favor the production of corn, and an option as organic fertilizer.

  11. Agroindustrial Waste for Lead and Chromium Biosorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana P. Boeykens

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to re-evaluate the residues generated in industrial processes for the production of new raw material, reducing the volume of waste. In this regard, the biosorption is a low-cost alternative method for treating effluents compared to conventional methods. The main objectives of this research were: the evaluation of the biosorbent capacity of six waste materials for the extraction of chromium(VI and lead(II ions from aqueous solutions and, the determination of the adsorption and kinetic parameters for the more efficient system. The materials evaluated were: peanut shell (Arachis hypagaea, sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum, avocado peel (Persea americana, pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis, wheat bran (Triticum aestivum and banana peel (Mussa paradisiaca. The highest percentage of lead removal was obtained with wheat bran (89%. For chromium, the percentage was generally much lower compared with lead for all tested biosorbents, the banana peel being the most efficient with a 10% removal. The models that better describe the adsorption processes were: Langmuir and Freundlich. The pseudo-second order kinetic model allowed obtaining the parameters for both systems. The equilibrium time, in both systems, was reached after 60 minutes. The study of Fourier Transformed Infrared spectra and the results of desorption experiments allowed to hypothesize on the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of these metals.

  12. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  13. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

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    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  14. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

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    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  15. NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN SUGARCANE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON YIELD, PROFITABILITY AND LEACHING LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Moreno-Seceña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of nitrogen (N in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a source of contamination for aquifers. The objective was to evaluate sugarcane yield, as well as profitability and amount of N leached resulting from the application of different split N doses. Three N doses (250, 200 and 150 kg ha-1 and three different application numbers (2, 3 and 4 were evaluated using a factorial design in randomized blocks. When the N dose was divided in three and four applications yields higher than 125 ton ha-1 were obtained. The greatest benefit-cost-ratio (1.8 resulted from using 150 kg ha-1 of N divided in three applications. The lowest N losses due to leaching were obtained using 150 kg ha-1 of N divided in three (16.8 kg ha-1 and four (15.4 kg ha-1 applications. Low N doses divided in three or four applications did not reduce sugarcane production; furthermore, it was more profitable and had a lower environmental impact by reducing N leaching.

  16. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  17. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L. at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70% for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB. in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of incubation. The byproducts of Moringa had the highest degradability, and castor presented the lowest values at all evaluated levels of replacement. Castor bean byproduct showed the highest total gas production, cotton showed the lowest production, and the byproduct of Moringa at the 70% level showed the best ruminal fermentation results. These results demonstrate that the use of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Helianthus annuus L. and Ricinus communis can replace cane sugar in ruminant feed.

  18. Quality evaluation of compost produced from agro-industrialbyproducts of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bohórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by products of the sugar industry (sugarcane sludge, bagasse and vinasse incorporated into the soil generate a negative impact on plants. Therefore, compost is an alternative solution to the use of sugarcane byproducts, which must meet the requirements of the Colombian technical standard 5167 for use as biofertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost made from different combinations of products of the milling process of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Composting piles were established in the Ingenio Riopaila-Castilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. 100% sugarcane sludge (T1, 75% sugarcane sludge and 25% bagasse (T2, 50% bagasse and 50% sugarcane sludge (T3, 25% sugarcane sludge and 75% bagasse (T4 and 100% bagasse (T5, all supplemented with 2 m3 of vinasse. The response variables: pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, organic matter, moisture retention, the carbon-nitrogen ratio, the total oxidizable organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, were evaluated at the time when the initial compost piles were prepared, and the 42, 51, 59, 73 and 90 days after beginning the process. The results showed that the carbon-nitrogen mixtures initial ratio is critical for obtaining a good quality of compost. The T3 provided the best quality with the highest content of nutrients. The composting time ensuring adequate maturation levels for nutrients in the compost was 90 days.

  19. Water stress indices for the sugarcane crop on different irrigated surfaces

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    Rodrigo G. Brunini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a crop of vital importance to Brazil, in the production of sugar and ethanol, power generation and raw materials for various purposes. Strategic information such as topography and canopy temperature can provide management technologies accessible to farmers. The objective of this study was to determine water stress indices for sugarcane in irrigated areas, with different exposures and slopes. The daily water stress index of the plants and the water potential in the soil were evaluated and the production system was analyzed. The experiment was carried out in an “Experimental Watershed”, using six surfaces, two horizontal and the other ones with 20 and 40% North and South exposure slopes. Water stress level was determined by measuring the temperatures of the vegetation cover and the ambient air. Watering was carried out using a drip irrigation system. The results showed that water stress index of sugarcane varies according to exposure and slope of the terrain, while areas whose water stress index was above 5.0 oC had lower yield values.

  20. Evidence of prehistoric Lapita diet at Watom Island, Papua New Guinea, using stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B F [Archaeozoology Laboratory, Museum of New Zealand, Wellington (New Zealand); Quinn, C J [178 Queen Street North, Dunedin (New Zealand); Lyon, G L [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Haystead, A [Auckland Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Myers, D B [Wellcome Medical Research Institute, Otago Medical School, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1998-07-01

    Samples of human bone from six individuals from the Lapita burial ground at Reber-Rakival on Watom Island in New Britain were analysed for {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N, and {delta}{sup 34}/S. The mean values obtained were -18.1, 11.6 and 9.9 respectively. From existing knowledge of isotope values, calorific content and protein yields for the main Pacific food types, computer simulation was used to randomly generate a large number of possible food compositions, in order to find the type of diet which could have produced the isotope pattern at Watom. The simulation produced solutions which are within acceptable limits of the Watom isotope signature. The mean food composition per day was then estimated. This analysis shows that approximately 64% of the diet at Watom came from land-based foods and 36% from the sea. Plant foods contributed 53% per weight. It is notable that C4 plants were present in the diet. There are two possible sources of this - sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, and/or a herbivore which browsed on the C4 grasslands of Papua New Guinea, such as Saccharum spontaneum (pit-pit) and Imperata cylindrica (kunai). Fish and land herbivores are the main sources of protein in the Watom diet, while plant foods contributed by far the most food energy. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Evidence of prehistoric Lapita diet at Watom Island, Papua New Guinea, using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Lyon, G.L.; Haystead, A.; Myers, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of human bone from six individuals from the Lapita burial ground at Reber-Rakival on Watom Island in New Britain were analysed for δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 34 /S. The mean values obtained were -18.1, 11.6 and 9.9 respectively. From existing knowledge of isotope values, calorific content and protein yields for the main Pacific food types, computer simulation was used to randomly generate a large number of possible food compositions, in order to find the type of diet which could have produced the isotope pattern at Watom. The simulation produced solutions which are within acceptable limits of the Watom isotope signature. The mean food composition per day was then estimated. This analysis shows that approximately 64% of the diet at Watom came from land-based foods and 36% from the sea. Plant foods contributed 53% per weight. It is notable that C4 plants were present in the diet. There are two possible sources of this - sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, and/or a herbivore which browsed on the C4 grasslands of Papua New Guinea, such as Saccharum spontaneum (pit-pit) and Imperata cylindrica (kunai). Fish and land herbivores are the main sources of protein in the Watom diet, while plant foods contributed by far the most food energy. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. ALTERAÇÕES EM ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DE SOLO CULTIVADO COM CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR E ADIÇÃO DE VINHAÇA CHEMICAL CHANGES IN SOILS CULTIVATED WITH SUGARCANE AND ADDITION OF VINASSE

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    Marcos Cabral de Vasconcellos Barretto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação da vinhaça sobre as propriedades químicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar (S. officinarum spp., por 10 anos, em duas áreas da Usina São José do Pinheiro, localizada no Município de Laranjeiras, Estado de Sergipe. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dez repetições, sendo constituído por duas áreas (Área A - cultivada com cana-de-açúcar e fertirrigada com vinhaça, por mais de 10 anos; e Área B - cultivada com cana-de-açúcar sem fertirrigação com vinhaça e três profundidades (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm e 30-45 cm de amostragem do solo (tratamentos. As áreas experimentais apresentaram dimensões de 50 m x 20 m (1.000 m2, sendo retiradas 30 amostras de cada área, por meio de tradagem. Após as análises de pH, matéria orgânica do solo (MOS e dos teores de macro e micronutrientes das amostras do solo, verificou-se que a adição de vinhaça à lavoura de cana-de-açúcar, por dez anos, alterou as propriedades químicas do solo, sendo observado incremento da matéria orgânica e dos teores de macronutrientes e diminuição da disponibilidade de micronutrientes. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a aplicação de vinhaça aumenta a fertilidade do solo destinado ao cultivo de cana-de-açúcar.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Saccharum officinarum; condicionamento do solo; matéria orgânica; macronutrientes

  3. A natural diarylheptanoid promotes neuronal differentiation via activating ERK and PI3K-Akt dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G; Dong, X; Huang, X; Huang, X-J; Liu, H; Wang, Y; Ye, W-C; Shi, L

    2015-09-10

    Neuronal differentiation is a critical developmental process that determines accurate synaptic connection and circuit wiring. A wide variety of naturally occurring compounds have been shown as promising drug leads for the generation and differentiation of neurons. Here we report that a diarylheptanoid from the plant Alpinia officinarum, 7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-hepten-3-one (Cpd 1), exhibited potent activities in neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. Cpd 1 induced differentiation of neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells into a neuron-like morphology, and accelerated the establishment of axon-dendrite polarization of cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, Cpd 1 promoted neurite extension in both Neuro-2a cells and neurons. We showed that the effects of Cpd 1 on neuronal differentiation and neurite growth were specifically dependent on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Importantly, intraperitoneal administration of Cpd 1 promoted the differentiation of new-born progenitor cells into mature neurons in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. Collectively, this study identifies a naturally occurring diarylheptanoid with beneficial effects on neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selectividad de caña de azúcar en bovinos

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    E. M. Aranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo este trabajo con el objetivo de conocer la aceptación del forraje de caña de azúcar integral en la dieta con base de pasto para bovinos adultos fistulados en rumen y duodeno estabulados; para ello, se ofreció pasto estrella africana (Cynodon plectostachyus y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum mezclada con 1% de urea a voluntad, por separado. Se midió la composición de los alimentos, consumo de materia seca, pH ruminal y duodenal. Se utilizaron técnicas de la estadística descriptiva, como la media aritmética y error estándar. La proteína, paredes celulares y hemicelulosa fueron mayores para el pasto estrella. El consumo de MS fue de 46.6 y 38.1% para la caña de azúcar y el pasto, respectivamente; el pH ruminal tuvo valores de 7.3, disminuyendo a 6.7 a las 12 h.; y el pH de la digesta duodenal osciló de 3.7 a 4.7. Se concluye que hubo mayor aceptación por la caña de azúcar y el pH ruminal no indica valores que afecten la celulólisis ruminal.

  5. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

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    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  6. DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO DE BEZERREIROS COBERTOS COM TELHA DE FIBROCIMENTO E FORRO ECOLÓGICO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDÚSTRIAS ASSOCIADO A MATERIAIS ISOLANTES

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    G. Barbirato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o potencial de utilização de um forro ecológico constituído de subprodutos da agroindústria (partículas de madeira de maravalha de Pinus sp. e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum L. associado a placas de poliestireno expandido (isopor® e de poliuretano à base de óleo de mamona (PU-mamona, quando aplicados em bezerreiros cobertos com telha de fibrocimento. Nesse estudo foi aferida a temperatura interna, umidade relativa e o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU, no período do verão, durante 21 dias. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o ITU e temperatura ambiente interna das instalações com forro ecológico associado a placas de isopor® e PU-mamona foram inferiores àquelas aferidas em bezerreiros sem forro. As imagens captadas por câmera termográfica indicam que os materiais empregados como forro amorteceram a transferência de calor e radiação para o interior dos bezerreiros, ocasionando menores temperaturas internas nesses ambientes.

  7. The Vascular Flora of Rarău Massif (Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Note I

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    Adrian Oprea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the flora of the Rarău Massif, an area lying in the northeastern part of Romania, nearby the town of Câmpulung Moldovenesc. This study attempt to list all the vascular plants (i.e. ferns, conifers, and flowering plants from the whole area of Rarău Massif. Till now, there are published several papers on this area, but no paper deals with the whole surface of Rarău Massif. The research was carried out between 2000 to 2011. During the study period, 1377 taxa (1089 species and 288 subspecies, belonging to 95 families and 411 genera; 43 of the species belong to Pteridophytes, 8 belongs to Gymnosperms, and 1038 belongs to Angiosperms (835 Dicotyledons, 203 Monocotyledons subdivisions. The largest families (in terms of the number of species and subspecies included are: Asteraceae (167, Poaceae (78, Brassicaceae (53, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (50, Scrophulariaceae and Cyperaceae (47, Caryophyllaceae and Ranunculaceae (42. The highest number of species, of a certain genus, is like the next: Carex L. (39, Centaurea L. (25, Hieracium L. (21, Festuca L. (19, Senecio L. (12, Cirsium, Pilosella, and Poa (11, etc. Since the flora of the area is analysed according to Raunkiaer’s life forms, the results are as follows: Hemicryptophytes 605 species (H=55.6%, Cryptophytes (also called Geophytes 137 species (G=12.6%, Therophytes 120 species (11.0%, Phanerophytes 84 species (Ph=7.7%, Chamaephytes 57 species (Ch=5.2%, Hemitherophytes 77 species (Ht=7.1%, Helo-hydatophytes 8 species (HH=0.7%, and Epiphytes 1 species (Ep=0.1%. The phytogeographic elements are the next ones: European=375 species (36.6%, Eurasian=349 species (34.0%, Circumboreal=148 species (14.8%, Cosmopolite=37 species (3.6%, Carpathians=31 species (3.0%, Pontics=19 species (1.9%, Mediterranean-submediterrannean=11 species (1.1%, and Adventitious=2 species (0.2%. The number of endemic and near-endemic taxa (species and subspecies within the study area is 53 (5.2%.

  8. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas na Bahia Pollen spectrum of samples of Apis mellifera L., honey collected in Bahia State, Brazil

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    AUGUSTA CAROLINA DE CAMARGO CARMELLO MORETI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico encontrado em amostras de mel provenientes de seis municípios do Estado da Bahia foi analisado com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento da flora visitada por Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: ApidaeA identificação dos tipos polínicos foi feita por meio de literatura especializada e de informações de campo. Foram encontrados 43 tipos de pólen, sendo consideradas como dominantes as espécies Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae e Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. Os tipos acessórios foram Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, tipo Compositae (Asteraceae e Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. Destacou-se a participação de Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae e de outras espécies silvestres na composição dos méis nos municípios considerados, registrando-se ainda a espécie Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae como uma das principais fontes de alimento das abelhas dessa região.Pollen spectrum found in honey samples from six localities of Bahia State, Brazil, was analyzed with the objective to contribute for the knowledge of the plants used by Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae. The identification of the pollen types was made by specialized literature and by field information. Two hundred pollen grains were studied in order to determine the percentage and the occurrence of each type. Forty three pollen types were identified, being considered as the predominant types Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae and Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. The accessory pollen types were Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, Compositae type (Asteraceae and Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. It is intense the participation of Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae and other wild species in the honey composition of the six localities considered. Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae is one of the dominant sources of bee food in some regions of Bahia State.

  9. Contribución al estudio integral de las laderas del Valle, serie: comunidad vegetal sobre suelos erosionados

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    Escobar Eugenio

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo el inventario florístico en áreas críticas de erosión establecidas según estudios realizados por la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca (CVC, en la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Occidental, asociaciones de suelos: Dagua, Diamantina y Pescador-Zanjón seco; alturas entre 850 y 1200 m s n m. Se describió los hábitos de las especies inventariadas así como la caracterización morfológica del sistema radical. Las especies se agruparon en seis (6 categorías de acuerdo con el tipo de raíz siguiendo la metodología propuesta por J.E. Weaver (1958 con algunas modificaciones propuestas por los autores de este trabajo. El tipo de raíz que agrupó mayor número de especies es el 111(28 y el de menor número de especies fue, el VI (11. La familia Graminae presentó el mayor número de especies (30 seguida de Leguminosae (18 y Compositae (13 El hábito de crecimiento erecto fue el más característico seguido por los hábitos postrado y decumbente.The blossom inventory was carried out in the critical areas of erosion established by Corporation Autonoma Regional del Cauca (CVC, according to studies developed. This area is placed at the eastern waterfall in the western chain of mountains (Cordillera Occidental. Soil associations are Dagua, Diamantina and Pescador - Zanjon seco. The customs in the species, which were put into an inventory, as well as the morphological eatures of the root system were reviewed. The species were clasified in six (8 groups or types according to the kind of roots, following the methodology proposed by J. E. Weaver (1958 and some modifications proposed by the authors of this thesis. The type of root which grouped together the largest number of species was type 111(28 and the one which grouped the smallest number of species was type VI (11. The Graminea family showed the greatest number of species (30, followed by the Leguminosae and the Compositae (18 and 13 respectively. The erecter growth

  10. A quest for staunch effects of flavonoids: Utopian protection against hepatic ailments

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    Anju Dhiman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of flavonoids as the major red, blue and purple pigments in plants has gained these secondary products a great deal of attention over the years. Flavonoids are polyphenols and occur as aglycones, glycosides and methylated derivatives. Flavonoids are the main components of a healthy diet containing fruits and vegetables and are concentrated especially in tea, apples and onions. Till date, more than 6000 flavonoids have been discovered, out of which 500 are found in free state. They are abundant in polygonaceae, rutaceae, leguminosae, umbelliferae and compositae. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants. In addition to their role in nutrition, flavonoids possess many types of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, vasorelaxant, antiviral and anticarcinogenic effects. The present review is focused on flavonoids derived from natural products that have shown a wise way to get a true and potentially rich source of drug candidates against liver ailments. The present review initially highlights the current status of flavonoids and their pharmaceutical significance, role of flavonoids in hepatoprotection, therapeutic options available in herbal medicines and in later section, summarizes flavonoids as lead molecules, which have shown significant hepatoprotective activities.

  11. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  12. Vegetation Response to Upper Pliocene Glacial/Interglacial Cyclicity in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    1993-09-01

    New detailed pollen analysis of the lower part of the Upper Pliocene Semaforo section (Crotone, Italy) documents cyclic behavior of vegetation at the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The competition between four vegetation units (subtropical humid forest, deciduous temperate forest, altitudinal coniferous forest, and open xeric assemblage) probably reflects modifications of vegetation belts at this montane site. Several increases in herbaceous open vegetation regularly alternate with subtropical humid forest, which expresses rapid climatic oscillations. The complete temporal succession—deciduous forest (rich in Quercus), followed by subtropical humid forest (Taxodiaceae and Cathaya), then altitudinal coniferous forest ( Tsuga, Cedrus, Abies, and Picea), and finally herbaceous open vegetation (Graminae, Compositae, and Artemisia )—displays the climatic evolution from warm and humid interglaciation to cold and dry glaciation. It also suggests an independent variation of temperature and humidity, the two main climatic parameters. The vegetation history of southern Calabria recorded in the Semaforo section have been correlated with the ∂ 18O signal established in the Atlantic Ocean.

  13. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. PMID:22611428

  14. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

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    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  15. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

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    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  16. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

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    Weijuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%, Compositae (6%, and Euphorbiaceae (6%, and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%, crushing (38%, and poultice (34%. The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%, body pains (11.4%, gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%, and trauma (10%. Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48% have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44% have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

  17. Medicinal plants of Lorestan

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    shahla ahmadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection and determination of medicinal plants in Lorestan province have been carried out for 6 years in the agriculture and natural resources research of center of Lorestan. The aims of this study were collection and identification the medicinal plans that grow in Loretta province, their distribution, habitat, traditional uses, utilized organ, manner of usage, botany specification, local name, Persian name and scientific name. Material and methods: Medicinal plants were collected from different regions by using field and library study for these goals we prepared a list of recorded medicinal plants from Lorestan, identified the local herbal experts. Results: Finally we collected 151 medicinal plant identified that related to 63 families and 90 genuses. The Lamiaceae, Compositae, Legominosae , Liliaceae, Umbelliferae and . Rosaceae are the greatest family in the Lorestan province. Diction: According to the literature 96 medicinal plans were recorded from Lorestan, but during this study we collected and identified 151 medicinal plants in Lorestan province. Comparing with those that recorded from Bushehr 70 sp.(9, Hormozgan 113 sp.(10, Markazi 144 sp. And Kordestan 144 sp(11. We have more diversity but comparing with Zanjan 163 sp.(13, Hamedan 315 sp.(14 And Qazvin 250 sp.(15 We have less diversity in medicinal plants.

  18. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose.

  19. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES—IV*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. G. J. VAN STEENIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. In connection with the first record from Malaysia (Atjeh, North Sumatra of a species of Schoepfia (Olacaceae, viz. S. fragrans Wall, in Roxb., some notes on the genus are given, including a key to the species of section Schoepfiopsis (emended and to the two Indian species of Schoepfia. The specimens of the Kew and Leyden Herbaria of these two species are listed. The name Schoepfia ffriffithii Tiegh. is validly published in the present paper, if this was not done before. 2. Smilax pygmaea Merr. (Liliaceae is recorded from Atjeh, Sumatra. 3. The first indigenous species of Mivmlus (Scrophulariaceae, M. tenellus Bunge, is recorded for Malaysia from Atjeh, Sumatra. 4. A new species of Macadamia (Proteaceae is described from Celebes: Maca- damia hildebrandii Van Steenis. It belongs to the same genus as the common Australian bush nut, M. ternifolia, with edible seeds. 5. Some information, additional to a previous paper on Biophytum (Oxalidaceae in Malaysia, is given. • 6. Some records of plants new to Mount Pangrango, West Java, are mentioned. 7. The recent introduction and the present distribution in Malaysia of the weed Eupatorium odoratum L. (Compositae is discussed. 8. Some additional records of the liana Hollrungia aurantioides K. Schum. (Passifloraceae from New Guinea and from outside this island (Ternate, Moluccas are published.

  20. [Facial allergic contact dermatitis. Data from the IVDK and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Uter, W

    2009-01-01

    The face is exposed to many foreign substances and may thus be a site of allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim is to elucidate the spectrum of factors associated with facial dermatitis by analyzing data of patients patch tested in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1995 and 2007. In 18,572 patients the main anatomical site of dermatitis was the face. Among these, the proportion of females and of patients with past or present atopic eczema was increased, while probable occupational causation was less common than in the overall group. Cosmetic allergens, as well as nickel, were significantly more common in women than men, including fragrance mix (10.8% vs. 8.3%), p-phenylenediamine (4.0% vs. 2.8%), lanolin alcohols (3.0% vs. 2.2%), Lyral(TM) (3.1% vs. 2.0%) and bufexamac (1.8% vs. 1.1%). In comparison, only epoxy resin contact allergy was diagnosed significantly more often in men than women: In patients with airborne contact dermatitis, over-represented allergens included sesquiterpene lactone mix, compositae mix, epoxy resin, (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine. In the clinical approach to patients with facial dermatitis, occupational airborne causation should be considered in addition to non-occupational (e.g., cosmetic) allergen exposure.

  1. [Type IV contact allergies in the food processing industry: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Schubert, S; Geier, J; Mahler, V

    2018-05-02

    The food sector is one of the high-risk areas for occupational irritative and allergic contact eczema. The present work provides an overview of the main allergens as well as sensitization frequencies and risk in various food industry occupations. The literature on type IV sensitization in the food sector is summarized. The relative risk of developing a work-related eczema in food processing is increased by more than 3 times. The comparison group was calculated on the basis of the proportion of documented cases in the IVDK (Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken) network per 100,000 working persons in relation to the average of the years 2005 and 2010. For this purpose, the average risk of all patients was set as reference to 1. Bakers, pastry chefs, cooks and meat and fish processors are mainly affected. In addition to irritant contact eczema, allergic contact eczema and protein contact dermatitis often occur. Leading haptens (main allergens) are rubber ingredients, but also disinfectants and compositae. Only a few contact allergens are responsible for the majority of job-relevant sensitizations in the food industry.

  2. Factors Affecting Microcuttings of Stevia Using a Mist-Chamber Propagation Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a member of Compositae family. Stevia plant has zero calorie content and its leaves are estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar. This plant is believed to be the most ideal substitute for sugar and important to assist in medicinal value especially for diabetic patients. In this study, microcutting techniques using a mist-chamber propagation box were used as it was beneficial for propagation of Stevia and gave genetic uniformity to the plant. The effects of different treatments on root stimulation of Stevia in microcuttings technique were evaluated. Treatments studied were different sizes of shoot cuttings, plant growth regulators, lights, and shades. Data logger was used to record the mean value of humidity (>90% RH, light intensity (673–2045 lx, and temperature (28.6–30.1°C inside the mist-chamber propagation box. From analysis of variance, there were significant differences between varieties and treatments in parameters studied (P<0.05. For the size of shoot cuttings treatment, 6 nodes cuttings were observed to increase root number. As compared to control, shoot cuttings treated with indole butyric acid (IBA had better performance regarding root length. Yellow light and 50% shade treatments showed higher root and leaf number and these conditions can be considered as crucial for potential propagation of Stevia.

  3. Radiocesium movement in a gray rabbit brush community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, B.; Rogers, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Price, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gray rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Compositae), is the dominant shrub on disturbed land surfaces on much of the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. A stand of rabbit brush growing on an inactive liquid-waste-disposal crib was studied. Thirty percent of the shrubs showed low but detectable radiation levels in a field survey. The primary radionuclide was 137 Cs. The source of 137 Cs in shrubs was the gravel drain field in the crib, at least 2.4 m below the surface, which was the approximate maximum depth of penetration of rabbit brush taproots. Cesium-137 was observed in roots of certain rabbit brush plants, in the upper 1 cm of soil, and in litter beneath contaminated plants but was not detectable in soil samples taken at depths of 15, 50, 100, and 150 cm. Invertebrates associated with a contaminated shrub showed higher concentrations of 137 Cs than did wider-ranging species. Two of seven pocket mice trapped on the crib contaminated detectable amounts of 137 Cs

  4. Potential Allergens in Disposable Diaper Wipes, Topical Diaper Preparations, and Disposable Diapers: Under-recognized Etiology of Pediatric Perineal Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, JiaDe; Treat, James; Chaney, Keri; Brod, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis in young children may be an under-recognized cause of perineal dermatitis. The diapered infant skin is uniquely susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis because of more permeable neonatal skin, a moist environment, frequent contact with irritants and resultant skin barrier breakdown, and exposure to topical products such as diaper wipes, diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. To our knowledge, potential allergens in these products have not been thoroughly catalogued or studied. We explore and review potential allergenic ingredients in diaper wipes, topical diaper preparations, and disposable diapers. We analyzed 63 diaper wipes, 41 topical diaper preparations, and the 3 top selling diaper brands available from two of the largest retailers in the United States. Each potential allergen is discussed, and epidemiologic studies of rates of sensitization to potential allergens in children are also reported. Botanical extracts, including members of the Compositae family, were the most commonly represented potential allergen in both diaper wipes and topical preparations. Other potential allergens identified with high frequency include α-tocopherol, fragrances, propylene glycol, parabens, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and lanolin. Frequent culprits such as formaldehyde releasers and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone were not prevalent in our analyzed products.

  5. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  6. Procedencia botánica del polen almacenado por Apís mellífera, en alrededores de la-Sabana de Bogotá. I:Polen en las Colmenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz de Boada Dilia

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó el polen almacenado en 30 colmenas de Apis mellifera, en tres apiarios de los alrededores de la Sabana de Bogotá. Apiario A1 de la vereda de Los Puentes Municipio de Mosquera. Conformación vegetal: El ecosistema de la región corresponde al bosque seco montano bajo, con unos 5 meses de verano. A2 en la zona urbana de la Sabana, Calle 145 No. 14-31 Barrio Los Cedritos, el ecosistema de la región corresponde a bosque de transición seco y húmedo montano bajo con períodos de lluvias fuertes por 6 meses al año. A3 Monasterio Santa María de Usme con· ecosistema bosque húmedo montano bajo
    con per íodos de lluvias alternando con épocas de verano. Se hicieron colectas durante 2 años con colección de referencia palinológica. En el estudio se diferenciaron 74 tipos de polen
    en total, de estos 37 corresponden a especies melliferas destacándose entre los Myrtaceae Eucaliptus globulus, Caprifoliaceae Sambucus nigrum, Tropeolaceae Tropeolum mejus, Compositae Chrysanthemum sp, y Oleaceae
    Fraxinus sp.

  7. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  8. Chemical analysis of raw and processed Fructus arctii by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kunming; Liu, Qidi; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Lu, Tulin; Shen, Baojia; Shu, Yachun; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), raw and processed herbs are used to treat the different diseases. Fructus Arctii, the dried fruits of Arctium lappa l. (Compositae), is widely used in the TCM. Stir-frying is the most common processing method, which might modify the chemical compositions in Fructus Arctii. Materials and Methods: To test this hypothesis, we focused on analysis and identification of the main chemical constituents in raw and processed Fructus Arctii (PFA) by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results: The results indicated that there was less arctiin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. however, there were higher levels of arctigenin in stir-fried materials than in raw materials. Conclusion: We suggest that arctiin reduced significantly following the thermal conversion of arctiin to arctigenin. In conclusion, this finding may shed some light on understanding the differences in the therapeutic values of raw versus PFA in TCM. PMID:25422559

  9. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Floral Resources and Nesting Requirements of the Ground-Nesting Social Bee, Lasioglossum malachurum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae, in a Mediterranean Semiagricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt correct conservation strike plans to maintain bee pollination activity it is necessary to know the species' resource utilisation and requirements. We investigated the floral resources and the nesting requirements of the eusocial bee Lasioglossum malachurum Kirby at various sites in a Mediterranean landscape. Analysis of bees' pollen loads showed that Compositae was the more exploited family, although interpopulations differences appeared in the pollen types used. From 5 to 7 pollen types were used by bees, but only as few as 1–1.9 per load. Variations of the pollen spectrum through the annual nesting cycle were conspicuous. At all sites, bees nested in horizontal ground areas with high soil hardness, low acidity, and rare superficial stones. On the other side, the exploited soil was variable in soil granulometry (although always high in % of silt or sand and it was moderately variable in content of organic matter and highly variable in vegetation cover. Creation of ground patches with these characteristics in proximity of both cultivated and natural flowering fields may successfully promote colonization of new areas by this bee.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  12. Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Arctium lappa Extract on NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Koppula, Sushruta; Shim, Do-Wan; In, Eun-Jung; Kwak, Su-Bin; Kim, Myong-Ki; Yu, Sang-Hyeun; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Tae-Bong

    2018-01-01

    Arctium lappa (A. lappa) , Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that ALE inhibited IL-1 β secretion from NLRP3 inflammasome activated bone marrow derived macrophages but not that secreted by NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ALE suppressed the ATPase activity of purified NLRP3 and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generated during NLRP3 activation. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the NLRP3 ATPase function and attenuated the mROS during inflammasome activation. In addition, ALE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase of plasma IL-1 β in mouse peritonitis model. These results provide evidence of novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A. lappa , which might be used for therapeutic applications in the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory disorders.

  13. Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Arctium lappa Extract on NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyu Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctium lappa (A. lappa, Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that ALE inhibited IL-1β secretion from NLRP3 inflammasome activated bone marrow derived macrophages but not that secreted by NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ALE suppressed the ATPase activity of purified NLRP3 and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS generated during NLRP3 activation. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the NLRP3 ATPase function and attenuated the mROS during inflammasome activation. In addition, ALE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase of plasma IL-1β in mouse peritonitis model. These results provide evidence of novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A. lappa, which might be used for therapeutic applications in the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory disorders.

  14. Antioxidant Components of Cichorium intybus in Vitro and in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Jin Kyu; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Cichorium intybus is a perennial herb of the Compositae Family, native of Europe, west and central Asia, north of Africa and South America. The plant grows to a height of about 50-150 cm. The flowering time of it is from July to September. The flower is lingulate and blue. The basal leaves and the stems of the C. intybus, when they are very tender, are edible. The root, dry and toasted, can be used as a substitute of coffee. Its tuberous roots store inulin as a reserve carbohydrate, which consists of a chain of fructose molecules with a termonal glucose molecule. It may be classified as a fructoligosaccharide, and can be found in more than 30,000 vegetal products. Amongst these vegetables, the chicory roots are outlined for the production of inulin on an industrial scale due to the root's stability in the production of long chains of GFn and constant growth, even in moderate climates. Its use in products with low calories and reduced fat levels, in Europe, the United States and Canada, is already quite widespread. The present experiment was carried out to indicate that C. intybus contains both prooxidant and antioxidant compounds which can act in vitro and in vivo

  15. Antioxidant Components of Cichorium intybus in Vitro and in Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Cichorium intybus is a perennial herb of the Compositae Family, native of Europe, west and central Asia, north of Africa and South America. The plant grows to a height of about 50-150 cm. The flowering time of it is from July to September. The flower is lingulate and blue. The basal leaves and the stems of the C. intybus, when they are very tender, are edible. The root, dry and toasted, can be used as a substitute of coffee. Its tuberous roots store inulin as a reserve carbohydrate, which consists of a chain of fructose molecules with a termonal glucose molecule. It may be classified as a fructoligosaccharide, and can be found in more than 30,000 vegetal products. Amongst these vegetables, the chicory roots are outlined for the production of inulin on an industrial scale due to the root's stability in the production of long chains of GFn and constant growth, even in moderate climates. Its use in products with low calories and reduced fat levels, in Europe, the United States and Canada, is already quite widespread. The present experiment was carried out to indicate that C. intybus contains both prooxidant and antioxidant compounds which can act in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  17. An Ultra-High-Density, Transcript-Based, Genetic Map of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truco, Maria José; Ashrafi, Hamid; Kozik, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Hans; Bowers, John; Wo, Sebastian Reyes Chin; Stoffel, Kevin; Xu, Huaqin; Hill, Theresa; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing 35,628 unigenes of Lactuca spp. Segregation of single-position polymorphisms was analyzed using 213 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines that had been generated by crossing cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola acc. US96UC23, the wild progenitor species of L. sativa. The high level of replication of each allele in the recombinant inbred lines was exploited to identify single-position polymorphisms that were assigned to parental haplotypes. Marker information has been made available using GBrowse to facilitate access to the map. This map has been anchored to the previously published integrated map of lettuce providing candidate genes for multiple phenotypes. The high density of markers achieved in this ultradense map allowed syntenic studies between lettuce and Vitis vinifera as well as other plant species. PMID:23550116

  18. An Ultra-High-Density, Transcript-Based, Genetic Map of Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truco, Maria José; Ashrafi, Hamid; Kozik, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Hans; Bowers, John; Wo, Sebastian Reyes Chin; Stoffel, Kevin; Xu, Huaqin; Hill, Theresa; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-04-09

    We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing 35,628 unigenes of Lactuca spp. Segregation of single-position polymorphisms was analyzed using 213 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines that had been generated by crossing cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola acc. US96UC23, the wild progenitor species of L. sativa The high level of replication of each allele in the recombinant inbred lines was exploited to identify single-position polymorphisms that were assigned to parental haplotypes. Marker information has been made available using GBrowse to facilitate access to the map. This map has been anchored to the previously published integrated map of lettuce providing candidate genes for multiple phenotypes. The high density of markers achieved in this ultradense map allowed syntenic studies between lettuce and Vitis vinifera as well as other plant species. Copyright © 2013 Truco et al.

  19. In vitro antifungal activities of extracts of fruits and other morphological parts of xanthium strumarium against the plant pathogen, rhizoctonia solani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, N. U. [University of Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Alsiddeeg, S. E. [University of Gezira, Wad Medani (Sudan). Dept. of Oilseed Processing Research

    2014-03-15

    In vitro antifungal activity of different plant parts of Xanthium strumarium (Compositae) was investigated against Rhizoctonia solani to seek safe natural alternatives to the harmful synthetic fungicides. The most active plant parts of X. strumarium were seeds, extracted with n-hexane and the leaves, extracted with absolute ethanol. The two treatments resulted in growth inhibition diameters of 45 mm and 47 mm, respectively. The value of MIC lied between 350.0 and 175.0 mg of Xanthium oil/mL. Gas liquid chromatography of the seed oil of X. strumarium revealed the presence of the usual fatty acids, palmitoleic (7.6%), oleic (21.6%) and linoleic (70.4%). The oil was separated into free fatty acids fraction and unsaponifiable matter fraction. The unsaponifiable matter fraction was separated on TLC, out of six separated compounds, two were active against R. solani. The infrared spectra (FTIR) of these two purified compounds pointed to a long chain hydrocarbon back-bone for both, one of them possessing in addition, an alcoholic moiety. (author)

  20. In vitro antifungal activities of extracts of fruits and other morphological parts of xanthium strumarium against the plant pathogen, rhizoctonia solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N.U.; Alsiddeeg, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity of different plant parts of Xanthium strumarium (Compositae) was investigated against Rhizoctonia solani to seek safe natural alternatives to the harmful synthetic fungicides. The most active plant parts of X. strumarium were seeds, extracted with n-hexane and the leaves, extracted with absolute ethanol. The two treatments resulted in growth inhibition diameters of 45 mm and 47 mm, respectively. The value of MIC lied between 350.0 and 175.0 mg of Xanthium oil/mL. Gas liquid chromatography of the seed oil of X. strumarium revealed the presence of the usual fatty acids, palmitoleic (7.6%), oleic (21.6%) and linoleic (70.4%). The oil was separated into free fatty acids fraction and unsaponifiable matter fraction. The unsaponifiable matter fraction was separated on TLC, out of six separated compounds, two were active against R. solani. The infrared spectra (FTIR) of these two purified compounds pointed to a long chain hydrocarbon back-bone for both, one of them possessing in addition, an alcoholic moiety. (author)

  1. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

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    Antonio Belda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses; thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158, and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (=158. Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge.

  2. The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Peiró, Victoriano; Seva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge.

  3. Is Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni a Non Cariogenic Sweetener? A Review

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    Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small perennial shrub of the Asteraceae (Compositae family that is native to South America, particularly Brazil and Paraguay, where it is known as “stevia” or “honey leaf” for its powerful sweetness. Several studies have suggested that in addition to their sweetness, steviosides and their related compounds, including rebaudioside A and isosteviol, may offer additional therapeutic benefits. These benefits include anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, diuretic, and immunomodulatory actions. Additionally, critical analysis of the literature supports the anti-bacterial role of steviosides on oral bacteria flora. The aim of this review is to show the emerging results regarding the anti-cariogenic properties of S. rebaudiana Bertoni. Data shown in the present paper provide evidence that stevioside extracts from S. rebaudiana are not cariogenic. Future research should be focused on in vivo studies to evaluate the effects on dental caries of regular consumption of S. rebaudiana extract-based products.

  4. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Germination of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana BERT. Seeds

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    Esra UÇAR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni is a perennial herbaceous plant and belongs to family of Asteraceae (Compositae. The contents of S. rebaudiana (Bert. Bertoni consist mainly non-caloric stevioside and rebaudioside A sweeteners. Low seed germination is an important problem in stevia cultivation. Therefore in this study, the effects of light and temperature on germination performance of stevia seeds were studied. Stevia rebaudiana seeds were treated with two lights (light/darkness and four different temperatures (15 ºC, 20 ºC, 25 ºC, 30 ºC. For each treatment, 50 seeds were counted and placed into petri dishes. Experiments were conducted as a randomized complete design method with three replicates. Germination was started within 6 to 10 days depending on the treatments. The highest seed germination rate (71% was observed in darkness/25 ºC temperature and followed by darkness/20 ºC (68% and light/25 ºC (67%. On the other hand, the lowest seed germination rate (31% was obtained from 15 ºC in both light and dark conditions and followed by darkness/30 ºC (43% and light/30 ºC (49%. The results showed that lower (15 ºC and higher (30 ºC temperatures significantly decreased the germination rates of stevia independently from the light treatments.

  5. Is Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni a Non Cariogenic Sweetener? A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Cantile, Tiziana; Alcidi, Brunella; Coda, Marco; Ingenito, Aniello; Zarrelli, Armando; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Pollio, Antonino

    2015-12-26

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small perennial shrub of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family that is native to South America, particularly Brazil and Paraguay, where it is known as "stevia" or "honey leaf" for its powerful sweetness. Several studies have suggested that in addition to their sweetness, steviosides and their related compounds, including rebaudioside A and isosteviol, may offer additional therapeutic benefits. These benefits include anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, diuretic, and immunomodulatory actions. Additionally, critical analysis of the literature supports the anti-bacterial role of steviosides on oral bacteria flora. The aim of this review is to show the emerging results regarding the anti-cariogenic properties of S. rebaudiana Bertoni. Data shown in the present paper provide evidence that stevioside extracts from S. rebaudiana are not cariogenic. Future research should be focused on in vivo studies to evaluate the effects on dental caries of regular consumption of S. rebaudiana extract-based products.

  6. Diversity of DNA β, a satellite molecule associated with some monopartite begomoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briddon, Rob W.; Bull, Simon E.; Amin, Imran; Idris, Ali M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Bedford, Ian D.; Dhawan, Poonam; Rishi, Narayan; Siwatch, Surender S.; Abdel-Salam, Aly M.; Brown, Judith K.; Zafar, Yusuf; Markham, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    DNA β molecules are symptom-modulating, single-stranded DNA satellites associated with monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae). Such molecules have thus far been shown to be associated with Ageratum yellow vein virus from Singapore and Cotton leaf curl Multan virus from Pakistan. Here, 26 additional DNA β molecules, associated with diverse plant species obtained from different geographical locations, were cloned and sequenced. These molecules were shown to be widespread in the Old World, where monopartite begomoviruses are known to occur. Analysis of the sequences revealed a highly conserved organization for DNA β molecules consisting of a single conserved open reading frame, an adenine-rich region, and a region of high sequence conservation [the satellite conserved region (SCR)]. The SCR contains a potential hairpin structure with the loop sequence TAA/GTATTAC; similar to the origins of replication of geminiviruses and nanoviruses. Two major groups of DNA β satellites were resolved by phylogenetic analyses. One group originated from hosts within the Malvaceae and the second from a more diverse group of plants within the Solanaceae and Compositae. Within the two clusters, DNA β molecules showed relatedness based both on host and geographic origin. These findings strongly support coadaptation of DNA β molecules with their respective helper begomoviruses

  7. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

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    Xuan Tang

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  8. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  9. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  10. Ornithine decarboxylase, polyamines, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in senecio and crotalaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Birecki, M; Cohen, E J; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here-using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors-endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence-with relatively very high levels of these compounds-in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence.

  11. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aster ageratoides flowering aerial parts

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    Chu Sha Sha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil from Aster ageratoides Turcz. (Compositae flowering aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for the first time. Forty-three compounds, accounting for 96.4 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were α- terpineol (10.8 %, β-caryophyllene (10.3 %, linalool (7.2%, D-limonene (6.9%, spathulenol (6.5%, bornyl acetate (5.8%, and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%. The essential oil of A. ageratoides flowering aerial parts possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults with LD50 values of 27.16 μg adult-1 and 8.09 μg adult-1, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 13.73 mg L-1 and 12.14 mg L-1, respectively. The essential oil shows potential to be developed as possible natural fumigant/insecticide for control of stored product insects.

  12. Efficacy of Compounds Isolated from the Essential Oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia in Control of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne

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    Jun Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop natural product resources to control cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne, the essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia (Compositae was investigated. Oil was extracted by hydrodistillation of the above-ground portion of A. lavandulaefolia and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Extracted essential oil and three compounds isolated from the oil were then evaluated in laboratory assays to determine the fumigant, contact, and repellent efficacy against the stored-products’ pest, L. serricorne. The bioactive constituents from the oil extracts were identified as chamazulene (40.4%, 1,8-cineole (16.0%, and β-caryophyllene (11.5%. In the insecticidal activity assay, the adults of L. serricorne were susceptible to fumigant action of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole, with LC50 values of 31.81 and 5.18 mg/L air. The essential oil, 1,8-cineole, chamazulene, and β-caryophyllene exhibited contact toxicity with LD50 values of 13.51, 15.58, 15.18 and 35.52 μg/adult, respectively. During the repellency test, the essential oil and chamazulene had repellency approximating the positive control. The results indicated that chamazulene was abundant in A. lavandulaefolia essential oil and was toxic to cigarette beetles.

  13. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P history of atopia, lower than in the control group (P lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods.

  14. Efficacy of Compounds Isolated from the Essential Oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia in Control of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zou, Kexing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Hong; Sun, Jiansheng; Li, Jigang; Huang, Dongye; Wu, Yan; Du, Shushan; Borjigidai, Almaz

    2018-02-07

    To develop natural product resources to control cigarette beetles ( Lasioderma serricorne ), the essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia (Compositae) was investigated. Oil was extracted by hydrodistillation of the above-ground portion of A. lavandulaefolia and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Extracted essential oil and three compounds isolated from the oil were then evaluated in laboratory assays to determine the fumigant, contact, and repellent efficacy against the stored-products' pest, L. serricorne . The bioactive constituents from the oil extracts were identified as chamazulene (40.4%), 1,8-cineole (16.0%), and β-caryophyllene (11.5%). In the insecticidal activity assay, the adults of L. serricorne were susceptible to fumigant action of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole, with LC 50 values of 31.81 and 5.18 mg/L air. The essential oil, 1,8-cineole, chamazulene, and β-caryophyllene exhibited contact toxicity with LD 50 values of 13.51, 15.58, 15.18 and 35.52 μg/adult, respectively. During the repellency test, the essential oil and chamazulene had repellency approximating the positive control. The results indicated that chamazulene was abundant in A. lavandulaefolia essential oil and was toxic to cigarette beetles.

  15. A proposal to create an extension to the European baseline series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Gallo, Rosella; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne D; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Schuttelaar, Marie L; Uter, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    The current European baseline series consists of 30 allergens, and was last updated in 2015. To use data from the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) to propose an extension to the European baseline series in response to changes in environmental exposures. Data from departmental and national extensions to the baseline series, together with some temporary additions from departments contributing to the ESSCA, were collated during 2013-2014. In total, 31689 patients were patch tested in 46 European departments. Many departments and national groups already consider the current European baseline series to be a suboptimal screen, and use their own extensions to it. The haptens tested are heterogeneous, although there are some consistent themes. Potential haptens to include in an extension to the European baseline series comprise sodium metabisulfite, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, additional markers of fragrance allergy, propolis, Compositae mix, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. In combination with other published work from the ESSCA, changes to the current European baseline series are proposed for discussion. As well as addition of the allergens listed above, it is suggested that primin and clioquinol should be deleted from the series, owing to reduced environmental exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Desmosomal Molecules In and Out of Adhering Junctions: Normal and Diseased States of Epidermal, Cardiac and Mesenchymally Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pieperhoff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cell biology textbooks mention only two kinds of cell-to-cell adhering junctions coated with the cytoplasmic plaques: the desmosomes (maculae adhaerentes, anchoring intermediate-sized filaments (IFs, and the actin microfilament-anchoring adherens junctions (AJs, including both punctate (puncta adhaerentia and elongate (fasciae adhaerentes structures. In addition, however, a series of other junction types has been identified and characterized which contain desmosomal molecules but do not fit the definition of desmosomes. Of these special cell-cell junctions containing desmosomal glycoproteins or proteins we review the composite junctions (areae compositae connecting the cardiomyocytes of mature mammalian hearts and their importance in relation to human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. We also emphasize the various plakophilin-2-positive plaques in AJs (coniunctiones adhaerentes connecting proliferatively active mesenchymally-derived cells, including interstitial cells of the heart and several soft tissue tumor cell types. Moreover, desmoplakin has also been recognized as a constituent of the plaques of the complexus adhaerentes connecting certain lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we emphasize the occurrence of the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein Dsg2, out of the context of any junction as dispersed cell surface molecules in certain types of melanoma cells and melanocytes. This broadening of our knowledge on the diversity of AJ structures indicates that it may still be too premature to close the textbook chapters on cell-cell junctions.

  17. Mosquito Larvicidal Constituents from the Ethanol Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. Roots against Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Compositae roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, 11,13-dihydroisoalantolactone (1, macrophyllilactone E (2, 5α-epoxyalantolactone (3, and epoxyisoalantolactone (4 were isolated and identified as the active constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 21.86 μg/mL and 18.65 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC50 value of 25.23 μg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of 29.37 μg/mL and 35.13 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. racemosa and the four isolated constituents have potential for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  18. Inheritance and mechanism of resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase in Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsalis, P; Powles, S B

    1995-07-01

    A biotype of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Compositae) has developed resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) following field selection with chlorsulfuron for 8 consecutive years. The aim of this study was to determine the inheritance and mechanism of resistance in this biotype. Determination of ALS activity and inhibition kinetics revealed that Km and Vmax did not vary greatly between the resistant and susceptible biotypes. ALS extracted from the resistant biotype was resistant to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides in an in vitro assay. ALS activity from the resistant biotype was 14 19, 2, 3 and 3 times more resistant to inhibition by chlorsulfuron, sulfometuron, imazethapyr, imazapyr and flumetsulam, respectively, than the susceptible biotype. Hybrids between the resistant and a susceptible biotype were produced, and inheritance was followed through the F1, F2 and F3 generations. F1 hybrids displayed a uniform intermediate level of resistance between resistant and susceptible parents. Three distinct phenotypes, resistant, intermediate and susceptible, were identified in the F2 generation following chlorsulfuron application. A segregation ratio of 1∶2∶1 was observed, indicative of the action of a single, nuclear, incompletely dominant gene. F3 families, derived from intermediate F2 individuals, segregated in a similar manner. Resistance to herbicides inhibiting ALS in this biotype of S. oleraceus is due to the effect of a single gene coding for a resistant form of the target enzyme, ALS.

  19. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

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    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  20. Analysis of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. essential oil

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    N. Ghassemi-Dehkordi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. (Compositae  is an endemic plant in Iran that has been recommended by Iranian traditional and folk medicine practitioners for gastrointestinal complaints. The plant is rich in essential oil and in the present investigation, the volatile composition of the species has been determined. Methods: The light yellow essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was prepared according to the method which was recommended in British Pharmacopoeia by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Results: Thirty-seven compounds were identified; among them β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and epimanoyl oxide were dominant. Sesquiterpenoids were the most dominant compounds in the essential oil while monoterpenoides, fatty acids and diterpenoides were found to be less. These outcomes are a little bit different from what has been reported before. Conclusion: The differences between the results of the present study with previous works could be due to the diversity of variety, polymorphism, stage of plant growth and environmental factors.

  1. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

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    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Isolation of Luteoline from Centaurea behen L. Grown in Iran

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    Akbar Esmaeili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites providing Ultraviolet-visible (UV spectroscopy protection and color in almost all terrestrial plants and fruits. They have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. As their biological activities have an impact on human health, they serve as target molecules in the development of new drugs. The objective of this research was to study the antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of the luteoline from Centaurea behen L. (Compositae family. The aerial parts of powdered and dried C. behen were extracted with methanol (MeOH in a Soxhlet apparatus over a period of 2 days. The concentrated total extract was extracted with petroleum ether, diethylether, and methanol. From the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. behen, the flavonoid derivative (luteoline was identified. The aerial parts’ extract demonstrated effective antioxidant activity measured in terms of half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The product extract has been isolated by UV, column chromatography (CC, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The structures involved were elucidated by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC spectra. The compound identified had not been reported in previous studies of C. behen L.

  4. [Spatial and temporal dynamics of the weed community in the Zoysia matrella lawn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Qi; Li, You-Han; Zeng, Ying; Xie, Xin-Ming

    2014-02-01

    The heterogeneity of species composition is one of the main attributes in weed community dynamics. Based on species frequency and power law, this paper studied the variations of weed community species composition and spatial heterogeneity in a Zoysia matrella lawn in Guangzhou at different time. The results showed that there were 43 weed species belonging to 19 families in the Z. matrella lawn from 2007 to 2009, in which Gramineae, Compositae, Cyperaceae and Rubiaceae had a comparative advantage. Perennial weeds accounted for the largest proportion of weeds and increased gradually in the three years. Weed communities distributed in higher heterogeneity than in a random model. Dominant weeds varied with season and displayed regularity in the order of 'dicotyledon-monocotyledon-dicotyledon weeds' and 'perennial-annual-perennial weeds'. The spatial heterogeneity of weed community in Z. matrella lawn was higher in summer than in winter. The diversity and evenness of weed community were higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. The number of weed species with high heterogeneity in summer was higher than in the other seasons. The spatial heterogeneity and diversity of weed community had no significant change in the three years, while the evenness of weed community had the tendency to decline gradually.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

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    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  6. Man and climate in the Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Barbara W.

    1987-11-01

    A 15-m sedimentary core from Lake Salpeten provides the first complete Holocene sequence for the lowlying Peten District, Guatemala. Today, Lake Salpeten is a brackish, calcium sulfate lake near saturation surrounded by tropical semievergreen forest. The basal pollen record depicts sparse juniper scrub surrounding a lake basin that held ephermal pools and halophytic marshes. The lake rapidly deepened to > 27 m in the early Holocene and may have been meromictic, because nearly 2 m of gypsum "mush" was deposited. Mesic forests were quickly established and persisted until the Maya entered the district 3000 yr ago and caused extensive deforestation. Any climatic information contained in the pollen record of the Maya period is thus masked, but a regional pollen sequence linked to the archaeological record is substantiated because environmental disturbance was pervasive. Local intensification of occupation and population growth are seen as an increased deposition of pollen of agricultural weeds and colluviation into the lake, while the Classic Maya collapse is marked by a temporary decline in Compositae pollen. Effects of perturbations induced by the Maya persist in the pollen and limnetic record 400 yr after the Spanish conquest.

  7. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

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    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  8. VEGETATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILLS WITHIN THE AGGLOMERATION OF THE CAPITAL CITY OF WARSAW

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    Kazimierz H. Dyguś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of examination of the vegetation on the waste landfill of ArcelorMittal-Warszawa steel mill and the combustion waste landfill of Siekierki Power Station, both sites in Warsaw. The presented analyses of the field research contain detailed floristic-phytosociological data as well as botanical and ecological evaluation of the identified plants. The vegetative structures, together with the succession trends of the vegetation cover of two examined landfills, have been shown. Ecological habitat adaptations of plants and their spatial structure have been evaluated. The inventoried flora has been subjected to taxonomic, syntaxonomic and ecological classification. 154 plant species from 48 taxones in the range of families have been identified. Families characterized by the biggest abundance of species were: Compositae, grasses and Fabaceae. More than half of the live forms indentified were hemicryptophytes. The vegetation of two landfills has been dominated by synantrophic communities (Stellarietea mediae, Artemisietea vulgaris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, with apophytes being in the largest number. With the use of ecological indicators a broad ecological tolerance of the majority of species toward ecological factors has been observed.

  9. Cardiac Autoantibodies from Patients Affected by a New Variant of Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus in Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michael S.; Jiao, Zhe; Gao, Weiqing; Yi, Hong; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Duque-Ramírez, Mauricio; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Several patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF) have experienced a sudden death syndrome, including persons below the age of 50. El Bagre-EPF patients share several autoantigens with paraneoplastic pemphigus patients, such as reactivity to plakins. Further, paraneoplastic pemphigus patients have autoantibodies to the heart. Therefore, we tested 15 El Bagre-EPF patients and 15 controls from the endemic area for autoreactivity to heart tissue using direct and indirect immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and immunoelectron microscopy utilizing heart extracts as antigens. We found that 7 of 15 El Bagre patients exhibited a polyclonal immune response to several cell junctions of the heart, often colocalizing with known markers. These colocalizing markers included those for the area composita of the heart, such as anti-desmoplakins I and II; markers for gap junctions, such as connexin 43; markers for tight junctions, such as ezrin and junctional adhesion molecule A; and adherens junctions, such pan-cadherin. We also detected colocalization of the patient antibodies within blood vessels, Purkinje fibers, and cardiac sarcomeres. We conclude that El Bagre-EPF patients display autoreactivity to multiple cardiac epitopes, that this disease may resemble what is found in patients with rheumatic carditis, and further, that the cardiac pathophysiology of this disorder warrants further evaluation. PMID:21796504

  10. Pharmacokinetic studies of 131 I-stevioside and his metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is a shrub widely in Paraguay and Brazil, belonging to the compositae family. The leaves of this plant contain large amounts of stevioside. Since the use of stevioside as sugar substitute continues to increase, the purpose of this study is to investigate the biological distribution, excretion and the possibility of stevioside to be degraded to steviol 'in vitro'. 131 -I-stevioside (1,10 MBq) was i.v. injected in Wistar male rats its distribution in the body and metabolism were studied. The highest concentration of radioactivity was observed in the liver and the small intestine after 10 and 120 minutes respectively. RP-HPLC analysis of the bile showed that steviol appeared as a major metabolite, representing 47,3% of the radioactivity while stevioside represented 37,3% and the remaining 15,4% was due to an unidentified metabolite. The results showed that stevioside was partially degraded 'in vivo' to steviol and other metabolite, and that part of the radioactivity was absorbed from the small intestine. (author)

  11. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

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    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  12. Activations of Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Contribute to Apoptosis through p53-Mediated ATM/Fas Signaling by Emilia sonchifolia Extract, a Folklore Medicinal Plant

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    Yu-Hsuan Lan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC (Compositae, an herbaceous plant found in Taiwan and India, is used as folk medicine. The clinical applications include inflammation, rheumatism, cough, cuts fever, dysentery, analgesic, and antibacteria. The activities of Emilia sonchifolia extract (ESE on colorectal cancer cell death have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study explored the induction of apoptosis and its molecular mechanisms in ESE-treated HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The methanolic ESE was characterized, and γ-humulene was formed as the major constituent (63.86%. ESE induced cell growth inhibition in a concentration- and time-dependent response by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells (DNA fragmentation, an apoptotic catachrestic were found after ESE treatment by TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, ESE stimulated the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and their specific caspase inhibitors protected against ESE-induced cytotoxicity. ESE promoted the mitochondria-dependent and death-receptor-associated protein levels. Also, ESE increased ROS production and upregulated the levels of ATM, p53, and Fas in HCT 116 cells. Strikingly, p53 siRNA reversed ESE-reduced viability involved in p53-mediated ATM/Fas signaling in HCT 116 cells. In summary, our result is the first report suggesting that ESE may be potentially efficacious in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  13. A favorable impact of preoperative FPLC chemotherapy on patients with gastric cardia cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Wu, G X; Zhang, M D; Guo, M; Zhang, H; Sun, X F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracili polyphase liposome composita pro orale (FPLC) on the tumour cells and the survival rate of the patients with gastric cardia cancer. Sixty patients with gastric cardia cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty patients were treated with FPLC prior to surgical resection, the other 30, as controls, did not receive the preoperative chemotherapy. Pathological responses of the tumours to the FPLC chemotherapy were determined by gross and microscopic assessments of tumour size, tumour emboli, cell degeneration and necrosis. Expressions of nm23 and CD44 were detected by flow cytometry. All patients were followed up to 5 years. In the FPLC-treated patients, the tumour size (pexpression (pexpression of nm23 (p<0.001) were increased, when compared with those observations seen in the controls. The postoperative 5-year survival rate was 40% in the FPLC-treated group and 23% in the controls (p=0.17). Preoperative FPLC chemotherapy might improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cardia cancer by inhibiting tumour proliferative, invasive and metastatic activities, and stimulating the patient's immune system.

  14. Il Nuraghe S. Marco di Genuri (VS: riutilizzo e frequentazione di un edificio nuragico dalla fase punica all’età postclassica

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    Maria Lucia Atzeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto: Il complesso nuragico di San Marco (Medio Campidano sorge in prossimità di una chiesetta campestre consacrata al Santo omonimo a poche centinaia di metri dalla periferia Est del centro abitato, alla base del costone sudoccidentale della Giara di Gesturi. Le indagini archeologiche, avviate nel 2001 e attualmente in corso, hanno dato modo di verificare la frequentazione e la composita sovrapposizione abitativa cui il complesso nuragico e l’area ad esso limitrofa sono stati interessati nel corso dei secoli, dall’età nuragica all’alto Medioevo. Abstract: The nuragic complex of San Marco (Medio Campidano is located in proximity of a consecrate rural church to the Saint with the same name a few hundred meters from the E outskirts of the inhabited center rising downstream himself stately of the SW side of the Giara of Gesturi. The archaeological investigations developed him, to various resumptions, from 2001 and currently still in progress, they have given way of verifying the populating and the composite housing overlap which the nuragic complex and the area to it neighboring they have been interested during the centuries from the nuragic age to the tall middle age.

  15. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

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    Bekele Albejo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

  16. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

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    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  17. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia Soil and nutrient loss under different vegetation covers in Colombia's Andean region

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P Soil and nutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus losses were measured over a 7-month period in the El Ciprés Natural Reserve, located in the Bellavista rural community, municipality of El Dovio, in the western cordillera of the Andes of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. At 1700-1800 meters above sea level, the area presents an average temperature of 18 °C, an average annual precipitation of 2500-2700 mm, 90% relative humidity, and a 62% slope. According to the Holdridge climate classification system, it corresponds to a lower montane rain forest. Measurements were taken in runoff plots, each 32 m², with seven types of vegetation cover: giant bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth; secondary forest; pastures (Brachiaria decumbens; coffee (Coffea arabica; protein bank (Trichanthera gigantea; forage cane (Saccharum officinarum

  18. Chemical composition and fermentative parameters of elephant grass and sugar-cane silage treated with additives Composição química e parâmetros fermentativos de silagens de capim-elefante e cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos

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    Elson Martins Coelho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effect of different additives in the elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L., before and after the ensilage, through fermentation and chemical composition measures. The roughages were ensiled in PVC laboratory silos, with three for treatment, totalizing 24 microsilos for specie, in a completely randomized design. The treatments were control (without additive, corn meal, common salt, urea, acetic acid, formic acid, microbial inoculant and dried molasses. Samples were taken before and after 35 days of ensilage. Dry matter, crude protein and ammonia-N contents, pH and buffering capacity values and dry matter losses were analyzed. The elephant-grass presented satisfactory results for conservation in the silage form, and it was not necessary the use of additives. The sugar-cane presented satisfactory results for conservation in the silage form. The corn meal was the additive that promoted best fermentation pattern and smaller losses, as an option in the making of the sugar-cane silage.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aditivos no capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e na cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L., antes e após a ensilagem, através de medidas de fermentação e composição química. As forragens foram ensiladas em silos laboratoriais de PVC, com três unidades por tratamento, num total de 24 microsilos por espécie forrageira, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos consistiram em controle (sem aditivo, fubá, cloreto de sódio, ureia, ácido acético, ácido fórmico, inoculante microbiano e melaço em pó. Amostras foram tomadas antes e após 35 dias de ensilagem, de modo que foram analisados os teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta e nitrogênio amoniacal, os valores de pH e capacidade tamponante, além das perdas de matéria seca. O capim-elefante apresentou resultados satisfatórios para conservação na forma de silagem

  19. Reguladores vegetais e qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em meio de safra Growth regulators and technological quality of sugarcane in the middle of the cropping season

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    Glauber Henrique Pereira Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A maturação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. refere-se a um dos aspectos fundamentais para o sistema de produção da indústria sucroalcooleira. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar em função da aplicação de reguladores vegetais em meio de safra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos da aplicação de quatro maturadores da classe dos retardantes de crescimento (Ethefon, Etil-trinexapac, KNO3 e KNO3 + Boro e uma testemunha (maturação natural. A eficiência agronômica dos maturadores foi influenciada pela época de aplicação, pela condição climática e pela característica genética da variedade. A aplicação dos maturadores em 10/05/2004 permitiu explorar de forma significativa o potencial genético da variedade quanto ao acúmulo de sacarose nos colmos, implicando em melhoria na qualidade tecnológica da matéria-prima. A adoção dessa prática em 04/08/2005, de modo geral, pouco afetou os parâmetros tecnológicos, exceto a aplicação de Etil-trinexapac, o qual induziu melhoria significativa na qualidade da matéria-prima. A produtividade de açúcar refletiu-se de forma direta na margem de contribuição agrícola, sendo constatado maior retorno econômico para as plantas tratadas com KNO3 na safra 2004.The ripening of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is the most important aspect in the production system for sugar and alcohol industry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality of sugarcane as a function of plant regulators application in the middle of the cropping season. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of four plant regulators application of the class of growth retainers (Ethephon, Ethyl.trinexapac, Potassium nitrate and Potassium nitrate + Boron and a control (natural

  20. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e produção de variedades de cana-de-açúcar em relação à disponibilidade hídrica e unidades térmicas Vegetative development and production of sugarcane varieties as a function of water availability and thermic units

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    Alexsandro Claudio dos Santos Almeida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar padrões de crescimento e de produção de variedades de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. com os graus-dias e disponibilidade hídrica, durante os cultivos de cana-planta e cana-soca, na região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros Alagoano. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na área experimental de Agrometeorologia da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Rio Largo-AL, num solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo coeso argissólico. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos cazualizados com cinco repetições e quatro tratamentos: variedades RB92579, RB931530, RB93509 e SP79-1011. As variáveis da cultura utilizadas foram: perfilhamento, altura da planta, índice de área foliar (IAF, acúmulo de matéria seca no colmo e produção final. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de perfilhamento das variedades em todas as épocas amostradas, de forma geral o maior perfilhamento foi observado na variedade RB92579. O crescimento das plantas apresentou curvas de formato sigmoidal, com três fases distintas. Na fase de estabelecimento da cultura, apesar de ter ocorrido ótima disponibilidade hídrica, o crescimento foi lento. Na fase de crescimento vegetativo as plantas não cresceram em potencial, porque houve deficiências hídricas. A fase final ocorreu entre 1500 e 2015 GD na cana-planta e 950 e 1800 GD na cana-soca. A variedade RB92579 alcançou valores de IAF superiores a 3, logo aos 600 GD nos dois ciclos, permanecendo o restante dos ciclos acima desse valor, contribuindo para uma melhor eficiência no uso da água e para o maior acúmulo de matéria seca.This work had the aim of evaluating the growth standard and yield of different sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. varieties with meteorogical parameter, during the plant and ratoon crop cane in Mesas regions of Alagoas. This work was carried out in an experimental area of Agrometeorology used a randomized outline with five repetition

  1. Estudo etnobotânico na comunidade de Conceição-Açu (alto da bacia do rio Aricá Açu, MT, Brasil Ethnobotany study in community of Conceição-Açu (on the upper basin of the River Aricá Açu, MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corette Pasa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico de plantas classificadas em diferentes categorias de uso na comunidade de Conceição-Açu, no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil e estimar o valor de uso das espécies botânicas em matas de galeria. Entrevistas estruturadas e semi-estruturadas, o uso do questionário foram aplicados em 59 residentes adultos de ambos os sexos. Identificou-se as unidades de paisagem: quintais, roças e matas de galeria e o número total de espécies utilizadas foi de 180. A maioria das plantas foi coletada durante a entrevista e depositadas no Herbário da UFMT. Nos quintais das residências identificou-se 86 espécies, pertencentes a 43 famílias, a maioria cultivada e utilizada como alimento (48,1% e como remédio (44,5%. Nas roças os principais cultivos são: Manihot esculenta L. (100%, Carica papaya L. (76,2%, Musa paradisiaca L. (71,4%, Saccharum officinarum L. (57,1%. Na mata de galeria destacou-se a categoria medicinal (65%, com as espécies: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (2,5, Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (2,5, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart. (2,33, Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. (2,0, Cariniana rubra Gardner ex. Miers (20 e as famílias botânicas Mimosaceae, Bignoniaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae e Sapindaceae. Os resultados demonstram que a população possui vasto conhecimento das plantas e de suas propriedades de cura.This paper aims at doing the ethnobotany survey of plants classified in different categories of use in the community of Conceição-Açu, in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil and estimate the value of use of the species botanic in the gallery forest. Structured and non-structured interviews and the questionnaire were used in 59 adult dwellers of both sexes. Were identified the landscape units: backyards, husbandry and gallery forest and the total number of used species is the 180. The majority of the plants was collected during the interview and is kept in the

  2. Fermentation, losses, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with chemical or bacterial additives Fermentação, perdas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos químicos ou bacterianos

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    André de Faria Pedroso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. silage is increasing in Brazil but intensive ethanol production during fermentation reduces forage quality. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of additives on fermentation and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages produced in minisilos. Treatments were (fresh basis: untreated silage (control, urea (5.0 g kg-1, sodium benzoate (1.0 g kg-1, potassium sorbate (0.3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 cfu g-1, and Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64 x 10(5 cfu g-1. At the 94th day after ensilage, ethanol concentration was lower in urea, benzoate, sorbate and L. buchneri supplemented silages and higher in L. plantarum inoculated silage, as compared to control. Urea and benzoate treated silages showed the highest and L. plantarum treated silage the lowest in vitro dry matter digestibility. Effluent production was higher in the urea treated silage. Inoculation with L. buchneri reduced 50% ethanol production as compared to control. Urea and L. buchneri reduced yeast count. Aerobic stability was enhanced by L. buchneri and benzoate. Sodium benzoate and L. buchneri were the most promising additives, improving both silage fermentation and aerobic stability; inoculants containing L. plantarum can be deleterious to fermentation and conservation of sugarcane silages.A utilização de silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. está aumentando no Brasil, mas a intensa produção de etanol durante a fermentação reduz a qualidade da forragem. Este experimento visou avaliar os efeitos de aditivos na fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar produzidas em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram (base matéria verde: silagem sem tratamento (controle, uréia (5,0 g kg-1, benzoato de sódio (1,0 g kg-1, sorbato de potássio (0,3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 ufc g-1 e Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64 x 10(5 ufc g-1. Aos 94 dias após a ensilagem, a concentração de

  3. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  4. Demanda de mano de obra y rentabilidad de bancos forrajeros en Esparza, Costa Rica Labor demand and profitability of fodder banks in Esparza, Costa Rica

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    Luz Yaneth Sánchez Sarmiento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En Esparza (Costa Rica se evaluó la viabilidad de invertir en bancos forrajeros (BF como alternativa de suplementación para vacas en sistema doble propósito durante la época seca (125 días. Se usaron como indicadores de rentabilidad el Valor Presente Neto (VPN y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad para el incremento del precio de la leche, los concentrados, la gallinaza y la mano de obra. Los modelos se elaboraron comparando los BF de plantas leñosas perennes de corte y acarreo de Cratylia argentea + caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum (BFC y de ramoneo Leucaena leucocephala (BFL vs. suplementos comerciales tipos concentrado y gallinaza. En los BFC se requirieron 71.1 jornales/año y el análisis financiero indicó que son rentables al compararlos con la gallinaza (VPN = US$362.2, TIR = 17% y concentrados (VPN = US$1953.9; TIR=39%. En BFL se requirieron 13 jornales/año y fueron igualmente rentables en comparación con gallinaza (VPN = US$1594.7; TIR = 21% y con concentrados (VPN = US$3619.6; TIR=35%. Los modelos fueron sensibles a la producción y cambios de precios en la leche, gallinaza, concentrados y el valor del jornal. Los BF son una buena alternativa para la suplementación de ganado en la época seca y una importante fuente de empleo en la región; sin embargo, los altos costos de la mano de obra contratada pueden limitar la adopción.We made a financial analysis in order to assess the feasibility to invest in Fodder Banks as an alternative for supplementing animals in dual purpose systems during the dry season (125 days. Models were constructed to compare cutting and carrying of perennial woody fodder banks (Veranera Cratylia argentea + sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum and browsing fodder banks of Leucaena leucocephala with two supplements: concentrates and chicken manure. The indicators used for the financial evaluation of the systems were Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Return Rate

  5. Soil change induced by the application of biodigested vinasse concentrate, and its effects on growth of sugarcane

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    Juliana Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse (or stillage is a byproduct from ethanol production, which contains organic matter, K, N, and other plant nutrients that is regularly used as soil fertilizer. However, high transportation costs limits its application in areas far from distilleries. The possibility of biogas production from vinasse, and the direct or indirect advantages of its use, is a way to reduce costs due to its concentration. Biodigested vinasse concentrate (BVC is an alkaline product that is very different from common vinasse. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of BVC with common vinasse (CV or KCl, with or without N fertilization, on soil fertility and growth and nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. plants. Plants were grown in pots containing Oxisol under different treatments and maintained for 60 d under greenhouse conditions; variables related to soil fertility, plant growth, and mineral nutrition were evaluated. It was observed that adding BVC induces higher soil pH (5.9 to 6.3 and lower potential acidity (13 to 10 mmol c dm-3 compared with KCl, and similar soil chemical changes to CV addition. Plants fertilized with BVC and N showed lower root dry matter (DM (4.02 g compared with those fertilized with KCl and CV (6.3 and 5.44 g, respectively. Plants fertilized with BVC have similar total DM (18.25 and 20.31 g accumulation and nutritional conditions compared with those fertilized with CV and KCl. Plants fertilized with BVC had the highest Na accumulation (0.36 and 0.48 g plant-1.

  6. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pene, C.B.G.

    1995-01-01

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs

  7. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  8. Soil quality indicators in a rhodic kandiudult under different uses in northern Parana, Brazil

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    Biana Harumi Kuwano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of soil, maintaining or improving its quality, is one of the goals of diversification in farmlands. From this point of view, bioindicators associated with C, N and P cycling can be used in assessments of land-use effects on soil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil associated with C, N and P under different land uses in a farm property with diversified activity in northern Parana, Brazil. Seven areas under different land uses were assessed: fragment of native Atlantic Forest; growing of peach-palm (Bactrys gasipaes; sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum officinarum recently harvested, under renewal; growing of coffee (Coffea arabica intercropped with tree species; recent reforestation (1 year with native tree species, previously under annual crops; annual crops under no-tillage, rye (Cecale cereale; secondary forest, regenerated after abandonment (for 20 years of an avocado (Persea americana orchard. The soil under coffee, recent reforestation and secondary forest showed higher concentrations of organic carbon, but microbial biomass and enzyme activities were higher in soils under native forest and secondary forest, which also showed the lowest metabolic coefficient, followed by the peach-palm area. The lowest content of water-dispersible clay was found in the soil under native forest, differing from soils under sugarcane and secondary forest. Soil cover and soil use affected total organic C contents and soil enzyme and microbial activities, such that more intensive agricultural uses had deeper impacts on the indicators assessed. Calculation of the mean soil quality index showed that the secondary forest was closest to the fragment of native forest, followed by the peach-palm area, coffee-growing area, annual crop area, the area of recent reforestation and the sugarcane ratoon area.

  9. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN SARI TEBU TERHADAP KADAR KOLESTEROL DARAH PADA MENCIT

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    Rahma Widyastuti

    2017-12-01

    abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a plant known by the public as a refreshing drink that tastes sweet and the price is quite economical and readily available. Sugarcane contains octacosanol compounds that can lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Excessive cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia a threat that is feared because as one of the causes of coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke. The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of cholesterol in mice, to analyze cholesterol levels in mice after the administration of sugar cane juice, to analyze the effect of sugar cane juice on cholesterol levels in mice. This type of research conducted by a group of experimental methods with populations of mice (Mus musculus were obtained from farms Bojonegoro. The research sample selected by criteria mice aged 2-3 months, weighing between 20-40 grams of the male sex, the amount of sample used two groups of mice, each group consisted of 16 mice. From the results of blood cholesterol levels in mice after the administration of sugar cane juice, it is known that the average cholesterol level in the control group was 148.8750 mg / dl and value - average blood cholesterol treatment group was 118.2500 mg / dl. Statistically analyzed using a paired t test t value -3.799 obtained with significant value. (p = 0.001 which is less than 0.05 then there is the effect (Ho is rejected (t = -2.040 table. So we can conclude there is the effect of sugar cane juice on blood cholesterol levels in mice. Key word : Sugarcane, blood cholesterol levels

  10. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

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    Bantong Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  11. In vitro mutagenesis and selection for salinity tolerance and other agronomic characters in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, E.R.; Patade, V.Y.; Patil, V.D.; Suprasanna, P.; Bapat, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a highly polyploid plant (2n=36-170) grown in different parts of the world from the tropics to subtropics, and accounts for around 60% of the world's sugar. It is also one of the important cash crops in many developing/developed countries, with a high trade value. In this study, in vitro mutagenesis was employed in the selection of salt tolerance in popular sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars CoC- 671, Co 86032 and Co 94012. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50). Radio sensitivity estimation indicated that 20 Gy irradiated cultures exhibited almost 50 per cent survival response. Relative growth rate and cell mass accumulation were recorded after irradiation and 30 days of post- irradiation culture. The plants regenerated from the calli irradiated at 20, 30 and 40 Gy were hardened and field planted to study their performance. The embryogenic callus cultures were also exposed to inhibitory levels of NaCl (42.8, 85.6, 128.3, 171.1, 213.9, 256.7 mM). The biochemical responses to the salt stress were studied in terms of proline, glycine betaine accumulation, membrane stability and cell viability. The variegated plants were also observed following gamma irradiation and were analyzed by different molecular markers (RAPD and Ac homologous transposons). The salt selected plants were further field evaluated and the desirable clones are now being evaluated in the second generation for their genetic stability. The proper evaluation of these induced variants with desirable traits may prove useful for cultivation under stress conditions

  12. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  13. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro . The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti- Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (Poil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti- Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo .

  14. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoë othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora vitícola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also

  15. Cell wall metabolism and hexose allocation contribute to biomass accumulation in high yielding extreme segregants of a Saccharum interspecific F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ching Man; Zhang, Jisen; Jones, Tyler C; Nagai, Chifumi; Ming, Ray

    2017-10-11

    Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield. Leaf and stem internodes of fourteen high biomass and eight low biomass F2 extreme segregants were used for RNA-seq to decipher the molecular mechanism of rapid plant growth and dry weight accumulation. Gene Ontology terms involved in cell wall metabolism and carbohydrate catabolism were enriched among 3274 differentially expressed genes between high and low biomass groups. Up-regulation of cellulose metabolism, pectin degradation and lignin biosynthesis genes were observed in the high biomass group, in conjunction with higher transcript levels of callose metabolic genes and the cell wall loosening enzyme expansin. Furthermore, UDP-glucose biosynthesis and sucrose conversion genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. A positive correlation between stem glucose, but not sucrose, levels and dry weight was detected. We thus postulated that the high biomass sugarcane plants rapidly convert sucrose to UDP-glucose, which is the building block of cell wall polymers and callose, in order to maintain the rapid plant growth. The gene interaction of cell wall metabolism, hexose allocation and cell division contributes to biomass yield.

  16. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

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    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  17. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  18. Demanda de mano de obra y rentabilidad de bancos forrajeros en Esparza, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Yaneth Sánchez Sarmiento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En Esparza (Costa Rica se evaluó la viabilidad de invertir en bancos forrajeros (BF como alternativa de suplementación para vacas en sistema doble propósito durante la época seca (125 días. Se usaron como indicadores de rentabilidad el Valor Presente Neto (VPN y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad para el incremento del precio de la leche, los concentrados, la gallinaza y la mano de obra. Los modelos se elaboraron comparando los BF de plantas leñosas perennes de corte y acarreo de Cratylia argentea + caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum (BFC y de ramoneo Leucaena leucocephala (BFL vs. suplementos comerciales tipos concentrado y gallinaza. En los BFC se requirieron 71.1 jornales/año y el análisis financiero indicó que son rentables al compararlos con la gallinaza (VPN = US$362.2, TIR = 17% y concentrados (VPN = US$1953.9; TIR=39%. En BFL se requirieron 13 jornales/año y fueron igualmente rentables en comparación con gallinaza (VPN = US$1594.7; TIR = 21% y con concentrados (VPN = US$3619.6; TIR=35%. Los modelos fueron sensibles a la producción y cambios de precios en la leche, gallinaza, concentrados y el valor del jornal. Los BF son una buena alternativa para la suplementación de ganado en la época seca y una importante fuente de empleo en la región; sin embargo, los altos costos de la mano de obra contratada pueden limitar la adopción.

  19. Protective effect of galangin in Concanavalin A- induced hepatitis in mice

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    Luo Q

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Qingqiong Luo,1,* Liping Zhu,1,* Jieying Ding,1 Xing Zhuang,1 Lili Xu,2 Fuxiang Chen1 1Department of Clinical Immunology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Galangin is an active pharmacological ingredient from propolis and Alpinia officinarum Hance, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aims to reveal the effect of galangin on Concanavalin A (ConA-induced hepatitis (CIH, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to clarify the related mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with galangin followed by ConA challenge. Results indicated that galangin inhibited ConA-induced liver damage. Mice pretreated with galangin showed more reduction of liver damage when compared with control mice pretreated with vehicle solution. In galangin-pretreated mice with induced CIH, increases in serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12 were dramatically attenuated, and chemokines and adhesion molecules like interferon inducible protein-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expressions in liver were decreased. Moreover, CIH mice pretreated with galangin showed less leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in the liver. Further, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin may be attributed to its modulation of crucial inflammatory signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B and interferon-gamma/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Collectively, these findings suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of galangin in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo. Keywords: galangin, Concanavalin A

  20. By Improving Regional Cortical Blood Flow, Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Sequential Apoptosis Galangin Acts as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent after Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Ming Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym, membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  1. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  2. Soil fungal and bacterial biomass determined by epifluorescence microscopy and mycorrhizal spore density in different sugarcane managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pereira Aleixo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity and sustainability have often been related to soil organic matter and soil microbial biomass, especially because of their role in soil nutrient cycling. This study aimed at measuring fungal and bacterial biomass by epifluorescence microscopy and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF spore density in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. fields under different managements. We collected soil samples of sugarcane fields managed with or without burning, with or without mechanized harvest, with or without application of vinasse and from nearby riparian native forest. The soil samples were collected at 10cm depth and storage at 4°C until analysis. Fungal biomass varied from 25 to 37µg C g-1 dry soil and bacterial from 178 to 263µg C g-1 dry soil. The average fungal/bacterial ratio of fields was 0.14. The AMF spore density varied from 9 to 13 spores g-1 dry soil. The different sugarcane managements did not affect AMF spore density. In general, there were no significant changes of microbial biomass with crop management and riparian forest. However, the sum of fungal and bacterial biomass measured by epifluorescence microscopy (i.e. 208-301µg C g-1 dry soil was very close to values of total soil microbial biomass observed in other studies with traditional techniques (e.g. fumigation-extraction. Therefore, determination of fungal/bacterial ratios by epifluorescence microscopy, associated with other parameters, appears to be a promising methodology to understand microbial functionality and nutrient cycling under different soil and crop managements.

  3. Estrategias metodológicas para el análisis de la reconversión y diversificación productiva de regiones cañeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El azúcar ha sido el principal producto comercial de la caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum. La producción del edulcorante en México depende de tres factores: a cantidad y calidad de caña de azúcar industrializada; b rendimiento de la fábrica; y c capacidad instalada y de molienda de ingenios azucareros. Sin embargo, el análisis de factores de producción que afectan su competitividad (productividad y capacidad de diversificación se ha llevado a cabo sin considerar la distribución espacial y temporal, aptitud agroecológica de las regiones cañeras y factores limitantes socioeconómicos. Este trabajo identificó mediante el método multicriterio AHP (Jerarquías analíticas en sistemas de información geográfica y técnicas participativas, como herramientas para el análisis de sistemas complejos, donde los factores clave Aptitud agroclimática al cultivo de caña de azúcar; Rendimiento de campo; y Tamaño de la unidad de producción explican el 78 % del potencial de regiones cañeras para establecer proyectos de diversificación y/o reconversión productiva. Sin embargo, para los productores cañeros la diversificación es un tema conocido, pero poco atractivo.

  4. By improving regional cortical blood flow, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis galangin acts as a potential neuroprotective agent after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Wu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jian; Fang, Jing; Li, Defeng; Fu, Meihong; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Hongjun

    2012-11-09

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF) were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym), membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  5. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez José Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m2 cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  6. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  7. Comparison of carbon sequestration potential in agricultural and afforestation farming systems

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    Chinsu Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, many forests have been cut down to make room for cultivation and to increase food or energy crops production in developing countries. In this study, carbon sequestration and wood production were evaluated on afforested farms by integrating the Gaussian diameter distribution model and exponential diameter-height model derived from sample plots of an afforested hardwood forest in Taiwan. The quantity of sequestrated carbon was determined based on aboveground biomass. Through pilot tests run on an age-volume model, an estimation bias was obtained and used to correct predicted volume estimates for a farm forest over a 20-year period. An estimated carbon sequestration of 11,254 t C was observed for a 189ha-hardwood forest which is equivalent to 41,264 t CO2. If this amount of carbon dioxide were exchanged on the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX market, the income earned would be 821 US$ ha- 1. Carbon sequestration from rice (Oryza sativa or sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum production is discharged as a result of straw decomposition in the soil which also improves soil quality. Sugarcane production does not contribute significantly to carbon sequestration, because almost all the cane fiber is used as fuel for sugar mills. As a result of changing the farming systems to hardwood forest in this study area, carbon sequestration and carbon storage have increased at the rate of 2.98 t C ha- 1 year- 1. Net present value of afforestation for a 20-year period of carbon or wood management is estimated at around US$ 30,000 given an annual base interest rate of 3 %.

  8. Modeling of phosphorus loads in sugarcane in a low-relief landscape using ontology-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho-Young; Grunwald, Sabine; Beck, Howard W; Jung, Yunchul; Daroub, Samira H; Lang, Timothy A; Morgan, Kelly T

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and P dynamics in a low-relief landscape manipulated by extensive canal and ditch drainage systems were modeled utilizing an ontology-based simulation model. In the model, soil water flux and processes between three soil inorganic P pools (labile, active, and stable) and organic P are represented as database objects. And user-defined relationships among objects are used to automatically generate computer code (Java) for running the simulation of discharge and P loads. Our objectives were to develop ontology-based descriptions of soil P dynamics within sugarcane- (Saccharum officinarum L.) grown farm basins of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) and to calibrate and validate such processes with water quality monitoring data collected at one farm basin (1244 ha). In the calibration phase (water year [WY] 99-00), observed discharge totaled 11,114 m3 ha(-1) and dissolved P 0.23 kg P ha(-1); and in the validation phase (WY 02-03), discharge was 10,397 m3 ha(-1) and dissolved P 0.11 kg P ha(-). During WY 99-00 the root mean square error (RMSE) for monthly discharge was 188 m3 ha(-1) and for monthly dissolved P 0.0077 kg P ha(-1); whereas during WY 02-03 the RMSE for monthly discharge was 195 m3 ha(-1) and monthly dissolved P 0.0022 kg P ha(-1). These results were confirmed by Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of 0.69 (calibration) and 0.81 (validation) comparing measured and simulated P loads. The good model performance suggests that our model has promise to simulate P dynamics, which may be useful as a management tool to reduce P loads in other similar low-relief areas.

  9. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  10. Demanda de mano de obra y rentabilidad de bancos forrajeros en Esparza, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Sarmiento Luz Yaneth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En Esparza (Costa Rica se evaluó la viabilidad de invertir en bancos forrajeros (BF como alternativa de suplementación para vacas en sistema doble propósito durante la época seca (125 días. Se usaron como indicadores de rentabilidad el Valor Presente Neto (VPN y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad para el incremento del precio de la leche, los concentrados, la gallinaza y la mano de obra. Los modelos se elaboraron comparando los BF de plantas leñosas perennes de corte y acarreo de Cratylia argentea + caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum (BFC y de ramoneo Leucaena leucocephala (BFL vs. suplementos comerciales tipos concentrado y gallinaza. En los BFC se requirieron 71.1 jornales/año y el análisis financiero indicó que son rentables al compararlos con la gallinaza (VPN = US$362.2, TIR = 17% y concentrados (VPN = US$1953.9; TIR=39%. En BFL se requirieron 13 jornales/año y fueron igualmente rentables en comparación con gallinaza (VPN = US$1594.7; TIR = 21% y con concentrados (VPN = US$3619.6; TIR=35%. Los modelos fueron sensibles a la producción y cambios de precios en la leche, gallinaza, concentrados y el valor del jornal. Los BF son una buena alternativa para la suplementación de ganado en la época seca y una importante fuente de empleo en la región; sin embargo, los altos costos de la mano de obra contratada pueden limitar la adopción.

  11. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  12. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency due to differences in photosynthetic capacity among sugarcane-related clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjia; Jackson, Phillip; Lu, Xin; Xu, Chaohua; Cai, Qing; Basnayake, Jayapathi; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Ghannoum, Oula; Fan, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity. A secondary goal was to define protocols for optimized larger-scale screening of germplasm collections. Genotypic variation in TEi was attributed to significant variation in both stomatal and photosynthetic components. A number of genotypes were found to possess high TEi as a result of high photosynthetic capacity. This trait combination is expected to be of significant breeding value. It was determined that a small number of observations (16) is sufficient for efficiently screening TEi in larger populations of sugarcane genotypes The research methodology and results reported are encouraging in supporting a larger-scale screening and introgression of high transpiration efficiency in sugarcane breeding. However, further research is required to quantify narrow sense heritability as well as the leaf-to-field translational potential of genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency-related traits observed in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. ESTIMULACIÓN CON CAMPO ELECTROMAGNÉTICO VARIABLE DE MICROORGANISMOS BENÉFICOS APLICADOS A LA CACHAZA PARA MEJORAR SU USO COMO BIOFERTILIZANTE ESTIMULAÇÃO COM VARIÁVEL DO CAMPO ELETROMAGNÉTICO BENÉFICOS UTILIZADOS MICRORGANISMOS PARA MELHORAR O CACHAÇA USE COMO BIOFERTILIZANTES ESTIMULATION WITH A VARIABLE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD OF BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS APPLIED TO SUGARCANE BAGASSE TO ENHANCE THEIR USE AS BIOFERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ZÚÑIGA E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de acelerar la acción dinámica de los microorganismos benéficos estimulándolos electromagnéticamente para descomponer las moléculas complejas del material orgánico de la cachaza (subproducto de la caña de azúcar Saccharum officinarum L. a sustancias más simples, facilitando la absorción de elementos hacia la planta, se evaluó la eficiencia productiva y el grado de descomposición orgánica de los siguientes tratamientos: cachaza fresca sin microorganismos (F, cachaza fresca con microorganismos no estimulados electromagnéticamente (FM, cachaza fresca con microorganismos estimulados electromagnéticamente (FME y cachaza madura sin microorganismos (C, se optimizó la configuración del equipo de estimulación electromagnética obteniéndose como mejor tratamiento el (FME con 1 hora en tiempo de exposición de los microorganismos al campo electromagnético, de 250 Hz en frecuencia, y 15 mT de magnitud del campo electromagnético, el cual aceleró el proceso natural de descomposición orgánica en un 49,1% de la cachaza fresca al aproximarla al grado de mineralización de la cachaza madura, lo cual mostró la efectividad de la técnica electromagnética.A fim de acelerar a ação dinâmica de estimulação eletromagnética microrganismos benéficos para quebrar moléculas complexas de matéria orgânica da torta (subproduto da cana-de-açúcar Saccharum officinarum L. a substâncias mais simples, facilitando a absorção da planta para, avaliou a eficiência da produção e do grau de decomposição orgânica dos seguintes tratamentos: rum fresco sem microrganismos (F, o rum fresco eletromagneticamente estimulados com microrganismos (FM, rum fresco com microrganismos estimulada electromagnéticos (FME e maduros sem microrganismos rum (C foi otimizado configurações equipamentos de estimulação eletromagnética melhor tratamento obtido como (FME, com 1 hora de tempo de exposição dos microrganismos ao campo eletromagn

  14. AISLAMIENTO Y CONTROL MICROBIOLÓGICO DE Leuconostoc mesenteroides, EN UN INGENIO PARA OPTIMIZAR EL RENDIMIENTO DE AZÚCAR Y ETANOL ISOLAMENTO E Leuconostoc Mesenteroides CONTROLE MICROBIOLÓGICO EM UM TALENTO PARA OTIMIZAR O DESEMPENHO DE AÇÚCAR E ETANOL ISOLATION AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF Leuconostoc mesenteroides, IN TO SUGAR REFINERY TO OPTIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR AND ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL A CUERVO MULET

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L es exprimida para obtener su jugo que después de ser purificado y neutralizado, deja cristalizar el azúcar. Considerando la importancia que representa la caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera, se hace necesario incrementar el contenido de sacarosa libre de dextrana (destrucción de sacarosa causada por la acción de microorganismos acompañantes de la caña, siendo uno de los más importantes Leuconostoc mesenteroides. En este trabajo de investigación se determinó la inhibición de la bacteria ácido-láctica L mesenteroides aislada en un ingenio azucarero del Valle del Cauca mediante la utilización de microorganismos antagonistas. Para esto, se realizaron aislamientos y cultivos de L. mesenteroides provenientes del jugo de la caña y se realizaron las diferentes pruebas bioquímicas y microbiológicas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y la identificación de las cepas tanto de Leuconostoc mesenteroides, como las cepas bacterianas antagonistas a ella. Se comprobó que las cepas de los hongos Metharhizium anisopliae y Trichoderma sp, fueron las más eficientes en el control de crecimiento de L mesenteroides, mostrando significativamente un mayor porcentaje de inhibición en comparación de los hongos filamentosos Colletotrichum sp, Thichoderma viridae, Rhizoctonia sp y las bacterias Bacillus subtilis y Serratia marcenses y las levaduras Rhodothorula Rubra y Kloeckera japónica, no presentaron inhibición del crecimiento de Lmesenteroides. Además, se identificó a los hongos Aspergillus sp, Botrytis sp y Streptomyces sp como antagonistas naturales y habituales presentes en el jugo de caña de los Ingenios.Cana (Saccharum officinarum L é comprimida para que seu suco depois de ser purificada e neutralizado, permitiu a cristalizar o açúcar. Considerando a importancia de representar a cana para a indústria de açúcar é necessária para melhorar o conteúdo de sacarose, dextrana livre

  15. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  16. Fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares em rizosferas de plantas em dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo, Brasil: (1 Taxonomia Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from rhizospheres of dunes plants of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil (1: taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. B Trufem

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available De março/1988 a março/1989, mensalmente, foram coletadas o total de 450 amostras de solo de rizosferas de plantas de dunas do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Estado de Sáo Paulo, com a finalidade de se verificar a ocorrência de fungos micorrízicos vesículo-arbusculares (MVA. As plantas mais constantemente investigadas foram: Baccharis trimera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hü. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub. (Legurninosae, Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. (Umbelliferae,Ipomoeapes-caprae (L.Sweet(Convolvulaceae, Polygaid cyparisseas St. Hül & Moq. (Polygalaceae, além de gramíneas, ciperáceas e outras, que foram coletadas mais esporadicamente. O solo foi tratado pela técnica de decantação e peneiramento em via úmida. Foram verificados 14 taxons de fungos MVA: Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe, Acaulospora tuberculata Janos & Trappe, Cigaspora gigantea (Nicol. & Gerd. Gerd. & Trappe, Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, Glomus globiferum Koske & Walker, Glomus monosporum Gerd. & Trappe, Sclerocystis sinuosa Gerd. & Bakshi, Scutellospora calospora (Nicol & Gerd Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora coralloidea (Trappe, Gerd. & Ho (Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gilmorei (Trappe & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora gregaria (Schenck & Nicol. Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora pérsica (Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders, Scutellospora verrucosa Koske & Walker Walker & Sanders e Scutellospora sp. São apresentadas descrições taxonómicas, comentarios e murônimos dos taxons verificados.Monthly, from March/1988 to March/1989 were collected the total of 450 soil samples from rhizospheres of plants from dunes of Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, São Paulo State, Brazil, to report the occurrence of VANÍ fungus. The investigated plants were: Baccharis trímera DC. (Compositae, Blutaparon portulacoides (St. Hil. Mears (Amaranthaceae, Dalbergia hecastaphylla (L. Taub

  17. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  18. Geração de imagem georreferenciada do município de Santa Maria utilizando imagem de satélite e sistemas de informações geográficas Generation of georreferenced image of Santa Maria county utilizing satellite image and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís Piroli

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Sensoriamento Remoto e Geoprocessamento, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, tendo como objetivo a criação de uma imagem georreferenciada do Município de Santa Maria - RS. Foram utilizados para o seu desenvolvimento os sistemas de informações geográficas IDRISI e SITER e imagens do satélite Landsat 5 - TM. Os procedimentos para a obtenção da imagem georreferenciada foram basicamente de elaboração de composição falsa-cor, georreferência e corte da área abrangida pelo Município de Santa Maria. Os aplicativos SIG utilizados e as imagens de satélite foram suficientes e eficazes para a elaboração de imagem georreferenciada do município de Santa Maria.This work was developed at the laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geoprocessing of Department of Rural Engineering of University Federal of Santa Maria, had as objective the creation of a georreferenced image of Santa Maria county - RS. Made possible the development through the associated by the digital Landsat 5 - TM and they Geographic Information System IDRISI and SITER. The proceedings to again imagery georeferenced were elaborated from the color compositae, georreferencing techniques and the out line municipality boundary. The softwares GIS and the satellite image utilized were effective to reach the main goal of this work.

  19. Influence of elevated radionuclide contamination on Natural Plant Polessky State Radioecological Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, V.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1998-01-01

    A group of meadow dominants was selected - representatives of the families Gramineae, Compositae, Primulaceae, Rosaceae, in which the 137 Cs migration from soil to overgrown phytomass relates closely with the sum of atmospheric precipitations. The fact has to be taken into account that in the conditions of chronic irradiation, the vegetation of the majority of meadow dominants (representatives of families of Gramineae and Leguminosae) is completed by the formation of valued seed posterity able to produce a new generation. The radiological situation in meadow grassland was evaluated in the territory of the Polessky State Radioecological Reserve. In a 9-year population monitoring experiment it was found that the radiosensitivity of different plants species was different due to the different specificity of the genetic systems and bioecological peculiarities of the species. The plant species with a narrow ecological amplitude, high ploidy, apomictic breeding are the most radiosensitive, as well as the plants which grow in Southern Belarus as a limit of their natural dissemination. Decrease in number was noted for the majority of such species, or elimination from plants communities. The anthropogenic load removal from the evacuation territories followed by the radical phytocenoses reconstruction is of ecological significance as the ionising radiation effect. It may be inferred that long-time chronic action of radionuclides on plants in the fallout zone will depend on specific features of their accumulation by some plant species, the age related radiosensitivity and some other factors, associated with their growing conditions such as soil types, forms of radionuclide fallout, chemical and physical effect

  20. Photo-patch and patch tests in patients with dermatitis over the photo-exposed areas: A study of 101 cases from a tertiary care centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Bhari, Neetu; Wadhwani, Ashok Roopchand; Bhatia, Riti

    2018-02-01

    Many patients with dermatitis over photo-exposed body areas are positive to many contact allergens and have a pre-existing allergic contact dermatitis. This study included patients who presented to a tertiary centre in India with dermatitis on photo-exposed body areas suspected of chronic actinic dermatitis. Their detailed histories were recorded and cutaneous and systemic examinations were performed. Patch testing was done in all the patients and photo-patch testing was carried out in 86 patients. Altogether 101 patients were included (69 males, 32 females). The most common presentation was lichenified hyperpigmented plaques on the photo-exposed sites. Photosensitivity was recorded in 64 (63%) patients and summer exacerbation in 52 (52%). Exposure to the Parthenium hysterophorus weed was recorded in 70 (69%) patients, 27 (26.7%) had a history of hair dye application and 20 (20%) had a history of atopy. Photo-patch test was positive in 11 (12.8%) patients and patch testing was positive in 71 (70%). Parthenium hysterophorus was the most common allergen implicated and was positive in three (4%) photo-patch and 52 (52%) patch tests. Other positive photo-patch test allergens were perfume mix, balsam of Peru, thiuram mix, Compositae mix and promethazine hydrochloride. Other common patch test allergens were parthenolide, colophony, fragrance mix and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) base. In the Indian population parthenium and perfume mix are the most common photoallergens in patients with dermatitis over photo-exposed areas, while parthenium, colophony, fragrance mix and PPD are the common positive allergens. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    1998-01-01

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  2. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  3. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Lu; Liu, Ke

    2009-04-21

    Arctigenin, a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) which has been widely used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for dispelling wind and heat included in Chinese Pharmacophere, was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities but its molecular mechanism remains unknown yet. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells were used for the experiments. Griess assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was used to determine the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was tested by colorimetric method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. Arctigenin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, including TNF-alpha and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also strongly inhibited the expression of iNOS and iNOS enzymatic activity, whereas the expression of COX-2 and COX-2 enzymatic activity were not affected by arctigenin. These results indicated that potent inhibition on NO, TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not COX-2 expression and COX-2 activity, might constitute the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Arctigenin suppressed the overproduction of NO through down-regulation of iNOS expression and iNOS enzymatic activity in LPS-stimulated macrophage.

  4. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  5. Genetic Changes in Stevia rebaudiana after Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro propagated plantlets of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni J.were irradiated with doses 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy. Irradiated plantlets exhibited changes in electrophoretic profile of proteins, there were some new bands induced with molecular weight of 100, 45, 32, and 30 kDa. In some treatments and some other bands disappeared such as the 205 and 100 kDa bands form plantlets treated with 10 Gy. Isoenzyme were also examined, esterase isozyme, isopolyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalse, acid phosphatase and peroxidase isozyme also altered by treatments. RAPD analysis was performed to determine the effect of gamma-irradiation on DNA changes. Polymorphisms between regenerates from non-irradiated and irradiated plantlets were found. The scope of variation spectrum by gamma-irradiation was larger than that by tissue culture. All the primers used produced polymorphic bands. Six primers generated 129.0 RAPD markers, among which 49.0 (37.98%) were polymorphic, with a mean of 8.17 pol morphisms per primer. The results showed that gamma-irradiation induced changes in plantlets that can be detected by molecular and biochemical markers. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Stevia is a member of the Compositae family and native to the valley of the Rio Monday in the highlands of Paraguay, where it has been used by aboriginal people as a sweetener for centuries. It is one of 154 members of the genus Stevia and one of only two that produce sweet steviol glycosides. Stevioside has a sweetening potency of 200-300 times that of sucrose and it is stable to heat (Soejarto et a/., 1982 and 1983 and Lewis, 1992). The leaves were used either to sweeten mate or as a general sweetening agent. Currently Stevia production is centred in China and there is a major market in Japan (Kinghorn and Soejarto 1985)

  6. Scelte di prodotto e processo nelle organizzazioni museali d’impresa. Un’indagine empirica: il Museo Storico Perugina / Product and process decisions in corporate museums. An empirical investigation: the Perugina Historical Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Montella

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’indagine empirica sul Museo Storico Perugina, significativo caso di museo d’impresa, mostra che rispetto ai musei pubblici, che pure hanno per mission la creazione di valore per la generalità dei cittadini, quelli d’impresa forniscono normalmente un servizio meglio capace di intercettare un’audience ampia e composita e di raggiungere buoni livelli di customer satisfaction. Ciò deriva proprio dal fatto che questi sono finalizzati a creare valore per l’impresa e che, pertanto, si interessano alla valorizzazione e non solo alla conservazione degli oggetti che espongono, prestando attenzione alle aspettative e alle capacità della domanda, alla cultura del servizio e all’implementazione di un efficace marketing relazionale. Ma per cogliere pienamente gli obiettivi d’impresa ad essi assegnati, necessiterebbero delle ulteriori e molteplici innovazioni di prodotto e di processo che questo lavoro si propone di indicare. The empirical investigation of a significant case of a company museum, the Historical Museum Perugina, shows that compared to public museums, which also have as its mission the creation of value for the majority of citizens, those corporate normally provide a service better able to intercept a large and heterogeneous audience and achieve good levels of customer satisfaction. This stems from the fact that they are designed to create value for the company and that, therefore, are interested not only to the enhancement and conservation of objects that exhibit, paying attention to the expectations and capabilities of the demand,the service culture and the implementation of an effective relationship marketing. But tofully grasp the business objectives assigned to them, they would need further and various product and process innovations that this work aims to indicate.

  7. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine.

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    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa

    2016-03-08

    Plants have been the primary source of medicines since life on earth; more than 50 % of existing cancer treatments are derived from plants. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used in cancer treatment was carried out in the West Bank/ Palestine. A questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and fifty herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. Collected information included the names of plants, the used parts, types of cancers for which these plants were used and also their methods of preparation. To identify the most important species used, Factor of informant's consensus (F(ic)), Fidelity level (Fl) and the Use-value (UV) were calculated. Collected data has shown that 72 plants are utilized for treatment of cancer, belonging to 44 families; from them Compositae and Lamiaceae were the most common. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts, while decoctions, infusions and syrups were the main methods of preparation. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. The Fic was high for all the plants; Fl was 100% for many plants, the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. This study showed that many herbal remedies are still used by herbalists in Palestine for treatment of cancer; some of them have been approved scientifically while others are not. A combined effort between informants and scientific institutions working in this field can help in the discovery of new anticancer agents. Moreover, scientists must explore the most suitable method of extraction, formulation and dose determination in order to achieve the best benefits from these herbals.

  9. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  10. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  11. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of Sardinian wild thistles (Onopordum spp.) inhibit TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-κB pathway in human gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Arianna; Fumagalli, Marco; Sanna, Cinzia; Maxia, Andrea; Piazza, Stefano; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2018-01-10

    Thistles species (Family: Compositae) are traditionally used in the Mediterranean area, particularly in Sardinia. They are usually gathered from the wild and used for both food and therapeutic purposes, including gastrointestinal disorders. This work aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of eight wild thistles from Sardinia, in an in vitro model of gastric inflammation, and to identify the major active compounds in the extracts. The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial part of each species was prepared. After the induction of inflammation by the addition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (10ng/mL), AGS cells were treated with extracts/pure compounds under study. The inhibition of interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, IL-8 and NF-κB promoter activities and NF-κB nuclear translocation were evaluated. Extracts main components were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS. Only Onopordum horridum Viv. and Onopordum illyricum L. hydro-alcoholic extracts reduced, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells AGS. The effect was partially due to the NF-κB pathway impairment. Onopordum hydro-alcoholic extracts were also chemically profiled, and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the main compounds identified in the extract. Further investigations showed that 3,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid highly inhibited IL-8 secretion in AGS cells (IC 50 0.65μM), thus suggesting that this compound contributed, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity elicited by O. illyricum extracts. Our results suggest that Onopordum species may exert beneficial effects against gastric inflammatory diseases. Thus, these wild plants deserve further investigations as preventive or co-adjuvant agents in gastric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  13. Origin and paleoenvironment of Pleistocene-Holocene Travertine deposit from the Mbéré sedimentary sub-basin along the Central Cameroon shear zone: Insights from petrology and palynology and evidence for neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Njoya, André; Ganno, Sylvestre; Toyama, Réné; Ngouem, Paul Aubin; Njiké Ngaha, Pierre Ricard

    2016-06-01

    The Mbéré sub-basin belongs to the Mbéré-Djerem intra-continental basin of Central North Cameroon. In this sub-basin, a travertine outcrop has been discovered and investigated palynologically and petrologically in this study. The sporopollinic content of the studied travertine is mainly composed of fungal spores (Rhyzophagites sp., Monoporisporites sp …) associated with rare fresh water algae spores such as Chomotriletes minor and angiosperm pollens (compositae, graminae, …). This sporopollinic association is indicative of hot and semi-arid to arid paleoclimate and reveals a Pleistocene-Holocene depositional age. The whole rock major element geochemistry shows relative enrichment of CaO (49.48%) and CO2 (38.49%). The origin of CO2 is probably from magmatic and/or metamorphic fluids. Compared to other travertines, SiO2 and Al2O3 contents are significant with average concentrations of 5.68% and 2.58% respectively. The mineralogical composition revealed by a microscopic study of bulk rocks is dominated by calcite (90-92%) associated to quartz (2-4%) and feldspar (2-3%), meanwhile the heavy mineral concentrate is formed by various mineral types such as zircon (most abundant), garnet, tourmaline, epidote, biotite, peridot and aegirine augite suggesting that the underground water has crossed both volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rocks. With the mineral composition made of both chemical and detrital derived elements, the Mbéré travertine corresponds to chemico-lithoclastic/detrital limestone. In the Mbéré trough, numerous thermo-mineral springs are located along major fractures and faults. This result suggests that the Mbéré travertine deposit is related to the rising of deep water with the help of a fracturing system, similar to those of Irdi (Morocco), Italy and Turkey where there is much volcanism.

  14. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae, and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  15. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  16. Bee pollen: a dangerous food for allergic children. Identification of responsible allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Muñoz, M F; Bartolome, B; Caminoa, M; Bobolea, I; Ara, M C Garcia; Quirce, S

    2010-01-01

    Bee pollen has been proposed as a food supplement, but it can be a dangerous food for people with allergy. We study an allergic reaction after ingestion of bee pollen in a 4-year-old boy who had developed rhinitis in the last spring and autumn. We performed a prick-by-prick test with bee pollen and skin prick tests with the most important local pollens, house dust mites, common fungi, and animal danders. The levels of serum tryptase, serum total IgE and specific IgE against bee venom and local pollen extracts were determined. The composition of the bee pollen was analysed and SDS-PAGE immunoblotting and blotting-inhibition were carried out. Prick tests were positive to bee pollen and all local pollens extracts and negative to any other allergen sources. The bee pollen sample contained pollens from Quercus genus, and Asteraceae (Compositae) and Rosaceae families. Total IgE was 435 kU/l. Serum specific IgE to bee pollen was 6 kU/l and greater than 0.35 kU/L against pollens from Artemisia vulgaris, Taraxacum officinalis, Cupressus arizonica, Olea europaea, Platanus acerifolia and Lolium perenne as well as to n Art v 1 and other pollen marker allergens. Tryptase level was 3.5 mcg/mL. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting-inhibition points to Asteraceae pollen as the possible cause of the allergic reaction. Foods derived from bees can be dangerous to people with allergy to pollen. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano

    2013-05-20

    The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.

  18. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

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    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  19. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  20. Cytogenetic Studies on Sativa Rebounded Produced by Tissue Culture and Affected by GAMMA Rays and Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a plant which produces a variety of high-potency, low-calorie sweetener in its leaf tissue (Jarma et al ., 2006). The leaves of this plant contain sweet diterpene glucosides; rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, stevioside and dulcoside. Stevioside is about 110 to 270 times sweeter than sucrose, while rebaudioside A is 150 to 320 times sweeter than sucrose (Yao et al., 1999). The leaves also produce biologically active substances, e.g. flavonoids, coumarins, cinnamic acids and essential oil (Dzyuba, 1998). (Lobov and Yurtaeva, 2002) showed that diterpenoid glycosides from leaves of S. rebaudiana were the most promising non-sugar sweeteners of plant origin for food and pharmaceutical industries to overcome the problem of human diseases related to disorders of carbon metabolism. The sweetener from leaves has a good taste and is suitable for use in food products as chocolates, marmalades, biscuits, ice-cream, sweets, juices, beverages and candy. The dried leaves could be mixed within the tea packages to reduce the consumption of sugar. The stevioside does not induce tooth decay could safely by used by diabetic patients and could be used in the low caloric diets to reduce human body weight without side effects for these reasons many countries are now using this plant to produce a larger portion of their sugar consumption (El-Zifzafi, 2003). Stevia, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small herbaceous plant (2 n = 22). It is a member of compositae family (Yao et al., 1999). Estimates of total number of species in this genus ranges from 150 to 300 . Stevia rebaudiana is one of the species of the genus stevia, which includes S.eupatoria, S.purpurea and S .serrata (Lisitsin and kovalev, 2000).