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Sample records for pilocarpine-induced experimental epilepsy

  1. Up-regulated BAFF and BAFF receptor expression in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model.

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    Ma, Limin; Li, Ruohan; Huang, Hao; Yuan, Jinxian; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Yu, Xinyuan; Liu, Xi; Chen, Yangmei

    2017-05-01

    Some studies have suggested that BAFF and BAFFR are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory and immune associated diseases. However, whether BAFF and BAFFR are involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression of BAFF and BAFFR proteins in the brains of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of TLE to identify possible roles of the BAFF-BAFFR signaling pathway in epileptogenesis. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot, immunohistochemistry, and double-immunofluorescence were performed in this study. The results showed that BAFF and BAFFR expression levels were markedly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. Moreover, BAFF and BAFFR proteins mainly highly expressed in the membranes and cytoplasms of the dendritic marker MAP2 in the cortex and hippocampus. Therefore, the significant increased in BAFF and BAFFR protein expression in both TLE patients and rats suggest that BAFF and BAFFR may play important roles in regulating the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Up-regulated ephrinB3/EphB3 expression in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pilocarpine induced experimental epilepsy rat model.

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    Huang, Hao; Li, Ruohan; Yuan, Jinxian; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-05-15

    EphB family receptor tyrosine kinases, in cooperation with cell surface-bound ephrinB ligands, play a critical role in maintenance of dendritic spine morphogenesis, axons guidance, synaptogenesis, synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the expression pattern of ephrinB/EphB in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the underlying molecular mechanisms during epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ephrinB/EphB in intractable TLE patients and lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced TLE rats using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Compared to control groups, ephrinB3 and EphB3 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats, while the mRNA expression trend of ephrinB1/2 and EphB1/2/4/6 in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats were inconsistent. Western blot analysis and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that ephrinB3 and EphB3 protein level were up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. At the same time, double-labeled immunofluorescence indicate that ephrinB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm and protrusions of glia and neurons, while EphB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. Taken together, up-regulated expression of ephrinB3/EphB3 in intractable TLE patients and experimental TLE rats suggested that ephrinB3/EphB3 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

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    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  4. Effect of Naringenin (A naturally occurring flavanone) Against Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus and Oxidative Stress in Mice

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    Shakeel, Sheeba; Rehman, Muneeb U.; Tabassum, Nahida; Amin, Umar; Mir, Manzoor ur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy. Methodology: Epilepsy was induced by giving pilocarpine (300mg/kg) and sodium valproate (300mg/kg) was given as standard anti-epileptic drug Pilocarpine was administered (300 mg /kg body weight) intraperitoneally to the mice on 15th day while naringenin was administered orally (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days prior to administration of pilocarpine. Results: The intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine enhanced lipid peroxidation, caused reduction in antioxidant enzymes, viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. Treatment of mice orally with naringenin (20 mg/kg body weight and 40 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation. There was significant recovery of glutathione content and all the antioxidant enzymes studied. Also in case of behavioural parameters studied, naringenin showed decrease in seizure severity. All these changes were supported by histological observations, which revealed excellent improvement in neuronal damage. Conclusion: The higher dose of naringenin was more potent in our study and was comparable to the standard drug (sodium valproate) in effectiveness. SUMMARY Naringenin ameliorated the development of ROS formation in hippocamus.Naringenin helped in recovery of antioxidant enzymes.Naringenin decreased seizure severity.Naringenin treatment

  5. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

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    Netopilova, M; Drsata, J [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Haugvicova, R; Kubova, H; Mares, P [Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using {sup 14}C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  6. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netopilova, M.; Drsata, J.; Haugvicova, R.; Kubova, H.; Mares, P.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using 14 C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of 14 CO 2 radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  7. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats.

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    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-02-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients.

  8. The pilocarpine model of epilepsy: what have we learned?

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    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The systemic administration of a potent muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in rats promotes sequential behavioral and electrographic changes that can be divided into 3 distinct periods: (a an acute period that built up progressively into a limbic status epilepticus and that lasts 24 h, (b a silent period with a progressive normalization of EEG and behavior which varies from 4 to 44 days, and (c a chronic period with spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs. The main features of the SRSs observed during the long-term period resemble those of human complex partial seizures and recurs 2-3 times per week per animal. Therefore, the pilocarpine model of epilepsy is a valuable tool not only to study the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy in human condition, but also to evaluate potential antiepileptogenic drugs. This review concentrates on data from pilocarpine model of epilepsy.A administração sistêmica do potente agonista muscarínico pilocarpina em ratos promove alterações comportamentais e eletrográficas que podem ser divididas em três períodos distintos: (a período agudo o animal evolui progressivamente para o status epilepticus, que perdura por até 24h; (b período silencioso, caracterizado pela normalização progressiva do comportamento e do EEG e pode ter uma duração de 4 a 44 dias; período crônico, aparecimento de crises epilépticas espontâneas e recorrentes (SRSs. As características das SRSs observadas nos animas durante o período crônico são semelhantes às crises parciais complexas dos seres humanos e recorrem de 2-3 vezes por semana/animal. Além disso, o modelo de epilepsia induzido pela pilocarpina é válido não somente para se estudar a patogênese da epilepsia do lobo temporal em humanos como também para se testar a viabilidade de drogas antiepilépticas. Esse artigo de revisão aborda diversos aspectos do modelo de epilepsia induzido pela pilocarpina.

  9. Activation of LILRB2 signal pathway in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and in a pilocarpine induced epilepsy model.

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    Yue, Jiong; Li, Wei; Liang, Chao; Chen, Bing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lukang; Zang, Zhenle; Yu, Sixun; Liu, Shiyong; Li, Song; Yang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) (the murine homolog gene called paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B, or PirB), participates in the process of synaptic plasticity and neurite growth in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a potential role of LILRB2 in epilepsy. However, the expression pattern of LILRB2 and the downstream molecular signal in intractable TLE remains poorly understood. In the present study, western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that LILRB2 expression was upregulated in the temporal neocortex of patients with TLE. Moreover, protein levels of LILRB2 negatively correlated with the frequency of seizures in TLE patients. In the pilocarpine-induced C57BL/6 mouse model, PirB upregulation in the hippocampus began 12h after status epilepticus (SE), reached a peak at 7days and then maintained a significantly high level until day 60. Similarly, we found a remarkable increase in PirB expression at 1day, 7days and30days post-SE in the temporal cortex. Double-labeled immunofluorescence showed that LILRB2/PirB were highly expressed in neurons and astrocytes but not microglia. In addition, protein levels of POSH, SHROOM3, ROCK1 and ROCK2, the important downstream factors of the LILRB2 pathway, were significantly increased in the epileptic foci of TLE patients and located on the NeuN-positive neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that LILRB2/PirB may be involved in the process of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats involves ischemic and excitotoxic mechanisms.

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    Paolo Francesco Fabene

    Full Text Available The neuron loss characteristic of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy patients is thought to be the result of excitotoxic, rather than ischemic, injury. In this study, we assessed changes in vascular structure, gene expression, and the time course of neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex during the acute period after onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE. Immediately after 2 hr SE, the subgranular layers of somatosensory cortex exhibited a reduced vascular perfusion indicative of ischemia, whereas the immediately adjacent supragranular layers exhibited increased perfusion. Subgranular layers exhibited necrotic pathology, whereas the supergranular layers were characterized by a delayed (24 h after SE degeneration apparently via programmed cell death. These results indicate that both excitotoxic and ischemic injuries occur during pilocarpine-induced SE. Both of these degenerative pathways, as well as the widespread and severe brain damage observed, should be considered when animal model-based data are compared to human pathology.

  11. Muscarinic excitation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons contributes to the severity of pilocarpine-induced seizures

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    Yi, Feng; DeCan, Evan; Stoll, Kurt; Marceau, Eric; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective A common rodent model in epilepsy research employs the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist pilocarpine, yet the mechanisms underlying the induction of pilocarpine-induced seizures (PISs) remain unclear. Global M1 mAChR (M1R) knockout mice are resistant to PISs, implying that M1R activation disrupts excitation/inhibition balance. Parvalbumin-positive (PV) inhibitory neurons express M1 mAChRs, participate in cholinergically-induced oscillations, and can enter a state of depolarization block (DB) during epileptiform activity. Here, we test the hypothesis that pilocarpine activation of M1Rs expressed on PV cells contributes to PISs. Methods CA1 PV cells in PV-CRE mice were visualized with a floxed YFP or hM3Dq-mCherry adeno-associated virus, or by crossing PV-CRE mice with the RosaYFP reporter line. To eliminate M1Rs from PV cells, we generated PV-M1KO mice by crossing PV-CRE and floxed M1 mice. Action potential (AP) frequency was monitored during application of pilocarpine (200 µM). In behavioral experiments, locomotion and seizure symptoms were recorded in WT or PV-M1KO mice during PISs. Results Pilocarpine significantly increased AP frequency in CA1 PV cells into the gamma range. In the continued presence of pilocarpine, a subset (5/7) of PV cells progressed to DB, which was mimicked by hM3Dq activation of Gq-receptor signaling. Pilocarpine-induced depolarization, AP firing at gamma frequency, and progression to DB were prevented in CA1 PV cells of PV-M1KO mice. Finally, compared to WT mice, PV-M1KO mice were associated with reduced severity of PISs. Significance Pilocarpine can directly depolarize PV+ cells via M1R activation but a subset of these cells progress to DB. Our electrophysiological and behavioral results suggest that this mechanism is active during PISs, contributing to a collapse of PV-mediated GABAergic inhibition, dysregulation of excitation/inhibition balance, and increased susceptibility to PISs. PMID:25495999

  12. Behavioral and genetic effects promoted by sleep deprivation in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

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    Matos, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Scorza, Fulvio A; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana; Noguti, Juliana; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2012-05-02

    The interaction between sleep deprivation and epilepsy has been well described in electrophysiological studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on locomotor activity and genetic damage in the brains of rats treated with saline or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). After 50 days of pilocarpine or saline treatment, both groups were assigned randomly to total sleep deprivation (TSD) for 6 h, paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 24 h, or be kept in their home cages. Locomotor activity was assessed with the open field test followed by resection of brain for quantification of genetic damage by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Status epilepticus induced significant hyperactivity in the open field test and caused genetic damage in the brain. Sleep deprivation procedures (TSD and PSD) did not affect locomotor activity in epileptic or healthy rats, but resulted in significant DNA damage in brain cells. Although PSD had this effect in both vehicle and epileptic groups, TSD caused DNA damage only in epileptic rats. In conclusion, our results revealed that, despite a lack of behavioral effects of sleep deprivation, TSD and PSD induced genetic damage in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced SE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered Expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Rats.

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    Li, Ruohan; Ma, Limin; Huang, Hao; Ou, Shu; Yuan, Jinxian; Xu, Tao; Yu, Xinyuan; Liu, Xi; Yang, Juan; Chen, Yangmei; Peng, Xi

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were performed in this study. CXCL13 and CXCR5 mRNA expression and protein levels were found to be significantly up-regulated in the TLE patients and TLE rats. Further, CXCL13 and CXCR5 protein levels were altered during the different epileptic phases after onset of status epilepticus (SE) in the pilocarpine model rats, including the acute phase (6, 24, and 72 h), latent phase (7 and 14 days) and chronic phase (30 and 60 days groups). Moreover, double-labeled immunofluorescence analysis revealed that CXCL13 was mainly expressed in the cytomembranes and cytoplasm of neurons and astrocytes, while CXCR5 was mainly expressed in the cytomembranes and cytoplasm of neurons. Thus, the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway may play a possible pathogenic role in IE. CXCL13 and CXCR5 may represent potential biomarkers of brain inflammation in epileptic patients.

  14. Spectroscopic imaging of the pilocarpine model of human epilepsy suggests that early NAA reduction predicts epilepsy.

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    Gomes, W A; Lado, F A; de Lanerolle, N C; Takahashi, K; Pan, C; Hetherington, H P

    2007-08-01

    Reduced hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is commonly observed in patients with advanced, chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It is unclear, however, whether an NAA deficit is also present during the clinically quiescent latent period that characterizes early TLE. This question has important implications for the use of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the early identification of patients at risk for TLE. To determine whether NAA is diminished during the latent period, we obtained high-resolution (1)H spectroscopic imaging during the latent period of the rat pilocarpine model of human TLE. We used actively detuneable surface reception and volume transmission coils to enhance sensitivity and a semiautomated voxel shifting method to accurately position voxels within the hippocampi. During the latent period, 2 and 7 d following pilocarpine treatment, hippocampal NAA was significantly reduced by 27.5 +/- 6.9% (P NAA deficit is not due to neuron loss and therefore likely represents metabolic impairment of hippocampal neurons during the latent phase. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging provides an early marker for metabolic dysfunction in this model of TLE.

  15. Early metabolic responses to lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rat brain.

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    Imran, Imran; Hillert, Markus H; Klein, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus is a well-known animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We combined this model with in vivo microdialysis to investigate energy metabolites and acute cellular membrane damage during seizure development. Rats were implanted with dialysis probes and pretreated with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, they received pilocarpine (30 mg/kg s.c.) which initiated seizures within 30 min. In the dialysate from rat hippocampus, we observed a transient increase in glucose and a prominent, five-fold increase in lactate during seizures. Lactate release was because of neuronal activation as it was strongly reduced by infusion of tetrodotoxin, administration of atropine or when seizures were terminated by diazepam or ketamine. In ex vivo assays, mitochondrial function as measured by respirometry was not affected by 90 min of seizures. Extracellular levels of choline, however, increased two-fold and glycerol levels 10-fold, which indicate cellular phospholipid breakdown during seizures. Within 60 min of pilocarpine administration, hydroxylation of salicylate increased two-fold and formation of isoprostanes 20-fold, revealing significant oxidative stress in hippocampal tissue. Increases in lactate, glycerol and isoprostanes were abrogated, and increases in choline were completely prevented, when hippocampal probes were perfused with calcium-free solution. Similarly, administration of pregabalin (100 mg/kg i.p.), a calcium channel ligand, 15 min prior to pilocarpine strongly attenuated parameters of membrane damage and oxidative stress. We conclude that seizure development in a rat model of status epilepticus is accompanied by increases in extracellular lactate, choline and glycerol, and by oxidative stress, while mitochondrial function remains intact for at least 90 min. Membrane damage depends on calcium influx and can be prevented by treatment with pregabalin. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in rats by

  16. The Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Therapy on the Improvement of Epilepsy Model in Rat Induced by pilocarpine

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    Ali Reza Abdani-Pour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy in adult humans, which is characterized clinically by a progressive development of spontaneous recurrent seizures of temporal lobe origin. Because of the side effects of current treatment protocols, the resistance to pharmacological therapy in this investigation, bone marrow stromal cells were used to evaluate the recovery of epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine. Materials & Methods: In this randomized experimental research, the rats were divided into five groups, controls (untreated, three treated groups (12, 24 and 36 hours and a group treated with the vehicle only. The animals in chronic phase were monitored via video monitoring system for three weeks (day & night. For assessment of the response for the treatment of epileptic’s rat using BMSCs therapy, Racine scale was used as a behavioral test. BMSCs (2 – 3 million cells were labeled with BrdU and were injected via tail vein rat 12, 24, 36 hours after first seizure. After 6 week all rats sacrificed and processed for paraffin, sectioned and for Cresyl violet staining. Data were analyzed by use of Wilcoxon signed Ranks test and Tukey’s test. Results: The result of the study showed that the behavioral test in three week as follows: in control group (untreated, number of seizure is 6.25±1.3 in vehicle group, number of seizure was 6.2±0.8 the group which received BMSCs 12 h after seizure all rats died the group which received BMSCs (24 h after seizure, the number was 2±0.4 and the group which received BMSCs (36 h after seizure, the number of seizure was 2.25±0.47. There was significant difference between treated (2 and 36 hours groups and other groups in number of seizure (P<0/01. Also, cells number was different significantly between same groups (P<0/01. Conclusion: Intravenous injection of BMSCs can improve number of attacks in epileptic’s rats. Also, BMSCs injection can prevent from decrease of cells numerical

  17. Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus impair pilocarpine-induced salivation in rats.

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    Renzi, A; De Luca, L A; Menani, J V

    2002-09-15

    In the present study we investigated the effects of electrolytic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in the salivation induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine. Rats with sham or LH lesions and stainless steel cannulas implanted into the lateral ventricle (LV) were used. In rats anesthetized with urethane (1.25mg/kg of body weight) saliva was collected using pre-weighed cotton balls inserted in the animal mouth during a period of 7 min following i.c.v. or i.p. injection of pilocarpine. Injection of pilocarpine (1mg/kg of body weight) i.p. in sham-operated rats (6h, 2, 7, and 15 days after the surgery) induced salivation (497+/-24, 452+/-26, 476+/-30, and 560+/-75 mg/7 min, respectively). The effects of i.p. pilocarpine was reduced 6h, 2 and 7 days after LH lesions (162+/-37, 190+/-32, and 229+/-27 mg/7 min, respectively), not 15 days after LH lesions (416+/-89 mg/7 min). Injection of pilocarpine (120 micro g/micro l) i.c.v., in sham-operated rats (6h, 2, 7, and 15 days after the surgery) also produced salivation (473+/-20, 382+/-16, 396+/-14, and 427+/-47 mg/7 min, respectively). The salivation induced by i.c.v. pilocarpine was also reduced 6h, 2 and 7 days after LH lesions (243+/-19, 278+/-24, and 295+/-27 mg/7 min, respectively), not 15 days after LH lesions (385+/-48 mg/7 min). The present results show the participation of the LH in the salivation induced by central or peripheral injection of pilocarpine in rats, reinforcing the involvement of central mechanisms on pilocarpine-induced salivation.

  18. Effect of pilocarpine on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

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    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of subcutaneous (SC injection of pilocarpine (a cholinomimetic agent and atropine (a muscarinic receptors antagonist were investigated on a tonic model of orofacial pain in rats. The contribution of the endogenous analgesic opioid system was assessed using naloxone (an opioid receptors antagonist. Tonic orofacial pain was induced by SC injection of a diluted formalin solution (1%, 50 μL in the right upper lip, and the time spent face rubbing was measured in five min blocks for 1 h. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-35 min pain response. Pilocarpine significantly (P < 0.05 suppressed both phases of orofacial pain. Atropine did not have any effect and naloxone non-significantly increased the intensity of pain when used alone. In the pre-injection examinations, atropine prevented, but naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of pilocarpine. The results indicated that SC injection of formalin in the orofacial region induced a marked biphasic pain. Pilocarpine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced antinociceptive effect in the orofacial formalin-induced pain. The endogenous opioid analgesic system may not have a role in pilocarpine-induced antinociception.

  19. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

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    Tavares, J.G.P. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Iguaçu, Campos V, Itaperuna, RJ (Brazil); Faculdade de Minas, Muriaé, MG (Brazil); Vasques, E.R. [Departamento de Gastroenterologia, LIM 37, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arida, R.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalheiro, E.A. [Departamento de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cabral, F.R.; Torres, L.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes-Rodrigues, F.S.; Jurkiewicz, A.; Caricati-Neto, A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Godoy, C.M.G. [Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gomes da Silva, S. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Pesquisas Tecnológicas, Programa Integrado em Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-13

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode.

  20. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

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    Tavares, J.G.P.; Vasques, E.R.; Arida, R.M.; Cavalheiro, E.A.; Cabral, F.R.; Torres, L.B.; Menezes-Rodrigues, F.S.; Jurkiewicz, A.; Caricati-Neto, A.; Godoy, C.M.G.; Gomes da Silva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode

  1. Neuroprotective effect of lithium after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Namgue; Choi, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seong Yun; Kim, Hee Jung

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium post-treatment on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal neuropathological changes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was induced by administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride (320 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. Lithium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15 minutes after the pilocarpine injection. After the lithium injection, status epilepticus onset time and mortality were recorded. Lithium significantly delayed the onset time of status epilepticus and reduced mortality compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, lithium effectively blocked pilocarpine-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus as estimated by cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B staining. However, lithium did not reduce glial activation following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. These results suggest that lithium has a neuroprotective effect and would be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, in particular status epilepticus.

  2. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study

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    Scorza Fulvio Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%, caudate-putamen (+30.6%, frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%, amygdala (+31.7%, entorrinal cortex (+28.2%, thalamic nucleus (+93.5%, pre-tectal area (+50.1% and substantia nigra (+50.3% when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  3. Antioxidant mechanisms of iso-6-cassine in suppressing seizures induced by pilocarpine

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    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant effects of 12-[(2R,5R,6R-5-hydroxy-6-methylpiperidin-2-yl]dodecan-2-one (iso-6-cassine; ISO and the anticonvulsant effects of ISO on pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group, and the association of ISO (1.0 mg/kg, i.p. plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after administration of ISO (ISO plus pilocarpine group. After the treatments all groups were observed for 1h. The antioxidant effect of ISO on the pilocarpine model was assessed by determining the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT as well as the levels of reactive species (RS and lipid peroxidation (LP. In vitro, ISO (5 μM reduced RS and LP. ISO (1.0 mg/kg and abolished seizures and death induced by pilocarpine in rats. ISO protected against the increase in the RS and LP levels, GST activity as well as the inhibition of GPx activity caused by pilocarpine. In addition, ISO increased the catalase activity in hippocampus of seized rats. In conclusion, the dta suggest that ISO can present anticonvulsant and antioxidant properties in the pilocarpine model of seizures in rats.

  4. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression studies in different pilocarpine-induced models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales Marques

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that the reference gene in a RT-qPCR should be properly validated to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. We investigated eight potential reference genes in two different pilocarpine PILO-models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKepeer softwares. Then, as a validation strategy, we conducted a relative expression analysis of the Gfap gene. Our results indicate that in the systemic PILO-model Actb, Gapdh, Rplp1, Tubb2a and Polr1a mRNAs were highly stable in hippocampus of rats from all experimental and control groups, whereas Gusb revealed to be the most variable one. In fact, we observed that using Gusb for normalization, the relative mRNA levels of the Gfap gene differed from those obtained with stable genes. On the contrary, in the intrahippocampal PILO-model, all softwares included Gusb as a stable gene, whereas B2m was indicated as the worst candidate gene. The results obtained for the other reference genes were comparable to those observed for the systemic Pilo-model. The validation of these data by the analysis of the relative expression of Gfap showed that the upregulation of the Gfap gene in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed 24 hours after status epilepticus (SE was undetected only when B2m was used as the normalizer. These findings emphasize that a gene that is stable in one pathology model may not be stable in a different experimental condition related to the same pathology and therefore, the choice of reference genes depends on study design.

  5. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

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    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  6. Dynamic regulation effect of long non-coding RNA-UCA1 on NF-kB in hippocampus of epilepsy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-K; Yan, H; Wang, K; Wang, J

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to discuss the mechanism of occurrence and progression of epilepsy through analyzing the expression changes of UCA1 and NF-Kb in temporal hippocampus and UCA1 in peripheral blood in rats with epilepsy induced by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. The lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model was established; 1, 7, 14, 30, and 60 d after status epilepticus were selected as the time points of research. The expression levels of UCA1 and NF-kB in the hippocampus of rats and UCA1 in peripheral blood were detected and analyzed using quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The differences and correlations between expression levels of UCA1 and NF-kB at each time point of research in experimental group and control group were analyzed statistically. Results showed that mRNA expression levels of UCA1 and NF-kB in brain tissues in experimental group were higher than those in control group at each time point. The change trend of expression levels of UCA1 and NF-kB with time was consistent. The expression level of UCA1 in peripheral blood in experimental group at each time point was higher than that in control group, and mRNA expression level of UCA1 in peripheral blood in experimental group was positively correlated with that in brain tissue. The expressions of UCA1 and NF-Kb are in the dynamic change in the formation of epilepsy, suggesting that UCA1 may participate in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, so as to provide a potentially feasible new direction for guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy.

  7. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

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    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  8. In vivo evaluation of anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of phenobarbital microemulsion for transdermal administration in pilocarpine seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Kayo Alves; Medeiros, Shirlene Cesário; Neves, Jamilly Kelly Oliveira; da Silva, José Alexsandro; da Rocha Tomé, Adriana; Carvalho, André Luis Menezes; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a microemulsion system (ME) containing phenobarbital in epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine in rats and to oxidative stress and histologic lesions in hippocampus. The microemulsion was applied to the shaved back of Wistar rats. The animals were divided into the following groups: control group (P400); ME50 40mg/kg, topically-t.p.; ME100, 40mg/kg, t.p.; EM50, 40mg/kg, t.p.; phenobarbital solution 40mg/kg (PS), oral. After 60min, behavioral changes were evaluated for 1h in the model of epileptical crisis induced by pilocarpine. Phenobarbital in microemulsion was able to increase the latency for status epilepticus (SE) (p<0.05), decrease the number of epileptical crisis (ME50: p<0.001; ME100: p<0.01) and decrease mortality rate by 80% compared to P400. In EM50 and PS groups, deaths were decreased by 53.3% and 100% respectively. The ME50 and ME100 groups were able to reduce oxidative stress in experimental animals when compared to the P400. The microemulsion was still capable of reducing neuronal damage in the hippocampal areas. The results of this study come in an innovative way, demonstrating the ability of transdermal ME50 and ME100 to reduce pilocarpine-induced epileptical crisis, oxidative stress, besides neuronal damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of fish liver oil and propolis as neuroprotective agents in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Fathia; El-Shamy, Karima A; El-Shaikh, Kamal A; El-Kassaby, Mahitab

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the action of fish liver oil and propolis in pilocarpine epileptic rats treated with the anticonvulsant drug valproate. Seven groups of rats were treated daily for six months: control; fish liver oil (0.4ml/kg b.w); propolis (50mg/kg b.w); pilocarpine-treated rats (epileptic control); epileptic rats treated with valproate (400mg/kg b.w); groups 6 and 7, epileptic rats treated with valproate plus fish liver oil or propolis. Pilocarpine administration caused a significant increase in hippocampal dopamine and serotonin levels accompanied with a significant decrease in their levels in serum. Lipid peroxidation level and LDH activity in hippocampus were significantly increased after pilocarpine treatment whereas Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and total antioxidant capacity were significantly decreased compared to the controls. Animals treated with the combined treatments showed a significant improvement in tested parameters towards the normal values of the control. Fish liver oil and propolis when given in combination with valproate, neuroprotected against the neurophysiological disorders induced by pilocarpine epilepsy in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G; Ouyang, Dai-qiao; Ringash, Jolie; Su, Yu-xiong

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Ouyang, Dai-qiao [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ringash, Jolie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Su, Yu-xiong, E-mail: richsu@hku.hk [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Results: Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. Conclusions: The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate.

  12. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G.; Ouyang, Dai-qiao; Ringash, Jolie; Su, Yu-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Results: Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. Conclusions: The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate.

  13. Clustering of spontaneous recurrent seizures separated by long seizure-free periods: An extended video-EEG monitoring study of a pilocarpine mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Moon, Jangsup; Kim, Tae-Joon; Jun, Jin-Sun; Park, Byeongsu; Byun, Jung-Ick; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Park, Kyung-Il; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Jeon, Daejong; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2018-01-01

    Seizure clustering is a common and significant phenomenon in patients with epilepsy. The clustering of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) in animal models of epilepsy, including mouse pilocarpine models, has been reported. However, most studies have analyzed seizures for a short duration after the induction of status epilepticus (SE). In this study, we investigated the detailed characteristics of seizure clustering in the chronic stage of a mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model for an extended duration by continuous 24/7 video-EEG monitoring. A seizure cluster was defined as the occurrence of one or more seizures per day for at least three consecutive days and at least five seizures during the cluster period. We analyzed the cluster duration, seizure-free period, cluster interval, and numbers of seizures within and outside the seizure clusters. The video-EEG monitoring began 84.5±33.7 days after the induction of SE and continued for 53.7±20.4 days. Every mouse displayed seizure clusters, and 97.0% of the seizures occurred within a cluster period. The seizure clusters were followed by long seizure-free periods of 16.3±6.8 days, showing a cyclic pattern. The SRSs also occurred in a grouped pattern within a day. We demonstrate that almost all seizures occur in clusters with a cyclic pattern in the chronic stage of a mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. The seizure-free periods between clusters were long. These findings should be considered when performing in vivo studies using this animal model. Furthermore, this model might be appropriate for studying the unrevealed mechanism of ictogenesis.

  14. Anticonvulsant effect of time-restricted feeding in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model: Metabolic and epigenetic implications.

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    Jorge eLandgrave-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL and a second group underwent a time-restricted feeding (TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE, and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 hours after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs. Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3 in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the

  15. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures and vasogenic edema following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Lin, Zhenzhou; Xie, Ling; Wang, Yao; Pan, Suyue

    2017-07-13

    Vasogenic edema induced by blood brain barrier disruption and neuronal loss play an important role in the epileptogenic process. 4,4'- diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) is a commonly used anion channel inhibitor that has been reported to exert an anticonvulsant effect in rat hippocampus in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate whether DIDS could prevent epileptogenic process in rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The tight junction proteins and serum extravasation were examined in the piriform cortex 3days after status epilepticus. The findings showed that status epilepticus induced vasogenic edema. Based on these findings, rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with saline and DIDS 1 week after surgery, DIDS reduced vasogenic edema and prevented neuronal loss following status epilepticus in the piriform cortex. Moreover, spontaneous recurrent seizures were recorded by continuous video monitoring. DIDS significantly reduced the frequency and duration of spontaneous recurrent seizures from day 28 to day 42 post status epilepticus. These findings demonstrated that DIDS attenuated vasogenic edema and neuronal apoptosis and might exert disease-modifying effect in animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy. These results explored a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppressing cAMP response element-binding protein transcription shortens the duration of status epilepticus and decreases the number of spontaneous seizures in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dubey, Deepti; Bermudez, Camilo; Porter, Brenda E

    2015-12-01

    Current epilepsy therapies directed at altering the function of neurotransmitter receptors or ion channels, or release of synaptic vesicles fail to prevent seizures in approximately 30% of patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying epilepsy is needed to provide new therapeutic targets. The activity of cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), a major transcription factor promoting CRE-mediated transcription, increases following a prolonged seizure called status epilepticus. It is also increased in the seizure focus of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. Herein we explored the effect of acute suppression of CREB activity on status epilepticus and spontaneous seizures in a chronic epilepsy model. Pilocarpine chemoconvulsant was used to induce status epilepticus. To suppress CREB activity, a transgenic mouse line expressing an inducible dominant negative mutant of CREB (CREB(IR) ) with a serine to alanine 133 substitution was used. Status epilepticus and spontaneous seizures of transgenic and wild-type mice were analyzed using video-electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the effect of CREB suppression on seizures. Our findings indicate that activation of CREB(IR) shortens the duration of status epilepticus. The frequency of spontaneous seizures decreased in mice with chronic epilepsy during CREB(IR) induction; however, the duration of the spontaneous seizures was unchanged. Of interest, we found significantly reduced levels of phospho-CREB Ser133 upon activation of CREB(IR) , supporting prior work suggesting that binding to the CRE site is important for CREB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that CRE transcription supports seizure activity both during status epilepticus and in spontaneous seizures. Thus, blocking of CRE transcription is a novel target for the treatment of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. The lack of effects of zinc and nitric oxide in initial state of pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyan, Behzat; Jensen, Morten Skovgaard; Danscher, Gorm

    2007-07-01

    In this study we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-NAME (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or CaEDTA (an extracellular zinc chelator) or the combination of the two could affect the initial phase of pilocarpine induced (2 h) seizures. Two groups of rats were used. Animals from both groups were given with i.c.v. injections of either saline (10 microl), L-NAME (150 microg/10 microl), CaEDTA (100 mM/10 microl) or L-NAME and CaEDTA. One group received pilocarpine HCl (380 mg/kg i.p.) the other served as control. Pilocarpine HCl was injected intraperitoneally 10 min later. The behavior of the animals was observed for 2h and the intensity of their seizures was scored. The rats were then sacrificed and their brains were removed and analyzed for zinc ions by using the immersion autometallography and the TSQ fluorescence staining. All the animals which received pilocarpine HCl developed seizures. Despite treatment with L-NAME and/or CaEDTA we found that the latency and the intensity of seizures were similar in both groups investigated. The distribution of stainable zinc ions and the intensity of staining in hippocampus were not affected by pilocarpine and found unchanged after L-NAME and/or CaEDTA injections in both the control animals and the pilocarpine treated animals. The data suggest that the nitric oxide system and zinc ions do not affect pilocarpine-induced seizures in their initial state.

  18. Involvement of nitrergic system in anticonvulsant effect of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus: Evaluation of iNOS and COX-2 genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Seyyed Majid; Ghasemi, Maryam; Bahremand, Taraneh; Momeny, Majid; Gholami, Mahdi; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the role of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and probable mechanisms involved in seizure threshold alteration. In the present study, lithium chloride (127mg/kg) was administered 20h prior to pilocarpine (60mg/kg) to induce SE in adult male Wistar rats. Different doses of zolpidem (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10mg/kg) were injected 30min before pilocarpine administration. Furthermore, to find out whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the observed effect, L-arginine and L-NAME were injected 15min before zolpidem. Afterward, we identified the particular NO isoform mediating the effect of zolpidem by injecting aminoguanidine (AG) and 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI) 15min prior to zolpidem. Moreover, in both 6 and 24h after pilocarpine injection, experimental groups underwent hippocampectomy to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes expression by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Pre-treatment with zolpidem significantly prevented the onset of SE in a dose-dependent manner. AG and L-NAME significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of zolpidem while L-arginine inverted this effect. Our qRT-PCR exerted that there was a continuous elevation of iNOS and COX-2 genes expression over 6 and 24h after pilocarpine administration in SE and L-arginine+Zolpidem groups while in AG/L-NAME+Zolpidem and zolpidem groups this upregulation was prevented. Our study indicates that zolpidem prevents the onset of SE through inhibition of iNOS/COX-2 genes upregulation following lithium-pilocarpine administration. Consistent with our results, we suggest that iNOS activation could be probably upstream of COX-2 gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  20. [Pilocarpin eye drops with a novel Pilocarpin polymeric salt (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodtmeister, R; Brenner, J; Baur, M P

    1979-02-01

    A new pilocarpin salt was obtained by chemically linking pilocarpin to a polymere substance. By galenic processing to the respective emulsion, eye drops containing this pilocarpin salt were produced, which enable a retarded pilocarpin delivery in vitro. With respect to glaucoma therapy, clinical tests showed that frequency of application can considerably be reduced. In the present investigations on a collective of 30 normal volunteers the effect of a commercial aqueous pilocarpin solution on the IOP, pupillary diameter and accommodation was compared with that of the novel pilocarpin drops.

  1. Intranasal Delivery of miR-146a Mimics Delayed Seizure Onset in the Lithium-Pilocarpine Mouse Model

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    Hua Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unveiling the key mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE for the development of novel treatments is of increasing interest, and anti-inflammatory miR-146a is now considered a promising molecular target for TLE. In the current study, a C57BL/6 TLE mouse model was established using the lithium-pilocarpine protocol. The seizure degree was evaluated according to the Racine scale, and level 5 was considered the threshold for generalized convulsions. Animals were sacrificed to analyze the hippocampus at three time points (2 h and 4 and 8 weeks after pilocarpine administration to evaluate the acute, latent, and chronic phases, resp.. After intranasal delivery of miR-146a mimics (30 min before pilocarpine injection, the percent of animals with no induced seizures increased by 6.7%, the latency to generalized convulsions was extended, and seizure severity was reduced. Additionally, hippocampal damage was alleviated. While the relative miR-146a levels significantly increased, the expression of its target mRNAs (IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 and typical inflammatory modulators (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 decreased, supporting an anti-inflammatory role of miR-146a via the TLR pathway. This study is the first to demonstrate that intranasal delivery of miR-146a mimics can improve seizure onset and hippocampal damage in the acute phase of lithium-pilocarpine-induced seizures, which provides inflammation-based clues for the development of novel TLE treatments.

  2. Effects of pilocarpine and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przewlocka, B.; Labuz, D.; Machelska, H.; Przewlocki, R.; Turchan, J.; Lason, W. [Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smetna Street, 31-343 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-04-14

    The effects of pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA and [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding were studied in the rat hippocampal formation. Pilocarpine- but not kainate-induced seizures decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in dentate gyrus at 24 and 72 h after drug injection. Both convulsants decreased the messenger RNA level in CA1 pyramidal cells at 24 and 72 h, the effects of kainate being more profound. Kainate also decreased the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in CA3 region after 24 and 72 h, whereas pilocarpine decreased the messenger RNA level at 72 h only. At 3 h after kainate, but not pilocarpine, an increased binding of [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate in several apical dendritic fields of pyramidal cells was found. Pilocarpine reduced the [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in stratum lucidum only at 3 and 24 h after the drug injection. Pilocarpine but not kainate induced prolonged decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 gene expression in dentate gyrus. However, at the latest time measured, kainate had the stronger effect in decreasing both messenger RNA N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 and [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. The latter changes corresponded, however, to neuronal loss and may reflect higher neurotoxic potency of kainate.These data point to some differences in hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation in pilocarpine and kainate models of limbic seizures. Moreover, our results suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level is more susceptible to limbic seizures than is [{sup 3}H]dizocilpine maleate binding in the rat hippocampal formation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Effects of pilocarpine and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor gene expression in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewlocka, B.; Labuz, D.; Machelska, H.; Przewlocki, R.; Turchan, J.; Lason, W.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding were studied in the rat hippocampal formation. Pilocarpine- but not kainate-induced seizures decreased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in dentate gyrus at 24 and 72 h after drug injection. Both convulsants decreased the messenger RNA level in CA1 pyramidal cells at 24 and 72 h, the effects of kainate being more profound. Kainate also decreased the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level in CA3 region after 24 and 72 h, whereas pilocarpine decreased the messenger RNA level at 72 h only. At 3 h after kainate, but not pilocarpine, an increased binding of [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate in several apical dendritic fields of pyramidal cells was found. Pilocarpine reduced the [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in stratum lucidum only at 3 and 24 h after the drug injection. Pilocarpine but not kainate induced prolonged decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 gene expression in dentate gyrus. However, at the latest time measured, kainate had the stronger effect in decreasing both messenger RNA N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 and [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. The latter changes corresponded, however, to neuronal loss and may reflect higher neurotoxic potency of kainate.These data point to some differences in hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation in pilocarpine and kainate models of limbic seizures. Moreover, our results suggest that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit-1 messenger RNA level is more susceptible to limbic seizures than is [ 3 H]dizocilpine maleate binding in the rat hippocampal formation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Antagonist targeting microRNA-155 protects against lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in C57BL/6 mice by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor

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    Zhengxu eCai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a severe brain disorder affecting numerous patients. Recently, it is inferred that modulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155 could serve as a promising treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. In the current study, the therapeutic potential of miR-155 antagonist against TLE was evaluated and the underlying mechanism involved in this regulation was explored. TLE model was induced by lithium-pilocarpine method. The effect of miR-155 antagonist on epilepticus symptoms of TLE mice was assessed using Racine classification and electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its association with miR-155 were also assessed with a series of experiments. Our results showed that level of miR-155 was significantly up-regulated after induction of TLE model. Based on the results of EEG and behavior analyses, seizures in mice were alleviated by miR-155 antagonist. Moreover, administration of miR-155 antagonist also significantly increased the level of BDNF. The results of dual luciferase assay and western blotting showed that miR-155 antagonist exerted its action on status epilepticus by directly regulating the activity of BDNF. Taken all the information together, our results demonstrated that miR-155 antagonist might firstly induce the expression of BDNF, which then contributed to the alleviation of epilepsy in the current study.

  5. A sub-threshold dose of pilocarpine increases glutamine synthetase in reactive astrocytes and enhances the progression of amygdaloid-kindling epilepsy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Liu; Deng, Da-Ping; Pan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Chao-Yun; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Chen, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yu-Xia; Li, Shu-Cui; Bai, Xian-Yong; Zhu, Wei

    2016-03-02

    The prognosis of patients exposed to a sub-threshold dose of a proconvulsant is difficult to establish. In this study, we investigated the effect of a single sub-threshold dose of the proconvulsant pilocarpine (PILO) on the progression of seizures that were subsequently induced by daily electrical stimulation (kindling) of the amygdaloid formation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were each implanted with an electrode in the right basolateral amygdala and an indwelling cannula in the right ventricle. The animals were randomized into groups and were administered one of the following treatments: saline, PILO, saline+L-α-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA; one dosage tested), PILO+L-AAA, or PILO+L-methionine sulfoximine (three dosages tested). Amygdaloid stimulation and electroencephalography were performed once daily. We performed immunohistochemistry and western blot for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase (GS). We also assayed the enzymic activity of GS in discrete brain regions. An intraperitoneal injection of a sub-threshold PILO dose enhanced the progression of amygdaloid-kindling seizures and was accompanied by an increase in reactive-astrocyte and GS (content and activity) in the hippocampus and piriform cortex. L-AAA and L-methionine sulfoximine, inhibitors of astrocytic and GS function, respectively, abolished the effect of PILO on amygdaloid-kindling seizures. We conclude that one sub-threshold dose of a proconvulsant may enhance the progression of subsequent epilepsy and astrocytic GS may play a role in this phenomenon. Thus, a future therapy for epilepsy could be inhibition of astrocytes and/or GS.

  6. Decreased astroglial monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Niu, Le; Shen, Ming-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Li, Jie; Song, Li-Jia; Tao, Ye; Meng, Qiang; Yang, Qian-Li; Gao, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Efflux of monocaroxylates like lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies from astrocytes through monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) supplies the local neuron population with metabolic intermediates to meet energy requirements under conditions of increased demand. Disruption of this astroglial-neuron metabolic coupling pathway may contribute to epileptogenesis. We measured MCT4 expression in temporal lobe epileptic foci excised from patients with intractable epilepsy and in rats injected with pilocarpine, an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cortical MCT4 expression levels were significantly lower in TLE patients compared with controls, due at least partially to MCT4 promoter methylation. Expression of MCT4 also decreased progressively in pilocarpine-treated rats from 12 h to 14 days post-administration. Underexpression of MCT4 in cultured astrocytes induced by a short hairpin RNA promoted apoptosis. Knockdown of astrocyte MCT4 also suppressed excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) expression. Reduced MCT4 and EAAT1 expression by astrocytes may lead to neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe by reducing the supply of metabolic intermediates and by allowing accumulation of extracellular glutamate.

  7. Attention and executive functions in a rat model of chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jean-Baptiste; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Akimana, Gladys; Cosquer, Brigitte; Ferrandon, Arielle; Herbeaux, Karine; Koning, Estelle; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Nehlig, Astrid; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a relatively frequent, invalidating, and often refractory neurologic disorder. It is associated with cognitive impairments that affect memory and executive functions. In the rat lithium-pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy model, memory impairment and anxiety disorder are classically reported. Here we evaluated sustained visual attention in this model of epilepsy, a function not frequently explored. Thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus. Twenty of them received a carisbamate treatment for 7 days, starting 1 h after status epilepticus onset. Twelve controls received lithium and saline. Five months later, attention was assessed in the five-choice serial reaction time task, a task that tests visual attention and inhibitory control (impulsivity/compulsivity). Neuronal counting was performed in brain regions of interest to the functions studied (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus). Lithium-pilocarpine rats developed motor seizures. When they were able to learn the task, they exhibited attention impairment and a tendency toward impulsivity and compulsivity. These disturbances occurred in the absence of neuronal loss in structures classically related to attentional performance, although they seemed to better correlate with neuronal loss in hippocampus. Globally, rats that received carisbamate and developed motor seizures were as impaired as untreated rats, whereas those that did not develop overt motor seizures performed like controls, despite evidence for hippocampal damage. This study shows that attention deficits reported by patients with temporal lobe epilepsy can be observed in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Carisbamate prevents the occurrence of motor seizures, attention impairment, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a subpopulation of neuroprotected rats. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Assessment of the progressive nature of cell damage in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy

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    L. Covolan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced (320 mg/kg, ip status epilepticus (SE in adult (2-3 months male Wistar rats results in extensive neuronal damage in limbic structures. Here we investigated whether the induction of a second SE (N = 6 would generate damage and cell loss similar to that seen after a first SE (N = 9. Counts of silver-stained (indicative of cell damage cells, using the Gallyas argyrophil III method, revealed a markedly lower neuronal injury in animals submitted to re-induction of SE compared to rats exposed to a single episode of pilocarpine-induced SE. This effect could be explained as follows: 1 the first SE removes the vulnerable cells, leaving behind resistant cells that are not affected by the second SE; 2 the first SE confers increased resistance to the remaining cells, analogous to the process of ischemic tolerance. Counting of Nissl-stained cells was performed to differentiate between these alternative mechanisms. Our data indicate that different neuronal populations react differently to SE induction. For some brain areas most, if not all, of the vulnerable cells are lost after an initial insult leaving only relatively resistant cells and little space for further damage or cell loss. For some other brain areas, in contrast, our data support the hypothesis that surviving cells might be modified by the initial insult which would confer a sort of excitotoxic tolerance. As a consequence of both mechanisms, subsequent insults after an initial insult result in very little damage regardless of their intensity.

  9. Anticonvulsant and proconvulsant roles of nitric oxide in experimental epilepsy models

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    Del-Bel E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of acute (120 mg/kg and chronic (25 mg/kg, twice a day, for 4 days intraperitonial injection of the nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG was evaluated on seizure induction by drugs such as pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and by sound stimulation of audiogenic seizure-resistant (R and audiogenic seizure-susceptible (S rats. Seizures were elicited by a subconvulsant dose of pilocarpine (100 mg/kg only after NOS inhibition. NOS inhibition also simultaneously potentiated the severity of PTZ-induced limbic seizures (60 mg/kg and protected against PTZ-induced tonic seizures (80 mg/kg. The audiogenic seizure susceptibility of S or R rats did not change after similar treatments. In conclusion, proconvulsant effects of NOS inhibition are suggested to occur in the pilocarpine model and in the limbic components of PTZ-induced seizures, while an anticonvulsant role is suggested for the tonic seizures induced by higher doses of PTZ, revealing inhibitor-specific interactions with convulsant dose and also confirming the hypothesis that the effects of NOS inhibitors vary with the model of seizure

  10. Acquisition and retrieval of conditioned taste aversion is impaired by brain damage caused by two hours of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroubek, J; Hort, J; Komárek, V; Langmeier, M; Brozek, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Cavalheiro's pilocarpine model of epileptogenesis upon conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an important example of nondeclarative memory, was studied in adult Long Evans rats. Deterioration of CTA was studied during the silent period between pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures. SE was elicited by i.p. injection of pilocarpine (320 mg/kg ) and interrupted after 2 hours by clonazepame (1 mg/kg i.p.). Peripheral cholinergic symptoms were suppressed by methylscopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.), administered together with pilocarpine. CTA was formed against the salty taste of isotonic LiCl. In the experiment of CTA acquisition, the CTA was formed and tested during the silent period after SE. In the experiment of CTA retrieval, the CTA was acquired before SE and the retrieval itself was tested during the silent period. Retrieval of CTA acquired before SE was impaired more than the retrieval of CTA formed during the silent period. Our findings indicate that epileptic seizures can disrupt even non-declarative memory but that CTA formed by the damaged brain can use its better preserved parts for memory trace formation. Ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.) applied 2 min after the onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus protected memory deterioration.

  11. Pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity with increased BNDF and neuropeptide Y expression in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Jahnsen, Henrik; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine to study induced seizure-like activity and changes in neurotrophin and neuropeptide expression. For establishment of a seizure-inducing protocol, 2-week-old cultures derived from 6-8-day-old rats were...

  12. Interictal spike frequency varies with ovarian cycle stage in a rat model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, James; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Moretto, Jillian; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J; Pearce, Patrice; Fenton, Andre A; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2015-07-01

    In catamenial epilepsy, seizures exhibit a cyclic pattern that parallels the menstrual cycle. Many studies suggest that catamenial seizures are caused by fluctuations in gonadal hormones during the menstrual cycle, but this has been difficult to study in rodent models of epilepsy because the ovarian cycle in rodents, called the estrous cycle, is disrupted by severe seizures. Thus, when epilepsy is severe, estrous cycles become irregular or stop. Therefore, we modified kainic acid (KA)- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) models of epilepsy so that seizures were rare for the first months after SE, and conducted video-EEG during this time. The results showed that interictal spikes (IIS) occurred intermittently. All rats with regular 4-day estrous cycles had IIS that waxed and waned with the estrous cycle. The association between the estrous cycle and IIS was strong: if the estrous cycles became irregular transiently, IIS frequency also became irregular, and when the estrous cycle resumed its 4-day pattern, IIS frequency did also. Furthermore, when rats were ovariectomized, or males were recorded, IIS frequency did not show a 4-day pattern. Systemic administration of an estrogen receptor antagonist stopped the estrous cycle transiently, accompanied by transient irregularity of the IIS pattern. Eventually all animals developed severe, frequent seizures and at that time both the estrous cycle and the IIS became irregular. We conclude that the estrous cycle entrains IIS in the modified KA and pilocarpine SE models of epilepsy. The data suggest that the ovarian cycle influences more aspects of epilepsy than seizure susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Timing of pilocarpine treatment during head and neck radiotherapy: concomitant administration reduces xerostomia better than post-radiation pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Robert P.; Mark, Rufus J.; Juillard, Guy F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study whether oral pilocarpine administration during and three months after head and neck radiotherapy can prevent or reduce the expected post-radiation xerostomia. This regimen was compared to no treatment and to post-radiotherapy pilocarpine administration, which has previously been shown to reduce symptoms of xerostomia in several randomized trials. Methods: Xerostomia assessments were performed using a visual analog scale xerostomia questionnaire that measures oral dryness, oral comfort, difficulty with sleep, speech and eating. Higher scores indicate less xerostomia. All the patients had all major salivary glands in the initial field treated to ≥ 4,500 cGy. The concomitant pilocarpine group received 5 mg pilocarpine q.i.d. beginning on day one of radiotherapy and continuing for 3 months after completion of radiation. The control group had their baseline xerostomia measured prior to receiving pilocarpine. They subsequently took 5 mg pilocarpine t.i.d. for one month at which time they underwent a second xerostomia assessment. Xerostomia scores for each group were averaged and compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Seventeen patients who received pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation were compared to 12 post-radiotherapy patients who had not yet taken pilocarpine and the same patients after taking pilocarpine for one month. The mean intervals between completion of radiation and evaluation of xerostomia were 16 months for the control group and 17 months for the pilocarpine treated groups. The primary tumor sites treated as well as the total tumor doses were equivalent between the groups. Only one of the pilocarpine treated patients was still taking pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. Results are shown. For each component of xerostomia measured as well as the composite of all components, the group that had received pilocarpine during radiation had significantly less xerostomia than the no pilocarpine group (p<0.01 for each). Post

  14. Evaluation of effects of dichloromethane fraction from Platonia insignis on pilocarpine-induced seizures

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    Joaquim S. da Costa Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities of dichloromethane fraction (DMF from Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae. The DMF from P. insignis (2 mg/kg was tested by intraperitoneal (i.p. to evaluate effects on lipid peroxidation level, nitrite formation, as well as on locomotor and anticonvulsant activities. Wistar rats were treated with, (saline/Tween 80 0.5%, i.p., control group, DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p., DMF group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group, or the combination of DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p. and pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., DMF plus P400. After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. In P400 group rats there was a decrease in the motor activity when compared with control group. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats was observed an increase in motor activity when compared with P400 group. In P400 group rats there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats, antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content after seizures. Previous findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in rat striatum during pilocarpine-induced seizures, and our results imply that strong neuprotective effect on this brain region could be achieved using DMF from P. insignis.

  15. Experimental Models of Status Epilepticus and Neuronal Injury for Evaluation of Therapeutic Interventions

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    Ramkumar Kuruba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes current experimental models of status epilepticus (SE and neuronal injury for use in the screening of new therapeutic agents. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. SE is an emergency condition associated with continuous seizures lasting more than 30 min. It causes significant mortality and morbidity. SE can cause devastating damage to the brain leading to cognitive impairment and increased risk of epilepsy. Benzodiazepines are the first-line drugs for the treatment of SE, however, many people exhibit partial or complete resistance due to a breakdown of GABA inhibition. Therefore, new drugs with neuroprotective effects against the SE-induced neuronal injury and degeneration are desirable. Animal models are used to study the pathophysiology of SE and for the discovery of newer anticonvulsants. In SE paradigms, seizures are induced in rodents by chemical agents or by electrical stimulation of brain structures. Electrical stimulation includes perforant path and self-sustaining stimulation models. Pharmacological models include kainic acid, pilocarpine, flurothyl, organophosphates and other convulsants that induce SE in rodents. Neuronal injury occurs within the initial SE episode, and animals exhibit cognitive dysfunction and spontaneous seizures several weeks after this precipitating event. Current SE models have potential applications but have some limitations. In general, the experimental SE model should be analogous to the human seizure state and it should share very similar neuropathological mechanisms. The pilocarpine and diisopropylfluorophosphate models are associated with prolonged, diazepam-insensitive seizures and neurodegeneration and therefore represent paradigms of refractory SE. Novel mechanism-based or clinically relevant models are essential to identify new therapies for SE and neuroprotective interventions.

  16. Unique behavioral characteristics and microRNA signatures in a drug resistant epilepsy model.

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    Jangsup Moon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacoresistance is a major issue in the treatment of epilepsy. However, the mechanism underlying pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs is still unclear, and few animal models have been established for studying drug resistant epilepsy (DRE. In our study, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs were investigated by video-EEG monitoring during the entire procedure. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model, we administered levetiracetam (LEV and valproate (VPA in sequence. AED-responsive and AED-resistant mice were naturally selected after 7-day treatment of LEV and VPA. Behavioral tests (open field, object exploration, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition test and a microRNA microarray test were performed. Among the 37 epileptic mice with SRS, 23 showed significantly fewer SRSs during administration of LEV (n = 16, LEV sensitive (LS group or VPA (n = 7, LEV resistant/VPA sensitive (LRVS group, while 7 epileptic mice did not show any amelioration with either of the AEDs (n = 7, multidrug resistant (MDR group. On the behavioral assessment, MDR mice displayed distinctive behaviors in the object exploration and elevated plus maze tests, which were not observed in the LS group. Expression of miRNA was altered in LS and MDR groups, and we identified 4 miRNAs (miR-206, miR-374, miR-468, and miR-142-5p, which were differently modulated in the MDR group versus both control and LS groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify a pharmacoresistant subgroup, resistant to 2 AEDs, in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. We hypothesize that modulation of the identified miRNAs may play a key role in developing pharmacoresistance and behavioral alterations in the MDR group.

  17. Replacement of asymmetric synaptic profiles in the molecular layer of dentate gyrus following cycloheximide in the pilocarpine model in rats.

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    Simone eBittencourt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mossy fiber sprouting is among the best-studied forms of post-lesional synaptic plasticity and is regarded by many as contributory to seizures in both humans and animal models of epilepsy. It is not known whether mossy fiber sprouting increases the number of synapses in the molecular layer or merely replaces lost contacts. Using the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus to induce mossy fiber sprouting, and cycloheximide to block this sprouting, we evaluated at the ultrastructural level the number and type of asymmetric synaptic contacts in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. As expected, whereas pilocarpine-treated rats had dense silver grain deposits in the inner molecular layer (reflecting mossy fiber sprouting, pilocarpine+cycloheximide-treated animals did not differ from controls. Both groups of treated rats (Pilo group and CHX+Pilo group had reduced density of asymmetric synaptic profiles (putative excitatory synaptic contacts, which was greater for cycloheximide-treated animals. For both treated groups the loss of excitatory synaptic contacts was even greater in the outer molecular layer than in the best studied inner molecular layer (in which mossy fiber sprouting occurs. These results indicate that mossy fiber sprouting tends to replace lost synaptic contacts rather than increase the absolute number of contacts. We speculate that the overall result is more consistent with restored rather than with increased excitability.

  18. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  19. Hippocampal Proteome of Rats Subjected to the Li-Pilocarpine Epilepsy Model and the Effect of Carisbamate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In adult rats, the administration of lithium–pilocarpine (LiPilo reproduces most clinical and neuropathological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Carisbamate (CRS possesses the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. Indeed, about 50% of rats subjected to LiPilo status epilepticus (SE develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS instead of motor seizures when treated with CRS. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a proteomic analysis in the hippocampus of rats receiving LiPilo and developing motor seizures or NCS following CRS treatment. Fifteen adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were used. SE was induced by LiPilo injection. CRS treatment was initiated at 1 h and 9 h after SE onset and maintained for 7 days, twice daily. Four groups were studied after video-EEG control of the occurrence of motor seizures: a control group receiving saline (CT n = 3 and three groups that underwent SE: rats treated with diazepam (DZP n = 4, rats treated with CRS displaying NCS (CRS-NCS n = 4 or motor seizures (CRS-TLE n = 4. Proteomic analysis was conducted by 2D-SDS-PAGE. Twenty-four proteins were found altered. In the CRS-NCS group, proteins related to glycolysis and ATP synthesis were down-regulated while proteins associated with pyruvate catabolism were up-regulated. Moreover, among the other proteins differentially expressed, we found proteins related to inflammatory processes, protein folding, tissue regeneration, response to oxidative stress, gene expression, biogenesis of synaptic vesicles, signal transduction, axonal transport, microtubule formation, cell survival, and neuronal plasticity. Our results suggest a global reduction of glycolysis and cellular energy production that might affect brain excitability. In addition, CRS seems to modulate proteins related to many other pathways that could significantly participate in the epileptogenesis-modifying effect observed.

  20. Role of nitric oxide of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO in the alterations of salivary flow, arterial pressure and heart rate induced by injection of pilocarpine into the MnPO and intraperitoneally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Saad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO inhibitor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO-donating agent, on pilocarpine-induced alterations in salivary flow, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR in rats. Male Holtzman rats (250-300 g were implanted with a stainless steel cannula directly into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO. Pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO induced an increase in salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg ip also increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 µg injected into the MnPO or ip (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg increased salivary secretion (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO or ip prior to pilocarpine attenuated salivary secretion (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (40 µg injection into the MnPO increased MAP and decreased HR (P<0.01. Pilocarpine (4 mg/kg body weight ip produced a decrease in MAP and an increase in HR (P<0.01. Injection of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine potentiated the increase in MAP and reduced HR (P<0.01. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO prior to pilocarpine attenuated (100% the effect of pilocarpine on MAP, with no effect on HR. Administration of L-NAME (40 µg into the MnPO potentiated the effect of pilocarpine injected ip. SNP (30 µg injected into the MnPO attenuated the effect of ip pilocarpine on MAP and HR. The present study suggests that in the rat MnPO 1 NO is important for the effects of pilocarpine on salivary flow, and 2 pilocarpine interferes with blood pressure and HR (side effects of pilocarpine, that is attenuated by NO.

  1. Quantitative assessment of salivary gland function by radioisotopic scanning in a randomized trial of pilocarpine for prevention of radiation Induced Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Modarress-Mosalla, M.; Haddad, P.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is the best method for objective assessment of salivary gland function. Thus, it was used in a randomized trial of concomitant pilocarpine for assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia, in addition to subjective evaluation by an approved questionnaire and objective standard xerostomia grading. Patients randomized in a placebo-controlled trial of pilocarpine concurrent with irradiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia were evaluated by salivary gland scintigraphy immediately before and 6 months after the end of head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland function was measured by ejection fraction (E F) of Technetium-99 m pertechnetate. The mean values for pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were calculated and compared. Also post-radiotherapy scan findings in the two groups of pilocarpine and placebo were compared using the Student's t-test. In addition, comparison was made between the scan results and the subjective findings and objective grading s.Twenty patients underwent the pre-radiotherapy salivary scintigraphy, and also 20 post-radiotherapy scans were performed . Mean parotid E F was 60.85% in the pre-radiotherapy and 9.08% in the post-radiotherapy scans (p<0.01). The means for submandibular glands in the pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were 41% and 11.2%, respectively (p<0.01). Also the mean E F was 14.5% in the pilocarpine group and 3.65 in the placebo group for parotid glands (p=0.07) and 18.3% and 4.1% respectively for submandibular glands (p<0.05). The salivary scans confirmed the subjective and objective xerostomia findings. Salivary gland scintigraphy is a valuable method for evaluation of xerostomia after head and neck radiotherapy, quantitatively demonstrating the protective effect of pilocarpine compared to placebo on salivary glands

  2. Hilar somatostatin interneuron loss reduces dentate gyrus inhibition in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabrielle; Balgooyen, Laura; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures usually start in the hippocampus, and dentate granule cells are hyperexcitable. Somatostatin interneurons are a major subpopulation of inhibitory neurons in the dentate gyrus, and many are lost in patients and animal models. However, surviving somatostatin interneurons sprout axon collaterals and form new synapses, so the net effect on granule cell inhibition remains unclear. The present study uses optogenetics to activate hilar somatostatin interneurons and measure the inhibitory effect on dentate gyrus perforant path-evoked local field potential responses in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In controls, light activation of hilar somatostatin interneurons inhibited evoked responses up to 40%. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons and less light-induced inhibition of evoked responses. These findings suggest that severe epilepsy-related loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons can overwhelm the surviving interneurons' capacity to compensate by sprouting axon collaterals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Antiepileptic effect of fisetin in iron-induced experimental model of traumatic epilepsy in rats in the light of electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jharana; Singh, Rameshwar; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats. Fisetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) of rats for 12 weeks were chosen followed by injecting iron (5 µl, 100 mM) stereotaxically to generate iron-induced epilepsy. Experimental design include electrophysiological study (electroencephalograph in correlation with multiple unit activity (MUA) in the cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus; spectral analysis of seizure and seizure-associated behavioral study (Morris water maze for spatial learning, open-field test for anxiety) and biochemical study (lipid peroxidation, Na + ,K + -ATPase activity) in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Fisetin pretreatment was found to prevent the development of iron-induced electrical seizure and decrease the corresponding MUA in the cortex (*P˂0.05) as well as in the hippocampus (***P˂0.001). Fisetin pretreatment decreased the lipid peroxides (*P˂0.05) and retained the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity (*P˂0.05) which was found altered in the epileptic animals and also found to attenuate the seizure-associated cognitive dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the antiepileptic action of fisetin in iron-induced model of epileptic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  4. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlage, Fred R.; Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable

  5. The immature dentate gyrus represents a shared phenotype of mouse models of epilepsy and psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick; Kobayashi, Katsunori; Hagihara, Hideo; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Miyake, Shinichi; Tajinda, Katsunori; Walton, Noah M; Gross, Adam K; Heusner, Carrie L; Chen, Qian; Tamura, Kouichi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki

    2013-06-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, share common etiologies, pathophysiologies, genetics, and drug responses with many of the epilepsies. Here, we explored overlaps in cellular/molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral phenotypes between putative mouse models of bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that an immature dentate gyrus (iDG), whose association with psychosis in patients has recently been reported, represents a common phenotype of both diseases. Behaviors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (α-CaMKII) heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice, which are a representative bipolar disorder/schizophrenia model displaying iDG, and pilocarpine-treated mice, which are a representative epilepsy model, were tested followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)/immunohistochemistry for mRNA/protein expression associated with an iDG phenotype. In vitro electrophysiology of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) was examined in pilocarpine-treated epileptic mice. The two disease models demonstrated similar behavioral deficits, such as hyperactivity, poor working memory performance, and social withdrawal. Significant reductions in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the mature neuronal marker calbindin and concomitant increases in mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of the immature neuronal marker calretinin represent iDG signatures that are present in both mice models. Electrophysiologically, we have confirmed that DG GCs from pilocarpine-treated mice represent an immature state. A significant decrease in hippocampal α-CaMKII protein levels was also found in both models. Our data have shown iDG signatures from mouse models of both bipolar disorder/schizophrenia and epilepsy. The evidence suggests that the iDG may, in part, be responsible for the abnormal behavioral phenotype, and that the underlying pathophysiologies in epilepsy

  6. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflur......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses...... of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus...... intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated...

  7. Oral tremor induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is suppressed by the adenosine A2A antagonists MSX-3 and SCH58261, but not the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Brennum, Lise T; Sager, Thomas N; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Hinman, James R; Chrobak, James J; Salamone, John D

    2010-02-01

    Tremulous jaw movements in rats, which can be induced by dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, have served as a useful model for studies of tremor. Although adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reduce the tremulous jaw movements induced by DA antagonists and DA depletion, there are conflicting reports about the interaction between adenosine antagonists and cholinomimetic drugs. The present studies investigated the ability of adenosine antagonists to reverse the tremorogenic effect of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. While the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 was incapable of reversing the tremulous jaw movements induced by the 4.0mg/kg dose of pilocarpine, both MSX-3 and the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 reversed the tremulous jaw movements elicited by 0.5mg/kg pilocarpine. Systemic administration of the adenosine A(1) antagonist DPCPX failed to reverse the tremulous jaw movements induced by either an acute 0.5mg/kg dose of the cholinomimetic pilocarpine or the DA D2 antagonist pimozide, indicating that the tremorolytic effects of adenosine antagonists may be receptor subtype specific. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-3 and SCH 58261 showed substantial in vivo occupancy of A(2A) receptors, but DPCPX did not. The results of these studies support the use of adenosine A(2A) antagonists for the treatment of tremor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    rats was 50% slower than that of the sham-irradiated rats. In conclusion, 1.5% isoflurane was found to be a good compromise between proper anesthesia and isoflurane-induced inhibition of saliva secretion. Pilocarpine induces saliva secretion in a dose-dependent matter, with supra-maximal stimulation...

  9. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Folador Mattioli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30 or 60 days (group C60 or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo. The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30 or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30; fluoxetine (group FS60 or venlafaxine (group VS60 with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60 or venlafaxine (group VP60 with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60 induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days.

  10. A single subconvulsant dose of domoic acid at mid-gestation does not cause temporal lobe epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, Fanny; Clark, Kristen; Wyeth, Megan S; Abrams, Emily; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2018-05-01

    Harmful blooms of domoic acid (DA)-producing algae are a problem in oceans worldwide. DA is a potent glutamate receptor agonist that can cause status epilepticus and in survivors, temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, one-time low-dose in utero exposure to DA was reported to cause hippocampal damage and epileptiform activity, leading to the hypothesis that unrecognized exposure to DA from contaminated seafood in pregnant women can damage the fetal hippocampus and initiate temporal lobe epileptogenesis. However, development of epilepsy (i.e., spontaneous recurrent seizures) has not been tested. In the present study, long-term seizure monitoring and histology was used to test for temporal lobe epilepsy following prenatal exposure to DA. In Experiment One, the previous study's in utero DA treatment protocol was replicated, including use of the CD-1 mouse strain. Afterward, mice were video-monitored for convulsive seizures from 2 to 6 months old. None of the CD-1 mice treated in utero with vehicle or DA was observed to experience spontaneous convulsive seizures. After seizure monitoring, mice were evaluated for pathological evidence of temporal lobe epilepsy. None of the mice treated in utero with DA displayed the hilar neuron loss that occurs in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In Experiment Two, a higher dose of DA was administered to pregnant FVB mice. FVB mice were tested as a potentially more sensitive strain, because they have a lower seizure threshold, and some females spontaneously develop epilepsy. Female offspring were monitored with continuous video and telemetric bilateral hippocampal local field potential recording at 1-11 months old. A similar proportion of vehicle- and DA-treated female FVB mice spontaneously developed epilepsy, beginning in the fourth month of life. Average seizure frequency and duration were similar in both groups. Seizure frequency was lower than that of positive

  11. Immunotherapy by targeting of VGKC complex for seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a mouse model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; Feng, Xiaojuan; Fan, Zhigang; Zhu, Xingyuan; Yin, Shaohua

    2018-05-09

    Epilepsy is a type of refractory neurologic disorder mental disease, which is associated with cognitive impairments and memory dysfunction. However, the potential mechanisms of epilepsy are not well understood. Previous evidence has identified the voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) as a target in various cohorts of patients with epilepsy. In the present study, the efficacy of an antibody against VGKC (anti‑VGKC) for the treatment of epilepsy in mice was investigated. A mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy was established and anti‑VGKC treatment was administered for 30 days. Memory impairment, anxiety, visual attention, inhibitory control and neuronal loss were measured in the mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy. The results revealed that epileptic mice treated with anti‑VGKC were able to learn the task and presented attention impairment, even a tendency toward impulsivity and compulsivity. It was also exhibited that anti‑VGKC treatment decreased neuronal loss in structures classically associated with attentional performance in hippocampus. Mice who received Anti‑VGKC treatment had inhibited motor seizures and hippocampal damage as compared with control mice. In conclusion, these results indicated that anti‑VGKC treatment may present benefits for improvements of the condition of motor attention impairment and cognitive competence, which suggests that VGKC may be a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy.

  12. Age dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Holbert, William H.; Churn, Severn B.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 to 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death. PMID:19429042

  13. Age-dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E; Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Holbert, William H; Churn, Severn B; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2009-04-10

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 and 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week-old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week-old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death.

  14. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in hippocampus of rat model with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Li-ping

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 protein in hippocampus of rat model with temporal lobe epilepsy after status epilepticus (SE and explore its function in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods Rat model with temporal lobe epilepsy was induced by lithium chloride (LiCl-pilocarpine. Total protein was extracted from hippocampus and rat brain slices were obtained at different time points (0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 h and 7, 10, 30, 50 d after SE. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used for detection of the expression of TLR4 in the hippocampus. Results The results of Western blotting showed the TLR4 protein expression at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 h and 7, 10, 30 d after SE was higher than that in the control group (P 0.05. Conclusion TLR4 protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm of pyramidal cells in CA3 area of hippocampus. TLR4 protein expression in the hippocampus was increased in varying degrees at different observation time points after SE, indicating that TLR4 may play an important role in the development of epilepsy.

  15. Effect of pregabalin on apoptotic regulatory genes in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yi-dan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of pregabalin on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats induced by pilocarpine, to explore the anti-epileptic pharmacology mechanism of pregabalin, and its anti-apoptotic effect on hippocampal neurons of rats. Methods The model of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats induced by lithium-pilocarpine was established, then the rats in pregabalin treatment group received intraperitoneal injection of pregabalin (40 mg/kg once daily for three weeks. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of all rats was detected by immunohistochemical technique and Western blotting. Results Compared with normal saline group rats, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy was significantly increased (P = 0.000, for all. Pregabalin can down-regulate the expression of Bax and up-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 in hippocampus of rats compared to model group rats (P = 0.000, for all. Conclusion Pregabalin may have the effects of inhibiting cell apoptosis and protecting neurons through lowing Bax level and increasing Bcl-2 level in hippocampus of chronic temporal lobe epileptic rats.

  16. Carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berghuis, Bianca; van der Palen, Job; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)- and oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. METHODS: We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment...

  17. Morphologic Integration of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells into Dentate Gyrus Circuitry in the Pilocarpine Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael C.; Zhan, Ren-Zhi; Nadler, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, many granule cells born into the postseizure environment migrate aberrantly into the dentate hilus. Hilar ectopic granule cells (HEGCs) are hyperexcitable and may therefore increase circuit excitability. This study determined the distribution of their axons and dendrites. HEGCs and normotopic granule cells were filled with biocytin during whole-cell patch clamp recording in hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats. The apical dendrite of 86% of the biocytin-labeled HEGCs extended to the outer edge of the dentate molecular layer. The total length and branching of HEGC apical dendrites that penetrated the molecular layer were significantly reduced compared with apical dendrites of normotopic granule cells. HEGCs were much more likely to have a hilar basal dendrite than normotopic granule cells. They were about as likely as normotopic granule cells to project to CA3 pyramidal cells within the slice, but were much more likely to send at least one recurrent mossy fiber into the molecular layer. HEGCs with burst capability had less well-branched apical dendrites than nonbursting HEGCs, their dendrites were more likely to be confined to the hilus, and some exhibited dendritic features similar to those of immature granule cells. HEGCs thus have many paths along which to receive synchronized activity from normotopic granule cells and to transmit their own hyperactivity to both normotopic granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. They may therefore contribute to the highly interconnected granule cell hubs that have been proposed as crucial to development of a hyperexcitable, potentially seizure-prone circuit. PMID:21455997

  18. Carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Bianca; van der Palen, Job; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Lindhout, Dick; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Sander, Josemir W.; Møller, Rikke S.; Nikanorova, Marina; Ingason, Andrés; Depondt, Chantal; Johnson, Michael R.; Langley, Sarah R; Klein, Karl Martin; McCormack, Mark; Delanty, Norman; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; van Zijl, Janic; Muhle, Hiltrud; Borghei, Mojgansadat; Donatello, Simona; Willis, Joseph; Leu, Costin; Heggeli, Kristin; Avbersek, Andreja; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Gamberdella, Antonio; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Brodie, Martin J.; Stefánsson, Kári; Marson, Anthony G.; Jorgensen, Andrea; Auce, Pauls; Francis, Ben; Srivastava, Prashant; Sills, Graeme J.; Primec, Zvonka Rener; Krause, Roland; Wolking, Stefan; Weber, Yvonne G.; Rau, Sarah; Hengsbach, Christian; Lerche, Holger; Sonsma, Anja; Krenn, Martin; Zimprich, Fritz; Pataraia, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)– and oxcarbazepine (OXC)–induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. Methods: We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment

  19. Efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cai-Qi; Xu, Hao; Liu, Ling; Wang, Rui-Nan; Liu, Yu-Ting; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xi-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Pilocarpine has been used widely in the treatment of dry mouth and glaucoma. In this review, the authors assessed the efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for patients with head and neck cancer who have radiation-induced xerostomia. The authors conducted a systematic search including meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index Expanded. The primary outcome was the severity of xerostomia (measured using visual analog scale [VAS] scores). Adverse events were other outcomes of interest. The authors performed meta-analyses where appropriate. The authors used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias to assess the quality of the study. The authors identified 6 studies (including 752 patients in total). The results of a meta-analysis of 3 articles showed that pilocarpine was associated with a 12-point increase in VAS score (mean difference, 12.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.93-22.08; P = .02) and higher rates of adverse events compared with placebo in terms of sweating (odds ratio [OR], 3.71; 95% CI, 2.34-5.86; P xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the authors of this systematic review found the best available evidence in the meta-analysis in 3 studies, 1 of which showed no effect. The authors of this systematic review suggest that these patients take 5 milligrams of pilocarpine 3 times daily, and that there is need for further study. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroinflammatory targets and treatments for epilepsy validated in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Bauer, Sebastian; Bozzi, Yuri; Caleo, Matteo; Dingledine, Raymond; Gorter, Jan A; Henshall, David C; Kaufer, Daniela; Koh, Sookyong; Löscher, Wolfgang; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Mishto, Michele; Norwood, Braxton A; Palma, Eleonora; Poulter, Michael O; Terrone, Gaetano; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaminski, Rafal M

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence that has accumulated over the past decade strongly supports the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of human epilepsy. Specific inflammatory molecules and pathways have been identified that influence various pathologic outcomes in different experimental models of epilepsy. Most importantly, the same inflammatory pathways have also been found in surgically resected brain tissue from patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. New antiseizure therapies may be derived from these novel potential targets. An essential and crucial question is whether targeting these molecules and pathways may result in anti-ictogenesis, antiepileptogenesis, and/or disease-modification effects. Therefore, preclinical testing in models mimicking relevant aspects of epileptogenesis is needed to guide integrated experimental and clinical trial designs. We discuss the most recent preclinical proof-of-concept studies validating a number of therapeutic approaches against inflammatory mechanisms in animal models that could represent novel avenues for drug development in epilepsy. Finally, we suggest future directions to accelerate preclinical to clinical translation of these recent discoveries. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Toothbrushing-induced epilepsy: two cases report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-lei ZHOU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the major indicing factors, clinical features, therapy and prognosis of toothbrushing-induced epilepsy.  Methods The clinical manifestations, auxiliary examinations, treatment and prognosis were studied in 2 patients of toothbrushing-induced epilepsy, and related literatures were reviewed.  Results Two sisters with toothbrushing-induced epilepsy were recruited in our study. Seizures began with facial numbness and convulsive tic, then involving right arm tic, and followed by loss of consciousness. One case was associated with tongue bite. They recovered after a few minutes without administration of any antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Physical and neurological examination and brain MRI scan were normal. Prolonged video EEG (VEEG recordings during wakefulness and sleep showed normal in the older sister, and spike-slow waves in the younger sister. After brushing their teeth less vigorously in shorter time, no seizure occurred. The patients had no further seizures during follow-up.  Conclusions Toothbrushing-induced epilepsy is a rare kind of reflex epilepsy, and has tightly time-locked relationship with toothbrushing. Mild cases can be released by avoiding prolonged and vigorous brushing. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.12.012

  2. Concomitant pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation is associated with decreased posttreatment xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Robert P.; Mark, Rufus J.; Tran, Luu M.; Juillard, Guy F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare subjective postirradiation xerostomia scores of patients who received concomitant oral pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and 3 months thereafter with those of similar cohorts who did not receive pilocarpine. Methods and Materials: Subjective xerostomia was assessed using a visual analog scale xerostomia questionnaire that measured oral dryness, oral comfort, difficulty with sleep, speech, and eating. The concomitant pilocarpine group had both parotid glands in the initial field treated to at least 45 Gy and received 5 mg pilocarpine hydrochloride four times per day (q.i.d.) beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and continuing for 3 months after completion of radiation. The control cohort had also received at least 45 Gy to both parotid glands and had not received pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. Scores on the visual analog scale were averaged and compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Seventeen patients who received concomitant pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation and 18 patients who had not been treated with pilocarpine were available for follow-up. The mean intervals between completion of radiation and evaluation of xerostomia were 17 months and 16 months, respectively. Only one of the pilocarpine-treated patients was still taking pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. For each of the individual components of xerostomia scored on the visual analog scale, as well as the composite of all components, the group that had received oral pilocarpine during radiation had significantly less xerostomia (p < 0.01 for each). Conclusions: The use of 5 mg oral pilocarpine q.i.d. during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and 3 months thereafter was associated with significantly less subjective xerostomia than that reported by a similar cohort of patients who had not received pilocarpine. The continued use of pilocarpine does not appear to be necessary to maintain this benefit in most patients

  3. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  4. Anticonvulsant-induced downbeat nystagmus in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report data from two patients who developed reversible downbeat nystagmus (DBN while using AEDs within the therapeutic range. All previous reported cases of epilepsy with drug-induced DBN related to toxic levels of AEDs were summarized, and DBN was found mostly occurring in those using a sodium channel blocking AED. We propose that in our cases, the DBN with therapeutic AED levels may be explained by additive effects of sodium channel blockers. Adverse drug effects should be considered as a cause of DBN in people with epilepsy treated with multiple AEDs.

  5. Physical activity and epilepsy: proven and predicted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, Ricardo M; Cavalheiro, Esper A; da Silva, Antonio C; Scorza, Fulvio A

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting people from all ages. Unfortunately, persons with epilepsy have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and persons with epilepsy continue to be less active than the general population. For this purpose, clinical and experimental studies have analysed the effect of physical exercise on epilepsy. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychological health in people with epilepsy. The majority of physical activities or sports are safe for people with epilepsy to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family or trainers. The evidence shows that patients with good seizure control can participate in both contact and non-contact sports without harmfully affecting seizure frequency. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in people with epilepsy, discusses sports in which persons with epilepsy may participate, and describes the positive effect of physical exercise in experimental models of epilepsy.

  6. Inhibitory action of antioxidants (ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol on seizures and brain damage induced by pilocarpine in rats Ação inibitória de antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e α-tocoferol nas convulsões e dano cerebral em ratos induzidos pela pilocarpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Rocha Tomé

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of epilepsy in humans. Oxidative stress is a mechanism of cell death induced by seizures. Antioxidant compounds have neuroprotective effects due to their ability to inhibit free radical production. The objectives of this work were to comparatively study the inhibitory action of antioxidants (ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol on behavioral changes and brain damage induced by high doses of pilocarpine, aiming to further clarify the mechanism of action of these antioxidant compounds. In order to determinate neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of ascorbic acid (250 or 500 mg/kg, i.p. and α-tocopherol (200 or 400 mg/kg, i.p. on the behavior and brain lesions observed after seizures induced by pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 model in rats. Ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol injections prior to pilocarpine suppressed behavioral seizure episodes. These findings suggested that free radicals can be produced during brain damage induced by seizures. In the P400 model, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol significantly decreased cerebral damage percentage. Antioxidant compounds can exert neuroprotective effects associated with inhibition of free radical production. These results highlighted the promising therapeutic potential of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.A epilepsia de lobo temporal é a mais comum forma de epilepsia em humanos. O estresse oxidativo é um dos mecanismos de morte celular induzida pelas crises convulsivas. Os compostos antioxidantes apresentam efeitos neuroprotetores devido à sua capacidade de inibir a produção de radicais livres. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar de forma comparativa a ação inibitória de antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e α-tocoferol sobre as alterações comportamentais e histopatológicas no hipocampo de ratos após convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina. A fim de determinar os efeitos neuroprotetores

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis in kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Su, Fang; Qi, Xueting; Sun, Jianbo; Wang, Hongcai; Qiao, Zhenkui; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Yulan

    2017-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. Immunostaining and western blotting results showed that the expression levels of β-catenin, Wnt3a, and cyclin D1, the key regulators in Wnt signalling pathway, were up-regulated during acute epilepsy induced by the injection of kainic acids, indicating that Wnt signalling pathway was activated in kainic acid-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Moreover, BrdU labelling results showed that blockade of the Wnt signalling by knocking down β-catenin attenuated aberrant neurogenesis induced by kainic acids injection. Altogether, Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway mediated hippocampal neurogenesis during epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown to involve in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we discovered that Wnt3a/β-catenin signalling pathway serves as a link between aberrant neurogenesis and underlying remodelling in the hippocampus, leading to temporal lobe epilepsy, which might provide new strategies for clinical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Oxidative Stress Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Experimental Models of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Méndez-Armenta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is considered one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Oxidative stress produced by free radicals may play a role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy; the changes in the mitochondrial and the oxidative stress state can lead mechanism associated with neuronal death pathway. Bioenergetics state failure and impaired mitochondrial function include excessive free radical production with impaired synthesis of antioxidants. This review summarizes evidence that suggest what is the role of oxidative stress on induction of apoptosis in experimental models of epilepsy.

  9. α-Asarone Attenuates Cognitive Deficit in a Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Rat Model via a Decrease in the Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Reduction in Microglia Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-juan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is one of the most drug-resistant types of epilepsy with about 80% of TLE patients falling into this category. Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which has a critical role in the epileptogenesis of TLE, is associated with microglial activation. Therefore, agents that act toward the alleviation in microglial activation and the attenuation of neuroinflammation are promising candidates to treat TLE. α-Asarone is a major active ingredient of the Acori Graminei Rhizoma used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used to improve various disease conditions including stroke and convulsions. In addition, an increasing number of studies suggested that α-asarone can attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Thus, we hypothesized that α-asarone is a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of the TLE.MethodsThe present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of α-asarone on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo, using an untreated control group, a status epilepticus (SE-induced group, and an SE-induced α-asarone pretreated group. A pilocarpine-induced rat model of TLE was established to investigate the neuroprotective effects of α-asarone in vivo. For the in vitro study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated primary cultured microglial cells were used.ResultsThe results indicated that the brain microglial activation in the rats of the SE rat model led to important learning and memory deficit. Preventive treatment with α-asarone restrained microglial activation and reduced learning and memory deficit. In the in vitro studies, α-asarone significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production in primary cultured microglial cells and attenuated the LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory responses. Our mechanistic study revealed that α-asarone inhibited inflammatory processes by regulation the transcription levels of kappa-B, by blocking

  10. Interleukin-1β causes fluoxetine resistance in an animal model of epilepsy-associated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Eduardo A; Hensler, Julie G; Sankar, Raman; Shin, Don; Burke, Teresa F; Mazarati, Andréy M

    2012-04-01

    Depression represents a common comorbidity of epilepsy and is frequently resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). We tested the hypothesis that the SSRI resistance in epilepsy associated depression may be a result of a pathologically enhanced interleukin-1β (IL1-β) signaling, and consequently that the blockade of IL1-β may restore the effectiveness of SSRI. Epilepsy and concurrent depression-like impairments were induced in Wistar rats by pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE). The effects of the 2-week long treatment with fluoxetine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and their combination were examined using behavioral, biochemical, neuroendocrine, and autoradiographic assays. In post-SE rats, depression-like impairments included behavioral deficits indicative of hopelessness and anhedonia; the hyperactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; the diminished serotonin output from raphe nucleus; and the upregulation of presynaptic serotonin 1-A (5-HT1A) receptors. Fluoxetine monotherapy exerted no antidepressant effects, whereas the treatment with IL-1ra led to the complete reversal of anhedonia and to a partial improvement of all other depressive impairments. Combined administration of fluoxetine and IL-1ra completely abolished all hallmarks of epilepsy-associated depressive abnormalities, with the exception of the hyperactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, the latter remaining only partially improved. We propose that in certain forms of depression, including but not limited to depression associated with epilepsy, the resistance to SSRI may be driven by the pathologically enhanced interleukin-1β signaling and by the subsequent upregulation of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. In such forms of depression, the use of interleukin-1β blockers in conjunction with SSRI may represent an effective therapeutic approach.

  11. A Phase III placebo-controlled trial of oral pilocarpine in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Brian; Aslanidis, Julie; Kroll, Barbaranne; Lockwood, Gina; Waldron, John; Payne, David; Bayley, Andrew; Ringash, Jolie; Kim, John; Liu, F.-F.; Maxymiw, Walter; Sprague, Shelley; Cummings, Bernard J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the use of oral pilocarpine during and after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer would reduce the symptoms of post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty patients were randomized in a double-blind method to receive either pilocarpine (5-mg tablets) or placebo three times daily starting on Day 1 of RT and continuing for 1 month after treatment. The eligibility criteria included a planned dose of >50 Gy as radical or postoperative RT for head-and-neck cancer, with at least 50% of both parotid glands included in the treatment fields. The primary outcome measure was the severity of xerostomia as assessed by a patient-completed linear analog scale 3 months after RT. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life during therapy (as assessed by the McMaster University Head-and-Neck Questionnaire) and severity of mucositis during RT (as assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scales). Results: No difference was observed between the pilocarpine-treated patients and the placebo group in the severity of xerostomia score as assessed by linear analog scale at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (repeated measures analysis, p=0.92). No difference was apparent in the severity of mucositis during RT; 56.3% of patients receiving pilocarpine had Grade III/IV mucositis compared with 50.8% treated with placebo. No difference in quality of life was noted between the treatment groups during or after RT. The questionnaire score at 3 months after RT was 5.0 (SD 1.0). in the pilocarpine group and 4.9 (SD 0.9) in the placebo group. Conclusion: We were unable to detect a beneficial effect of pilocarpine on RT-induced xerostomia when administered during RT for head-and-neck cancer

  12. Increased calcineurin expression after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus is associated with brain focal edema and astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Liguang; Xue, Ping; Yang, Qianqian; Wang, Aihua

    2015-07-28

    Calcineurin plays an important role in the development of neuronal excitability, modulation of receptor's function and induction of apoptosis in neurons. It has been established in kindling models that status epilepticus induces brain focal edema and astrocyte activation. However, the role of calcineurin in brain focal edema and astrocyte activation in status epilepticus has not been fully understood. In this study, we employed a model of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and detected calcineurin expression in hippocampus by immunoblotting, brain focal edema by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-7T) and astrocyte expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that the brain focal edema was seen at 24 h after status epilepticus, and astrocyte expression was obviously seen at 7 d after status epilepticus. Meanwhile, calcineurin expression was seen at24 h and retained to 7 d after status epilepticus. A FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, remarkably suppressed the status epilepticus-induced brain focal edema and astrocyte expression. Our data suggested that calcineurin overexpression plays a very important role in brain focal edema and astrocyte expression. Therefore, calcineurin may be a novel candidate for brain focal edema occurring and intracellular trigger of astrogliosis in status epilepticus.

  13. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velíšková, Jana; DeSantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced damage are complex to contradictory and depend on different mechanisms, which have to be accounted for in data interpretation. Both estradiol and progesterone/allopregnanolone may have beneficial effects for patients with epilepsy. Individualized hormonal therapy should be considered as adjunctive treatment in patients with epilepsy to improve seizure control as well as quality of life. PMID:22504305

  14. The Pivotal Role of the Parieto-Occipital Lobe in Card Game-Induced Reflex Epilepsy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Byung In

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of card game-induced reflex epilepsy has not been determined so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis, which may give some clue about the pathogenesis in card game-induced reflex epilepsy. The 3 subjects were diagnosed with card game-induced reflex epilepsy. Evaluation involved a structured interview to obtain clinical information and brain MRI. In VBM analysis, Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 running on the MATLAB platform was employed to analyze the structural differences between patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy and age- and sex-matched control subjects. The results of VBM analysis revealed that patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy had significantly increased gray matter volume in the right occipital and parietal lobe. However, there were no structures with decreased gray matter volume in patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy compared with control subjects. In addition, we found that the patients with card game-induced reflex epilepsy had onset of seizures in adulthood rather than in adolescence, and all of the patients were men. The parieto-occipital lobes might be partially involved in the neuronal network responsible for card game-induced reflex epilepsy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Brain metabolism and diffusion in the rat cerebral cortex during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel; Voříšek, Ivan; Zoremba, N.; Homola, Aleš; Dmytrenko, Lesia; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 1 (2008), s. 145-154 ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:EU(DE) 512146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diffusion * Microdialysis * Pilocarpine Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.974, year: 2008

  16. Oral pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia: integrated efficacy and safety results from two prospective randomized clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, John W.; Hafermann, Mark D.; Johnson, Jonas T.; LeVeque, Francis G.; Iwamoto, Ryan; Steiger, Barry W.; Muscoplat, Charles; Gallagher, Susan C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Pilocarpine hydrochloride administered in either a fixed-dose or in a dose-titration protocol three times a day for 12 weeks was evaluated for its ability to relieve symptoms of postradiation xerostomia and to improve saliva production. The studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trials. A total of 369 patients who had received at least 40 Gy of radiation to the head and neck with clinically significant xerostomia were enrolled in the two studies. In the dose-titration study, 162 patients were enrolled and they received a thrice daily regimen of 2.5 mg tablets for first 4 weeks, 5.0 mg tablets for the second 4 weeks, and 10.0 mg tablets for last 4 weeks of a 12-week study. Patients in the titration study were allowed to down titrate following at least one dose escalation to alleviate bothersome side effects, if any. In the fixed dose study, 207 patients received either placebo, 5.0 mg, or 10.0 mg tablets t.i.d. for 12 weeks. Methods and Materials: Patients were evaluated for symptomatic relief by responding to questionnaires using visual analog scales and categorical questions; and, for saliva production by sialometry. Questionnaires measured relief of intraoral dryness, improvement in overall condition (global response), oral discomfort, difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing, denture wearing, and usage of artificial saliva. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in salivary flow in pilocarpine treatment groups vs. placebo. There was a significant improvement in the overall 'global' condition of xerostomia associated with the use of pilocarpine in both studies. In the fixed-dose study, there were significant improvements in oral dryness, mouth comfort, ability to speak, and reduction in the use of oral comfort agents. The dose-titration study showed improvements in dryness that approached significance (p = 0.057) and a

  17. Neuronal degeneration induced by status epilepticus in the thalami reuniens nucleus of immature rats. Are calcium binding proteins neuroprotective?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Druga, Rastislav; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. S4 (2006), s. 302-302 ISSN 0013-9580. [Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society and Canadian League against Epilepsy. 01.12.2006-05.12.2006, San Diego, CA] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pilocarpine * neurodegeneration * nucleus reuniens Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  18. In vivo Pharmacological Evaluations of Pilocarpine-Loaded Antioxidant-Functionalized Biodegradable Thermogels in Glaucomatous Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang

    2017-02-01

    To alleviate oxidative stress-induced ocular hypertension, grafting of antioxidant molecules to drug carriers enables a dual-function mechanism to effectively treat glaucomatous intraocular pressure (IOP) dysregulation. Providing potential application for intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications, this study, for the first time, aims to examine in vivo pharmacological efficacy of pilocarpine-loaded antioxidant-functionalized biodegradable thermogels in glaucomatous rabbits. A series of gallic acid (GA)-grafted gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) polymers were synthesized via redox reactions at 20-50 °C. Our results showed that raising redox radical initiation reaction temperature maximizes GA grafting level, antioxidant activity, and water content at 40 °C. Meanwhile, increase in overall hydrophilicity of GNGA carriers leads to fast polymer degradation and early pilocarpine depletion in vivo, which is disadvantageous to offer necessary pharmacological performance at prolonged time. By contrast, sustained therapeutic drug concentrations in aqueous humor can be achieved for long-term (i.e., 28 days) protection against corneal aberration and retinal injury after pilocarpine delivery using dual-function optimized carriers synthesized at 30 °C. The GA-functionalized injectable hydrogels are also found to contribute significantly to enhancement of retinal antioxidant defense system and preservation of histological structure and electrophysiological function, thereby supporting the benefits of drug-containing antioxidant biodegradable thermogels to prevent glaucoma development.

  19. Causes and consequences of pathogenic processes in evolution: Implications from experimental epilepsy in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godlevsky, L.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Shandra, A.A.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Examples from experimental epilepsy in animals are used to illustrate the view that a crucial role of the transfer of mechanisms from compensatory into pathogenic (e.g. lethal ones in the course of a disease), is played by the power of pathologic stimuli. In the genesis of epilepsy it is suggested

  20. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  1. Oxidative Stress in The Hippocampus During Experimental Seizures Can Be Ameliorated With The Antioxidant Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala Mônica Sales Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid has many nonenzymatic actions and is a powerful water-soluble antioxidant. It protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation and reduces harmful oxidants in the central nervous system. Pilocarpine-induced seizures have been suggested to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. Current studies have suggested that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid (AA in rats, against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group, ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p., AA group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group, and the association of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p. plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before of administration of ascorbic acid (AA plus pilocarpine group. After the treatments all groups were observed for 6 h. The enzyme activities as well as the lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations were measured using spectrophotometric methods and the results compared to values obtained from saline and pilocarpine-treated animals. Protective effects of ascorbic acid were also evaluated on the same parameters. In pilocarpine group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite level. However, no alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content as well as increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hippocampus of adult rats after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress in hippocampus occurs during seizures induced by pilocarpine, proving that brain damage induced by the oxidative process plays a crucial role in seizures pathogenic consequences, and also imply that a

  2. ESTIMATION OF THE NUMBER OF NEURONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS WITH PENICILLIN INDUCED EPILEPSY

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    Ilgaz Akdogan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease arising from strong and uncontrollable electrical firings of a group of neurons in the central nervous system. Experimental epileptic models have been developed to assess the physiopathology of epileptic seizures. This study was undertaken to estimate the number of neurons in the rat hippocampus with penicillin induced epilepsy, using a stereological method, "the optical fractionator". In the experimental group, 500 IU penicillin-G was injected intra-cortically, and in the control group, the same volume of saline was administered. A week later, the animals were decapitated and their brains were removed by craniatomy. Frozen brains were cut with a thickness of 150 ěm in a cryostat. Sections were collected by systematic random sampling and stained with hematoxylen-eosin. Microscopic images of pyramidal cell layers from hippocampus CA1, CA2 and CA3 subfields were then transferred to a monitor, using a 100x objective (N.A. = 1.25. Using the optical disector method, the neurons were counted in the frames and determined with a fractionator sampling scheme. The total pyramidal neuron number was then estimated using the optical fractionator method. The total pyramidal neuron number was found to be statistically lower in the experimental group (mean = 142,888 ± 11,745 than in the control group (mean = 177,953 ± 10,907 (p < 0.05. The results suggest that a decrease in the hippocampal neuronal number in a penicillin model of epilepsy can be determined objectively and efficiently using the optical fractionator method.

  3. In vivo inhibition of incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into proteins in experimental focal epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho-Netto, J.; Boyar, M.M.; Abdul-Ghani, A.S.; Bradford, H.F.

    1982-08-01

    The in vivo incorporation of (/sup 14/C) from (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose into rat brain proteins from different cortical areas was examined in three different experimental focal epilepsies: cobalt, freeze-lesions, and tityustoxin. When (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose was injected intraperitoneally into awake and unrestrained animals with marked signs of epileptic hyperactivity, the inhibition of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-amino acids into trichloracetic acid (TCA)-insoluble proteins was highest in the focal (sensorimotor) area when compared with distant regions (approx. 60%), but less when compared with the contralateral (sensorimotor) region (approx. 23%). Greatly decreased incorporation caused by both cobalt and freeze-lesion-induced epilepsies was also observed in the contralateral area when a comparison was made with distant regions (approx. 50%), but there were no significant differences in protein-specific radioactivity between the different distant areas.

  4. MR imaging of salivary glands after ductal ligation and stimulation by pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patronas, N.J.; Tsuchimoch, M.; Webber, R.; Ruttimann, U.; Fox, P.; Bacher, J.; Schellinger, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the usefulness of MR imaging in pathologic conditions of the salivary gland. The authors performed MR imaging in six dogs after ductal ligation on one side, followed by secretory stimulation with intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (5 mg/kg). On the images obtained after ductal ligation and before stimulation, there was no significant change in the signal intensity on either side. After injection of pilocarpine, however, T2-weighted images showed an obvious increase in signal intensity of the ligated gland in every instance. Their results indicate that MR images obtained after pilocarpine stimulation will be useful to study patients with ductal obstruction and that they may provide an objective basis for a noninvasive diagnostic test for unilateral stenosis

  5. Successful Treatment of Dry Mouth and Dry Eye Symptoms in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients With Oral Pilocarpine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Adjustment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Athena S; Sherrer, Yvonne S; Charney, Michael; Golden, Harvey E; Medsger, Thomas A; Walsh, Bridget T; Trivedi, Madhu; Goldlust, Barry; Gallagher, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    : Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by the presence of xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. Pilocarpine, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist, has been proven to be efficacious in treating radiation-induced xerostomia (up to 30 mg/day) and symptoms of dry mouth in Sjögren's patients (up to 20 mg/day). : To compare the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (dose-adjusted) versus placebo in the treatment of dry eye and dry mouth symptoms in Sjögren's syndrome at 6 and 12 weeks. : In this 11-center, 256-patient placebo-controlled study, the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg to 30 mg daily) for relief of Sjögren's-related dry mouth and dry eye symptoms was assessed. Changes in symptoms and salivary flow were measured over 12 weeks. : Compared with placebo, salivary flow was significantly increased in the pilocarpine group (Pdry mouth (Poral symptoms (Pdry eyes (Pdry mouth symptoms was noted at 20 mg/day, and significant relief in ocular symptoms, including lower artificial tear requirement, was noted after the dose was increased to 30 mg/day.

  6. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  7. The GABA uptake inhibitor beta-alanine reduces pilocarpine-induced tremor and increases extracellular GABA in substantia nigra pars reticulata as measured by microdialysis.

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    Ishiwari, Keita; Mingote, Susana; Correa, Merce; Trevitt, Jennifer T; Carlson, Brian B; Salamone, John D

    2004-12-30

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia that receives GABAergic projections from neostriatum and globus pallidus. Previous research has shown that local pharmacological manipulations of GABA in SNr can influence tremulous jaw movements in rats. Tremulous jaw movements are defined as rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at a particular stimulus, and evidence indicates that these movements share many characteristics with parkinsonian tremor in humans. In order to investigate the role of GABA in motor functions related to tremor, the present study tested the GABA uptake blocker beta-alanine for its ability to reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. In a parallel experiment, the effect of an active dose of beta-alanine on dialysate levels of GABA in SNr was assessed using microdialysis methods. GABA levels in dialysis samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. beta-Alanine (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by pilocarpine (4.0 mg/kg). Moreover, systemic administration of beta-alanine at a dose that reduced tremulous jaw movements (500 mg/kg) resulted in a substantial increase in extracellular levels of GABA in SNr compared to the pre-injection baseline. Thus, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic tone in SNr plays a role in the regulation of tremulous jaw movements. This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms.

  8. Effect of Oral Pilocarpine in Treating Severe Dry Eye in Patients With Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral pilocarpine in treating severe dry eye unresponsive to conventional conservative treatment in patients with Sjögren syndrome. A prospective study. Oral doses of pilocarpine were administered for at least 3 months to patients with Sjögren syndrome complicated by established dry eye of great severity unresponsive to conventional conservative treatment. Subjective eye symptoms (dry eye sensation and eye pain), fluorescein staining scores, rose Bengal staining scores, and tear film breakup time measurements improved significantly after 1 month and 3 months of oral treatment with pilocarpine, whereas no significant improvement was noted in Schirmer I testing. Oral administration of pilocarpine was useful in treating severe dry eye unresponsive to conventional conservative treatment in patients with Sjögren syndrome from the standpoint of efficacy and safety. Thus, we conclude that oral pilocarpine is effective as a new option in treating severe dry eye.

  9. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

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    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  10. Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeland, Olav B; Hadera, Mussie G; McDonald, Tanya S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Borges, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Although certain metabolic characteristics such as interictal glucose hypometabolism are well established for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of brain metabolism in a mouse model of TLE, induced by pilocarpine–status epilepticus (SE). To investigate glucose metabolism, we injected mice 3.5–4 weeks after SE with [1,2-13C]glucose before microwave fixation of the head. Using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantified metabolites and 13C labeling in extracts of cortex and hippocampal formation (HF). Hippocampal levels of glutamate, glutathione and alanine were decreased in pilocarpine–SE mice compared with controls. Moreover, the contents of N-acetyl aspartate, succinate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) NAD(P)H were decreased in HF indicating impairment of mitochondrial function. In addition, the reduction in 13C enrichment of hippocampal citrate and malate suggests decreased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover in this region. In cortex, we found reduced 13C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate via the pyruvate carboxylation and pyruvate dehydrogenation pathways, suggesting slower turnover of these amino acids and/or the TCA cycle. In conclusion, mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and altered amino-acid metabolism is found in both cortex and HF in this epilepsy model. PMID:23611869

  11. Decomposition of pilocarpine eye drops assessed by a highly efficient high pressure liquid chromatographic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuks, P. F.; Weekers, L. E.; Goldhoorn, P. B.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid high-resolution high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for assaying pilocarpine. Pilocarpine in ophthalmic solutions decomposes fairly rapidly to give isopilocarpine, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. The quality of an ophthalmic solution can be assessed by assaying

  12. Indomethacin can downregulate the levels of inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

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    Michele Juliane Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refractory status epilepticus is one of the most life-threatening neurological emergencies and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs during this period is very controversial. Thus, this study has been designed to analyze the effect of a low dose of indomethacin (a COX inhibitor on the expression of inflammatory molecules. METHOD: The hippocampus of rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced long-lasting status epilepticus was analyzed to determine the expression of inflammatory molecules with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced levels of the kinin B2 receptors IL1β and TNFα were found in the hippocampus of rats submitted to long-lasting status epilepticus and treated with indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that low doses of indomethacin could be employed to minimize inflammation during long-lasting status epilepticus.

  13. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjo, Erika R.; Higa, Guilherme S. V.; Santos, Bianca A.; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V.; Walter, Lais T.; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C.; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Kihara, Alexandre H.

    2016-01-01

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application ...

  14. Anesthesia-induced epilepsy: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xuefeng

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a type of chronic brain disease that results from an abnormally high synchronization of neuronal discharge. The typical clinical features of epilepsy are paroxysms and transient and stereotyped brain dysfunction. Many cases of epileptic seizures occurring during anesthesia have been reportedx. Recently, risk assessment of epileptic seizures during surgery and anesthesia has gained increasing attention. In this review, we systematically summarize the influence of anesthesia on epileptic seizures; the types, durations and frequencies of seizures related to anesthesia; and the epidemiology, prevention, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy. We also explore the possible mechanism of epilepsy and provide guidance for anesthesia during surgeries.

  15. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

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    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  16. Curcumin protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal damage through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Chang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Although the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, 2 novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether necroptosis and autophagy play a role in post-status-epilepticus rat hippocampus and other epilepsy mechanisms deserves further research effort. In addition, research is needed to determine whether compounds from traditional Chinese herbs possess antiepileptic effects through the modulation of necroptosis and autophagy. In this study, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the Curcuma longa plant, protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

  17. Facilitation of granule cell epileptiform activity by mossy fiber-released zinc in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Olga; Nadler, J Victor

    2006-03-17

    Recurrent mossy fiber synapses in the dentate gyrus of epileptic brain facilitate the synchronous firing of granule cells and may promote seizure propagation. Mossy fiber terminals contain and release zinc. Released zinc inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and may therefore oppose the development of granule cell epileptiform activity. Hippocampal slices from rats that had experienced pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and developed a recurrent mossy fiber pathway were used to investigate this possibility. Actions of released zinc were inferred from the effects of chelation with 1 mM calcium disodium EDTA (CaEDTA). When granule cell population bursts were evoked by mossy fiber stimulation in the presence of 6 mM K(+) and 30 microM bicuculline, CaEDTA slowed the rate at which evoked bursting developed, but did not change the magnitude of the bursts once they had developed fully. The effects of CaEDTA were then studied on the pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor- and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated components of the fully developed bursts. CaEDTA increased the magnitude of NMDA receptor-mediated bursts and reduced the magnitude of AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated bursts. CaEDTA did not affect the granule cell bursts evoked in slices from untreated rats by stimulating the perforant path in the presence of bicuculline and 6 mM K(+). These results suggest that zinc released from the recurrent mossy fibers serves mainly to facilitate the recruitment of dentate granule cells into population bursts.

  18. Prevention of organophosphate-induced chronic epilepsy by early benzodiazepine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrot, Shai; Ramaty, Erez; Biala, Yoav; Bar-Klein, Guy; Daninos, Moshe; Kamintsky, Lyn; Makarovsky, Igor; Statlender, Liran; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Lavon, Ophir; Kassirer, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Yaari, Yoel

    2014-09-02

    Poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) may induce status epilepticus (SE), leading to severe brain damage. Our objectives were to investigate whether OP-induced SE leads to the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), the hallmark of chronic epilepsy, and if so, to assess the efficacy of benzodiazepine therapy following SE onset in preventing the epileptogenesis. We also explored early changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells excitability in this model. Adult rats were poisoned with the paraoxon (450μg/kg) and immediately treated with atropine (3mg/kg) and obidoxime (20mg/kg) to reduce acute mortality due to peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Electrical brain activity was assessed for two weeks during weeks 4-6 after poisoning using telemetric electrocorticographic intracranial recordings. All OP-poisoned animals developed SE, which could be suppressed by midazolam. Most (88%) rats which were not treated with midazolam developed SRSs, indicating that they have become chronically epileptic. Application of midazolam 1min following SE onset had a significant antiepileptogenic effect (only 11% of the rats became epileptic; p=0.001 compared to non-midazolam-treated rats). Applying midazolam 30min after SE onset did not significantly prevent chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells, assessed electrophysiologically in hippocampal slices, were not altered by OP-induced SE. Thus we show for the first time that a single episode of OP-induced SE in rats leads to the acquisition of chronic epilepsy, and that this epileptogenic outcome can be largely prevented by immediate, but not delayed, administration of midazolam. Extrapolating these results to humans would suggest that midazolam should be provided together with atropine and an oxime in the immediate pharmacological treatment of OP poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in the sensitivity of GABAA current rundown to drug treatments in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Pierangelo eCifelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, the most common epileptic syndrome in adults, is still unsatisfactory, as one third of the patients are or become refractory to antiepileptic agents. Refractoriness may depend upon drug-induced alterations, but the disease per se may also undergo a progressive evolution that affects the sensitivity to drugs. mTLE has been shown to be associated with a dysfunction of the inhibitory signaling mediated by GABAA receptors. In particular, the repetitive activation of GABAA receptors produces a use-dependent decrease (rundown of the evoked currents (IGABA, which is markedly enhanced in the hippocampus and cortex of drug-resistant mTLE patients. This phenomenon has been also observed in the pilocarpine model, where the increased IGABA rundown is observed in the hippocampus at the time of the first spontaneous seizure, then extends to the cortex and remains constant in the chronic phase of the disease. Here, we examined the sensitivity of IGABA to pharmacological modulation. We focused on the antiepileptic agent levetiracetam and on the neurotrophin BDNF, which were previously reported to attenuate mTLE-induced increased rundown in the chronic human tissue. In the pilocarpine model, BDNF displayed a paramount effect, decreasing rundown in the hippocampus at the time of the first seizure, as well as in the hippocampus and cortex in the chronic period. In contrast, levetiracetam did not affect rundown in the hippocampus, but attenuated it in the cortex. Interestingly, this effect of levetiracetam was also observed on the still unaltered rundown observed in the cortex at the time of the first spontaneous seizure. These data suggest that the sensitivity of GABAA receptors to pharmacological interventions undergoes changes during the natural history of mTLE, implicating that the site of seizure initiation and the timing of treatment may highly affect the therapeutic outcome.

  20. Activity of the anticonvulsant lacosamide in experimental and human epilepsy via selective effects on slow Na+ channel inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Dominik; Opitz, Thoralf; Niespodziany, Isabelle; Wolff, Christian; Beck, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    In human epilepsy, pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major problem affecting ~30% of patients with epilepsy. Many classical antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated sodium channels, and their potent activity in inhibiting high-frequency firing has been attributed to their strong use-dependent blocking action. In chronic epilepsy, a loss of use-dependent block has emerged as a potential cellular mechanism of pharmacoresistance for anticonvulsants acting on voltage-gated sodium channels. The anticonvulsant drug lacosamide (LCM) also targets sodium channels, but has been shown to preferentially affect sodium channel slow inactivation processes, in contrast to most other anticonvulsants. We used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in acutely isolated cells to investigate the effects of LCM on transient Na + currents. Furthermore, we used whole-cell current clamp recordings to assess effects on repetitive action potential firing in hippocampal slices. We show here that LCM exerts its effects primarily via shifting the slow inactivation voltage dependence to more hyperpolarized potentials in hippocampal dentate granule cells from control and epileptic rats, and from patients with epilepsy. It is important to note that this activity of LCM was maintained in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the efficacy of LCM in inhibiting high-frequency firing is undiminished in chronic experimental and human epilepsy. Taken together, these results show that LCM exhibits maintained efficacy in chronic epilepsy, in contrast to conventional use-dependent sodium channel blockers such as carbamazepine. They also establish that targeting slow inactivation may be a promising strategy for overcoming target mechanisms of pharmacoresistance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Bianca; van der Palen, Job; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Lindhout, Dick; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-07-01

    To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)- and oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L and severe hyponatremia as Na+ ≤128 mEq/L. We identified 1,782 people who had used CBZ (n = 1,424) or OXC (n = 358), of whom 50 were treated with both drugs. Data on sodium level measurements were available in 1,132 on CBZ and in 289 on OXC. Hyponatremia occurred in 26% of those taking CBZ and 46% of those taking OXC. This was severe in 7% in the CBZ group and 22% in the OXC group. Hyponatremia was symptomatic in 48% and led to admissions in 3%. Age over 40 years, high serum levels of CBZ and OXC, and concomitant use of other antiepileptic drugs were the main risk factors for hyponatremia in both treatment groups. Female patients on OXC were at a higher risk than male patients of hyponatremia. The risk of hyponatremia on CBZ was significantly associated with the risk of hyponatremia on OXC within a subgroup that used both drugs consecutively. Hyponatremia is a common problem in people taking CBZ or OXC. Regular ascertainment of sodium levels in those taking either drug is recommended and results should be acted on. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Effect of induced epilepsy on some biochemical parameters in female rats

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    J.S. H. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of cholinesterase and some biochemical parameters of blood such as glucose, cholesterol and phospholipids were estimated in 52 epilepsy induced females of Wister albino rats. Animals of this experiment were divided into two groups, group (I regarded as control and group (II administrated subcutaneously by pentylenetetrazole 100mg/kg and divided in to three sub-groups according to the time of samples collection 3 hrs, 24 hrs and 1 week. The results revealed that epilepsy induction caused a significant inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity 3 hrs after induction while in the brain, the activity of cholinesterase was significantly increased after 24 hrs Serum glucose level was significantly elevated after 3 hrs and 24 hrs of induction, total cholesterol and phospholipids were not changed. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that epilepsy caused significant changes in cholinesterase activity in brain and serum in addition to the glucose level in the serum.

  3. Inherent vulnerabilities in monoaminergic pathways predict the emergence of depressive impairments in an animal model of chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Matus, Jesús-Servando; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether the depression comorbid with epilepsy could be predicted based on inherent premorbid patterns of monoaminergic transmission. In male Wistar rats, despair-like and anhedonia-like behaviors were examined using forced swimming and taste preference tests, respectively. Serotonergic raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) pathways were interrogated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The assays were performed before and 2 months after pilocarpine status epilepticus. In a subset of naive rats, FSCV, coupled with the intensity-dependent stimulation paradigm, detected specific deviations in each pathway (six rats for RN-PFC and seven rats for VTA-NAcc, with overlap in two, of 19 total subjects) in the absence of behavioral impairments. During epilepsy, animals with preexisting deviations in RN-PFC invariably developed despair, and rats with deviations in VTA-NAcc developed anhedonia. Serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways, respectively, showed signs of explicit deterioration. We suggest that epilepsy triggers decompensations in the already vulnerable depression-relevant neuronal circuits, which culminate in depression. The established connection between the identified specific signatures in monoamine transmission in naive rats and specific symptoms of epilepsy-associated depression may help in understanding causes of comorbidity and in developing its early biomarkers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Value of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Temporal Lobe Epilepsy on MRI

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    Tingting Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although active targeting of drugs using a magnetic-targeted drug delivery system (MTDS with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs is a very effective treatment approach for tumors and other illnesses, successful results of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE are unprecedented. A hallmark in the neuropathology of TLE is brain inflammation, in particular the activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β induced by activated glial cells, which has been considered a new mechanistic target for treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the functionalized SPIONs with anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody (mAb attached to render MRI diagnoses and simultaneously provide targeted therapy with the neutralization of IL-1β overexpressed in epileptogenic zone of an acute rat model of TLE. Experimental Design. The anti-IL-1β mAb-SPIONs were studied in vivo versus plain SPIONs and saline. Lithium-chloride pilocarpine-induced TLE models (n=60 were followed by Western blot, Perl’s iron staining, Nissl staining, and immunofluorescent double-label staining after MRI examination. Results. The magnetic anti-IL-1β mAb-SPION administered intravenously, which crossed the BBB and was concentrated in the astrocytes and neurons in epileptogenic tissues, rendered these tissues visible on MRI and simultaneously delivered anti-IL-1β mAb to the epileptogenic focus. Conclusions. Our study provides the first evidence that the novel approach enhanced accumulation and the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-1β mAb by MTDS using SPIONs.

  5. Intrinsic neurophysiological properties of hilar ectopic and normotopic dentate granule cells in human temporal lobe epilepsy and a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, A L; Sagher, O; Parent, J M; Murphy, G G

    2015-02-15

    Hilar ectopic dentate granule cells (DGCs) are a salient feature of aberrant plasticity in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and most rodent models of the disease. Recent evidence from rodent TLE models suggests that hilar ectopic DGCs contribute to hyperexcitability within the epileptic hippocampal network. Here we investigate the intrinsic excitability of DGCs from humans with TLE and the rat pilocarpine TLE model with the objective of comparing the neurophysiology of hilar ectopic DGCs to their normotopic counterparts in the granule cell layer (GCL). We recorded from 36 GCL and 7 hilar DGCs from human TLE tissue. Compared with GCL DGCs, hilar DGCs in patient tissue exhibited lower action potential (AP) firing rates, more depolarized AP threshold, and differed in single AP waveform, consistent with an overall decrease in excitability. To evaluate the intrinsic neurophysiology of hilar ectopic DGCs, we made recordings from retrovirus-birthdated, adult-born DGCs 2-4 mo after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus or sham treatment in rats. Hilar DGCs from epileptic rats exhibited higher AP firing rates than normotopic DGCs from epileptic or control animals. They also displayed more depolarized resting membrane potential and wider AP waveforms, indicating an overall increase in excitability. The contrasting findings between disease and disease model may reflect differences between the late-stage disease tissue available from human surgical specimens and the earlier disease stage examined in the rat TLE model. These data represent the first neurophysiological characterization of ectopic DGCs from human hippocampus and prospectively birthdated ectopic DGCs in a rodent TLE model. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Increases the Sensitivity of P2X7 and P2Y1 Receptors to Nucleotides at Neural Progenitor Cells of the Juvenile Rodent Hippocampus.

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    Rozmer, Katalin; Gao, Po; Araújo, Michelle G L; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Liu, Juan; Rong, Weifang; Tang, Yong; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Fernandes, Maria José S; Illes, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Patch-clamp recordings indicated the presence of P2X7 receptors at neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal brain slices prepared from transgenic nestin reporter mice. The activation of these receptors caused inward current near the resting membrane potential of the NPCs, while P2Y1 receptor activation initiated outward current near the reversal potential of the P2X7 receptor current. Both receptors were identified by biophysical/pharmacological methods. When the brain slices were prepared from mice which underwent a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus or when brain slices were incubated in pilocarpine-containing external medium, the sensitivity of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors was invariably increased. Confocal microscopy confirmed the localization of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptor-immunopositivity at nestin-positive NPCs. A one-time status epilepticus in rats caused after a latency of about 5 days recurrent epileptic fits. The blockade of central P2X7 receptors increased the number of seizures and their severity. It is hypothesized that P2Y1 receptors after a status epilepticus may increase the ATP-induced proliferation/ectopic migration of NPCs; the P2X7 receptor-mediated necrosis/apoptosis might counteract these effects, which would otherwise lead to a chronic manifestation of recurrent epileptic fits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of protease-activated receptor 1 inhibition on anxiety and fear following status epilepticus.

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    Bogovyk, Ruslan; Lunko, Oleksii; Fedoriuk, Mihail; Isaev, Dmytro; Krishtal, Oleg; Holmes, Gregory L; Isaeva, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE. We showed that SE induces a chronic decrease in the animals' anxiety-related behavior and an increase of locomotor activity. PAR1 inhibition after SE abolished the alteration of the anxiety level but does not affect the increase of locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Moreover, while PAR1 inhibition produces an impairment of memory recall in the context fear conditioning paradigm in the control group, it substantially improves contextual and cued fear learning in rats experiencing SE. These data suggest that PAR1-dependent signaling is involved in the mechanisms underlying emotional disorders in epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic cobalt-induced epilepsy: noradrenaline ionophoresis and adrenoceptor binding studies in the rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, B.; Le Saux, F.; Maurin, Y.; Trottier, S.; Chauvel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies indicate that brain noradrenaline (NA) depletion facilitates the occurrence of epileptogenic syndromes in various animal models. In cobalt-induced epilepsy in the rat, seizure activity is associated with a cortical NA denervation. In order to search for cortical adrenoceptor modifications, inonophoretic studies and adrenoceptor binding assays were performed. At the period of maximal seizure activity, there was a significant supersensitivity of cortial neurons to the ionophoretic application of NA. An increase in the density of β-adrenoceptor binding sites was observed. No modification in α 1 - and α 2 -adrenoceptor binding sites was found. This suggests that in cobalt-induced epilepsy there is a denervation supersensitivity which rests on a selective involvement of β-adrenoceptors. (Author)

  9. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

  10. A case of echolalia in a topiramate induced patient with epilepsy

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    Eşref Akıl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior which repetition of sounds and language. Topiramate is an effective drug for treatment several types of seizures. It is generally tolerated well. We reported the case of a 44-year old man patient who presented with a history of a epilepsy disorder, He had been maintained with 1000 mg/day sodium valproate for seizure episode. But this recently did not control his seizure episode. Then he was placed on topiramate (600mg/day. Following treatment, he had no seizure episode. subsequently He became incoherence, confusion, disorientation, and significant speech impairments including echolalia Thereby, we present a case of echolalia in a rapidly titrated topiramate induced in a epilepsy disorder patient. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 620-622

  11. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The study of ictal brain SPECT during seizures induced by clonidine and sleep-deprivation in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Chen Xuehong; Wang Zhengjiang; Liu Jiangyan; Feng Jianzhong; Ye Jiang; Zhao Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of combined clonidine and sleep-deprivation induced seizures for ictal brain SPECT imaging in patients with epilepsy. Methods: Fifty-two epilepsy patients were given oral clonidine plus sleep-deprivation to induce seizures with video-electroencephalogram (VEEG) monitoring. Forty-seven patients were selected as control group, whose seizures were induced by sleep-deprivation only. 99 Tc m -ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) was injected within 30 s since a clinical sign and/or a typical EEG discharge of epilepsy was recognized. Brain SPECT was performed 30 min after 99 Tc m -ECD injection. χ 2 -test was performed by using software SPSS 10.0. Results: One to two hr after oral intake of clonidine plus sleep-deprivation, 75% (39/52) patients were induced seizures, including 92.3% (36/39) with subclinical seizures and 7.7% (3/39) with clinical seizures. Ictal brain SPECT localized the lesions with high uptake of 99 Tc m -ECD in 37 (94.9%) patients. In control group, 38.3% (18/47) were induced epileptic seizures, including 77.8% (14/18) with subclinical seizures and 22.2% (4/18) with clinical seizures. The induction rate of epileptic seizures in clonidine plus sleep-deprivation group was significantly higher than that of control group (χ 2 = 13.614, P 2 = 1.253, P>0.05). Conclusions: The combination of oral intake of clonidine and sleep-deprivation could increase the induction rate of epileptic seizures and it is effective for epilepsy SPECT imaging. (authors)

  13. Targeting Microglia to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    agonist) which induces acute status epilepticus for several hours6. Status is followed by a “silent period” of several weeks where epileptiform spikes may...dramatic and stereotyped changes compared to pre-pilo baseline following status epilepticus (SE), providing a window on changes and treatment efficacy...compare  biomarkers  of   epileptogenesis  in  the  lithium-­‐pilocarpine  ( status   epilepticus ;  SE)  rat  model  using

  14. How do we make models that are useful in understanding partial epilepsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David A

    2014-01-01

    The goals of constructing epilepsy models are (1) to develop approaches to prophylaxis of epileptogenesis following cortical injury; (2) to devise selective treatments for established epilepsies based on underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; and (3) use of a disease (epilepsy) model to explore brain molecular, cellular and circuit properties. Modeling a particular epilepsy syndrome requires detailed knowledge of key clinical phenomenology and results of human experiments that can be addressed in critically designed laboratory protocols. Contributions to understanding mechanisms and treatment of neurological disorders has often come from research not focused on a specific disease-relevant issue. Much of the foundation for current research in epilepsy falls into this category. Too strict a definition of the relevance of an experimental model to progress in preventing or curing epilepsy may, in the long run, slow progress. Inadequate exploration of the experimental target and basic laboratory results in a given model can lead to a failed effort and false negative or positive results. Models should be chosen based on the specific issues to be addressed rather than on convenience of use. Multiple variables including maturational age, species and strain, lesion type, severity and location, latency from injury to experiment and genetic background will affect results. A number of key issues in clinical and basic research in partial epilepsies remain to be addressed including the mechanisms active during the latent period following injury, susceptibility factors that predispose to epileptogenesis, injury - induced adaptive versus maladaptive changes, mechanisms of pharmaco-resistance and strategies to deal with multiple pathophysiological processes occurring in parallel.

  15. Adult-onset photosensitivity: clinical significance and epilepsy syndromes including idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidis, Michalis; Tsirka, Vasiliki; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical associations of adult-onset photosensitivity, we studied the clinical and EEG data of patients who were referred due to a possible first seizure and who had a photoparoxysmal response on their EEG. Patients with clinical evidence of photosensitivity before the age of 20 were excluded. Of a total of 30 patients, four had acute symptomatic seizures, two had vasovagal syncope, and 24 were diagnosed with epilepsy. Nine of the 24 patients had idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies and predominantly generalized photoparoxysmal response, but also rare photically-induced seizures, while 15 had exclusively, or almost exclusively, reflex photically-induced occipital seizures with frequent secondary generalization and posterior photoparoxysmal response. Other important differences included a significantly older age at seizure onset and paucity of spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges in patients with photically-induced occipital seizures; only a quarter of these had occasional occipital spikes, in contrast to the idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy patients with typically generalized epileptic discharges. On the other hand, both groups shared a positive family history of epilepsy, common seizure threshold modulators (such as tiredness and sleep deprivation), normal neurological examination and MRI, a generally benign course, and good response to valproic acid. We demonstrated that photosensitivity can first occur in adult life and manifest, either as idiopathic (possibly genetic) photosensitive occipital epilepsy with secondary generalization or as an EEG, and less often, a clinical/EEG feature of idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies. Identification of idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy fills a diagnostic gap in adult first-seizure epileptology and is clinically important because of its good response to antiepileptic drug treatment and fair prognosis.

  16. Antidepressant-like effects of the aqueous macerate of the bulb of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae) in a rat model of epilepsy-associated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoupaye, Gwladys Temkou; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Daniels, Willie Mark Uren

    2013-10-20

    In Cameroonian traditional medicine various extracts of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae) have been used as a cure for various ailments that include headaches, digestive problems, muscle and joint aches, and some central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Owning to this background, the aim of the study was to investigate whether an aqueous macerate of the bulb of Gladiolus dalenii has any antidepressant activity focusing specifically on depression-like behaviours associated with epilepsy. We used the combined administration of atropine and pilocarpine to rats as our animal model of epilepsy. The forced swim test and spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test were the two tools used to assess the presence of depression-like behaviour in epileptic and control animals. The following depression-related parameters were determined: plasma ACTH, plasma corticosterone, adrenal gland weight and hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effects of Gladiolus dalenii were compared to that of fluoxetine. Our results showed that we had a valid animal model of epilepsy-induced depression as all 3 measures of construct, predictive and face validity were satisfied. The data indicated that Gladiolus dalenii significantly reduced the immobility times in the forced swim test and the locomotor activity as assessed in the open field. A similar pattern was observed when the HPA axis parameters were analysed. Gladiolus dalenii significantly reduced the levels of ACTH, corticosterone, but not the adrenal gland weight. Gladiolus dalenii significantly increased the level of BDNF in the hippocampus. In all parameters measured the effects of Gladiolus dalenii were significantly greater than those of fluoxetine. The results show that Gladiolus dalenii has antidepressant-like properties similar to those of fluoxetine in epilepsy-associated depressive states. The antidepressant activity of Gladiolus dalenii is

  17. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Lovastatin reduces neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 subfield after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus: preliminary results Lovastatina reduz a lesão celular na região CA1 do hipocampo após o status epilepticus induzido pela pilocarpina: resultados preliminares

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    Pauline Rangel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the capacity of lovastatin to prevent hippocampal neuronal loss after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE METHOD: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (A control rats, received neither pilocarpine nor lovastatin (n=5; (B control rats, received just lovastatin (n=5; (C rats that received just pilocarpine (n=5; (D rats that received pilocarpine and lovastatin (n=5. After pilocarpine injection (350mg/kg, i.p., only rats that displayed continuous, convulsive seizure activity were included in our study. Seizure activity was monitored behaviorally and terminated with an injection of diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p. after 4 h of convulsive SE. The rats treated with lovastatin received two doses of 20mg/kg via an oesophagic probe immediately and 24 hours after SE induction. Seven days after pilocarpine-induced SE, all the animals were perfused and their brains were processed for histological analysis through Nissl method. RESULTS: The cell counts in the Nissl-stained sections performed within the hippocampal formation showed a significant cell loss in rats that received pilocarpine and presented SE (CA1= 26.8 ± 13.67; CA3= 38.1 ± 7.2; hilus= 43.8 ± 3.95 when compared with control group animals (Group A: CA1= 53.2 ± 9.63; CA3= 63.5 ± 13.35; hilus= 59.08 ± 10.24; Group B: CA1= 74.3 ± 8.16; CA3= 70.1 ± 3.83; hilus= 70.6 ± 5.10. The average neuronal cell number of CA1 subfield of rats that present SE and received lovastatin (44.4 ± 17.88 was statically significant increased when compared with animals that just presented SE. CONCLUSION: Lovastatin exert a neuroprotective role in the attenuation of brain damage after SE.OBJETIVO: Capacidade da lovastatina em prevenir a perda de neurônios hipocampais após o status epilepticus (SE induzido pela pilocarpina. MÉTODO: Ratos adultos Wistar foram divididos em 4 grupos: (A ratos controles que não receberam pilocarpina nem lovastatina (n=5; (B ratos

  19. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Epilepsy, cognition and ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penas, J J

    2018-03-01

    Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals. In different animal models, with or without epilepsy, the ketogenic diet seems to have neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects. In the observational studies in pediatric epilepsy, improvements during treatment with the ketogenic diet are reported in behavior and cognitive function, particularly with respect to attention, alertness, activity level, socialization, and sleep quality. One randomized controlled trial in patients with pediatric refractory epilepsy showed a mood and cognitive activation during ketogenic diet treatment. Ketogenic diet shows a positive impact on behavioral and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. More specifically, an improvement is observed in mood, sustained attention, and social interaction.

  1. A novel PET imaging protocol identifies seizure-induced regional overactivity of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Kuntner, Claudia; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiao-Qi; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    About one third of epilepsy patients are pharmacoresistant. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein and other multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier is thought to play an important role in drug-refractory epilepsy. Thus, quantification of regionally different P-glycoprotein activity in the brain in vivo is essential to identify P-glycoprotein overactivity as the relevant mechanism for drug-resistance in an individual patient. Using the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil and different doses of co-administered tariquidar, which is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, we evaluated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) can quantify regional changes in transporter function in the rat brain at baseline and 48 h after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. P-glycoprotein expression was additionally quantified by immunohistochemistry. To reveal putative seizure-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity, we performed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance scans on a 7.0 Tesla small-animal scanner. Before P-glycoprotein modulation, brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in all regions investigated in control and post-status epilepticus rats. After administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar, which inhibits P-glycoprotein only partially, we observed increased regional differentiation in brain activity uptake in post-status epilepticus versus control rats, which diminished after maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition. Regional increases in the efflux rate constant k2, but not in distribution volume VT or influx rate constant K1, correlated significantly with increases in P-glycoprotein expression measured by immunohistochemistry. This imaging protocol proves to be suitable to detect seizure-induced regional changes in P-glycoprotein activity and is readily applicable to humans, with the aim to detect relevant mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy in vivo. PMID:21677164

  2. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children, aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  3. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  4. Neo-Timm staining in the thalamus of chronically epileptic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamani C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is an important modulator of seizures and is severely affected in cholinergic models of epilepsy. In the present study, chronically epileptic rats had their brains processed for neo-Timm and acetylcholinesterase two months after the induction of status epilepticus with pilocarpine. Both controls and pilocarpine-treated animals presented neo-Timm staining in the anterodorsal nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, reticular nucleus, most intralaminar nuclei, nucleus reuniens, and rhomboid nucleus of the thalamus, as well as in the zona incerta. The intensity of neo-Timm staining was similar in control and pilocarpine-treated rats, except for the nucleus reuniens and the rhomboid nucleus, which had a lower intensity of staining in the epileptic group. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy, zinc seems to modulate glutamate release and to decrease seizure activity. In this context, a reduction of neo-Timm-stained terminals in the midline thalamus could ultimately result in an increased excitatory activity, not only within its related nuclei, but also in anatomical structures that receive their efferent connections. This might contribute to the pathological substrate observed in chronic pilocarpine-treated epileptic animals.

  5. [A case of musicogenic epilepsy induced by listening to an American pop music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M; Takase, Y; Tatsumi, C

    1998-12-01

    This is the second report of musicogenic epilepsy in Japan. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to the musicogenic epilepsy. She had four generalized tonic clonic seizures at 18 and 19 years old. Since 19, she had had complex partial seizures lasting for about 20 seconds which was easily evoked by listening to an American pops particularly "Dreamlover" song by Mariah Carey. Brian MRI and interictal 99mTc HMPAO-SPECT showed no abnormalities. In the ictal EEG recording, three minutes after listening to the song, seizure activities were recorded from the right temporal region with 11Hz rhythmic epileptiform activities over the right temporal region and subsequent delta activities over the right hemisphere. The song that induced the seizure had a specific meaning that might evoke her emotion as had been pointed out in the previous reports.

  6. Translational approach for gene therapy in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Melin, Esbjörn; Christiansen, Søren H.

    2016-01-01

    clinical trial for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy was explored: We investigated (i) whether the post intrahippocampal kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of chronic epilepsy in rats could be clinically relevant; and (ii) whether a translationally designed neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor...

  7. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Filipa; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Robalo, Conceição; Simões, Mário Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  8. Exacerbation of benign familial neonatal epilepsy induced by massive doses of phenobarbital and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tomoki; Shimizu, Miki; Sekiguchi, Kazuhito; Ishii, Atsushi; Ihara, Yukiko; Hirose, Shinichi; Izumi, Tatsuro

    2014-08-01

    Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are the first-line anticonvulsants for neonatal seizures. However, in immature brains, those drugs may lead to paradoxical neuronal excitation. A patient with benign familial neonatal epilepsy developed epileptic encephalopathy after massive doses of phenobarbital that were followed by a continuous infusion of midazolam on postnatal day 3. Electroencephalography revealed rhythmic delta activity in clusters with migrating epileptic foci. After discontinuation of both drugs, the patient's consciousness promptly improved and her electroencephalography normalized on postnatal day 5. This baby developed persistent electroencephalographic seizures due to massive doses of phenobarbital and midazolam. Clinicians should be aware of this anticonvulsant-induced paradoxical neuronal excitation and the uncoupling phenomenon, especially in individuals with benign familial neonatal epilepsy, who have low seizure thresholds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epilepsy as an Analogue of Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVellis, Robert F.; And Others

    The occurrence of unpredictable and often unavoidable aversive seizures in epilepsy bears a striking resemblance to the conditions known to induce learned helplessness. Additionally, depression and other characteristics associated with helplessness seem to occur more frequently among persons with epilepsy. Data from a national survey of…

  10. Altered intrinsic functional connectivity in the latent period of epileptogenesis in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoin; Jung, Seungmoon; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The latent period, a seizure-free phase, is the duration between brain injury and the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during epileptogenesis. The latent period is thought to involve several progressive pathophysiological events that lead to the evolution of the chronic epilepsy phase. Hence, it is vital to investigate the changes in the latent period during epileptogenesis in order to better understand temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to achieve early diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition. Accordingly, recent studies with patients with TLE using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have reported that alterations of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) during the chronic period are associated with some clinical manifestations, including learning and memory impairments, emotional instability, and social behavior deficits, in addition to repetitive seizure episodes. In contrast, the changes in the intrinsic rsFC during epileptogenesis, particularly during the latent period, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the alterations in intrinsic rsFC during the latent and chronic periods in a pilocarpine-induced TLE mouse model using intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI). This technique can monitor the changes in the local hemoglobin concentration according to neuronal activity and can help investigate large-scale brain intrinsic networks. After seeding on the anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) and calculating the correlation coefficients between each ROI, we established and compared functional correlation matrices and functional connectivity maps during the latent and chronic periods of epilepsy. We found a decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC at the frontal and temporal regions during both the latent and chronic periods. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the interhemispheric rsFC was observed in the somatosensory area during the chronic period. Changes in network configurations during

  11. Seizure frequency correlates with loss of dentate gyrus GABAergic neurons in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Paul S.; Abrams, Emily; Wen, Xiling

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. This study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31–61 days earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 hr/day every day for 24–36 days. Over 4,060 seizures were observed. Seizure frequency ranged from an average of one every 3.6 days to one every 2.1 hr. Hippocampal sections were processed for Nissl stain, Prox1-immunocytochemistry, GluR2-immunocytochemistry, Timm stain, glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunocytochemistry, glutamic acid decarboxylase in situ hybridization, and parvalbumin-immunocytochemistry. Stereological methods were used to measure hilar ectopic granule cells, mossy cells, mossy fiber sprouting, astrogliosis, and GABAergic interneurons. Seizure frequency was not significantly correlated with the generation of hilar ectopic granule cells, the number of mossy cells, the extent of mossy fiber sprouting, the extent of astrogliosis, or the number of GABAergic interneurons in the molecular layer or hilus. Seizure frequency significantly correlated with the loss of GABAergic interneurons in or adjacent to the granule cell layer, but not with the loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons. These findings prioritize the loss of granule cell layer interneurons for further testing as a potential cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:28425097

  12. Seizure frequency correlates with loss of dentate gyrus GABAergic neurons in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Paul S; Abrams, Emily; Wen, Xiling

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. This study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31-61 days earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 hr/day every day for 24-36 days. Over 4,060 seizures were observed. Seizure frequency ranged from an average of one every 3.6 days to one every 2.1 hr. Hippocampal sections were processed for Nissl stain, Prox1-immunocytochemistry, GluR2-immunocytochemistry, Timm stain, glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunocytochemistry, glutamic acid decarboxylase in situ hybridization, and parvalbumin-immunocytochemistry. Stereological methods were used to measure hilar ectopic granule cells, mossy cells, mossy fiber sprouting, astrogliosis, and GABAergic interneurons. Seizure frequency was not significantly correlated with the generation of hilar ectopic granule cells, the number of mossy cells, the extent of mossy fiber sprouting, the extent of astrogliosis, or the number of GABAergic interneurons in the molecular layer or hilus. Seizure frequency significantly correlated with the loss of GABAergic interneurons in or adjacent to the granule cell layer, but not with the loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons. These findings prioritize the loss of granule cell layer interneurons for further testing as a potential cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  14. Epilepsy and cataplexy in Angelman syndrome. Genotype-phenotype correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granild Bie Mertz, Line; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and low threshold for laughter. Aims: We investigated the occurrence and severity of epilepsy and laughter-induced loss of postural muscle tone determined by the different genetic...... was present in 3/4 children with UBE3A mutation, and 4/5 with pUPD. Onset of epilepsy occurred earlier in deletion cases compared to pUPD or UBE3A mutations cases. Laughter-induced postural muscle tone loss occurred only among deletion cases. We found no differences in severity of epilepsy between children...... common in patients with AS, especially in patients with a deletion. Postural muscle tone loss and collapsing during outbursts of laughter were seen in patients with a deletion only. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion

  16. A case of epilepsy induced by eating or by visual stimuli of food made of minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Naoya; Inoue, Takeshi; Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2017-08-31

    We report a 34-year-old woman with eating epilepsy induced not only by eating but also seeing foods made of minced meat. In her early 20s of age, she started having simple partial seizures (SPS) as flashback and epigastric discomfort induced by particular foods. When she was 33 years old, she developed SPS, followed by secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS) provoked by eating a hot dog, and 6 months later, only seeing the video of dumpling. We performed video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring while she was seeing the video of soup dumpling, which most likely caused sGTCS. Ictal EEG showed rhythmic theta activity in the left frontal to mid-temporal area, followed by generalized seizure pattern. In this patient, seizures were provoked not only by eating particular foods but also by seeing these. This suggests a form of epilepsy involving visual stimuli.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles of pilocarpine HCl for ocular application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütfi, Genç; Müzeyyen, Demirel

    2013-01-01

    Pilocarpine is used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Various studies were performed to improve the bioavailability and prolong the residence time of drugs in ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles offer several favourable biological properties, such as biodegradability, nontoxicity, biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness. Therefore, preparing positively-charged pilocarpine HCl-loaded polymeric and lipid nanoparticles was the purpose of this study. Nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The non-biodegradable positively-charged polymer Eudragit(®) RS 100 and semi-solid lipid excipient Gelucire(®) 44/14 were used as a vehicle, the cationic lipid octadecylamine was used as a cationic agent. The formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential measurement, thermal behavior (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC), entrapment efficacy and pH. Characterizations of nanoparticles were analyzed during the storage period of 6 months for stability tests. Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles could be prepared successfully promising their use for ophthalmic delivery.

  18. Optogenetic control of thalamus as a tool for interrupting penicillin induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yechao; Ma, Feiqiang; Li, Hongbao; Wang, Yueming; Xu, Kedi

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin epilepsy model, whose discharge resembles that of human absence epilepsy, is one of the most useful acute experimental epilepsy models. Though closed-loop optogenetic strategy of interrupting seizures was proved sufficient to switch off epilepsy by controlling thalamus in the post-lesion partial chronic epilepsy model, doubts still exist in absence epilepsy attenuation through silencing thalamus. Here we directly arrested the thalamus to modulate penicillin-induced absence seizures through pseudorandom responsive stimulation on eNpHR-transfected rats. Our data suggested that the duration of epileptiform bursts under light conditions, compared with no light conditions, did not increase or decrease when modulated specific eNpHR-expressing neurons in thalamus.

  19. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  20. Common comorbidity of epilepsy: a review of new progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of medical and neurologic disorders occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population and constitutes somatic comorbidity. Common examples include migraine, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, sleep disorder, cognitive damage, developmental abnormality and so on. There are more interesting clinical features in some special types of patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECT, temporal epilepsy and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The association between epilepsy and other conditions can be due to a variety of interacting genetic, biologic structural, functional, pharmacological and environmental factors. Co-existence of other disorders in a person with epilepsy can complicate diagnosis, induce adverse prognostic implications and attenuate health?related quality of life. Therefore, recognition and management of comorbidity of epilepsy may facilitate the treatment of epilepsy. In this article, we review recent pathophysiologic and clinical studies to elucidate the etiology, mechanisms, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of common comorbidity of epilepsy.

  1. Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Zurolo, Emanuele; Iyer, Anand; de Groot, Marjolein; Anink, Jasper; Carbonell, Caterina; van Vliet, Erwin A; Baayen, Johannes C; Boison, Detlev; Gorter, Jan A

    2011-09-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK) represents the key metabolic enzyme for the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels in the brain. In adult brain, ADK is primarily present in astrocytes. Several lines of experimental evidence support a critical role of ADK in different types of brain injury associated with astrogliosis, which is also a prominent morphologic feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We hypothesized that dysregulation of ADK is an ubiquitous pathologic hallmark of TLE. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, we investigated ADK protein expression in a rat model of TLE during epileptogenesis and the chronic epileptic phase and compared those findings with tissue resected from TLE patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). In rat control hippocampus and cortex, a low baseline expression of ADK was found with mainly nuclear localization. One week after the electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE), prominent up-regulation of ADK became evident in astrocytes with a characteristic cytoplasmic localization. This increase in ADK persisted at least for 3-4 months after SE in rats developing a progressive form of epilepsy. In line with the findings from the rat model, expression of astrocytic ADK was also found to be increased in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of patients with TLE. In addition, in vitro experiments in human astrocyte cultures showed that ADK expression was increased by several proinflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide). These results suggest that dysregulation of ADK in astrocytes is a common pathologic hallmark of TLE. Moreover, in vitro data suggest the existence of an additional layer of modulatory crosstalk between the astrocyte-based adenosine cycle and inflammation. Whether this interaction also can play a role in vivo needs to be further investigated. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korczyn, A.D.; Schachter, S.C.; Brodie, M.J.; Dalal, S.S.; Engel Jr., J.; Guekht, A.; Hecimovic, H.; Jerbi, K.; Kanner, A.M.; Landmark, C.J.; Mareš, Pavel; Marusič, P.; Meletti, S.; Mula, M.; Patsalos, P. N.; Reuber, M.; Ryvlin, P.; Štillová, K.; Tuchman, R.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-302 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epilepsy * psychiatry * clinical studies * experimental models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  3. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K W; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were -0.53 and -0.27 (P=.45) and -0.6 and -0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint-the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR-was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  5. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raimond K.W., E-mail: wongrai@hhsc.ca [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Deshmukh, Snehal [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wyatt, Gwen [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Sagar, Stephen [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Singh, Anurag K. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Sultanem, Khalil [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F. [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Yom, Sue S. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cardinale, Joseph [Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yao, Min [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hodson, Ian [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Matthiesen, Chance L. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Suh, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Thakrar, Harish [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County MB-CCOP, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berk, Lawrence [University of South Florida H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  6. Management of epilepsy in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Poza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan José PozaDepartment of Neurology, Hospital Donostia, San Sebastián, SpainAbstract: Epilepsy among the elderly is a frequently occurring pathology, differing in etiology, clinical presentation and prognosis from those of young people. In addition, beyond a certain age, physiological modifications are produced in the metabolism which alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, increasing the risk of pharmacological interactions, already greater in these patients due to the frequency of poly-pharmacy. Furthermore, elderly patients are particularly sensitive to certain secondary effects of AEDs, as for example, cognitive disturbances, osteoporosis or weight increase. Given that the efficacy of the major AEDs is a priori quite similar, and that the epilepsies occurring in this age-group generally have a good prognosis, the selection of an AED will depend more upon its pharmacokinetics and ability to induce certain secondary effects than on its efficacy. In this respect, levetiracetam and pregabalin, followed by oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine have the most favorable pharmocokinetical profile. Moreover, on the whole these drugs have very few cognitive effects, do not induce osteoporosis and, with the exception of pregabalin, do not affect weight, making them the first selection for use in the treatment of epilepsy in the elderly.Keywords: epilepsy, the elderly, antiepileptic drugs

  7. [Participation of People with Epilepsy in Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2017-02-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) have been discouraged from participating in exercise and sports because of the fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency, risks associated with such activities, stigma, and overprotection. Recently, there has been a shift in the medical recommendations toward encouraging, rather than restricting, participation. Cases of exercise-induced seizures are rare. Physical activity can exert beneficial actions, such as a reduction in seizure susceptibility and the number of seizures, improvement in quality of life (QOL), and better social integration. The antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective effects of exercise in epilepsy have been shown. The majority of sports are safe for PWE to participate in when special attention is paid to seizure control, direct supervision, etc. Human and animal studies have supported the use of exercise as a therapy for epilepsy, complementary to standard treatments. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidelines concerning the participation of PWE in sports activities. Sports are divided into three categories based on the potential risk of injury or death. Engaging in physical exercise and sports activities has positive effects for PWE. The ILAE propose to use the regulations governing the issuance of fitness certificates for driving as a possible guide. The decision to participate in sports is based on whether the benefit outweighs the risk.

  8. Neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy: Role of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarati, Andrey M; Lewis, Megan L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a high incidence of comorbid neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the association of epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and depression. There is high concordance of these behavioral pathologies with epilepsy. We review data that unambiguously reveal that epilepsy, ASD, and depression are associated with elevated brain inflammatory markers and that these may interact with serotoninergic pathways. Interference with inflammatory pathways or actions can reduce the severity of seizures, depression, and ASD-like behavior. Inflammation in the brain can be induced by seizure activity as well as by behavioral, environmental, and physiologic stressors. Furthermore, induction of inflammation at an early time point during gestation and in early neonatal life can precipitate both an ASD-like phenotype as well as a more excitable brain. It appears likely that priming of the brain due to early inflammation could provide a means by which subsequent inflammatory processes associated with epilepsy, ASD, and depression may lead to comorbidity. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and clas......-sification. More than two thirds of patients with epilepsy can obtain complete seizure control. The remainders, counting around 12.000 patients in Denmark, having medical refractory epilepsy should be considered for other treatment options; epilepsy surgery or other non-pharmacological treatment....

  11. Involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin in Kainic Acid-Induced Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Kiasalari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuronal apoptosis. Curcumin has antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities, therefore this study was conducted to assess involvement of Bax and Bcl2 in protective effect of curcumin in epileptic rats. Methods: 28 rats were divided into sham, curcumin-pretreated sham, epileptic (kainate, and curcumin-pretreated epileptic groups. Experimental model of epilepsy was induced by intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid. Rats received curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Finally, Nissl staining and Bax and Bcl2 immunohistochemistry were conducted on hippocampal sections and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. The p-value less than 0.05was considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of epilepsy was followed by a significant seizure and curcumin pretreatment significantly reduced seizure intensity (p<0.01. In addition, there were no significant differences between the groups in Nissl staining of CA3 area neurons. In addition, Bax positive neurons were observed in CA3 area in kainate group and significantly decreased in curcumin pretreated rats (p<0.05. Meanwhile, Bcl2 positive neurons were also moderately observed in kainate group and curcumin pretreatment significantly increased it (p<0.05. Conclusion: Curcumin pretreatment exhibits anticonvulsant activity in epileptic rats. It also decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and significantly enhances the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and hence could reduce neuronal apoptosis.

  12. Proteomic profiling of the epileptic dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Aiqing; Choi, Yun-Sik; Dziema, Heather; Cao, Ruifeng; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Jung, Yeon Joo; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the ...

  13. Gallic acid grafting effect on delivery performance and antiglaucoma efficacy of antioxidant-functionalized intracameral pilocarpine carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Functionalization of therapeutic carrier biomaterials can potentially provide additional benefits in drug delivery for disease treatment. Given that this modification determines final therapeutic efficacy of drug carriers, here, we investigate systematically the role of grafting amount of antioxidant gallic acid (GA) onto GN in situ gelling copolymers made of biodegradable gelatin and thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for intracameral delivery of pilocarpine in antiglaucoma treatment. As expected, increasing redox reaction time increased total antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging abilities of synthesized carrier biomaterials. The hydrophilic nature of antioxidant molecules strongly affected physicochemical properties of carrier materials with varying GA grafting amounts, thereby dictating in vitro release behaviors and mechanisms of pilocarpine. In vitro oxidative stress challenges revealed that biocompatible carriers with high GA content alleviated lens epithelial cell damage and reduced reactive oxygen species. Intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in glaucomatous rabbits showed correlations with GA-mediated release of pilocarpine. Additionally, enhanced pharmacological treatment effects prevented corneal endothelial cell loss during disease progression. Increasing GA content increased total antioxidant level and decreased nitrite level in the aqueous humor, suggesting a much improved antioxidant status in glaucomatous eyes. This work significantly highlights the dependence of physicochemical properties, drug release behaviors, and bioactivities on intrinsic antioxidant capacities of therapeutic carrier biomaterials for glaucoma treatment. Development of injectable biodegradable polymer depots and functionalization of carrier biomaterials with antioxidant can potentially provide benefits such as improved bioavailability, controlled release pattern, and increased therapeutic effect in intracameral pilocarpine administration for glaucoma

  14. Remifentanil-induced spike activity as a diagnostic tool in epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlykke, L; Knudsen, M L; Høgenhaven, H

    2008-01-01

    To assess the value of remifentanil in intraoperative evaluation of spike activity in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).......To assess the value of remifentanil in intraoperative evaluation of spike activity in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)....

  15. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16 years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epilepsia What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and people ... for epilepsy than somebody whose family has no history of seizures. How Can Doctors Help? If a ...

  17. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eventually become less frequent or disappear altogether. What Causes Epilepsy? This's no clear-cut answer to why people ... epilepsy. Often doctors can't pinpoint the exact cause of a person's epilepsy. But scientists do know that some things can ...

  18. Depression and genetic causal attribution of epilepsy in multiplex epilepsy families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Shawn T; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Phelan, Jo C; Winawer, Melodie R; Shostak, Sara; Goldsmith, Jeff; Chung, Wendy K; Ottman, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Rapid advances in genetic research and increased use of genetic testing have increased the emphasis on genetic causes of epilepsy in patient encounters. Research in other disorders suggests that genetic causal attributions can influence patients' psychological responses and coping strategies, but little is known about how epilepsy patients and their relatives will respond to genetic attributions of epilepsy. We investigated the possibility that among members of families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy, depression, the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in the epilepsies, might be related to the perception that epilepsy has a genetic cause. A self-administered survey was completed by 417 individuals in 104 families averaging 4 individuals with epilepsy per family. Current depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Genetic causal attribution was assessed by three questions addressing the following: perceived likelihood of having an epilepsy-related mutation, perceived role of genetics in causing epilepsy in the family, and (in individuals with epilepsy) perceived influence of genetics in causing the individual's epilepsy. Relatives without epilepsy were asked about their perceived chance of developing epilepsy in the future, compared with the average person. Prevalence of current depression was 14.8% in 182 individuals with epilepsy, 6.5% in 184 biologic relatives without epilepsy, and 3.9% in 51 individuals married into the families. Among individuals with epilepsy, depression was unrelated to genetic attribution. Among biologic relatives without epilepsy, however, prevalence of depression increased with increasing perceived chance of having an epilepsy-related mutation (p = 0.02). This association was not mediated by perceived future epilepsy risk among relatives without epilepsy. Depression is associated with perceived likelihood of carrying an epilepsy-related mutation among individuals without epilepsy in families containing

  19. Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronically epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Hu, Ming; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE. Two months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, the chronically epileptic mice were treated with aspirin (20 mg, 60 mg or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 10 weeks. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored by video camera for 2 weeks. To evaluate the profile of hippocampal neurogenesis, the newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker BrdU. The newborn neurons that extended axons to CA3 area were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing. Administration of aspirin with a dosage of 60 mg or 80 mg/kg initiated at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly reduced the frequency and duration of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Aspirin treatment also increased the number of newborn neurons with anatomic integration through improving the survival of the newly generated cells. Aspirin treatment during the chronic stage of TLE could attenuate the spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition of COX-PGE2 pathway might partly contribute to this anti-epileptic effect. Highlights • Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures of chronically epileptic mice • Aspirin increases neurogenesis of chronically epileptic hippocampus by improving the survival of newly generated cells • Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition

  20. Deficit of Kcnma1 mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus of epileptic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolinsky, Boris; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Zarei, Masoud M.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2008-01-01

    Epileptogenesis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is determined by several factors including abnormalities in the expression and function of ion channels. Here, we report a long-lasting deficit in gene expression of Kcnma1 coding for the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK, MaxiK) channel α-subunits after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. By using comparative real-time PCR, Taqman gene expression assays, and the delta-delta comparative threshold method we detected a significant reduction in Kcnma1 expression in microdissected dentate gyrus at different intervals after status epilepticus (24 h, 10 days, 1 month, and more than 2 months). BK channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability and transmitter release. Hence, defective Kcnma1 expression may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:18695509

  1. Cognitive rehabilitation in epilepsy: An evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Elisabetta; Raglio, Alfredo; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    To review the modalities of cognitive rehabilitation (CR), outcome endpoints, and the levels of evidence of efficacy of different interventions. A systematic research in Pubmed, Psychinfo, and SCOPUS was performed assessing the articles written in the entire period covered by these databases till December 2013. Articles in English, Spanish or French were evaluated. A manual research evaluated the references of all of the articles. The experimental studies were classified according to the level of evidence of efficacy, using a standardized Italian method (SPREAD, 2007), adopting the criteria reported by Cicerone et al. (2000, 2011). Eighteen papers were classified into two reviews, four papers dealing with the principles and efficacy of CR in epilepsy, a methodological paper, a single-case report, a multiple-case report, and nine experimental papers. Most studies involved patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Different types of CR were used to treat patients with epilepsy. A holistic rehabilitation approach was more useful than selective interventions to treat memory and attention disturbances. CR may be a useful tool to treat cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy. However, the modalities of treatment and outcome endpoints are important concerns of clinical care and research. Controlled studies are needed to determine the efficacy of rehabilitation in well-defined groups of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rosiglitazone Suppresses In Vitro Seizures in Hippocampal Slice by Inhibiting Presynaptic Glutamate Release in a Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wong

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor whose agonist, rosiglitazone has a neuroprotective effect to hippocampal neurons in pilocarpine-induced seizures. Hippocampal slice preparations treated in Mg2+ free medium can induce ictal and interictal-like epileptiform discharges, which is regarded as an in vitro model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. We applied rosiglitazone in hippocampal slices treated in Mg2+ free medium. The effects of rosiglitazone on hippocampal CA1-Schaffer collateral synaptic transmission were tested. We also examined the neuroprotective effect of rosiglitazone toward NMDA excitotoxicity on cultured hippocampal slices. Application of 10 μM rosiglitazone significantly suppressed amplitude and frequency of epileptiform discharges in CA1 neurons. Pretreatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not block the effect of rosiglitazone on suppressing discharge frequency, but reverse the effect on suppressing discharge amplitude. Application of rosiglitazone suppressed synaptic transmission in the CA1-Schaffer collateral pathway. By miniature excitatory-potential synaptic current (mEPSC analysis, rosiglitazone significantly suppressed presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This phenomenon can be reversed by pretreating PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Also, rosiglitazone protected cultured hippocampal slices from NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The protective effect of 10 μM rosiglitazone was partially antagonized by concomitant high dose GW9662 treatment, indicating that this effect is partially mediated by PPARγ receptors. In conclusion, rosiglitazone suppressed NMDA receptor-mediated epileptiform discharges by inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Rosiglitazone protected hippocampal slice from NMDA excitotoxicity partially by PPARγ activation. We suggest that rosiglitazone could be a potential agent to treat patients with TLE.

  3. Reflex reading epilepsy: effect of linguistic characteristics on spike frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Dima; Lassonde, Maryse; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Denault, Carole; Macoir, Joël; Rouleau, Isabelle; Béland, Renée

    2011-04-01

    Reading epilepsy is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by reading. Several cases have been described in the literature, but the pathophysiological processes vary widely and remain unclear. We describe a 42-year-old male patient with reading epilepsy evaluated using clinical assessments and continuous video/EEG recordings. We administered verbal, nonverbal, and reading tasks to determine factors precipitating seizures. Linguistic characteristics of the words were manipulated. Results indicated that reading-induced seizures were significantly more numerous than those observed during verbal and nonverbal tasks. In reading tasks, spike frequency significantly increased with involvement of the phonological reading route. Spikes were recorded predominantly in left parasagittal regions. Future cerebral imaging studies will enable us to visualize the spatial localization and temporal course of reading-induced seizures and brain activity involved in reading. A better understanding of reading epilepsy is crucial for reading rehabilitation in these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epilepsy and violence: case series concerning physical trauma in children of persons with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauffin H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Helena Gauffin1,2 Anne-Marie Landtblom1–4 1Department of Neurology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Neurology Unit, Department of Medical Specialist, General Hospital, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, IMM, County Council, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden; 4Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Historically, epilepsy has been associated with violence, but more recent studies have emphasized genetic and psychosocial factors as more important. The case series presented here aim to highlight the difficult situation the affected children are in. We report on three cases when children have been traumatized and, in one case, even been killed by their parent who was diagnosed with epilepsy. In the first case, we describe a woman with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy who was sentenced to forensic psychiatry care for killing her child. She lived under difficult psychosocial circumstances and a suicide attempt contributed to what happened. The second case describes a man with post-traumatic seizures who was sentenced for child abuse. Ictal or postictal violence was considered in these two cases but a causal link between the violence and epilepsy has not been established. In the third case, we describe a woman with focal epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNESs. Her child was hurt and frightened in relation to violent seizures, which were regarded as PNESs. This case series demonstrates that children of parents with epilepsy can be in a vulnerable situation. No causality has been established between the seizures and these events, so consequently other factors such as psychosocial stress, low cognitive function, and a suicide attempt must also be considered as important. When a child is hurt by a parent with epilepsy the patient must be closely examined to determine the role of the seizures

  5. MicroRNA regulation and dysregulation in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyella Barbosa Dogini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy, one of the most frequent neurological disorders, represents a group of diseases that have in common the clinical occurrence of seizures. The pathogenesis of different types of epilepsy involves many important biological pathways; some of which have been shown to be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs. In this paper, we will critically review relevant studies regarding the role of miRNAs in epilepsy. Overall, the most common type of epilepsy in the adult population is temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, and the form associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS, called mesial TLE, is particularly relevant due to the high frequency of resistance to clinical treatment. There are several target studies, as well few genome-wide miRNA expression profiling studies reporting abnormal miRNA expression in tissue with MTS, both in patients and in animal models. Overall, these studies show a fine correlation between miRNA regulation/dysregulation and inflammation, seizure-induced neuronal death and other relevant biological pathways. Furthermore, expression of many miRNAs is dynamically regulated during neurogenesis and its dysregulation may play a role in the process of cerebral corticogenesis leading to malformations of cortical development (MCD, which represent one of the major causes of drug-resistant epilepsy. In addition, there are reports of miRNAs involved in cell proliferation, fate specification and neuronal maturation and these processes are tightly linked to the pathogenesis of MCD. Large-scale analyzes of miRNA expression in animal models with induced status epilepticus have demonstrated changes in a selected group of miRNAs thought to be involved in the regulation of cell death, synaptic reorganization, neuroinflammation and neural excitability. In addition, knocking-down specific miRNAs in these animals have demonstrated that this may consist in a promising therapeutic intervention.

  6. Neuroinflammation in epileptogenesis: Insights and translational perspectives from new models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Löscher, Wolfgang; White, H Steve; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2017-07-01

    Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Rat models of infantile spasms were generated in rat pups after right intracerebral injections of proinflammatory compounds (lipopolysaccharides with or without doxorubicin, or cytokines) and were longitudinally monitored for epileptic spasms and neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits. Anti-inflammatory treatments were tested after the onset of spasms. The TMEV mouse model was induced with intracerebral administration of TMEV and prospective monitoring for handling-induced seizures or seizure susceptibility, as well as long-term evaluations of behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy. Inflammatory processes are evident in both models and are implicated in the pathogenesis of the observed seizures and comorbidities. A common feature of these models, based on the data so far available, is their pharmacoresistant profile. The presented data support the role of inflammatory pathways in epileptogenesis and comorbidities in two distinct epilepsy models. Pharmacoresistance is a common feature of both inflammation-based models. Utilization of these models may facilitate the identification of age-specific, syndrome- or etiology-specific therapies for the epilepsies and attendant comorbidities, including the drug-resistant forms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Role of Neuroinflammation in Evolution of Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sookyong

    2018-01-01

    Until a decade ago, epilepsy research had focused mainly on alterations of neuronal activities and excitability. Such neurocentric emphasis has neglected the role of glia and involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. It is becoming clear that immune and inflammatory reactions do occur in the brain despite the brain's lack of conventional lymphatic drainage and graft acceptance and the presence of vascular brain barrier that tightly regulates infiltration of blood monocytes and lymphocytes. The critical roles of brain-resident immune mediators and of brain-infiltrating peripheral leukocytes are increasingly recognized. Inflammatory processes, including activation of microglia and astrocytes and production of proinflammatory cytokines and related molecules, occur in human epilepsy as well as in experimental models of epilepsy. Immune mechanism that underlies evolution of drug-resistant epilepsy and epileptic encephalopathy represents a new target and will aid in development of novel immunotherapeutic drugs and therapies against the key constituents in immune pathways.

  8. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The term 'cortical tremor' was first introduced by Ikeda and colleagues to indicate a postural and action-induced shivering movement of the hands which mimics essential tremor, but presents with the electrophysiological findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. The association between autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) was first recognized in Japanese families and is now increasingly reported worldwide, although it is described using different acronyms (BAFME, FAME, FEME, FCTE and others). The disease usually takes a benign course, although drug-resistant focal seizures or slight intellectual disability occur in some cases. Moreover, a worsening of cortical tremor and myoclonus is common in advanced age. Although not yet recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), this is a well-delineated epilepsy syndrome with remarkable features that clearly distinguishes it from other myoclonus epilepsies. Moreover, genetic studies of these families show heterogeneity and different susceptible chromosomal loci have been identified.

  9. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Stutchfield

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

  10. Pilocarpine-induced seizures trigger differential regulation of microRNA-stability related genes in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Erika R; Higa, Guilherme S V; Santos, Bianca A; de Sousa, Erica; Damico, Marcio V; Walter, Lais T; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C; Britto, Luiz R G; Kihara, Alexandre H

    2016-02-12

    Epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe elicits regulation of gene expression and protein translation, leading to reorganization of neuronal networks. In this process, miRNAs were described as being regulated in a cell-specific manner, although mechanistics of miRNAs activity are poorly understood. The specificity of miRNAs on their target genes depends on their intracellular concentration, reflecting the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Herein, we confirmed that pilocarpine application promptly (PAPD4 gene expression in the hippocampus, two genes related to miRNA degradation and stability, respectively. Moreover, SE decreased the number of XRN2-positive cells in the hilus, while reduced the number of PAPD4-positive cells in CA1. XRN2 and PAPD4 levels did not change in calretinin- and CamKII-positive cells, although it was possible to determine that PAPD4, but not XRN2, was upregulated in parvalbumin-positive cells, revealing that SE induction unbalances the accumulation of these functional-opposed proteins in inhibitory interneurons that directly innervate distinct domains of pyramidal cells. Therefore, we were able to disclose a possible mechanism underlying the differential regulation of miRNAs in specific neurons during epileptogenesis.

  11. Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum on experimental models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Prasad, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the anti-epileptic activity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum in experimental models of epilepsy in Swiss albino mice. Petroleum ether leaf extract of P. granatum (PLPG), methanolic LPG (MLPG), and aqueous LPG (ALPG) extracts of P. granatum leaves was initially evaluated against 6-Hz-induced seizure model; the potent extract was further evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions. Further, the potent extract was evaluated for its influence on Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in brain, to explore the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the potent extract was subjected to actophotometer test to assess its possible locomotor activity deficit inducing action. In 6-Hz seizure test, the MLPG has alleviated 6-Hz-induced seizures significantly and dose dependently at doses 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. In contrast, PLPG and ALPG did not show any protection, only high dose of ALPG (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) showed very slight inhibition. Based on these observations, only MLPG was tested in MES and PTZ models. Interestingly, the MLPG (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) has offered significant and dose-dependent protection against MES ( P < 0.01) and PTZ-induced ( P < 0.01) seizures in mice. Further, MLPG showed a significant increase in brain GABA levels ( P < 0.01) compared to control and showed insignificant change in locomotor activity in all tested doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Interestingly, higher dose of MLPG (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and Diazepam (5 mg/mg, p.o.) have completely abolished the convulsions in all the anticonvulsant tests. These findings suggest that MLPG possesses significant anticonvulsant property, and one of the possible mechanisms behind the anticonvulsant activity of MLPG may be through enhanced GABA levels in the brain.

  12. Managing Epilepsy Well: Emerging e-Tools for epilepsy self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Patel, Archna; Kakacek, Jody; Escoffery, Cam; Johnson, Erica K; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O

    2013-10-01

    The Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network was established in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epilepsy Program to expand epilepsy self-management research. The network has employed collaborative research strategies to develop, test, and disseminate evidence-based, community-based, and e-Health interventions (e-Tools) for epilepsy self-management for people with epilepsy, caregivers, and health-care providers. Since its inception, MEW Network collaborators have conducted formative studies (n=7) investigating the potential of e-Health to support epilepsy self-management and intervention studies evaluating e-Tools (n=5). The MEW e-Tools (the MEW website, WebEase, UPLIFT, MINDSET, and PEARLS online training) and affiliated e-Tools (Texting 4 Control) are designed to complement self-management practices in each phase of the epilepsy care continuum. These tools exemplify a concerted research agenda, shared methodological principles and models for epilepsy self-management, and a communal knowledge base for implementing e-Health to improve quality of life for people with epilepsy. © 2013.

  13. Epilepsy stigma and stigma by association in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfene, Cristina; Stewart, Tracie L; King, Tricia Z

    2009-08-01

    In the first experimental study of epilepsy-based discrimination in the workplace, we examined the influence of stigmatization on the workplace outcomes of hypothetical employees who were associated with epilepsy, but who did not have epilepsy themselves (stigma by association). Participants (40 women, 16 men), acting as employers, evaluated one of six randomly assigned employee work portfolios that were identical except that the employee was either male or female and had taken leave during the past year to care for a child with either epilepsy or asthma, or for whom no leave was mentioned. They then evaluated the employee and made recommendations concerning the employee's workplace rewards (promotion, raise) and penalties (job termination). Work quality evaluation was similar across conditions. However, parents of a child with epilepsy received fewer workplace rewards and greater workplace penalties than did employees in the other conditions. Implications for mental health and antibias interventions are discussed.

  14. Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Multiple Hypotheses, Few Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects over 70 million people worldwide. Despite the recent introduction of new antiseizure drugs (ASDs, about one-third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy. Early identification of patients who will become refractory to ASDs could help direct such patients to appropriate non-pharmacological treatment, but the complexity in the temporal patterns of epilepsy could make such identification difficult. The target hypothesis and transporter hypothesis are the most cited theories trying to explain refractory epilepsy, but neither theory alone fully explains the neurobiological basis of pharmacoresistance. This review summarizes evidence for and against several major theories, including the pharmacokinetic hypothesis, neural network hypothesis, intrinsic severity hypothesis, gene variant hypothesis, target hypothesis, and transporter hypothesis. The discussion is mainly focused on the transporter hypothesis, where clinical and experimental data are discussed on multidrug transporter overexpression, substrate profiles of ASDs, mechanism of transporter upregulation, polymorphisms of transporters, and the use of transporter inhibitors. Finally, future perspectives are presented for the improvement of current hypotheses and the development of treatment strategies as guided by the current understanding of refractory epilepsy.

  15. A randomized prospective pilot trial of Web-delivered epilepsy stigma reduction communications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Herrmann, Lynn K; Van Doren, Jamie R; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Welter, Elisabeth; Perzynski, Adam T; Bukach, Ashley; Needham, Kelley; Liu, Hongyan; Berg, Anne T

    2017-11-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that is often associated with stigmatizing attitudes and negative stereotypes among the general public. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested two new communication approaches targeting epilepsy stigma versus an education-alone approach. Two brief stigma-reduction videos were developed, informed by community stakeholder input; one highlighted role competency in people with epilepsy; the other highlighted social inclusion of people with epilepsy. A control video was also developed. A Web-based survey using a prospective RCT design compared effects of experimental videos and control on acceptability, perceived impact, epilepsy knowledge, and epilepsy stigma. Epilepsy knowledge and stigma were measured with the Epilepsy Knowledge Questionnaire (EKQ) and Attitudes and Beliefs about Living with Epilepsy (ABLE), respectively. A total of 295 participants completed the study. Mean age was 23.1 (standard deviation = 3.27) years; 59.0% were male, and 71.4% were white. Overall, respondents felt videos impacted their epilepsy attitudes. EKQ scores were similar across videos, with a trend for higher knowledge in experimental videos versus control (p = 0.06). The role competency and control videos were associated with slightly better perceived impact on attitudes. There were no differences between videos on ABLE scores (p = 0.568). There were subgroup differences suggesting that men, younger individuals, whites, and those with personal epilepsy experience had more stigmatizing attitudes. This RCT tested communication strategies to improve knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Although this initial effort will require follow-up, we have demonstrated the acceptability, feasibility, and potential of novel communication strategies to target epilepsy stigma, and a Web-based approach for assessing them. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  17. Disclose or not? Effect of impression management tactics on hireability of persons with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Lin, Chien-Chun; Connor, Annemarie; Chan, Fong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of assertive impression management (IM) tactics, such as personal storytelling and self-promotion, on job interview outcomes of people with epilepsy. Specifically, the effect of IM on interviewers' subjective impressions and evaluation of hireability of job candidates with epilepsy were examined. Ninety-nine master's level graduate students majoring in business or human resources were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions to view one of three 15-min video clips of a job applicant interviewing for a technical computer sales position. The three experimental conditions were (1) job applicant who did not disclose any disability, (2) job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM tactics, and (3) job applicant with epilepsy who used IM tactics. After watching the job interview video portraying the experimental conditions, participants were asked to rate the job applicant in terms of general impression and hireability for the described position. The use of IM was found to have a significant effect on job interview outcomes (p business/human resources students on both general impression and hireability for the job applicant with epilepsy and IM condition were significantly higher than for the job applicant with epilepsy who did not use IM condition. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that general impression is a mediator for the relationship between IM and interview outcomes. This study demonstrates that IM has a significant and positive effect on job interview outcomes for persons with epilepsy. IM can be used as a powerful strategy for empowering people with epilepsy to combat disability stigma, and offset negative perceptions of employers about the potential of this population to be productive workers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. The influence of folate serum levels on depressive mood and mental processing in patients with epilepsy treated with enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösche, J; Uhlmann, C; Weber, R; Fröscher, W

    2003-04-01

    Folate deficiency is common in patients with epilepsy and also occurs in patients with depression or cognitive deficits. This study investigates whether low serum folate levels may contribute to depressive mood and difficulties in mental processing in patients with epilepsy treated with anti-epileptic drugs inducing the cytochrome P450. We analysed the serum folate levels, the score in the Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the results of a bedside test in mental processing in 54 patients with epilepsy. There was a significant negative correlation between the serum folate levels and the score in SDS and significant positive correlations between the score in SDS and the time needed to process an interference task or a letter-reading task. Low serum folate levels may contribute to depressive mood and therefore to difficulties in mental processing. Further studies utilizing total plasma homocysteine as a sensitive measure of functional folate deficiency and more elaborate tests of mental processing are required to elucidate the impact of folate metabolism on depressive mood and cognitive function in patients with epilepsy.

  19. Staged anticonvulsant screening for chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Saponjian, Yero; Park, Kyung-Il; Roach, Bonnie; Pouliot, Wendy; Lu, Kimberly; Swiercz, Waldemar; Dudek, F Edward; Staley, Kevin J

    2016-12-01

    Current anticonvulsant screening programs are based on seizures evoked in normal animals. One-third of epileptic patients do not respond to the anticonvulsants discovered with these models. We evaluated a tiered program based on chronic epilepsy and spontaneous seizures, with compounds advancing from high-throughput in vitro models to low-throughput in vivo models. Epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was quantified by lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture media as rapid assays for seizure-like activity and cell death, respectively. Compounds that reduced these biochemical measures were retested with in vitro electrophysiological confirmation (i.e., second stage). The third stage involved crossover testing in the kainate model of chronic epilepsy, with blinded analysis of spontaneous seizures after continuous electrographic recordings. We screened 407 compound-concentration combinations. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor, celecoxib, had no effect on seizures evoked in normal brain tissue but demonstrated robust antiseizure activity in all tested models of chronic epilepsy. The use of organotypic hippocampal cultures, where epileptogenesis occurs on a compressed time scale, and where seizure-like activity and seizure-induced cell death can be easily quantified with biomarker assays, allowed us to circumvent the throughput limitations of in vivo chronic epilepsy models. Ability to rapidly screen compounds in a chronic model of epilepsy allowed us to find an anticonvulsant that would be missed by screening in acute models.

  20. Hereditary epilepsy syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Brouwer, OF

    This paper reviews the present knowledge on the genetics of the epilepsies. Main clinical features, gene localization and pattern of inheritance of the idiopathic epilepsies, the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, and some other genetic disorders often associated with epilepsy, are described. (C)

  1. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. Other Organizations Epilepsy Foundation National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Questions Questions to Ask Your Doctor What causes epilepsy? What are symptoms other than seizures? What should ...

  2. Epilepsy: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanavana Subbareddy Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 50 million people living with epilepsy worldwide, and most of them reside in developing countries. About 10 million persons with epilepsy are there in India. Many people with active epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, leading to large treatment gap. The lack of knowledge of antiepileptic drugs, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, poor health infrastructure, and shortage of trained professionals contribute for the treatment gap. Infectious diseases play an important role in seizures and long-term burden causing both new-onset epilepsy and status epilepticus. Proper education and appropriate health care services can make tremendous change in a country like India. There have been many original researches in various aspects of epilepsy across India. Some of the geographically specific epilepsies occur only in certain regions of our country which have been highlighted by authors. Even the pre-surgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy is available in many centers in our country. This article attempts to provide a complete preview of epilepsy in India.

  3. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  4. Harmonization in preclinical epilepsy research: A joint AES/ILAE translational initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; French, Jacqueline A; O'Brien, Terence; Simonato, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Among the priority next steps outlined during the first translational epilepsy research workshop in London, United Kingdom (2012), jointly organized by the American Epilepsy Society (AES) and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), are the harmonization of research practices used in preclinical studies and the development of infrastructure that facilitates multicenter preclinical studies. The AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE has been pursuing initiatives that advance these goals. In this supplement, we present the first reports of the working groups of the Task Force that aim to improve practices of performing rodent video-electroencephalography (vEEG) studies in experimental controls, generate systematic reviews of preclinical research data, and develop preclinical common data elements (CDEs) for epilepsy research in animals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the complexities of assigning cause in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the difficulties in assigning cause in epilepsy are described. A historical review is given, emphasizing aspects of the history which are relevant today. The historical review is divided into three approximately semicentenial periods (1860-1910, 1910-1960, 1960-present). A definition of symptomatic epilepsy and this is followed by listing of causes of symptomatic epilepsy. The fact that not all the causes of idiopathic epilepsy are genetic is discussed. A category of provoked epilepsy is proposed. The complexities in assigning cause include the following: the multifactorial nature of epilepsy, the distinction between remote and proximate causes, the role of nongenetic factors in idiopathic epilepsy, the role of investigation in determining the range of causes, the fact that not all symptomatic epilepsy is acquired, the nosological position of provoked epilepsy and the view of epilepsy as a process, and the differentiation of new-onset and established epilepsy. The newly proposed ILAE classification of epilepsy and its changes in terminologies and the difficulties in the concept of acute symptomatic epilepsy are discussed, including the inconsistencies and gray areas and the distinction between idiopathic, symptomatic, and provoked epilepsies. Points to be considered in future work are listed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose metabolism transporters and epilepsy: only GLUT1 has an established role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Bellows, Susannah T; Oliver, Karen L; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F

    2014-02-01

    The availability of glucose, and its glycolytic product lactate, for cerebral energy metabolism is regulated by specific brain transporters. Inadequate energy delivery leads to neurologic impairment. Haploinsufficiency of the glucose transporter GLUT1 causes a characteristic early onset encephalopathy, and has recently emerged as an important cause of a variety of childhood or later-onset generalized epilepsies and paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. We explored whether mutations in the genes encoding the other major glucose (GLUT3) or lactate (MCT1/2/3/4) transporters involved in cerebral energy metabolism also cause generalized epilepsies. A cohort of 119 cases with myoclonic astatic epilepsy or early onset absence epilepsy was screened for nucleotide variants in these five candidate genes. No epilepsy-causing mutations were identified, indicating that of the major energetic fuel transporters in the brain, only GLUT1 is clearly associated with generalized epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Optogenetic delay of status epilepticus onset in an in vivo rodent epilepsy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Sukhotinsky

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a devastating disease, currently treated with medications, surgery or electrical stimulation. None of these approaches is totally effective and our ability to control seizures remains limited and complicated by frequent side effects. The emerging revolutionary technique of optogenetics enables manipulation of the activity of specific neuronal populations in vivo with exquisite spatiotemporal resolution using light. We used optogenetic approaches to test the role of hippocampal excitatory neurons in the lithium-pilocarpine model of acute elicited seizures in awake behaving rats. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons were transduced in vivo with a virus carrying an enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR, a yellow light activated chloride pump, and acute seizure progression was then monitored behaviorally and electrophysiologically in the presence and absence of illumination delivered via an optical fiber. Inhibition of those neurons with illumination prior to seizure onset significantly delayed electrographic and behavioral initiation of status epilepticus, and altered the dynamics of ictal activity development. These results reveal an essential role of hippocampal excitatory neurons in this model of ictogenesis and illustrate the power of optogenetic approaches for elucidation of seizure mechanisms. This early success in controlling seizures also suggests future therapeutic avenues.

  8. Alterações agudas dos níveis de neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos jovens após estado epiléptico induzido por pilocarpina Acute alterations of neurotransmitters levels in striatum of young rat after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Altas doses de agonista colinérgico muscarínico, pilocarpina, produzem alterações comportamentais, convulsões e estado epiléptico em ratos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar as alterações nas concentrações dos neurotransmissores em corpo estriado de ratos em desenvolvimento após estado epiléptico induzido pela pilocarpina. Ratas Wistar foram tratadas com uma única dose de pilocarpina (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controles receberam salina. A concentração dos neurotransmissores foi determinada através do HPLC, no corpo estriado de ratos que no período de observação de 1 e 24h desencadearam estado epiléptico e não sobreviveram à fase aguda do quadro convulsivo. Foi observada redução nos níveis de dopamina, serotonina, ácido dihidroxifenilacético, ácido 5-hidroxiindolacético, e aumento no ácido 4-hidroxi-3-metoxi-fenilacético. Os resultados mostraram que a ativação do sistema colinérgico pode interagir com os sistemas dopaminérgico e serotonérgico nos mecanismos referentes à fase aguda do processo convulsivo.High doses of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine, result in behavioural changes, seizures and status epilepticus in rats. The purpose of the present work is to invetigate the striatal neurotransmissors level in young rats after status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of pilocarpine (400mg/Kg; s.c.. Controls received saline. Young animals were closed observed for behavioural changes during 1 and 24h. In these periods, the animals that developed status epilepticus and didn't survive this acute phase of seizures had the brains removed and striatal neurotransmissors level determined by HPLC. The concentration of dopamine, serotonine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid was reduced and an increase in 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenylacetic acid was observed. These results suggest that cholinergic activation can interage with dopaminergic and

  9. [Development and evaluation of the Empowering A Self-Efficacy (EASE) program for children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hana; Kim, Hee-Soon

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify effects of the Empowering A Self-Efficacy (EASE) program on self-efficacy, self-management, and child attitude toward illness in children with epilepsy. This was a quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent control group pre-post test design. Participants were 10 to 15 year old children with epilepsy (11 in the experimental group and 10 in the control group) who were registered at one hospital in S city. The experimental group received the EASE program for 3 weeks. In the first week, a group meeting lasting 570 minutes was conducted on a single day. Over the next two weeks, telephone counselling was conducted twice a week. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. There was a significant difference of pre-post evaluation of the epilepsy self-management scores in the experimental group. However, differences between the experimental group and the control group for seizure self-efficacy and child attitude toward illness were not significant. This is the first study in Korea to develop and evaluate an intervention program for children with epilepsy. Further studies are needed to confirm the effects of the EASE program.

  10. Effects of a ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    For a subpopulation of drug-resistant epilepsies, a ketogenic diet constitutes the treatment of choice. A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, which induces ketosis. Despite the use in treatment of epilepsy since 1924, the clinical efficacy was not demonstrated...... in a controlled, randomized trial until 2008, showing its capability of reducing seizure frequency with more than 50%. However, the exact mechanism of this form of treatment is still unknown. We report here a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, where a brain 18F-FDG PET examination...

  11. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters ... may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, ...

  12. Naringenin ameliorates kainic acid-induced morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungha; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-10-19

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated whether intraperitoneal injections of naringenin could mimic naringin-induced effects against GCD caused by intrahippocampal KA injections in mice. Our results showed that treatment with naringenin delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and attenuated KA-induced GCD by inhibiting activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in both neurons and reactive astrocytes in the DG. In addition, its administration attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from microglial activation in the DG following KA treatment. These results suggest that naringenin may be an active metabolite of naringin and help prevent the progression of epileptic insults in the hippocampus in vivo; therefore, naringenin may be a beneficial metabolite of naringin for the treatment of epilepsy.

  13. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  14. Epilepsie aktuell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Hüelsmeyer, Velia-Isabel; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.

    2016-01-01

    of the consensus statements “IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals” and “IVETF’s current understanding of idiopathic epilepsy of genetic or suspected genetic origin in purebred dogs” in German language to inform German veterinarians and professional...... circles about new knowledge and innovations in these fields. In the first part of the article, it is explained, why a new classification system of epilepsy and a common language to describe the disease is necessary. The proposals of the IVETF regarding the classification system and the terminology...... Richtlinien zur Klassifikation und Empfehlungen zu allen Aspekten der Epilepsie bei Hund und Katze in englischer Sprache publiziert (IVETF, 2015a, b). Im vorliegenden Artikel werden die Inhalte der Konsenspapiere „IVETF consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion...

  15. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. The complexity of roles of P-glycoprotein in refractory epilepsy: Pharmacoresistance, epileptogenesis, SUDEP and relapsing marker after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lazarowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As described initially from clinical and experimental studies, P-glycoprotein (P-gp plays a central role in the pharmacoresistance of epilepsy, acting by efflux of AEDs mainly at blood brain barrier (BBB level. However, repetitive seizures can produce both brain and heart P-gp overexpression. Because P-gp activity induces membrane depolarization, its neuronal expression could be acting in the intrinsic mechanism of epileptogenesis, and its heart expression, can be a high risk factor of death, after severe-continuo convulsive stresses as in  fatal status epilepticus or in SUDEP. Additionally, because P-gp is also a stem cell marker, we suggests that its constitutive overexpression in dysplastic neurons from brain epileptogenic areas observed in patients with refractory epilepsies, should be addressed as a risk factor of seizures relapse after surgical treatment. Here we discuss these concepts, based on our own clinical and experimental experiences, and reviewing the current literature on these subjects.

  17. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okudan ZV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Vildan Okudan,1 Çiğdem Özkara2 1Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Reflex epilepsies (REs are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient’s own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously. The stimuli can be external (light flashes, hot water, internal (emotion, thinking, or both and should be distinguished from triggering precipitants, which most epileptic patients could report such as emotional stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. Different genetic and acquired factors may play a role in etiology of RE. This review will provide a current overview of the triggering factors and management of reflex seizures. Keywords: seizure, reflex epilepsy, photosensitivity, hot water, reading, thinking

  18. Neurostimulation for Memory Enhancement in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelter, Stephen; Jobst, Barbara C

    2018-04-19

    Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation. Existing literature suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces a small enhancement in memory in neuropsychological patients, but transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) have not been found to have an effect on memory. Most studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have found that TMS has no positive effect on memory. Vagus nerve stimulation can acutely enhance memory, while chronic therapy does not appear to alter memory performance. We found that there is the most evidence for significant memory enhancement using intracranial stimulation techniques, especially chronic stimulation of the fornix and task-responsive stimulation of the lateral temporal lobe. Presently, there are no existing therapeutic options for directly treating epilepy-related memory deficits. While neurostimulation technologies for memory enhancement are largely still in the experimental phase, neurostimulation appears promising as a future technique for treating epilepsy-related memory deficits.

  19. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  20. A new potential AED, carisbamate, substantially reduces spontaneous motor seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstatter, Heidi L.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Animal models with spontaneous epileptic seizures may be useful in the discovery of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of carisbamate on spontaneous motor seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy. Methods Repeated, low-dose (5 mg/kg), intraperitoneal injections of kainate were administered every hour until each male Sprague-Dawley rat had experienced convulsive status epilepticus for at least 3 h. Five 1-month trials (n= 8–10 rats) assessed the effects of 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg carisbamate on spontaneous seizures. Each trial involved six AED-versus-vehicle tests comprised of carisbamate or 10% solutol-HS-15 treatments administered as intraperitoneal injections on alternate days with a recovery day between each treatment day. Results Carisbamate significantly reduced motor seizure frequency at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, and caused complete seizure cessation during the 6-h post-drug epoch in 7 of 8 animals at 30 mg/kg. The effects of carisbamate (0.3–30 mg/kg) on spontaneous motor seizures appeared dose dependent. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that a repeated-measures, cross-over protocol in animal models with spontaneous seizures is an effective method for testing AEDs. Carisbamate reduced the frequency of spontaneous motor seizures in a dose-dependent manner, and was more effective than topiramate at reducing seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy. PMID:18494790

  1. Anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens: A study on role of dopaminergic system in epilepsy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champatisingh, D; Sahu, P K; Pal, A; Nanda, G S

    2011-04-01

    To assess the anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of leaves of Mucuna pruriens in albino rats. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HIC), maximum electro-shock (MES) method, pilocarpine-induced Status epilepticus (PISE) and single-dose effect of M. pruriens were employed. M. pruriens (100 mg/kg) had significant anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity in HIC, MES, and PISE. M. pruriens extract has the potential to be an anticataleptic and antiepileptic drug. Dopamine and 5-HT may have a role in such activity.

  2. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  3. Epilepsy in autism: A pathophysiological consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiko; Nagao, Yuri; Kimura, Kazue; Hachimori, Kei; Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Eighty cases of idiopathic autism with epilepsy and 97 cases without epilepsy were studied to evaluate the pathophysiology of epilepsy in autism. The initial visit to this clinic ranged 8months-30years 3months of age, and the current ages are 5years 8months-42years 3months, 60% reaching to over 30years of age. The average follow up duration is 22.2years±9.4years. The ages of onset of epilepsy were from 7months to 30years of age, with the two peaks at 3.2years and 16.7years. EEG central focus appeared earlier than frontal focus. Abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM were observed more frequently in epileptic group. These suggest the neuronal system related to abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM, which are the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system, is the pathomechanism underling the epilepsy in autism. By showing the abnormal sleep-wake rhythm and locomotion being the very initial symptoms in autism, we had shown the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system is the initial pathomechanism of autism. Thus, epilepsy in autism is not the secondary manifestation, but one of the pathognomonic symptoms of autism. The brainstem monoaminergic system project to the wider cortical area, and the initial monoaminergic hypofunction may lead to the central focus which appears earlier. The failure of the monoaminergic (serotonergic) system causes dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus (PPN) and induces dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, and with development of the DA receptor supersensitivity consequently disinhibits the thalamo-frontal pathway, which after maturation of this pathway in teens cause the epileptogenesis in the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy, and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage, and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.

  5. Pharmacogenomics in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2018-02-22

    There is high variability in the response to antiepileptic treatment across people with epilepsy. Genetic factors significantly contribute to such variability. Recent advances in the genetics and neurobiology of the epilepsies are establishing the basis for a new era in the treatment of epilepsy, focused on each individual and their specific epilepsy. Variation in response to antiepileptic drug treatment may arise from genetic variation in a range of gene categories, including genes affecting drug pharmacokinetics, and drug pharmacodynamics, but also genes held to actually cause the epilepsy itself. From a purely pharmacogenetic perspective, there are few robust genetic findings with established evidence in epilepsy. Many findings are still controversial with anecdotal or less secure evidence and need further validation, e.g. variation in genes for transporter systems and antiepileptic drug targets. The increasing use of genetic sequencing and the results of large-scale collaborative projects may soon expand the established evidence. Precision medicine treatments represent a growing area of interest, focussing on reversing or circumventing the pathophysiological effects of specific gene mutations. This could lead to a dramatic improvement of the effectiveness and safety of epilepsy treatments, by targeting the biological mechanisms responsible for epilepsy in each specific individual. Whilst much has been written about epilepsy pharmacogenetics, there does now seem to be building momentum that promises to deliver results of use in clinic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stigma of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Nancy F; Camfield, Carol S; Camfield, Peter R

    2008-09-01

    Epilepsy directly affects 50 million people worldwide. Most can achieve excellent seizure control; however, people living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings that have persisted for thousands of years. This paper reviews the frequency and nature of stigma toward epilepsy. Significant negative attitudes prevail in the adolescent and adult public worldwide leading to loneliness and social avoidance both in school and in the workplace. People with epilepsy are often wrongly viewed as having mental health and antisocial issues and as being potentially violent toward others. Twenty-five percent of adults having epilepsy describe social stigma as a result of their epilepsy. They fear rejection and often feel shame or loneliness from this diagnosis. The psychosocial and social impact of epilepsy is significant. Yet few specific interventions have been demonstrated to alter this perception. The effect on public education is primarily short-term, while change over the long-term in attitudes and inaccurate beliefs have not presently been proven effective. School education programming demonstrates improved knowledge and attitude a month after a classroom intervention, but persisting change over a longer period of time has not been evaluated. In-depth adult psycho-educational programs for adults with epilepsy improves knowledge, coping skills and level of felt stigma. However these gains have not demonstrated persistence over time. Myths, misconceptions and misunderstandings about epilepsy continue and programs aimed at increasing knowledge and reducing negative public attitudes should be enhanced.

  7. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network:: Advancing Epilepsy Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Jobst, Barbara C; Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Begley, Charles E; Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Erica K; Pandey, Dilip K; Quarells, Rakale C; Scal, Peter; Spruill, Tanya M; Thompson, Nancy J; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-03-01

    Epilepsy, a complex spectrum of disorders, affects about 2.9 million people in the U.S. Similar to other chronic disorders, people with epilepsy face challenges related to management of the disorder, its treatment, co-occurring depression, disability, social disadvantages, and stigma. Two national conferences on public health and epilepsy (1997, 2003) and a 2012 IOM report on the public health dimensions of epilepsy highlighted important knowledge gaps and emphasized the need for evidence-based, scalable epilepsy self-management programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention translated recommendations on self-management research and dissemination into an applied research program through the Prevention Research Centers Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network. MEW Network objectives are to advance epilepsy self-management research by developing effective interventions that can be broadly disseminated for use in people's homes, healthcare providers' offices, or in community settings. The aim of this report is to provide an update on the MEW Network research pipeline, which spans efficacy, effectiveness, and dissemination. Many of the interventions use e-health strategies to eliminate barriers to care (e.g., lack of transportation, functional limitations, and stigma). Strengths of this mature research network are the culture of collaboration, community-based partnerships, e-health methods, and its portfolio of prevention activities, which range from efficacy studies engaging hard-to-reach groups, to initiatives focused on provider training and knowledge translation. The MEW Network works with organizations across the country to expand its capacity, help leverage funding and other resources, and enhance the development, dissemination, and sustainability of MEW Network programs and tools. Guided by national initiatives targeting chronic disease or epilepsy burden since 2007, the MEW Network has been responsible for more than 43 scientific journal articles, two

  8. Mortality in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitiris, Nikolas; Mohanraj, Rajiv; Norrie, John; Brodie, Martin J

    2007-05-01

    All studies report an increased mortality risk for people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Population-based studies have demonstrated that the increased mortality is often related to the cause of the epilepsy. Common etiologies include neoplasia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia. Deaths in selected cohorts, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus (SE), suicides, and accidents are more frequently epilepsy-related. SUDEP is a particular cause for concern in younger people, and whether and when SUDEP should be discussed with patients with epilepsy remain problematic issues. Risk factors for SUDEP include generalized tonic-clonic seizures, increased seizure frequency, concomitant learning disability, and antiepileptic drug polypharmacy. The overall incidence of SE may be increasing, although case fatality rates remain constant. Mortality is frequently secondary to acute symptomatic disorders. Poor compliance with treatment in patients with epilepsy accounts for a small proportion of deaths from SE. The incidence of suicide is increased, particularly for individuals with epilepsy and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Late mortality figures in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery vary and are likely to reflect differences in case selection. Future studies of mortality should be prospective and follow agreed guidelines to better quantify risk and causation in individual populations.

  9. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and cl...

  10. Genetic determinants of common epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    and insufficient power. We aimed to identify risk loci through meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for all epilepsy and the two largest clinical subtypes (genetic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy). METHODS: We combined genome-wide association data from 12 cohorts of individuals with epilepsy...... not previously implicated in epilepsy and provides further evidence about the genetic architecture of these disorders, with the ultimate aim of assisting in disease classification and prognosis. The data suggest that specific loci can act pleiotropically raising risk for epilepsy broadly, or can have effects...... and controls from population-based datasets. Controls were ethnically matched with cases. We phenotyped individuals with epilepsy into categories of genetic generalised epilepsy, focal epilepsy, or unclassified epilepsy. After standardised filtering for quality control and imputation to account for different...

  11. Epilepsy: Is there hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a highly prevalent chronic neurologic disorder and leads to social, behavioural, health and economic consequences. 'Treatment gap' varies from 10 per cent in developed countries to 75 per cent in low-income countries. Stigma and discrimination related to epilepsy are prevalent worldwide. Electroencephalography (EEG is considered the most important tool for evaluating the patient with epilepsy. Video-EEG monitoring is an important tool for confirming the seizure type and estimating the epileptogenic zone in the brain. Neuroimaging evaluation is important to determine the aetiology of the epilepsies. Genetic testing has increased the probability of identifying the causes of some types of epilepsies. Epilepsy can be treated in an affordable way with low-cost medications. Refractory epilepsies occur in approximately one-third of recently diagnosed patients with epilepsy. For this group of patients, there are options of surgical treatment, diets and neurostimulation to improve seizure control and quality of life. In poorly organized societies, there is a lack of prioritization of epilepsy in national health policies, limited resources for trained personnel and a shortage of basic antiepileptic medications. There is evidence of improvement in the understanding of epilepsy and a clear progress in the management of epileptic seizures in recent times.

  12. Epilepsy-related clinical factors and psychosocial functions in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Soyong; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang Ook; Kim, Sun Jun; Chung, Hee Jung; Kwon, Soon Hak; Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Wook; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Heung Dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the different influencing patterns of demographic and epilepsy-related variables on various aspects of psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with pediatric epilepsy between the ages of 4 and 18 years (boys=360, 60% and girls=238, 40%) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the Social Maturity Scale (SMS), the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and the Korean version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (K-QOLCE) to assess daily living function, behavior, and quality of life. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was completed by clinicians to assess general adaptive function. Demographic variables, such as age and sex of child, and epilepsy-related clinical variables, including seizure type, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, and number of medications, were obtained from medical records. Demographic and epilepsy-related clinical variables had a strong influence (22-32%) on the cognition-related domain such as general adaptive function, school/total competence, and quality of life for cognitive function while a comparatively smaller effect (2-16%) on the more psychological domain including behavioral, emotional, and social variables. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, and smaller number of medications showed a strong positive impact on psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy, particularly for adaptive function, competence, and quality-of-life aspects. Given the wide range of impact of demographic and clinical variables on various facets of psychosocial functions, more specific understanding of the various aspects of factors and their particular pattern of influence may enable more effective therapeutic approaches that address both the medical and psychological needs in pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and...

  14. Imaging of the epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of the epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging of epilepsy patients is challenging, since epileptogenic lesions (defined as structural lesions causally related to the epilepsy syndrome) may be small and often do not change during life. Prior clinical information about the epilepsy syndrome and the semiology of the seizures is needed in order to plan the examination properly. The effort to detect an epileptogenic lesion is directed to partial (focal) epilepsy syndromes whereas - by definition - no lesion is identified in idiopathic epilepsies. Most patients with partial epilepsies suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. In these patients, 2- to 3-mm-thick T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) fast spin echo slices along or perpendicular to the temporal lobe length axis have the highest diagnostic efficacy. In contrast, in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsies perpendicular FLAIR slices through the anatomic region, from which, due to clinical and EEG criteria, the seizures are likely to originate, are preferred. The imaging features of common epileptogenic lesions (hippocampal sclerosis, long-term epilepsy-associated tumours, focal cortical dysplasias, vascular malformations, encephalitis including limbic and Rasmussen's encephalitis, gyral scarring including ulegyria) are detailed in the second section of this paper. (orig.)

  16. Christianity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, K; Jędrzejczak, J

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic seizures have been known from time immemorial. Throughout the ages, however, ideas concerning the aetiology and treatment of epilepsy have changed considerably. Epilepsy is mentioned many times in the Pentateuch, where it is portrayed as a mysterious condition, whose symptoms, course and contingencies evade rational laws and explanations. In the Middle Ages, the accepted view which prevailed in social consciousness was that patients with epilepsy were possessed by Satan and other impure spirits. One common method of treatment of epileptic seizures was to submit the patient to cruel exorcisms. Patients were frequently injured in the process and some of them even died. Our understanding of epilepsy and its social consequences has improved considerably within the last century. The most significant progress as far as diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is concerned took place in the last four decades of the twentieth century. Although we now know much more about epilepsy than we used to, this knowledge is still insufficiently popularized.

  17. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  18. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients...... with other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex...... was not involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  19. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  20. Semiquantitative analysis of interictal glucose metabolism between generalized epilepsy and localization related epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikima, Akio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to detect seizure foci and evaluate surgical resection with localization related epilepsies. However, few investigations have focused on generalized epilepsy in children. To reveal the pathophysiology of generalized epilepsy, we studied 11 patients with generalized epilepsy except West syndrome, and 11 patients with localization related epilepsy without organic disease. The FDG PET was performed by simultaneous emission and transmission scanning. We placed regions of interest (ROI) on bilateral frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured and normalized to SUV of ipsilateral cerebellum. Then, we compared the data of generalized epilepsy to those of localization related epilepsy. FDG PET revealed significant interictal glucose hypometabolism in bilateral basal ganglia in generalized epilepsy compared to that in localization related epilepsy (right side: p=0.0095, left side: p=0.0256, Mann-Whitney test). No other region showed any significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. These findings indicate that the basal ganglia is involved in the outbreak of generalized seizures or is affected secondarily by the epileptogenicity itself. (author)

  1. 50 Hz hippocampal stimulation in refractory epilepsy: Higher level of basal glutamate predicts greater release of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Idil; Widi, Gabriel A; Duckrow, Robert B; Zaveri, Hitten; Kennard, Jeremy T; Krystal, John; Spencer, Dennis D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on brain glutamate release in humans is unknown. Glutamate is elevated at baseline in the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with refractory epilepsy, and increases during spontaneous seizures. We examined the effect of 50 Hz stimulation on glutamate release and its relationship to interictal levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy. In addition, we measured basal and stimulated glutamate levels in a subset of these patients where stimulation elicited a seizure. Subjects (n = 10) were patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Electrical stimulation (50 Hz) was delivered through implanted hippocampal electrodes (n = 11), and microdialysate samples were collected every 2 min. Basal glutamate, changes in glutamate efflux with stimulation, and the relationships between peak stimulation-associated glutamate concentrations, basal zero-flow levels, and stimulated seizures were examined. Stimulation of epileptic hippocampi in patients with refractory epilepsy caused increases in glutamate efflux (p = 0.005, n = 10), and 4 of ten patients experienced brief stimulated seizures. Stimulation-induced increases in glutamate were not observed during the evoked seizures, but rather were related to the elevation in interictal basal glutamate (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.001). The evoked-seizure group had lower basal glutamate levels than the no-seizure group (p = 0.04), with no stimulation-induced change in glutamate efflux (p = 0.47, n = 4). Conversely, increased glutamate was observed following stimulation in the no-seizure group (p = 0.005, n = 7). Subjects with an atrophic hippocampus had higher basal glutamate levels (p = 0.03, n = 7) and higher stimulation-induced glutamate efflux. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic hippocampus either increased extracellular glutamate efflux or induced seizures. The magnitude of stimulated

  2. [Epilepsy: incidens, prevalens and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Lars; Sundelin, Heléne; Sveinsson, Olafur

    2018-05-21

    Epilepsy affects people in all ages with the highest incidence in small children, particularly before age one year, and in elderly aged 65 years and older. In Sweden, between 4500-5000 persons develop epilepsy annually. Based on studies from North America and Europe, including the Nordic countries, the number of people with active epilepsy in Sweden is between 60000-70000. The lifetime risk for epilepsy up to age 85 years is 4-5 %, i.e. approximately every 25th person. The new epilepsy classification divides etiology into the following groups: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown. The majority (70%) of people with epilepsy eventually become seizure free. Epilepsy increases the risk of psychosocial problems and accidents. People with epilepsy have up to a 3-fold increase in mortality, mainly due to the underlying causes and epilepsy related deaths, e.g. status epilepticus, SUDEP and accidents. Somatic, psychiatric and neuropsychiatric comorbidities are common in epilepsy.

  3. Therapeutic potential of an anti-high mobility group box-1 monoclonal antibody in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junli; Wang, Yi; Xu, Cenglin; Liu, Keyue; Wang, Ying; Chen, Liying; Wu, Xiaohua; Gao, Feng; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Shuang; Nishibori, Masahiro; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Brain inflammation is a major factor in epilepsy, and the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is known to contribute significantly to the generation of seizures. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of an anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in epilepsy. anti-HMGB1 mAb attenuated both acute seizure models (maximal electroshock seizure, pentylenetetrazole-induced and kindling-induced), and chronic epilepsy model (kainic acid-induced) in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the anti-HMGB1 mAb also attenuated seizure activities of human brain slices obtained from surgical resection from drug-resistant epilepsy patients. The mAb showed an anti-seizure effect with a long-term manner and appeared to be minimal side effects at even very high dose (no disrupted physical EEG rhythm and no impaired basic physical functions, such as body growth rate and thermoregulation). This anti-seizure effect of mAb results from its inhibition of translocated HMGB1 from nuclei following seizures, and the anti-seizure effect was absent in toll-like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 -/- ) mice. Interestingly, the anti-HMGB1 mAb also showed a disease-modifying anti-epileptogenetic effect on epileptogenesis after status epileptics, which is indicated by reducing seizure frequency and improving the impaired cognitive function. These results indicate that the anti-HMGB1 mAb should be viewed as a very promising approach for the development of novel therapies to treat refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the one before it. Some children have a strange sensation before a seizure. Sensations may be tingling, ... Prognosis) Most children with epilepsy live a normal life. Certain types of childhood epilepsy go away or ...

  5. Mechanisms of video-game epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fylan, F; Harding, G F; Edson, A S; Webb, R M

    1999-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying video-game epilepsy by comparing the flicker- and spatial-frequency ranges over which photic and pattern stimulation elicited photoparoxysmal responses in two different populations: (a) 25 patients with a history of seizures experienced while playing video games; and (b) 25 age- and medication-matched controls with a history of photosensitive epilepsy, but no history of video-game seizures. Abnormality ranges were determined by measuring photoparoxysmal EEG abnormalities as a function of the flicker frequency of patterned and diffuse intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and the spatial frequency of patterns on a raster display. There was no significant difference between the groups in respect of the abnormality ranges elicited by patterned or diffuse IPS or by spatial patterns. When the groups were compared at one specific IPS frequency (-50 Hz), however, the flicker frequency of European television displays, the video-game patients were significantly more likely to be sensitive. The results suggest that video-game seizures are a manifestation of photosensitive epilepsy. The increased sensitivity of video-game patients to IPS at 50 Hz indicates that display flicker may underlie video-game seizures. The similarity in photic- and pattern-stimulation ranges over which abnormalities are elicited in video-game patients and controls suggests that all patients with photosensitive epilepsy may be predisposed toward video-game-induced seizures. Photosensitivity screening should therefore include assessment by using both IPS at 50 Hz and patterns displayed on a television or monitor with a 50-Hz frame rate.

  6. Prolonged life of human acute hippocampal slices from temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickham, J; Brödjegård, N G; Vighagen, R

    2018-01-01

    Resected hippocampal tissue from patients with drug-resistant epilepsy presents a unique possibility to test novel treatment strategies directly in target tissue. The post-resection time for testing and analysis however is normally limited. Acute tissue slices allow for electrophysiological...... granule whole-cell recordings, can be consistently induced in these slices, underlying the usefulness of this methodology for testing and/or validating novel treatment strategies for epilepsy....

  7. Overview of Nrf2 as Therapeutic Target in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a biochemical state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant defenses. It is involved in the physiopathology of degenerative and chronic neuronal disorders, such as epilepsy. Experimental evidence in humans and animals support the involvement of oxidative stress before and after seizures. In the past few years, research has increasingly focused on the molecular pathways of this process, such as that involving transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which plays a central role in the regulation of antioxidant response elements (ARE and modulates cellular redox status. The aim of this review is to present experimental evidence on the role of Nrf2 in this neurological disorder and to further determine the therapeutic impact of Nrf2 in epilepsy.

  8. Does early ischemic lesion induce cognitive impairment and epilepsy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubová, Hana; Máttéffyová, Adéla; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Otáhal, Jakub

    -, - (2005), s. 30-30 [Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society /5./, The Annual Meeting of the Network of European Neuroscience Institutes. 19.11.2005-21.11.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : focal ischemia * cognitive impairment * development of epilepsy Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Post-epilepsy stroke: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Rong; Xiao, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and epilepsy are two of the most common neurological disorders and share a complicated relationship. It is well established that stroke is one of the most important causes of epilepsy, particularly new-onset epilepsy among the elderly. However, post-epilepsy stroke has been overlooked. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that epilepsy patients have increased risk and mortality from stroke when compared with the general population. Additionally, it was proposed that post-epilepsy stroke might be associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), epileptic seizures and the lifestyle of epileptic patients. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, causes and interventions for post-epilepsy stroke.

  10. Angels and demons: neurotrophic factors and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Michele; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Kokaia, Merab

    2006-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that neurotrophic factors (NTFs) could be key causal mediators in the development of acquired epileptic syndromes. Yet the trophic properties of NTFs indicate that they might be used to treat epilepsy-associated damage. Accordingly, different NTFs, or even the same NTF, could produce functionally contrasting effects in the context of epilepsy. Recent experimental evidence begins to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these contrasting effects. Understanding these mechanisms will be instrumental for the development of effective therapies, which must be based on a careful consideration of the biological properties of NTFs. Here, we critically evaluate new information emerging in this area and discuss its implications for clinical treatment.

  11. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2011-11-17

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  13. Towards the development of integrated epilepsy services: an audit of documented epilepsy care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2012-02-01

    Effective chronic disease management (CDM) requires the ready availability and communication of accurate, clinical disease specific information. Using epilepsy as a probe into CDM, we report on the availability and reliability of clinical information in the primary care records of people with epilepsy (PWE). The medical records of 374 PWE from 53 general practices in the Mid-West region of Ireland were examined. Confirmation of an epilepsy diagnosis by a neurologist was documented for 132 (35%) patients. 282 (75%) patients had no documented evidence of receiving specialist neurology review while 149 (40%) had not been reviewed by their GP in the previous two years for their epilepsy. Significant variation in documentation of epilepsy specific information together with an inadequacy and inconsistency of existing epilepsy services was highlighted.

  14. Targeting Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abilities of people with epilepsy, fear seizures, or lack knowledge about seizure first aid or are not comfortable ... they help eliminate barriers to care, such as lack of transportation or ... both English- and Spanish-speaking adults with epilepsy. Researchers are ...

  15. Monoaminergic Mechanisms in Epilepsy May Offer Innovative Therapeutic Opportunity for Monoaminergic Multi-Target Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Svob Strac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy. However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another. In this review, we will focus on the role of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine and melatonin in epilepsy. Recent experimental, clinical and genetic evidence, will be reviewed in consideration of the mutual relationship of monoamines with the other putative neurotransmitters. The complexity of epileptic pathogenesis may explain why the currently available drugs, developed according to the classic drug discovery paradigm of one-molecule-one-target, have turned out to be effective only in a percentage of people with epilepsy. Although no antiepileptic drugs currently target specifically monoaminergic systems, multi-target directed ligands acting on different monoaminergic proteins present on both neurons and glia cells may represent a new approach in the management of seizures and their generation as well as comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Goto, Ikuo

    1989-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with the 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose method on 29 patients with epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, 4; partial epilepsy, 24; undetermined type, 1). The subjects were restricted to patients with epilepsy without focal abnormality on X-CT. All the patients with generalized epilepsy showed a normal pattern on PET. Fourteen out of the 24 patients with partial epilepsy and the 1 with epilepsy of undermined type showed focal hypometabolism on PET. The hypometabolic zone was localized in areas including the temporal cortex in 11 patients, frontal in 2 and thalamus in 1. The location of hypometabolic zone and that of interictal paroxysmal activity on EEG were well correlated in most patients. The patients with poorly-controlled seizure showed a higher incidence of PET abnormality (12 out of 13) than those with well-controlled seizures (2 out of 11). The incidence of abnormality on PET and MRI and the location of both abnormality were not necessarily coincident. These results indicated that the PET examination in epilepsy provides valuable information about the location of epileptic focus, and that the findings on PET in patients with partial epilepsy may be one of the good indicators about the intractability of partial epilepsy, and that PET and MRI provide complementary information in the diagnosis of epilepsy. (author)

  17. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  18. 77 FR 59197 - Epilepsy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Epilepsy... Program Expansion Supplement Award to the Epilepsy Foundation of America. SUMMARY: The Health Resources... Child Health Bureau's Epilepsy Program to the Epilepsy Foundation of America (U23MC19824) to support...

  19. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min-Qin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-10-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  20. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.-Q.; Ong, W.-Y.; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production

  1. Assessing Anticonvulsant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Datura Stramonium Seed on PTZ-Induced Seizures in the Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Namvar Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect social, economic and biological aspects of the human life. Many epileptic patients have uncontrolled seizures and medication-related side effects despite adequate pharmacological treatment. The use of plant extracts is proposed as a therapeutic modality in order to treat different diseases. Datura plant has long been used in the traditional medicine in regard with some nervous disorders like epilepsy. Thus, this study aimed to provide a scientific basis investigating the effect of Datura aqueous extract on PTZ-induced seizures in the male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male mice were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including: one control group, one sham group and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed via gavage for 30 days, and the sham group received stilled water via gavage. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 35 mg/kg, i.p were injected into control, sham and experimental groups 30 minutes after gavage in order to induce the seizure. Then latency time of seizure onset, seizure duration and seizure phases were measured and recorded in the experimental, sham and control groups. The data analysis was carried out via one way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests.  Moreover, difference less than 0.05 (P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study findings revealed that the aqueous extract of Datura Stramonium seed produced a significant effect on PTZ-induced seizure. In addition, Datura increases latency time of seizure onset (P˂0.01, inhibits progress of seizure stages (P˂0.05 and decreases seizure duration (P˂0.001. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that extract of this plant has anticonvulsant effects on PTZ-induced seizure. As a result, it seems to be beneficial to the epilepsy treatment.

  2. Epilepsy is Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Mia; Gjelsvik, Bergljot; Nakken, Karl O

    2015-10-01

    In "Epilepsy is Dancing", in Antony and the Johnsons' album "The Crying Light"(2009), the lyrics and accompanying music video depicts an epileptic seizure in which the person is transferred to another beautiful and magical world. This may be called "enchanted epilepsy"; i.e., the experience of epilepsy as deeply nourishing and (positively) transforming, is conveyed not only in the lyrics but also the visual and auditory qualities of the video. The seizure in the video gives associations to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's dream". If epilepsy appears in music lyrics, the focus is mostly on negative aspects of the illness, such as horror, fear and repulsive sexuality associated with the fits [1,2]. Contradictory to these lyrics, Anthony and the Johnsons' song is an example of a positive portrayal of epilepsy. It is open to a multitude of meanings, emotional valence and appraisal of epilepsy. By widening the experiential range associated with epileptic seizures, these lyrics highlight the inherently construed nature of epileptic experience. The song stands out in several ways. First, it describes epilepsy in positive terms, prioritising the euphoric, ecstatic, potentially empowering and enhancing aspects of epileptic seizures. Second, the lyrics and accompanying video point to divine experiences associated with epileptic seizures. Through the lyrics and the music video we are, as an audience, able to sense a snicket of an epileptic seizure, but also the universal experience of loosing control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric epilepsy: The Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Pradnya; Udani, Vrajesh

    2011-10-01

    Epilepsy is a common clinical entity in neurology clinics. The understanding of the genetics of epilepsy has undergone a sea change prompting re-classification by the International league against epilepsy recently. The prevalence rates of epilepsy in India are similar to those of developed nations. However, the large treatment gap is a major challenge to our public health system. Perinatal injuries are a major causative factor in pediatric group. We have discussed a few common etiologies such as neurocysticercosis and newer genetic epilepsy syndromes. We have also briefly touched upon the Indian experience in pediatric epilepsy surgery.

  4. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy : An impulsivity problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W.; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this

  5. Social cognition dysfunctions in patients with epilepsy: Evidence from patients with temporal lobe and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Sabrina; Zummo, Leila; Cerami, Chiara; Agrò, Luigi; Dodich, Alessandra; Canessa, Nicola; Zizzo, Andrea; Fierro, Brigida; Daniele, Ornella

    2015-06-01

    Despite an extensive literature on cognitive impairments in focal and generalized epilepsy, only a few number of studies specifically explored social cognition disorders in epilepsy syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate social cognition abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Thirty-nine patients (21 patients with TLE and 18 patients with IGE) and 21 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. All subjects underwent a basic neuropsychological battery plus two experimental tasks evaluating emotion recognition from facial expression (Ekman-60-Faces test, Ek-60F) and mental state attribution (Story-based Empathy Task, SET). In particular, the latter is a newly developed task that assesses the ability to infer others' intentions (i.e., intention attribution - IA) and emotions (i.e., emotion attribution - EA) compared with a control condition of physical causality (i.e., causal inferences - CI). Compared with HCs, patients with TLE showed significantly lower performances on both social cognition tasks. In particular, all SET subconditions as well as the recognition of negative emotions were significantly impaired in patients with TLE vs. HCs. On the contrary, patients with IGE showed impairments on anger recognition only without any deficit at the SET task. Emotion recognition deficits occur in patients with epilepsy, possibly because of a global disruption of a pathway involving frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. Impairments of mental state attribution specifically characterize the neuropsychological profile of patients with TLE in the context of the in-depth temporal dysfunction typical of such patients. Impairments of socioemotional processing have to be considered as part of the neuropsychological assessment in both TLE and IGE in view of a correct management and for future therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes toward epilepsy and perceptions of epilepsy-related stigma in Korean evangelical Christians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Choi, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Paek, Joon-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The scriptural description of Jesus driving out an evil spirit from a boy with epilepsy supported the idea of the spiritual nature of epilepsy for centuries. Korea has a shorter history of Christianity than the Western world. We determined whether there are differences in attitudes toward epilepsy and perception of epilepsy-related stigma between people with and without belief in evangelical Christianity in Korea. Data were collected from evangelical churches and theological colleges. People without religious beliefs were enrolled as a control group through convenience sampling. The Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale and the modified Stigma Scale for epilepsy were used. Familiarity with and knowledge of epilepsy were also assessed. Evangelical Christians were categorized as professional or nonprofessional depending on whether they had received professional education in Christian theology. A total of 227 evangelical Christians and 139 controls were included. The scores on the Stigma Scale and in the two PATE domains were significantly lower in the professional Christian group than in the controls or the nonprofessional group (pKorea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined role of seizure-induced dendritic morphology alterations and spine loss in newborn granule cells with mossy fiber sprouting on the hyperexcitability of a computer model of the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Julian; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C

    2014-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.

  8. [Effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Li-Li; Xiao, Bo

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy on cognitive function and emotion in children and the risk factors for cognitive impairment. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 38 children with temporal lobe epilepsy and 40 children with idiopathic epilepsy. The controls were 42 healthy children. All subjects received the following neuropsychological tests: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, verbal fluency test, digit span test, block design test, Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC), and Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC). Compared with the control group, the temporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy groups showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Pepilepsy group, the temporal lobe epilepsy group showed significantly lower scores of MoCA, verbal fluency, digit span, and block design (Ptemporal lobe epilepsy group, MoCA score was negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.571, -0.529, and -0.545 respectively; Pepilepsy group, MoCA score was also negatively correlated with SASC score, DSRSC score, and seizure frequency (r=-0.542, -0.487, and -0.555 respectively; Ptemporal lobe epilepsy and idiopathic epilepsy show impaired whole cognition, verbal fluency, memory, and executive function and have anxiety and depression, which are more significant in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. High levels of anxiety, depression, and seizure frequency are risk factors for impaired cognitive function.

  9. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interictal mood and personality disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, G I; Tosin, C; Carraro, C; Bernasconi, G; Canevini, M P; Canger, R; Pellegrini, A; Testa, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mood disorders have been described as the commonest psychiatric disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Secondary depression in temporal lobe epilepsy could be interpreted either as an adjustment reaction to a chronic disease or as a limbic dysfunction. To clarify this issue, a controlled study of psychiatric disorders was conducted in different forms of epileptic and non-epileptic chronic conditions. METHODS: Twenty outpatients with temporal lobe epilepsy, 18 outpatients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy--a primary generalised seizure disorder--20 matched type I diabetic patients, and 20 matched normal controls were assessed by a structured interview (SADS) and by self rating scales (Beck depression inventory (BDI) and the state and trait anxiety scales STAIX1 and STAIX2). RESULTS: Sixteen (80%) patients with temporal lobe epilepsy fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis at the SADS interview with a significantly higher frequency than patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (22%) and diabetic patients (10%) (P personality or anxiety disorder. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy scored significantly higher on BDI, STAIX1, and STAIX2 than the three control groups (P personality disorders, often in comorbidity, than patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and diabetic patients suggesting that these psychiatric disorders are not an adjustment reaction to a chronic disease but rather reflect a limbic dysfunction. PMID:8971108

  11. Knowledge about Epilepsy and Attitudes toward Students with Epilepsy among Middle and High School Teachers in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Attitudes toward students with epilepsy and epilepsy-related knowledge of teachers are crucial for child’s safety in the school. The aim of this study was to evaluate teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 824 teachers from 24 randomly selected middle and high schools. Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE was modified to assess teachers’ knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Results. Median knowledge score about epilepsy was 5 (out of 13, while median attitude score was 10 (out of 15. Both knowledge and attitude median scores were significantly higher in senior teachers with longer teaching experience and in respondents who dealt with a person with epilepsy. There was significant association between knowledge score and attitude score (p<0.01. Logistic regression showed that significant variables, independently associated with poor knowledge after adjusting for possible confounders, were not having a family member with epilepsy (p=0.009, unawareness of life circumstances of persons with epilepsy (p=0.048, and a poor attitude score (p<0.001. Conclusion. School teachers in Kuwait have relatively poor knowledge about epilepsy but have positive attitudes toward students with epilepsy. A number of historical and stigmatizing ideas about epilepsy still exist. It is recommended to provide teachers with information about handling seizures in the educational setting through development and implementation of epilepsy education programs.

  12. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  13. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Morales-Quezada, León; Orozco Garduño, Adolfo Josué; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; González-Aragón, Maricarmen Fernández; Espinoza López, Dulce Anabel; Vázquez Gregorio, Rafael; Anschel, David J; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation therapy in epilepsy with conflicting results in terms of efficacy and safety. Review the literature about the efficacy and safety of tDCS in epilepsy in humans and animals. We searched studies in PubMed, MedLine, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar (January 1969 to October 2013) using the keywords 'transcranial direct current stimulation' or 'tDCS' or 'brain polarization' or 'galvanic stimulation' and 'epilepsy' in animals and humans. Original articles that reported tDCS safety and efficacy in epileptic animals or humans were included. Four review authors independently selected the studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, PRISMA guidelines and Jadad Scale. A meta-analysis was not possible due to methodological, clinical and statistical heterogeneity of included studies. We analyzed 9 articles with different methodologies (3 animals/6 humans) with a total of 174 stimulated individuals; 109 animals and 65 humans. In vivo and in vitro animal studies showed that direct current stimulation can successfully induce suppression of epileptiform activity without neurological injury and 4/6 (67%) clinical studies showed an effective decrease in epileptic seizures and 5/6 (83%) reduction of inter-ictal epileptiform activity. All patients tolerated tDCS well. tDCS trials have demonstrated preliminary safety and efficacy in animals and patients with epilepsy. Further larger studies are needed to define the best stimulation protocols and long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah

    2007-01-01

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  15. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization.

  16. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal : diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient

  17. Epilepsy priorities in Europe: A report of the ILAE-IBE Epilepsy Advocacy Europe Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulac, Michel; de Boer, Hanneke; Elger, Christian; Glynn, Mike; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Little, Ann; Mifsud, Janet; Perucca, Emilio; Pitkänen, Asla; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The European Forum on Epilepsy Research (ERF2013), which took place in Dublin, Ireland, on May 26-29, 2013, was designed to appraise epilepsy research priorities in Europe through consultation with clinical and basic scientists as well as representatives of lay organizations and health care providers. The ultimate goal was to provide a platform to improve the lives of persons with epilepsy by influencing the political agenda of the EU. The Forum highlighted the epidemiologic, medical, and social importance of epilepsy in Europe, and addressed three separate but closely related concepts. First, possibilities were explored as to how the stigma and social burden associated with epilepsy could be reduced through targeted initiatives at EU national and regional levels. Second, ways to ensure optimal standards of care throughout Europe were specifically discussed. Finally, a need for further funding in epilepsy research within the European Horizon 2020 funding programme was communicated to politicians and policymakers participating to the forum. Research topics discussed specifically included (1) epilepsy in the developing brain; (2) novel targets for innovative diagnostics and treatment of epilepsy; (3) what is required for prevention and cure of epilepsy; and (4) epilepsy and comorbidities, with a special focus on aging and mental health. This report provides a summary of recommendations that emerged at ERF2013 about how to (1) strengthen epilepsy research, (2) reduce the treatment gap, and (3) reduce the burden and stigma associated with epilepsy. Half of the 6 million European citizens with epilepsy feel stigmatized and experience social exclusion, stressing the need for funding trans-European awareness campaigns and monitoring their impact on stigma, in line with the global commitment of the European Commission and with the recommendations made in the 2011 Written Declaration on Epilepsy. Epilepsy care has high rates of misdiagnosis and considerable variability in

  18. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats.   Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity.Conclusion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  19. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats. Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity. Discussion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  20. Evaluation of knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards patients with epilepsy among university students in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Mohamed N; Sayed, Mohamed A; Ali, Magda M

    2018-05-05

    Epilepsy is a major public health problem worldwide. There are many misconceptions about people's knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy, which influence people's behavior towards patients with epilepsy. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Sohag University, a public Egyptian University, in Upper Egypt. We used an Arabic language designed questionnaire to assess people's knowledge about epilepsy and their attitudes towards patients with epilepsy. We included a total of 920 students in the study. 12.4% of study respondents had never heard of or read about epilepsy. Moreover, there was much misunderstanding about the etiology of epilepsy, as 68.2% of epileptic and 74.5% of nonepileptic respondents believe epilepsy is caused by evil spirits and evil eyes or due to psychiatric disorders. There were also many people who held negative attitudes towards patients with epilepsy in regards to major life milestones such as marriage and having children. Among nonepileptics, 54.5% believe epileptics should not marry and 49.9% believe they should not have children. Among patients with epilepsy, these percentages are 27.3% and 36.4% respectively. Knowledge about epilepsy is insufficient and should be increased. The attitudes towards patients with epilepsy are negative and should be changed in Upper Egypt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent advances in epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Alessandro; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale

    2018-02-22

    In last few years there has been rapid increase in the knowledge of epilepsy genetics. Nowadays, it is estimated that genetic epilepsies include over than 30% of all epilepsy syndromes. Several genetic tests are now available for diagnostic purposes in clinical practice. In particular, next-generation sequencing has proven to be effective in revealing gene mutations causing epilepsies in up to a third of the patients. This has lead also to functional studies that have given insight into disease pathophysiology and consequently to the identification of potential therapeutic targets opening the way of precision medicine for epilepsy patients. This minireview is focused on the most recent advances in genetics of epilepsies. We will also overview the modern genomic technologies and illustrate the diagnostic pathways in patients with genetic epilepsies. Finally, the potential implications for a personalized treatment (precision medicine) are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  3. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  4. Listening to Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunquell, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses what epilepsy is and what it is not, defines types of epileptic seizures, identifies epilepsy syndromes, discusses antiepileptic drugs, describes seizure surgery, and examines issues of quality of life. (JDD)

  5. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and instructions. Specific problems of treatment of epilepsy in the elderly compared to childhood patients are as follows: distinctive range of causes of epilepsy, distinctive differential diagnosis, concurrent pathologies unrelated to epilepsy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, and distinctive psychosocial effects. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 40-7 Keywords:  epilepsy, elderly, management, concomitant illness, pharmacokinetic

  7. Potencial terapêutico das células-tronco de medula óssea no tratamento da epilepsia Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia M. Carrion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsia é uma patologia bastante prevalente no nosso meio. Há um número significativo de pacientes que não obtém resposta com a terapêutica medicamentosa, o que motivou a pesquisa de novas terapêuticas. O conceito de neurogênese no cérebro adulto, hoje já amplamente conhecida, principalmente a que ocorre na zona subventricular e na zona subgranular do giro denteado, motivou o desenvolvimeto de técnicas que aproveitassem esse mecanismo na tentativa de obtenção de efeitos antiepileptogênicos e reparadores. A maior parte dos estudos em vigência hoje, e que buscam tal finalidade, trabalha o uso de transplante de células progenitoras neurais ou de células fetais em modelos experimentais. No entanto, a terapêutica com células-tronco de medula óssea parece bastante interessante e promissora. Em doenças neurológicas nas quais os danos são frequentemente irreversíveis, as estratégias regenerativas podem representar um novo caminho. Em nosso laboratório, temos estudado o potencial terapêutico de células-tronco da medula óssea no controle de crises espontâneas recorrentes associadas ao modelo da pilocarpina com resultados excelentes. Também já está em andamento o primeiro estudo em humanos utilizando células-tronco de medula óssea para o tratatamento da epilepsia.Epilepsy is a prevalent pathology. A significative number of patients do not achieve an adequate response to pharmacological therapy. This observation has motivated the search for new strategies. The now well known concept of neurogenesis in the adult brain, in particular in the subventricular and dentate gyrus subgranular zones, has encouraged the development of strategies that might control this mechanism in order to obtain either antiepileptogenic or repair effects. Most studies focus on the transplantation of neural progenitor or fetal cells in experimental models, although bone marrow stem cell therapy is promising. In neurological diseases in which damage

  8. Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences].

  9. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy in Adults with TSC Individuals with tuberous sclerosis ... being well controlled for long periods of time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that ...

  10. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....

  11. Familial benign nonprogressive myoclonic epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; de Falco, Fabrizio A; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Work on the classification of epileptic syndromes is ongoing, and many syndromes are still under discussion. In particular, special difficulty still persists in correctly classifying epilepsies with myoclonic seizures. The existence of special familial epileptic syndromes primarily showing myoclonic features has been recently suggested on the basis of a clear pattern of inheritance or on the identification of new chromosomal genetic loci linked to the disease. These forms in development include familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME), benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME), or autosomal dominant cortical myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME), and, maybe, adult-onset myoclonic epilepsy (AME). In the future, the identification of responsible genes and the protein products will contribute to our understanding of the molecular pathways of epileptogenesis and provide neurobiologic criteria for the classification of epilepsies, beyond the different phenotypic expression.

  12. Managing Epilepsy in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dwyer, V

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting women of childbearing age1. In the most recent triennial report into maternal deaths in Ireland and the UK, two thirds of women who died had a medical condition. In this report, 14 maternal deaths during pregnancy and up to 42 days postpartum were attributable to epilepsy or seizures; a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 maternities. In 12 of these women’ the cause was sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Thus, epilepsy remains a high-risk condition in pregnancy. The gold standard of care is a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetricians, a neurologist and an epilepsy nurse specialist2. Like other units in Ireland this multidisciplinary service is currently provided in the National Maternity Hospital’s maternal medicine clinic, in conjunction with neurology services in Beaumont Hospital.

  13. Low-frequency stimulation in anterior nucleus of thalamus alleviates kainate-induced chronic epilepsy and modulates the hippocampal EEG rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liang, Jiao; Xu, Cenglin; Wang, Ying; Kuang, Yifang; Xu, Zhenghao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Shuang; Gao, Feng; Chen, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) is a new and alternative option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. However, the responder rate is relatively low. The present study was designed to determine the effect of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in ANT on chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures and related pathological pattern in intra-hippocampal kainate mouse model. We found that LFS (1 Hz, 100 μs, 300 μA), but not HFS (100 Hz, 100 μs, 30 μA), in bilateral ANT significantly decreased the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures, either non-convulsive focal seizures or tonic-clonic generalized seizures. The anti-epileptic effect persisted for one week after LFS cessation, which manifested as a long-term inhibition of the frequency of seizures with short (20-60 s) and intermediate duration (60-120 s). Meanwhile, LFS decreased the frequency of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) and interictal spikes, two indicators of seizure severity, whereas HFS increased the HFO frequency. Furthermore, LFS decreased the power of the delta band and increased the power of the gamma band of hippocampal background EEG. In addition, LFS, but not HFS, improved the performance of chronic epileptic mice in objection-location task, novel objection recognition and freezing test. These results provide the first evidence that LFS in ANT alleviates kainate-induced chronic epilepsy and cognitive impairment, which may be related to the modulation of the hippocampal EEG rhythm. This may be of great therapeutic significance for clinical treatment of epilepsy with deep brain stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Being parents with epilepsy: thoughts on its consequences and difficulties affecting their children

    OpenAIRE

    Gauffin, Helena; Flensner, Gullvi; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Helena Gauffin,1 Gullvi Flensner,2 Anne-Marie Landtblom1,3 1Department of Neurology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden; 3Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Objective: Parents with epilepsy can be concerned about the consequences of epilepsy affecting their children. The aim of this paper is to des...

  16. Epilepsy and homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya NS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Pandya,1 Mirna Vrbancic,2 Lady Diana Ladino,3,4 José F Téllez-Zenteno31Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 4Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellin, ColombiaPurpose: We report the rare case of a patient with intractable epilepsy and escalating aggression, resulting in murder, who had complete resolution of her seizures and explosive behavior following a right temporal lobectomy.Patients and methods: We searched the available literature from 1880 to 2013 for cases of epilepsy being used as a court defense for murder and collected information regarding the final sentencing outcomes. We selected 15 papers with a total of 50 homicides.Results: We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with drug-resistant right temporal epilepsy who developed increasing emotional lability, outbursts of anger and escalating violent behavior culminating in a violent murder. The patient was imprisoned while awaiting trial. In the interim, she underwent a successful temporal lobectomy with full resolution of seizures, interictal rage and aggressive behaviors. After the surgery, her charges were downgraded and she was transferred to a psychiatric facility.Conclusion: The aggressive behavior associated with epilepsy has been described in the literature for over a century. A link between epilepsy and aggression has been disproportionally emphasized. These patients share some common characteristics: they are usually young men with a long history of epilepsy and lower than average intelligence. The violent act is postictal, sudden-onset, more likely to occur after a cluster of seizures and is usually related with alcohol abuse.Keywords: aggression, crime, epilepsy

  17. Epilepsy in Dostoevsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Fyodor M. Dostoevsky (Moscow, 1821-Saint Petersburg, 1881) suffered epilepsy throughout his whole literary career. The aim here is to understand his condition in light of his novels, correspondence, and his contemporaries' accounts as well as through the eyes of later generations of neurologists. From Murin (The landlady, 1847) to Smerdyakov (The brothers Karamazov, 1880), Dostoevsky portrayed up to six characters with epilepsy in his literature. The first symptoms of the disease presented in early adulthood, but he was only diagnosed with epilepsy a decade later. In 1863 he went abroad seeking expert advice from the famous neurologists Romberg and Trousseau. Dostoevsky made an intelligent use of epilepsy in his literature (of his experiential auras or dreamy states particularly) and through it found a way to freedom from perpetual military servitude. His case offers an insight into the natural history of epilepsy (a cryptogenic localization related one of either fronto-medial or temporal lobe origin using contemporary medical terms), thus inspiring later generations of writers and neurologists. Furthermore, it illustrates the good use of an ordinary neurological disorder by an extraordinary writer who transformed adversity into opportunity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Revised version of quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and surgical epilepsy therapy issued by the Austrian, German, and Swiss working group on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; Bast, Thomas; Czech, Thomas; Feucht, Martha; Hans, Volkmar H; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Noachtar, Soheyl; Oltmanns, Frank; Polster, Tilman; Seeck, Margitta; Trinka, Eugen; Wagner, Kathrin; Strzelczyk, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The definition of minimal standards remains pivotal as a basis for a high standard of care and as a basis for staff allocation or reimbursement. Only limited publications are available regarding the required staffing or methodologic expertise in epilepsy centers. The executive board of the working group (WG) on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment published the first guidelines in 2000 for Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. In 2014, revised guidelines were published and the WG decided to publish an unaltered English translation in this report. Because epilepsy surgery is an elective procedure, quality standards are particularly high. As detailed in the first edition of these guidelines, quality control relates to seven different domains: (1) establishing centers with a sufficient number of sufficiently and specifically trained personnel, (2) minimum technical standards and equipment, (3) continuous medical education of employees, (4) surveillance by trained personnel during video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM), (5) systematic acquisition of clinical and outcome data, (6) the minimum number of preoperative evaluations and epilepsy surgery procedures, and (7) the cooperation of epilepsy centers. These standards required the certification of the different professions involved and minimum numbers of procedures. In the subsequent decade, quite a number of colleagues were certified by the trinational WG; therefore, the executive board of the WG decided in 2013 to make these standards obligatory. This revised version is particularly relevant given that the German procedure classification explicitly refers to the guidelines of the WG with regard to noninvasive/invasive preoperative video-EEG monitoring and invasive intraoperative diagnostics in epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. How predictive are photosensitive epilepsy models as proof of principle trials for epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Eunice S M; Sims, John R

    2014-06-01

    Human photosensitive epilepsy models have been used as proof of principle (POP) trials for epilepsy. Photosensitive patients are exposed to intermittent photic stimulation and the reduction in sensitivity to the number of standard visual stimulation frequencies is used as an endpoint. The aim of this research was to quantify the predictive capabilities of photosensitive POP trials, through a survey of current literature. A literature search was undertaken to identify articles describing photosensitive POP trials. Minimally efficacious doses (MEDs) in epilepsy were compared to doses in the POP trials that produced 50-100% response (ED50-100). Ratios of these doses were calculated and summarised statistically. The search identified ten articles describing a total of 17 anti-epileptic drugs. Of these, data for both MED and ED50-100 were available for 13 anti-epileptic drugs. The average ratio of MED to ED50-100 was 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.30). The difference in MED to ED50-100 ratios between partial epilepsy (0.82) was not significantly different from that of generalised epilepsy (1.08) (p=0.51). Photosensitive POP trials are a useful tool to quantitatively predict efficacy in epilepsy, and can be useful as early and informative indicators in anti-epileptic drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  1. Computer tomographic examinations in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.F.K.

    1984-01-01

    Epileptic patients that was examined at the Universitas Hospital (Bloemfontein) by means of computerized tomography for the period July 1978 - December 1980, are divided into two groups: a) Patients with general epilepsy of convulsions - 507; b) Patients with vocal or partial epilepsy - 111. The method of examination and the results for both general and vocal epilepsy are discussed. A degenerative state was found in 35% of the positive computer tomographic examinations in general epilepsy and 22% of the positive examinations for vocal epilepsy. The purpose of the article was to explain the circumstances that can be expected when a epileptic patient is examined by means of computerized tomography

  2. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  4. Epilepsy and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P. Saneto DO, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. In a large cohort of children and adolescents with mitochondrial disease (n = 180, over 48% of patients developed seizures. The majority (68% of patients were younger than 3 years and medically intractable (90%. The electroencephalographic pattern of multiregional epileptiform discharges over the left and right hemisphere with background slowing occurred in 62%. The epilepsy syndrome, infantile spasms, was seen in 17%. Polymerase γ mutations were the most common genetic etiology of seizures, representing Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (14%. The severity of disease in those patients with epilepsy was significant, as 13% of patients experienced early death. Simply the loss of energy production cannot explain the development of seizures or all patients with mitochondrial dysfunction would have epilepsy. Until the various aspects of mitochondrial physiology that are involved in proper brain development are understood, epilepsy and its treatment will remain unsatisfactory.

  5. Rationale for treating epilepsy in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrini, R; Arzimanoglou, A; Brouwer, O

    2002-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the effects of antiepileptic drugs on childhood epilepsies are partly linked to the specific type of epilepsy or epilepsy syndrome. Most (but not all) types of epilepsy can be classified into categories that are conceptually meaningful. It is likewise logical to set

  6. Comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalles P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities are often associated with chronic neurological diseases, such as headache and epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To identify comorbidities associated with epilepsy and headaches, and to determine possible drug interactions. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire with information about type of epilepsy/headache, medical history, and medication was administered to 80 adult subjects (40 with epilepsy and 40 with chronic headache. RESULTS: Patients with epilepsy had an average of two comorbidities and those with headache of three. For both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent. On average, patients with epilepsy were taking two antiepileptic medications and those with headache were taking only one prophylactic medication. Regarding concomitant medications, patients with epilepsy were in use, on average, of one drug and patients with headache of two. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and headaches, have a high number of comorbidities and they use many medications. This may contribute to poor adherence and interactions between different medications.

  7. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-03

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  9. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a chronic mental disorder associated with psychomotor epilepsy, like those of the seizures, are... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  10. Art and epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Hunter, Gary; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco

    2013-10-01

    The impact of health and disease has led many artists to depict these themes for thousands of years. Specifically, epilepsy has been the subject of many famous works, likely because of the dramatic and misunderstood nature of the clinical presentation. It often evokes religious and even mythical processes. Epilepsy surgical treatment has revolutionized the care of selected patients and is a relatively recent advance. Epilepsy surgery has been depicted in very few artistic works. The first portrait showing a potential surgical treatment for patients with epilepsy was painted in the 12th century. During the Renaissance, Bosch famously provided artistic commentary on traditional beliefs in "The stone of madness". Several of these works demonstrate a surgeon extracting a stone from a patient's head, at one time believed to be the source of all "folly", including epileptic seizures, psychosis, intellectual disability, depression, and a variety of other illnesses. There are some contemporary art pieces including themes around epilepsy surgery, all of them depicting ancient Inca Empire procedures such as trepanning. This article reviews the most relevant artistic works related with epilepsy surgery and also its historical context at the time the work was produced. We also present a painting from the Mexican artist Eduardo Urbano Merino that represents the patient's journey through refractory epilepsy, investigations, and ultimately recovery. Through this work, the artist intends to communicate hope and reassurance to patients going through this difficult process. © 2013.

  11. Introduction-Pediatric epilepsy surgery techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenhag, Bertil; Cukiert, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    This supplement includes the proceedings from the Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Techniques Meeting held in Gothenburg (July 4-5, 2014), which focused on presentations and discussions regarding specific surgical technical issues in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Pediatric epilepsy neurosurgeons from all over the world were present and active in very fruitful and live presentations and discussions. These articles represent a synopsis of the areas and subjects dealt with there. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  13. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  14. Status Epilepticus Induced Spontaneous Dentate Gyrus Spikes: In Vivo Current Source Density Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Flynn

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is considered to function as an inhibitory gate limiting excitatory input to the hippocampus. Following status epilepticus (SE, this gating function is reduced and granule cells become hyper-excitable. Dentate spikes (DS are large amplitude potentials observed in the dentate gyrus (DG of normal animals. DS are associated with membrane depolarization of granule cells, increased activity of hilar interneurons and suppression of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell firing. Therefore, DS could act as an anti-excitatory mechanism. Because of the altered gating function of the dentate gyrus following SE, we sought to investigate how DS are affected following pilocarpine-induced SE. Two weeks following lithium-pilocarpine SE induction, hippocampal EEG was recorded in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 16-channel silicon probes under urethane anesthesia. Probes were placed dorso-ventrally to encompass either CA1-CA3 or CA1-DG layers. Large amplitude spikes were detected from EEG recordings and subject to current source density analysis. Probe placement was verified histologically to evaluate the anatomical localization of current sinks and the origin of DS. In 9 of 11 pilocarpine-treated animals and two controls, DS were confirmed with large current sinks in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. DS frequency was significantly increased in pilocarpine-treated animals compared to controls. Additionally, in pilocarpine-treated animals, DS displayed current sinks in the outer, middle and/or inner molecular layers. However, there was no difference in the frequency of events when comparing between layers. This suggests that following SE, DS can be generated by input from medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, or within the dentate gyrus. DS were associated with an increase in multiunit activity in the granule cell layer, but no change in CA1. These results suggest that following SE there is an increase in DS activity, potentially arising from

  15. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...... to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification...

  16. Rational management of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Venkataraman

    2014-09-01

    Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.

  17. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  18. Excitotoxicity and neuronal death in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorigados, Lourdes; Orozco, Sandra; Morales, Lilia; Estupiñán, Bárbara; García, Iván; Rocha, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent, often progressive neurological disorder with a chronic evolution, affecting 1 to 2 % of the world population. Research with experimental models and imaging analysis of diseased patients have been used to show that recurrent episodes produce oxidative stress, most of which is related to neuronal excitability phenomena. It is known that the excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors results in neurotoxicity; a process that, under the denomination of excitotoxicity, is...

  19. Monoaminergic Mechanisms in Epilepsy May Offer Innovative Therapeutic Opportunity for Monoaminergic Multi-Target Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Pivac, Nela; Smolders, Ilse J.; Fogel, Wieslawa A.; De Deurwaerdere, Philippe; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another. In this review, we will focus on the role of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine, and melatonin in epilepsy. Recent experimental, clinical, and genetic evidence will be reviewed in consideration of the mutual relationship of monoamines with the other putative neurotransmitters. The complexity of epileptic pathogenesis may explain why the currently available drugs, developed according to the classic drug discovery paradigm of “one-molecule-one-target,” have turned out to be effective only in a percentage of PWE. Although, no antiepileptic drugs currently target specifically monoaminergic systems, multi-target directed ligands acting on different monoaminergic proteins, present on both neurons and glia cells, may represent a new approach in the management of seizures, and their generation as well as comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27891070

  20. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Soellner, C; Bien, C G; Tumani, H

    2017-09-01

    To compare the frequency of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic'). Patients with epileptic (n = 301) and non-epileptic (n = 10) seizures were retrospectively screened for autochthonous intrathecal Ig synthesis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were detected in 8% of patients with epilepsies of unknown etiology, 5% of patients with first seizures of unknown cause and 0-4% of patients with epilepsy due to brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease or other etiologies. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were not seen in patients with psychogenic seizures. Identical OCBs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were more common in all patient groups (10-40% depending on underlying etiology). Intrathecal IgG synthesis/OCBs were observed slightly more frequently in patients with 'cryptogenic' epilepsy and with first seizures of unknown etiology than in other patient groups. However, this remained an infrequent finding and thus we could not confirm humoral immunity as a leading disease mechanism in patients with epilepsy in general or with unknown etiology in particular. © 2017 EAN.

  1. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  2. Interventions for the management of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Valeria; Al Hamad, Arwa; Lodi, Giovanni; Porter, Stephen; Fedele, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction is a common and permanent adverse effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck. Randomised trials of available treatment modalities have produced unclear results and offer little reliable guidance for clinicians to inform evidence-based therapy. We have undertaken this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of available interventions for radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL database through July 2016 for randomised controlled trials comparing any topical or systemic intervention to active and/or non-active controls for the treatment of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia. The results of clinically and statistically homogenous studies were pooled and meta-analyzed. 1732 patients from twenty studies were included in the systematic review. Interventions included systemic or topical pilocarpine, systemic cevimeline, saliva substitutes/mouthcare systems, hyperthermic humidification, acupuncture, acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, low-level laser therapy and herbal medicine. Results from the meta-analysis, which included six studies, suggest that both cevimeline and pilocarpine can reduce xerostomia symptoms and increase salivary flow compared to placebo, although some aspects of the relevant effect size, duration of the benefit, and clinical meaningfulness remain unclear. With regard to interventions not included in the meta-analysis, we found no evidence, or very weak evidence, that they can reduce xerostomia symptoms or increase salivary flow in this population. Pilocarpine and cevimeline should represent the first line of therapy in head and neck cancer survivors with radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation. The use of other treatment modalities cannot be supported on the basis of current evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  4. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there

  5. A Population-Based Study of Long-term Outcomes of Cryptogenic Focal Epilepsy in Childhood: Cryptogenic Epilepsy is NOT Probably Symptomatic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine C; Grossardt, Brandon R; So, Elson L; Nickels, Katherine C

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term outcome in a population-based group of children with cryptogenic vs symptomatic focal epilepsy diagnosed from 1980–2004 and to define the course of epilepsy in the cryptogenic group. Methods We identified all children residing in Olmsted County, MN, 1 month through 17 years with newly diagnosed, non-idiopathic focal epilepsy from 1980–2004. Children with idiopathic partial epilepsy syndromes were excluded. Medical records were reviewed to determine etiology, results of imaging and EEG studies, treatments used, and long-term outcome. Children were defined as having symptomatic epilepsy if they had a known genetic or structural/metabolic etiology, and as cryptogenic if they did not. Key Findings Of 359 children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy, 215 (60%) had non-idiopathic focal epilepsy. Of these, 206 (96%) were followed for more than 12 months. Ninety five children (46%) were classified as symptomatic. Median follow-up from diagnosis was similar in both groups, being 157 months (25%ile, 75%ile 89, 233) in the cryptogenic group vs 134 months (25%ile, 75%ile 78, 220) in the symptomatic group (p=0.26). Of 111 cryptogenic cases, 66% had normal cognition. Long-term outcome was significantly better in those with cryptogenic vs symptomatic etiology (intractable epilepsy at last follow-up, 7% vs 40%, p<0.001; seizure-freedom at last follow-up, 81% vs 55%, p<0.001). Of those who achieved seizure-freedom at final follow-up, 68% of the cryptogenic group versus only 46% of the symptomatic group were off antiepileptic medications (p=0.01). One third of the cryptogenic group had a remarkably benign disorder, with no seizures seen after initiation of medication, or in those who were untreated, after the second afebrile seizure. A further 5% had seizures within the first year but remained seizure-free thereafter. With the exception of perinatal complications, which predicted against seizure remission, no other factors were found to significantly

  6. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18(F)FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18(F)FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references.

  7. Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.; Frost, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18[F]FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references

  8. Photoacoustic Imaging of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    using simulation and phantom experiments; (4) To test and validate the PAT system using a well established animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy ...and evaluation (3) Software Development (4) Animal experiments (5) Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (6) Analysis of the images from the in vivo...details please see the progress report of the third year of the project. 5. Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Task 6) During months 37-48 of this

  9. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  10. Epilepsy-associated stigma in Bolivia: a community-based study among the Guarani population: an International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy/World Health Organization Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Regional Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Rafael, Florentina; Magnelli, Donata; Padilla, Sandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Zappia, Mario; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of social stigma that appears to be influenced by psychosocial and cultural factors. Stigma has a negative effect on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE), representing one of the major factors that contribute to the burden of epilepsy. To assess stigma perception among the Guarani population, one hundred thirty-two people living in Guaraní communities in Bolivia were invited to complete the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy questionnaire. The main determinants of stigma identified were: the fear linked to loss of control, the feelings of sadness and pity toward PWE, the difficulties faced by PWE in the professional and relationship fields, the level of education and type of seizure. Our study pointed out that, in this population, PWE face difficulties in everyday life because of epilepsy-associated stigma and the results attest to the importance of promoting community-based educational programs aimed at reducing the stigmatization process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of felt stigma in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, N; Kaya, B; Yıldız, G; Öztura, I; Baklan, B

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the level of felt stigma, overprotection, concealment, and concerns related to epilepsy in different life domains by using culturally-specific scales for Turkish individuals with epilepsy. Also, it aimed to detect relations among the study variables and to determine the variables which predict felt stigma. For this purpose, felt stigma scale, overprotection scale, concealment of epilepsy scale, and concerns of epilepsy scale were administered to two hundred adult persons with epilepsy (PWE). The results showed that almost half of the participants reported felt stigma, overprotection, concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to future occupation, and concerns related to social life. Almost all the study variables show correlations with each other. Concealment of epilepsy, concerns related to social life, and concerns related to future occupation were found as the predictors of felt stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  13. Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are emerging as realistic tools for seizure control. Numerous open-label trials and a few recent randomized controlled trials suggest the capacity of both techniques to suppress seizures. Additionally, specialized TMS protocols aimed to map cortical function and to measure cortical excitability may have realistic roles as diagnostic tools in epilepsy. As the prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy has not changed in recent years, TMS and tDCS offer noninvasive and nonpharmacological options to improve control of intractable seizures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epilepsy, regulation of brain energy metabolism and neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloix, Jean-François; Hévor, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are the result of a sudden and temporary synchronization of neuronal activity, the reason for which is not clearly understood. Astrocytes participate in the control of neurotransmitter storage and neurotransmission efficacy. They provide fuel to neurons, which need a high level of energy to sustain normal and pathological neuronal activities, such as during epilepsy. Various genetic or induced animal models have been developed and used to study epileptogenic mechanisms. Methionine sulfoximine induces both seizures and the accumulation of brain glycogen, which might be considered as a putative energy store to neurons in various animals. Animals subjected to methionine sulfoximine develop seizures similar to the most striking form of human epilepsy, with a long pre-convulsive period of several hours, a long convulsive period during up to 48 hours and a post convulsive period during which they recover normal behavior. The accumulation of brain glycogen has been demonstrated in both the cortex and cerebellum as early as the pre-convulsive period, indicating that this accumulation is not a consequence of seizures. The accumulation results from an activation of gluconeogenesis specifically localized to astrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. Both seizures and brain glycogen accumulation vary when using different inbred strains of mice. C57BL/6J is the most "resistant" strain to methionine sulfoximine, while CBA/J is the most "sensitive" one. The present review describes the data obtained on methionine sulfoximine dependent seizures and brain glycogen in the light of neurotransmission, highlighting the relevance of brain glycogen content in epilepsies.

  15. Statin treatment may lower the risk of postradiation epilepsy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoming; Yin, Jing; Wang, Hongxuan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Peng, Ying

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of statins on preventing the risk of postradiation epilepsy. We performed a retrospective analysis of neurological nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with a history of radiotherapy. Patients with a history of epilepsy before radiation and those who received prophylactically antiepileptic treatment were excluded. The demographic and clinical data of these patients were collected through chart review. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test) to examine the effect of statins on epilepsy-free survival. Cox regression analysis was utilized to identify independent predictive variables. Our study included 532 patients (405 males and 127 females) with a mean follow-up of 28.1 months. During follow-up, 471 (88.5%) patients developed radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN). Within a mean latency of 24.1 months, 88 (16.5%) patients experienced epilepsy, of whom 27 (27 of 88, 30.7%) patients suffered from epilepsy before the diagnosis of RN. Thirty-six (36 of 88, 40.9%) cases of epilepsy occurred after RN onset, and in 22 cases (22 of 88, 25.0%) epilepsy was the first presentation of RN. Three patients suffered from epilepsy but did not have RN. Eighty-eight patients in our cohort were treated with statins because of hyperlipidemia or prevention of cardiocerebrovascular diseases, of whom six (6.8%) developed epilepsy, whereas in those without statin, the epileptic rate was 18.5%. Log-rank test found that there was a significant difference in epilepsy-free survival between patients who used statins and those who did not (p = 0.016). After adjusting for confounding variables, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that statin use could still significantly reduce the risk of epilepsy after radiation (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.15-0.82, p = 0.015). However, for the patients who already suffered from RN, statin treatment did not lower the risk of post-RN epilepsy. Early statin use may reduce the risk of

  16. Understanding Death in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging seizure activity: a combined EEG/EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Mayer, Thomas; Hamandi, Khalid; Symms, Mark; Josephs, Oliver; Fluegel, Dominique; Woermann, Friedrich; Richardson, Mark P; Noppeney, Uta; Wolf, Peter; Koepp, Matthias J

    2009-02-01

    To characterize the spatial relationship between activations related to language-induced seizure activity, language processing, and motor control in patients with reading epilepsy. We recorded and simultaneously monitored several physiological parameters [voice-recording, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG)] during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nine patients with reading epilepsy. Individually tailored language paradigms were used to induce and record habitual seizures inside the MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for structural brain analysis. Reading-induced seizures occurred in six out of nine patients. One patient experienced abundant orofacial reflex myocloni during silent reading in association with bilateral frontal or generalized epileptiform discharges. In a further five patients, symptoms were only elicited while reading aloud with self-indicated events. Consistent activation patterns in response to reading-induced myoclonic seizures were observed within left motor and premotor areas in five of these six patients, in the left striatum (n = 4), in mesiotemporal/limbic areas (n = 4), in Brodmann area 47 (n = 3), and thalamus (n = 2). These BOLD activations were overlapping or adjacent to areas physiologically activated during language and facial motor tasks. No subtle structural abnormalities common to all patients were identified using VBM, but one patient had a left temporal ischemic lesion. Based on the findings, we hypothesize that reflex seizures occur in reading epilepsy when a critical mass of neurons are activated through a provoking stimulus within corticoreticular and corticocortical circuitry subserving normal functions.

  18. The current treatment options for epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, P.; Svecova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most prevalent chronic brain disease manifesting with epileptic seizures. Epilepsy itself is not one nosological entity, it rather includes several diseases with various etiology, clinics, course and therapy. Antiepileptic therapy aims seizure freedom without affecting psychical and physical functions. The therapy is in first line pharmacological. The choice of antiepileptic drug depends not only on the seizure phenomenology, but also on the respective type of epilepsy syndrome. Most patients achieve seizure freedom or at least significant seizure frequency reduction. In 20-30% of the patients is the pharmacotherapy ineffective. In these cases of refractory epilepsy therapeutical options include epilepsy surgery, vagal stimulation or ketogenic diet. Despite recent advances in the diagnostics and therapy, epilepsy remains a serious medical and social issue. (author)

  19. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  20. The causes of epilepsy: changing concepts of etiology of epilepsy over the past 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorvon, Simon D

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides a survey of the changing concepts of the etiology of epilepsy from 1860 to 2010, focusing on the first two 50-year periods and outlining more briefly major developments in the past 50 years. Among the concepts reviewed in the first 100 years are: the division between predisposing and exciting causes, idiopathic and genuine epilepsy, organic epilepsy, the concept of "cause" being equivalent to "causal mechanism," Russell Reynolds etiological classification, the neurological taint and theories of degeneration, the self-perpetuating nature of seizures, reflex theories of etiology, autointoxication, heredity and eugenics, epilepsy due to brain disorders, the role of EEG and of hippocampal sclerosis, psychological theories of causation, and the multifactorial view of epilepsy etiology. In the past 50 years, the major advances in studying causation in epilepsy have been: clinical biochemistry, neuroimaging, molecular genetics, studies of mechanisms of epilepsy, better statistical methodologies and classification. A number of general observations can be made: the identification of "cause" is not as simple as it might at first appear; progress in the study of causation has been often erratic and travelled up many cul-de-sacs; theories of causation are heavily influenced by societal influences and fashion, and is also heavily dependent on applied methodologies; the recently explored possibility that the underlying inherited mechanisms of epilepsy are shared with other neuropsychiatric conditions is in effect a reinvention of the concept of the neurological trait, and this has ethical and social implications. Considering and classifying cause in terms of causal mechanism, as was suggested by Hughlings Jackson, is an ultimate goal. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Validation of the PedsQL Epilepsy Module: A pediatric epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Junger, Katherine F; Mara, Constance A; Kellermann, Tanja; Barrett, Lauren; Wagner, Janelle; Mucci, Grace A; Bailey, Laurie; Almane, Dace; Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Urso, Lauryn; Hater, Brooke; Hustzi, Heather; Smith, Gigi; Herrmann, Bruce; Perry, M Scott; Zupanc, Mary; Varni, James W

    2017-11-01

    To validate a brief and reliable epilepsy-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in children with various seizure types, treatments, and demographic characteristics. This national validation study was conducted across five epilepsy centers in the United States. Youth 5-18 years and caregivers of youth 2-18 years diagnosed with epilepsy completed the PedsQL Epilepsy Module and additional questionnaires to establish reliability and validity of the epilepsy-specific HRQOL instrument. Demographic and medical data were collected through chart reviews. Factor analysis was conducted, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas), test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. Questionnaires were analyzed from 430 children with epilepsy (M age = 9.9 years; range 2-18 years; 46% female; 62% white: non-Hispanic; 76% monotherapy, 54% active seizures) and their caregivers. The final PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a 29-item measure with five subscales (i.e., Impact, Cognitive, Sleep, Executive Functioning, and Mood/Behavior) with parallel child and caregiver reports. Internal consistency coefficients ranged from 0.70-0.94. Construct validity and convergence was demonstrated in several ways, including strong relationships with seizure outcomes, antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects, and well-established measures of executive, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral functioning. The PedsQL Epilepsy Module is a reliable measure of HRQOL with strong evidence of its validity across the epilepsy spectrum in both clinical and research settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Why epilepsy challenges social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Bettina K; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-01-01

    Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions. We consider societal, psychological, and neuropsychological aspects of social life with particular emphasis on socio-cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind, two main aspects of social cognition, are frequently observed in individuals with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Results from behavioural studies targeting these functions will be presented with a focus on their relevance for patients' daily life. Furthermore, we will broach the issue of pitfalls in current diagnostic tools and potential directions for future research. By giving a broad overview of individual and interpersonal determinants of social functioning in epilepsy, we hope to provide a basis for future research to establish social cognition as a key component in the comprehensive assessment and care of those with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GABAA Receptor-Mediated Activity in a Model of Cortical Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    LiCl/pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus on brain mu and benzodiazepine receptor binding: regional and ontogenetic studies. Brain Res 1181:104-17...Z, Nadler V (2009) Enhanced tonic GABA current in normotopic and hilar ctopic dentate granule cells after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus . J

  4. Epigenetic Histone Deacetylation Inhibition Prevents the Development and Persistence of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sandesh D; Clossen, Bryan L; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated unprovoked seizures. Currently, no drug therapy exists for curing epilepsy or disease modification in people at risk. Despite several emerging mechanisms, there have been few studies of epigenetic signaling in epileptogenesis, the process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic because of precipitating factors. Here, we report a novel role of histone deacetylation as a critical epigenetic mechanism in epileptogenesis. Experiments were conducted using the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate in the hippocampus kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a classic model heavily used to approve drugs for treatment of epilepsy. Daily treatment with butyrate significantly inhibited HDAC activity and retarded the development of limbic epileptogenesis without affecting after-discharge signal. HDAC inhibition markedly impaired the persistence of seizure expression many weeks after epilepsy development. Moreover, subchronic HDAC inhibition for 2 weeks resulted in a striking retardation of epileptogenesis. HDAC inhibition, unexpectedly, also showed erasure of the epileptogenic state in epileptic animals. Finally, butyrate-treated animals exhibited a powerful reduction in mossy fiber sprouting, a morphologic index of epileptogenesis. Together these results underscore that HDAC inhibition prevents the development of TLE, indicating HDAC's critical signaling role in epileptogenesis. These findings, therefore, envisage a unique novel therapy for preventing or curing epilepsy by targeting the epigenetic HDAC pathway. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Musical and poetic creativity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Associations between epilepsy and musical or poetic composition have received little attention. We reviewed the literature on links between poetic and musical skills and epilepsy, limiting this to the Western canon. While several composers were said to have had epilepsy, John Hughes concluded that none of the major classical composers thought to have had epilepsy actually had it. The only composer with epilepsy that we could find was the contemporary composer, Hikari Oe, who has autism and developed epilepsy at age 15years. In his childhood years, his mother found that he had an ability to identify bird sound and keys of songs and began teaching him piano. Hikari is able to compose in his head when his seizures are not severe, but when his seizures worsen, his creativity is lost. Music critics have commented on the simplicity of his musical composition and its monotonous sound. Our failure to find evidence of musical composers with epilepsy finds parallels with poetry where there are virtually no established poets with epilepsy. Those with seizures include Lord George Byron in the setting of terminal illness, Algernon Swinburne who had alcohol-related seizures, Charles Lloyd who had seizures and psychosis, Edward Lear who had childhood onset seizures, and Vachel Lindsay. The possibility that Emily Dickinson had epilepsy is also discussed. It has not been possible to identify great talents with epilepsy who excel in poetic or musical composition. There are few published poets with epilepsy and no great composers. Why is this? Similarities between music and poetry include meter, tone, stress, rhythm, and form, and much poetry is sung with music. It is likely that great musical and poetic compositions demand a greater degree of concentration and memory than is possible in epilepsy, resulting in problems retaining a musical and mathematical structure over time. The lack of association between recognizable neuropsychiatric disorders and these skills is a gateway to

  6. Temporal plus epilepsy: Anatomo-electroclinical subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Machado, René; Benjumea-Cuartas, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a remediable epileptic syndrome. About 40% of patients continue to have seizures after standard temporal lobectomy. It has been suggested that some of these patients could actually suffer from a more complex epileptogenic network. Because a few papers have been dedicated to this topic, we decided to write an article updating this theme. Methods: We performed a literature search using the following terminology: “temporal plus epilepsy and networks,” “temporal plus epilepsy,” “orbito-temporal epilepsy,” “temporo-insular epilepsy,” “temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) epilepsy,” “parieto-temporal epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and temporal plus epilepsy,” “temporal lobe connectivity and epilepsy,” “intracortical evoked potential and epilepsy surgery,” “role of extratemporal structures in TLE,” “surgical failure after temporal lobectomy,” “Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and temporal epilepsy,” and “positron emission tomography (PET) in temporal plus lobe epilepsy” in the existing PubMed databases. We searched only English and Spanish literature. Only papers that fit with the above-mentioned descriptors were included as part of the evidence. Other articles were used to reference some aspects of the temporal plus epilepsy. Results: A total of 48 papers from 2334 were revised. The most frequently reported auras in these groups of patients are gustatory hallucinations, vestibular illusions, laryngeal and throat constriction, atypical distribution of somatosensory symptoms (perioral and hands, bilaterally hands paresthesias, trunk and other). The most common signs are tonic posturing, hemifacial twist, and frequent bilateral clonic movements. Interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns exhibit regional and frequently bilateral spikes and/or slow waves. The first ictal electrographic change is mostly regional. It is important to note that the evidence is

  7. A brief history of epilepsy and its therapy in the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R A

    1992-07-01

    The history of epilepsy and its treatment in the western world dates back at least 4 millennia to the ancient civilization of the middle east. Past and present treatments have been empirical, usually reflecting the prevailing views of epilepsy, be they medical, theological or superstitious. Ancient physicians relied on clinical observation to distinguish between epileptic syndromes and infer their cause. Early pathophysiological theories of epilepsy correctly identified the brain as the site of the problem, but emphasized incorrect causes such as an excess of phlegm in the brain. Treatments consisted of prescribed diets or living conditions, occasional surgery such as bloodletting or skull trephination and medicinal herbs. These treatments, often ineffective, had the intellectual advantage of being based on pathophysiological principles, unlike current, more empirical, therapies. The unfortunate but widely held view of epilepsy as being due to occult or evil influences gained adherents even in the medical world during ancient times, and the later acceptance of Christianity allowed theological interpretations of seizures as well. Magical or religious treatments were more frequently prescribed as a result, practices which persist to this day. In the Renaissance an attempt was made to view epilepsy as a manifestation of physical illness rather than a moral or occult affliction, but it was during the Enlightenment that epilepsy was viewed along more modern lines, helped by advances in anatomy and pathology and the development of chemistry, pharmacy and physiology. The idea that focal irritation may cause seizures came about from clinical and experimental work, and was supported by the successful control of seizures by the (sedative) bromides and barbiturates in the late 19th century. The introduction of phenytoin showed that non-sedative drugs could be effective in controlling seizures as well, and the development of in vivo seizure models widened the scope of

  8. Health habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children suffering from epilepsy are high at risk of oral diseases primarily due to their underlying medical condition which can have an impact on the maintenance level of oral hygiene, but also due to adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Objective. The aim of this paper was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior of children with epilepsy and parents in respect to oral health. Method. The experimental group consisted of 50 children with epilepsy, 24 boys and 26 girls, 7-14 years old, mean age 11.2±2.2 years. The control group consisted of healthy children, matched by age and gender. The instruments of investigation consisted of the structured interview of children and parents concerning oral health habits, attitudes and behavior. We used medical records of children with epilepsy as a source of information on their diagnosis, duration of the illness and current therapy. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-squared test, nonparametric correlation, Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and logistic regression. Results. Results showed that more children with epilepsy and their parents had inappropriate habits and attitudes towards oral health, as well as nutrition habits (p<0.001. Compared to healthy controls, children with epilepsy washed their teeth less often and shorter, they had less knowledge about causes of oral diseases and about influence of oral diseases on general health, and they had worse self-rating of teeth and gum condition. In addition, significantly more children with epilepsy used an incorrect technique of teeth brushing (p<0.001. Characteristics of children’s epilepsy and educational degree of parents had no influence on these differences. Conclusion. Study results showed that children with epilepsy and their parents had worse habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health than healthy controls and their parents. This difference can be explained primarily by worse parental estimation of oral health and

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  10. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC In this video ... Aria Fallah, MD, discusses the surgical treatment of epilepsy in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsy is ...

  11. Complex single gene disorders and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, Aine

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders, often associated with significant comorbidity, such as intellectual disability and skin disorder. The genetic underpinnings of many epilepsies are still being elucidated, and we expect further advances over the coming 5 years, as genetic technology improves and prices fall for whole exome and whole genome sequencing. At present, there are several well-characterized complex epilepsies associated with single gene disorders; we review some of these here. They include well-recognized syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex, epilepsy associated with Rett syndrome, some of the progressive myoclonic epilepsies, and novel disorders such as epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH 19 gene. These disorders are important in informing genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis and to permit better understanding of the variability in phenotype-genotype correlation.

  12. Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, H.G. [University Hospital, Dep. of Neurology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    PET has added valuable information to our knowledge of the human epilepsies. The most important observations have been the identification of localized regions of interictal cerebral dysfunction in patients with partial epilepsy, revealed with PET as local hypometabolism, hypoperfusion, or (in one study) enhanced {mu}opiate receptor binding. The following general conclusions about the anatomy of epilepsy can be drawn from interictal PET studies: (1) interictal neuronal dysfunction is not limited to the site of ictal onset, nor to brain areas immediately adjacent to structural damage, (2) temporal lobe dysfunction is most commonly encountered, usually in association with primary epileptogenic lesions in mesial temporal structures, but also on occasion with lateral temporal or extratemporal epileptogenic lesions which preferentially propagate to mesial temporal structures to give rise to complex partial seizures. It is now accepted that interictal {sup 18}F-FDG PET correctly lateralises the primarily epileptic temporal lobe in approximately 70% of patients. As a consequence of inclusion of PET into the UCLA presurgical evaluation protocol, Engel et al. were able to operate on 28% of the patients without using invasive methods, (3) local isolated neocortical dysfunction associated with simple partial seizures is only rarely revealed by PET, (4) remote interictal cerebral dysfunction associated with complex partial seizures is not necessarily limited to the involved TL, since contralateral temporal, extemporal neocortical and cerebral dysfunction may also be seen, (5) a variety of anatomical patterns of interictal cerebral dysfunction occur in secondary generalized epilepsies, which may be related to symptoms and signs, (6) no diffuse or localized interictal cerebral dysfunction has been identified by PET in patients with primary generalized childhood absence seizures. (author) 29 refs.

  13. [Modern aspects of epilepsy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajbegović, Azra; Kantardzić, Dzelaludin; Suljić, Enra; Alajbegović, Salem

    2003-01-01

    It is a general rule today, after a relevant diagnostics of an epilepsy, to start a monotherapy treatment, depending on a kind of a seizure, a life age and a general health condition. First line of monotherapy epilepsy drugs remain carbamazapine and sodium valproat. New drugs that are being introduced are: felbamat, gabapentin, lamotrigin, oxcarbazepin, tiagabin, topiramat, vigabatin and zanisamid. These are commonly used as add-on therapy, or as an addition for previously used antiepileptic. Their indicated areas are complex resistant partial seizures with or without generalization. Attention should be paid on proper dosage, interactions and toxicity. Regardless on the new epileptic era, according to reports of International League against epilepsy, most of the patients do not receive the drug that is the most appropriate for them concerning the price (cost-benefit). Neurosurgical methods in epilepsy treatment are: selective amygdalo-hyppocampotomy, temporal lobotomy, subpial resection, hemispherectomy, corpus callosotomy, removal of lesions like tumors or cysts provide encouraging results in reduction of epileptic seizures that can be followed by reduction of drug therapy. N. vagus stimulation is being wider introduced in resident epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy in women requires an approach to sexuality, conception, pregnancy, introduction of medicaments, antiepileptic terratogenity, contraception, motherhood and menopause. A special significance of modern approach to epilepsy is in treatment of elderly who have cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease as a cause of seizures. A complex treatment of epilepsy using pharmacological and neurosurgical approach requires supportive psychotherapy, socio-therapy, the work with a family, education about epilepsy and living a life with more quality having one.

  14. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  15. Occipital lobe epilepsy with fear as leading ictal symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehl, Bernhard; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Lanz, Michael; Brandt, Armin; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Ictal fear is a semiological feature which is commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Here, we describe fear as a leading symptom in cryptogenic occipital lobe epilepsy. In a patient with negative MRI findings, intracranial EEG recordings documented a strict correlation between habitual ictal anxiety attacks and both spontaneous and stimulation-induced epileptic activity in a right occipital epileptogenic area with subsequent spreading to the symptomatogenic zone in the amygdala. Circumscribed occipital topectomy led to seizure freedom. Episodes of non-epileptic fear ceased shortly afterwards. This report provides insight into pathways of propagation of epileptic activity, illustrates different etiologies of pathologic fear and underlines the importance of ictal EEG recordings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epilepsy, language, and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Rochelle

    2017-10-04

    Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy. It reviews the findings of studies of social skills and the few studies conducted on the inter-relationship of language and social skills in pediatric and adult epilepsy. The paper concludes with suggested future research and clinical directions that will enhance early identification and treatment of epilepsy patients at risk for impaired language and social skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognition in epilepsy: current clinical issues of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i.e., emotion recognition and theory of mind) is impaired in different epilepsy populations, the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly characterized by a stable or even improved cognitive status, and superselective epilepsy surgeries are associated with a promising neuropsychological outcome. The high prevalence of cognitive deficits around epilepsy onset challenges the assumption that epilepsy is the major cause of cognitive problems and calls for early neuropsychological diagnostics. Social cognition seems to be a relevant domain that is not yet routinely considered in epilepsy. The cognitive long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly positive. Stereotactic thermocoagulation and gamma knife surgery appear to be cognitively safe procedures.

  18. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  19. Correlation between IL-10 and microRNA-187 expression in epileptic rat hippocampus and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Alsharafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence is emerging that microRNAs (miRs are key regulators controlling neuroinflammatory processes, which are known to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic expression pattern of interleukin (IL–10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and miR-187 and post-transcriptional inflammation-related miRNA in the hippocampus of a rat model of status epilepticus (SE and patients with TLE. We performed a real-time quantitative PCR and western blot on rat hippocampus (2 hours, 7 days, 21 days and 60 days following pilocarpine-induced SE, and on hippocampus obtained from TLE patients and normal controls. To detect the relationship between IL-10 and miR-187 on neurons, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and IL-10-stimulated neurons were prepared. Furthermore, we identified the effect of antagonizing of miR-187 by its antagomir on IL-10 secretion. Here we reported that that IL-10 secretion and miR-187 expression levels are inversely correlated after SE.. In patients with TLE, the expression levels of IL-10 was also significantly upregulated, whereas miR-187 expression was significantly downregulated. Moreover, miR-187 expression was significantly reduced following IL-10 stimulation in an IL-10–dependent manner. On the other hand, antagonizing miR-187 reduced the production of IL-10 in hippocampal tissues of rat model of SE. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of miR-187 in the physiological regulation of IL-10 anti-inflammatory responses and elucidate the role of neuro-inflammation in the pathogenesis of TLE. Therefore, modulation of the IL-10 / miR-187 axis may be a new therapeutic approach for TLE.

  20. Epilepsy-induced behavioral changes during the ictal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy, experiential phenomena and behavioral manifestations may pose a number of problems in terms of differential diagnosis. From a clinical point of view, ictal psychiatric symptoms represent partial seizures, mainly partial ones. In the majority of cases, they are very brief (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes), stereotyped, out of context, and frequently associated with subtle or overt automatisms and postictal confusion of variable duration. In some cases, such symptoms are followed by alteration of consciousness as the ictus evolves to a complex partial seizure or a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. This paper reviews clinically relevant behavioral patterns during seizures discussing clinical phenomenology and relevance in terms of lateralizing value. © 2013.

  1. [Epilepsy-new diagnostic tools, old drugs? : Therapeutic consequences of epilepsy genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, M; Neubauer, B A; Gerstl, L; Roser, T; Rémi, J; Borggraefe, I

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the field of epilepsy genetics have led to an increased fraction of patients with epilepsies where the etiology of the disease could be identified. Nevertheless, there is some criticism regarding the use of epilepsy genetics because in many cases the identification of a pathogenetic mutation does not lead to an adaptation of therapy or to an improved prognosis. In addition, the interpretation of genetic results might be complicated due to the considerable numbers of variants of unclear significance. This publication presents the arguments in favour of a broad use of genetic investigations for children with epilepsies. Several diseases where a genetic diagnosis does in fact have direct therapeutic consequences are mentioned. In addition, the indirect impact of an established etiology, encompassing the avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic measures, possibility of genetic counselling, and the easing of the psychologic burden for the caregivers, should not be underestimated. The arguments in favour of broad genetic diagnostics prevail notwithstanding the lack of relevant new developments regarding the therapy.

  2. A dyadic model of living with epilepsy based on the perspectives of adults with epilepsy and their support persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Barmon, Christina; McGee, Robin E.; Engelhard, George; Sterk, Claire E.; DiIorio, Colleen; Thompson, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic condition that significantly affects the lives of individuals with epilepsy and their support persons, though few studies have examined the experiences of both individuals. To examine these experiences and explore the interpersonal relationships between dyad members, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people with epilepsy and 16 support persons. Data analysis was guided by a grounded theory perspective. We developed a model that shows how epilepsy impacts the lives of both people with epilepsy and support persons and how the experiences of people with epilepsy and supporters influence one another. The core model elements were seizure and treatment factors, relationship characteristics, self-management, seizure control, support provided, illness intrusiveness, and quality of life. People with epilepsy moved through the model in five trajectories depending on seizure control, relationship type, and gender. Support providers followed four trajectories based on seizure control, perception of burden, and support for themselves. People with epilepsy and their primary support providers have varied experiences in how epilepsy affects their lives. This model could serve as a basis for future research and intervention efforts focused on ways to reduce illness intrusiveness and improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and their supporters. PMID:26515151

  3. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  4. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  5. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honghan, Gong; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Takae

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  6. Hippocampal FGF-2 and BDNF overexpression attenuates epileptogenesis-associated neuroinflammation and reduces spontaneous recurrent seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osculati Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under certain experimental conditions, neurotrophic factors may reduce epileptogenesis. We have previously reported that local, intrahippocampal supplementation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF increases neurogenesis, reduces neuronal loss, and reduces the occurrence of spontaneous seizures in a model of damage-associated epilepsy. Here, we asked if these possibly anti-epileptogenic effects might involve anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, we used a Herpes-based vector to supplement FGF-2 and BDNF in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus that established an epileptogenic lesion. This model causes intense neuroinflammation, especially in the phase that precedes the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. The supplementation of FGF-2 and BDNF attenuated various parameters of inflammation, including astrocytosis, microcytosis and IL-1β expression. The effect appeared to be most prominent on IL-1β, whose expression was almost completely prevented. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s for these effects, and for that on IL-1β in particular. Nonetheless, the concept that neurotrophic factors affect neuroinflammation in vivo may be highly relevant for the understanding of the epileptogenic process.

  7. Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinfeld, S. A.; Pellock, J M; Kjeldsen, Lone Marianne Juel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Results Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status...... epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. Conclusion A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures...

  8. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  9. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life.

  10. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, Wilhelmina Adriana Maria

    2006-01-01

    Het proefschrift beschrijft de relatie tussen epilepsie en psychiatrische stoornissen. Voor het onderzoek werden zowel klinische als poliklinische patiënten met epilepsie onderzocht op het voorkomen van DSM as I klinische stoornissen en as II persoonlijkheidsstoornissen. De resultaten werden

  12. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  13. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Im, Jae Yung; Joo, Yang Goo; Park, Sam Kyoon

    1982-01-01

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  14. Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.

    1996-02-01

    Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  15. Long-term outcome of medically treated epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, M; Schmidt, D

    2017-01-01

    To review the long-term outcome of epilepsy in population-based studies. Analysis of population-based studies. About two of three patients with new-onset epilepsy will, in the long run, enter five-year terminal remission. Chances for remission are best for those with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy. It is unclear whether the seizure outcome has improved over the last several decades. Social outcome, however, may have become better because of the improved level of knowledge on and public attitudes toward people with epilepsy, and possibly fewer prejudices at home, daycare, school, military and labor market. While we still do not have a cure for epilepsy for all patients, relief of the medical and social consequences is available for many and hope is on the horizon for people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epilepsy care in general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2009-06-01

    Epilepsy care in Ireland is shared between primary, secondary and tertiary care services with the General Practitioner (GP) managing the process. Barriers to effective epilepsy care in Irish general practice remain undocumented although sub-optimal and fragmented services are frequently anecdotally reported. This survey of Irish GPs reports on such barriers to epilepsy care and on the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) issues potentially relevant to the use of an epilepsy specific Electronic Patient Record (EPR). The response rate was 247\\/700 (35.3%). Respondents supported the concept of shared care for epilepsy 237 (96%) however they were very dissatisfied with existing neurology services, including pathways of referral 207 (84%) and access to specialist neurology advice and investigations 232 (94%). They reported that neurology services and investigations may be accessed more expeditiously by patients with private health insurance than those without 178 (72%). Consequently many patients are referred to the emergency department for assessment and treatment 180 (73%). A deficit in epilepsy care expertise among GPs was acknowledged 86 (35%). While computerisation of GP practices appears widespread 230 (93%), just over half the respondents utilise available electronic functionalities specific to chronic disease management. GP specific electronic systems infrequently link or communicate with external electronic sources 133 (54%). While the current pathways of care for epilepsy in Ireland appear fragmented and inadequate, further investigations to determine the quality and cost effectiveness of the current service are required.

  17. Antagomirs Targeting MicroRNA-134 Increase Limk1 Levels After Experimental Seizures in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: MiR-134 is enriched in dendrites of hippocampal neurons and plays crucial roles in the progress of epilepsy. The present study aims to investigate the effects of antagomirs targeting miroRNA-134 (Ant-134 on limk1 expression and the binding of miR-134 and limk1 in experimental seizure. Methods: Status epilepticus (SE rat model was established by lithium chloride-pilocarpine injection and was treated with Ant-134 by intracerebroventricular injection. Low Mg2+-exposed primary neurons were used as an in vitro model of SE. The expression of miR-134 was determined using real-time PCR. Protein expressions of limk1 and cofilin were determined by Western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the binding between miR-134 and limk1 3’-untranslated region. Results: The expression of miR-134 was markedly enhanced in hippocampus of the SE rats and low Mg2+-exposed neurons. Ant-134 increased the expression of limk1 and reduced the expression of cofilin in the SE hippocampus and Low Mg2+-exposed neurons. In addition, luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-134 bound limk1 3’-UTR. MiR-134 overexpression inhibited limk1 mRNA and protein expressions in neurons. Conclusion: Blockage of miR-134 upregulates limk1 expression and downregulated cofilin expression in hippocampus of the SE rats. This mechanism may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Ant-134.

  18. The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century.

  19. Spectrum of neurosurgeon's role in epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-ik Son

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there is high quality evidence of epilepsy surgery as an effective and safe option for patients with drug refractory epilepsy by advanced imaging technology and computerized electrophysiological facilities during recent three decades. However, it still remains debate regarding necessities of epilepsy surgery in terms of less satisfactory surgical outcome, especially in non-lesional neocortical epilepsies. This review is for the role of epileptic neurosurgeon rather than the role of epilepsy surgery, namely, the necessity of neurosurgeon's positive participation starting from the first visit of epilepsy patients followed by pertaining process by stages and its degree of contribution. All experienced epilepsy centers also need innovative or challenging trial absolutely through this kind of standpoint, because all of the present protocols and techniques are coming from the past. In any event, the interdepartmental and interpersonal cooperation is inevitable especially for improving patient's quality of life. Serious neurosurgical considerations are needed for patients with intractable epilepsies, especially in referred cases from other center for the purpose of double check, and incongruent cases with contrary opinions by epileptologist.

  20. Behandling af rolandisk epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Maria Jose; Ahmad, Banoo Bakir

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature indicates, that rolandic epilepsy/epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes may not be as benign as previously assumed. This study investigates the existing evidence, which describes the treatment effects on seizure frequency as well as improvement of cognition in childre...

  1. Excitatory amino acid transmitters in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1991-01-01

    For the majority of human epilepsy syndromes, the molecular and cellular basis for the epileptic activity remains largely conjectural. The principal hypotheses currently concern: defects in membrane ionic conductances or transport mechanisms; defects in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory processes; and enhanced or abnormal excitatory synaptic action. Substantial evidence exists in humans and animals for acquired abnormalities in excitatory amino acid neurotransmission that may participate in the abnormal patterns of neuronal discharge, and this could provide the morphological basis for a recurrent excitatory pathway sustaining seizure discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy. In practice, two approaches appear significant in the suppression of seizures. One is to act postsynaptically on receptors to decrease the excitation induced by glutamate, and the other is to decrease synaptic release of glutamate and aspartate. Agents acting upon adenosine or GABAB receptors decrease glutamate release in vitro but do not have significant anticonvulsant activity, probably because of their predominant actions at other sites. Lamotrigine blocks stimulated release of glutamate and shows anticonvulsant activity in a wide range of animal models.

  2. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  3. Cannabis and epilepsy: An ancient treatment returns to the fore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis has been associated with the treatment of epilepsy throughout history, and if ancient Assyrian sources referring to "hand of ghost" are considered credible, this relationship may span four millennia. A tradition of usage continued in Arabic medicine and Ayurvedic practice in India, which led, in turn, to early experiments in Europe and North America with "Indian hemp." Lack of standardization, bioavailability issues, and ultimately prohibition were all factors in cannabis-based medicines failing to maintain mainstream usage in seizure treatment, but investigation was resumed in the 1970s with interesting signals noted in both laboratory and clinical settings. Early case studies showed promise, but lacked sufficient rigor. Resumption of research coupled with mass experimentation by families of epilepsy patients has led to intense interest in cannabis-based medicines for its treatment once more, with greatest focus on cannabidiol, but additional investigation of tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, and other phytocannabinoids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Caring for transgender patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily L; Kaplan, Peter W

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 25 million individuals older than age 15 identify as transgender, representing about 0.3-0.9% of the world's population. The aim of this paper is to identify and describe important medical and social considerations facing transgender persons with epilepsy. We performed literature searches on the following terms: transgender AND epilepsy, transgender AND neurology, gender dysphoria AND epilepsy, gender dysphoria AND neurology. We also performed literature searches for common feminizing or masculinizing treatment regimens, and searched for interactions of those treatment regimens with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and with seizures. There are multiple bidirectional interactions between AEDs and the commonly used treatments for aligning external sex characteristics with identified gender. The scope of the transgender population with epilepsy remains to be elucidated. Transgender patients with epilepsy face significant social and medical challenges. Interactions between medical gender-affirming treatments and AEDs are common, and management must depend on knowledge of these interactions to provide appropriate treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. Acupuncture for pilocarpine-resistant xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Peng, Y. Peter; May, Byron C.; Inouye, Warren S.; Niemtzow, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Xerostomia is a frequent and potentially debilitating toxicity of radiotherapy (XRT) for cancers of the head and neck. This report describes the use of acupuncture as palliation for such patients. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with xerostomia refractory to pilocarpine therapy after XRT for head and neck malignancy were offered acupuncture as palliation. All patients are without evidence of cancer recurrence at the primary site. Acupuncture was provided to three auricular points and one digital point bilaterally, with electrostimulation used variably. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was administered retrospectively to provide an objective measure of efficacy. Results: Acupuncture contributed to relief from xerostomia to varying degrees. Palliative effect as measured by the XI varied from nil to robust (pre- minus post- therapy values of over 20 points). Nine patients had benefit of over 10 points on the XI. Conclusions: Acupuncture reduces xerostomia in some patients who are otherwise refractory to best current management

  6. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy

    2017-11-01

    Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epilepsy surgery in drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy associated with neuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño, Mar; Bien, Christian G; Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael; Marusic, Petr; Elisak, Martin; Pimentel, Jose; Wehner, Tim; Mohanraj, Rajiv; Uranga, Juan; Gómez-Ibáñez, Asier; Villanueva, Vicente; Gil, Francisco; Donaire, Antonio; Bargalló, Nuria; Rumià, Jordi; Roldán, Pedro; Setoain, Xavier; Pintor, Luis; Boget, Teresa; Bailles, Eva; Falip, Mercè; Aparicio, Javier; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the outcome of patients with drug resistant epilepsy and neuronal antibodies who underwent epilepsy surgery. Retrospective study, information collected with a questionnaire sent to epilepsy surgery centers. Thirteen patients identified, with antibodies to GAD (8), Ma2 (2), Hu (1), LGI1 (1) or CASPR2 (1). Mean age at seizure onset: 23 years. Five patients had an encephalitic phase. Three had testicular tumors and five had autoimmune diseases. All had drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (median: 20 seizures/month). MRI showed unilateral temporal lobe abnormalities (mainly hippocampal sclerosis) in 9 patients, bilateral abnormalities in 3, and was normal in 1. Surgical procedures included anteromesial temporal lobectomy (10 patients), selective amygdalohippocampectomy (1), temporal pole resection (1) and radiofrequency ablation of mesial structures (1). Perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates were seen in 7/12 patients. One year outcome available in all patients, at 3 years in 9. At last visit 5/13 patients (38.5%) (with Ma2, Hu, LGI1, and 2 GAD antibodies) were in Engel's classes I or II. Epilepsy surgery may be an option for patients with drug resistant seizures associated with neuronal antibodies. Outcome seems to be worse than that expected in other etiologies, even in the presence of unilateral HS. Intracranial EEG may be required in some patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Epilepsi og orale manifestationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Haubek, Dorte; Østergaard, John Rosendahl

    2016-01-01

    Risiko for sygdom I mundhulen hos patienter med epilepsy Epilepsi er en kronisk neurologisk lidelse, der ofte vil kræve medicinsk behandling for at holde patienterne fri for anfald. Lidelsen kan have betydning for patientens psykosociale og kognitive udvikling, der indirekte kan have betydning...

  9. Polymicrogyria-associated epilepsy: a multi-center phenotypic study from the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Catherine; Ramgopal, Sriram; Fallil, Zianka; Parulkar, Isha; Alongi, Richard; Knowlton, Robert; Poduri, Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Polymicrogyria (PMG) is an epileptogenic malformation of cortical development. We describe the clinical epilepsy and imaging features of a large cohort with PMG-related epilepsy. Methods Participants were recruited through the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project, a multi-center collaborative effort to collect detailed phenotypic data on individuals with epilepsy. We reviewed phenotypic data from participants with epilepsy and PMG. Key Findings We identified 87 participants, 43 female and 44 male, with PMG and epilepsy. Median age of seizure onset was 3 years (range <1 month-37 years). Most presented with focal epilepsy (87.4%), some in combination with seizures generalized from onset (23.0%). Focal seizures with dyscognitive features were most common (54.3%). Of those presenting with generalized seizure types, infantile spasms were most prevalent (45.2%). The most common topographic pattern was perisylvian PMG (77.0%), of which the majority was bilateral (56.7%). Generalized PMG presented with an earlier age of seizure onset (median age of 8 months) and an increased prevalence of developmental delay prior to seizure onset (57.1%). Of the focal, unilateral and asymmetric bilateral groups where PMG was more involved in one hemisphere, the majority (71.4%) of participants had seizures that lateralized to the same hemisphere as the PMG or the hemisphere with greater involvement. Significance Participants with PMG had both focal and generalized onset of seizures. Our data confirm the involvement of known topographic patterns of PMG and suggest that more extensive distributions of PMG present with an earlier age of seizure onset and increased prevalence of developmental delay prior to seizure onset. PMID:23750890

  10. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...

  11. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...

  12. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  13. Complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işler, Ayşegül; Turan, Fatma Dilek; Gözüm, Sebahat; Oncel, Selma

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management. This descriptive study included a total of 304 parents of children with epilepsy aged between 0 and 18years evaluated at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital in Turkey between January and May 2013. Data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. It was determined that all the parents use complementary and alternative approaches for their children with epilepsy, and the most common approaches are praying (99.3%); keeping their children away from the effects of smoking (79.8%); feeding their children walnuts (79.6%), butter (59.2%), and bone marrow (58.6%); providing their children with good quality sleep (58.6%); and enabling their children to play games (51%). The approaches commonly applied during seizures include praying (96.2%), comforting their children in their arms and showing affection (55.6%), waiting for seizures to finish at home (45.7%), and laying children on their side (41.1%). Of parents, 98% stated that alternative approaches enable them to control their child's seizures, 100% said that alternative approaches have no adverse effect, and 98.4% stated that they will continue to use these approaches. The children's approaches to cope with epilepsy included looking after pets (72.7%), listening to music (70.1%), watching television (64.5%), playing games (55.3%), praying (51%), and spending time with friends (48.7%). Most of the approaches used by parents and children with epilepsy for the management of illness are determined to consist of complementary approaches that may contribute to management of epilepsy. Knowing the approaches of parents and children with epilepsy that could adversely affect disease management is important for educating parents and children to avoid these potentially harmful interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Epilepsy: Transition from pediatric to adult care. Recommendations of the Ontario epilepsy implementation task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Danielle M; Bassett, Anne S; Bercovici, Eduard; Borlot, Felippe; Bui, Esther; Camfield, Peter; Clozza, Guida Quaglia; Cohen, Eyal; Gofine, Timothy; Graves, Lisa; Greenaway, Jon; Guttman, Beverly; Guttman-Slater, Maya; Hassan, Ayman; Henze, Megan; Kaufman, Miriam; Lawless, Bernard; Lee, Hannah; Lindzon, Lezlee; Lomax, Lysa Boissé; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Menna-Dack, Dolly; Minassian, Berge A; Mulligan, Janice; Nabbout, Rima; Nejm, Tracy; Secco, Mary; Sellers, Laurene; Shapiro, Michelle; Slegr, Marie; Smith, Rosie; Szatmari, Peter; Tao, Leeping; Vogt, Anastasia; Whiting, Sharon; Carter Snead, O

    2017-09-01

    The transition from a pediatric to adult health care system is challenging for many youths with epilepsy and their families. Recently, the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care of the Province of Ontario, Canada, created a transition working group (TWG) to develop recommendations for the transition process for patients with epilepsy in the Province of Ontario. Herein we present an executive summary of this work. The TWG was composed of a multidisciplinary group of pediatric and adult epileptologists, psychiatrists, and family doctors from academia and from the community; neurologists from the community; nurses and social workers from pediatric and adult epilepsy programs; adolescent medicine physician specialists; a team of physicians, nurses, and social workers dedicated to patients with complex care needs; a lawyer; an occupational therapist; representatives from community epilepsy agencies; patients with epilepsy; parents of patients with epilepsy and severe intellectual disability; and project managers. Three main areas were addressed: (1) Diagnosis and Management of Seizures; 2) Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs; and 3) Financial, Community, and Legal Supports. Although there are no systematic studies on the outcomes of transition programs, the impressions of the TWG are as follows. Teenagers at risk of poor transition should be identified early. The care coordination between pediatric and adult neurologists and other specialists should begin before the actual transfer. The transition period is the ideal time to rethink the diagnosis and repeat diagnostic testing where indicated (particularly genetic testing, which now can uncover more etiologies than when patients were initially evaluated many years ago). Some screening tests should be repeated after the move to the adult system. The seven steps proposed herein may facilitate transition, thereby promoting uninterrupted and adequate care for youth with epilepsy leaving the pediatric system. Wiley

  15. Analysis of a case of drug-resistant childhood absence epilepsy concurrent with mysophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of childhood absence epilepsy concurrent with mysophobia, panic attacks, and the development of alternative psychosis in an accentuated girl with drug-induced remission of absence seizures and EEG changes.

  16. Neuropsychological Research Approaches in the Epilepsies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contributions of electro-encephalography to neurology and neurosurgery have tended to overshadow its value for the neuropsychologist as a tool for the study of instability of brain function in relation to the epilepsies and the borderlands of epilepsy. Studies of criminal behaviour have shown a high incidence of epilepsy ...

  17. Self-esteem, behavior, and concerns surrounding epilepsy in siblings of children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, J

    1997-04-01

    Researchers document the emotional impact of epilepsy on the child with seizures. Minimal data are available examining the effects of epilepsy on the siblings of children with seizures. Twenty children whose siblings had either frequent seizures or infrequent seizures were matched by age, gender, and birth order to control subjects with no chronic illness. These three groups were compared. Self-esteem, behavioral and social functioning, and family stress were measured by the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, and Family Inventory of Life Events. The siblings of children with epilepsy completed the Sibling Concern About Seizure Scale to define and measure their concerns surrounding epilepsy. There is no statistical difference in self-esteem or social functioning among the three groups. There is a trend toward increased incidence of externalizing behavior in siblings of children with frequent seizures. Data indicate a trend toward siblings of children with frequent seizures having more concerns about epilepsy than siblings of children with infrequent seizures. There is significantly more stress in families of children with frequent seizures compared to families of children with infrequent seizures and families of children with no chronic illness. Although there were no significant differences in the self-esteem, behavior, socialization, and concerns between the siblings in the family when compared to the control group or to each other, there were trends in the results that may be of clinical significance. These issues, along with the level of family stress, should be considered when coordinating and providing care to families of children with intractable epilepsy.

  18. Cognition and dementia in older patients with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arjune; Capelli, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia. Thus some people with epilepsy may be at a higher risk of developing dementia, while individuals with some forms of dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, are at significantly higher risk of developing epilepsy. Consistent with this emerging view, epidemiological findings reveal that people with epilepsy and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease share common risk factors. Recent studies in Alzheimer’s disease and late-onset epilepsy also suggest common pathological links mediated by underlying vascular changes and/or tau pathology. Meanwhile electrophysiological and neuroimaging investigations in epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia have focused interest on network level dysfunction, which might be important in mediating cognitive dysfunction across all three of these conditions. In this review we consider whether seizures promote dementia, whether dementia causes seizures, or if common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms cause both. We examine the evidence that cognitive impairment is associated with epilepsy in older people (aged over 65) and the prognosis for patients with epilepsy developing dementia, with a specific emphasis on common mechanisms that might underlie the cognitive deficits observed in epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. Our analyses suggest that there is considerable intersection between epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease and cerebrovascular disease raising

  19. Pregnancy Among Women With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S V

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to pregnancy and birth defects in the baby are major concerns for women with epilepsy. Hardly any data from this country is available in this regards to provide factual information to people with epilepsy. This study was undertaken to survey the outcome of pregnancies in women with epilepsy in this part of the country. Women with epilepsy (20to55 year of age who had attended this institute between March 1997 and march 1997 were sent a questionnaire by post regarding their martial status, reproductive history and outcome of pregnancies including any birth defects in their children. The data on clinical aspects and treatment were extracted from their medical records. 184 women (mean age 28.5 + 8 years were included in this study. 108 (58.7% of them were married. Women with epilepsy had three times higher rate of abortions (24.1% than general population(8%. Their mean family size (1.6 was lower than that is Kerala State (2.3. The proportion of women without children (13.9% was also higher than that for the state (9.8%. The frequency of birth defects among their children was twice (4% that in the community (2%. Women taking sodium valproate had higher frequency of birth defects in their children (15% as compared to other drugs but this was not statistically significant. There is a tendency for lower fertility among women with epilepsy. There is a slight increase in the frequency of birth defects among children born to mothers with epilepsy.

  20. In vico 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI during lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsden, van P.; Notenboom, R.G.E.; Wu, O.; Graan, de P.N.E.; Nieuwenhuizen, van O.; Nicolaij, K.; Braun, K.P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with febrile convulsions and childhood status epilepticus (SE). Since the initial precipitating injury, triggering epileptogenesis, occurs during this SE, we aimed to examine the metabolic and morphological cerebral changes during the acute phase of

  1. Behavior Disorders and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers, designed to identify factors contributing to behavior problems, is reported from the Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis; the Minnesota Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Minneapolis; and the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

  2. Cost of epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Reese, Jens Peter; Dodel, Richard; Hamer, Hajo M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to overview published cost-of-illness (COI) studies of epilepsy and their methodological approaches. Epilepsy imposes a substantial burden on individuals and society as a whole. The mean prevalence of epilepsy is estimated at 0.52% in Europe, 0.68% in the US, and peaks up to 1.5% in developing countries. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. This is especially so with the introduction of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the marketing of vagal-nerve stimulators and the resurgence of new surgical treatment options, which have the potential to considerably increase the costs of treating epilepsy.A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies that evaluated direct and indirect costs of epilepsy. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodological framework and data sources were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We identified 22 studies worldwide on costs of epilepsy. The majority of the studies reflected the costs of epilepsy in Europe (three studies each for the UK and Italy, one study each for Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the EU) and the US (four studies), but studies were also available from India (two), Hong Kong, Oman, Burundi, Chile and Mexico. The studies utilized different frameworks to evaluate costs. All used a bottom-up approach; however, only 12 studies (55%) evaluated direct as well as indirect costs. The range for the mean annual direct costs lay between 40 International Dollar purchasing power parities (PPP-$) in rural Burundi and PPP-$4748 (adjusted to 2006 values) in a German epilepsy centre. Recent studies suggest AEDs are becoming the main contributor to direct costs. The mean indirect costs ranged between 12% and 85% of the total annual costs. Epilepsy is a cost-intensive disorder. A reliable comparison of the different COI

  3. Effect of seizure on hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and neocortical epilepsy: an MRS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, K.K.; Chung, C.K.; Song, I.C.; Chang, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of seizures on the bilateral hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and neocortical epilepsy by single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Forty-one patients with mTLE having unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 43 patients with a neocortical epilepsy who underwent subsequent epilepsy surgery were recruited. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) and NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios in 20 healthy control subjects were used as threshold values to determine abnormal NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in the ipsilateral hippocampus of mTLE and neocortical epilepsy. Using asymmetry indices for patients with bilaterally abnormal ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in addition to using unilateral abnormal ratio, the seizure focus was correctly lateralized in 65.9% of patients with mTLE and 48.8% of neocortical epilepsy patients. Bilateral NAA/Cho abnormality was significantly related to a poor surgical outcome in mTLE. No significant relationship was found between the results of NAA/Cho or NAA/Cr and surgical outcome in neocortical epilepsy. The mean contralateral NAA/Cr ratio of the hippocampus in mTLE was significantly lower in patients with a history of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure (SGTCS) than in those without. (orig.)

  4. Effect of seizure on hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and neocortical epilepsy: an MRS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, K.K. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea); Chung, C.K. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea); Song, I.C.; Chang, K.H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chongno ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of seizures on the bilateral hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and neocortical epilepsy by single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Forty-one patients with mTLE having unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 43 patients with a neocortical epilepsy who underwent subsequent epilepsy surgery were recruited. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) and NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios in 20 healthy control subjects were used as threshold values to determine abnormal NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in the ipsilateral hippocampus of mTLE and neocortical epilepsy. Using asymmetry indices for patients with bilaterally abnormal ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in addition to using unilateral abnormal ratio, the seizure focus was correctly lateralized in 65.9% of patients with mTLE and 48.8% of neocortical epilepsy patients. Bilateral NAA/Cho abnormality was significantly related to a poor surgical outcome in mTLE. No significant relationship was found between the results of NAA/Cho or NAA/Cr and surgical outcome in neocortical epilepsy. The mean contralateral NAA/Cr ratio of the hippocampus in mTLE was significantly lower in patients with a history of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure (SGTCS) than in those without. (orig.)

  5. Carbamazepine does not alter the intrinsic cardiac function in rats with epilepsy Carbamazepina não altera o funcionamento cardíaco intrínseco em ratos com epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego B Colugnati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes for sudden unexpected death (SUDEP in epilepsy, the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the heart have been poorly explored. Based on this, the aim of our study was to evaluate the heart rate (in vivo and isolated ex vivo and ventricular pressure (isolated ex vivo of rats with and without epilepsy treated with carbamazepine. Four groups of adult, male Wistar rats (200-250 g were studied: [A] control rats (n=8, received neither pilocarpine nor carbamazepine [B] carbamazepine-treated rats (n=8, received a daily dose of 120 mg/Kg, i.p. of carbamazepine for two weeks; [C] rats with epilepsy that received just saline solution (n=8; [D] rats with epilepsy that received a daily dose of 120 mg/Kg, i.p. of carbamazepine for two weeks (n=8. Our results showed significant increase in heart rate in animals with epilepsy (with and without the use of carbamazepine when compared to the control groups in vivo. In contrast, we did not find differences during isolated ex vivo experiments comparing animals with and without epilepsy and despite the use of carbamazepine. Our results suggest that, in isolation, carbamazepine may not be a potential risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.Entre as causas de morte súbita em epilepsia (SUDEPE, os efeitos das drogas antiepilépticas no coração têm sido pobremente explorados. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência cardíaca (in vivo e de forma isolada ex vivo e a pressão ventricular (de forma isolada ex vivo de ratos com e sem epilepsia tratados com carbamazepina. Quatro grupos de ratos Wistar machos adultos (peso 200 a 250 g foram estudados: [A] ratos controle (n=8, não receberam pilocarpina ou carbamazepina; [B] ratos tratados com carbamazepina (n=8, receberam dose diária de carbamazepina de 120 mg/kg intraperitoneal, durante duas semanas (n=8; [C] ratos com epilepsia que receberam solução salina; [D] ratos com epilepsia que receberam dose diária de

  6. Clinicopathological study on refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and investigate the clinicopathological features and types of refractory epilepsy treated by several epilepsy surgeries. Methods There were 19 patients with age less than 20 years who underwent 2 (16/19 or 3 (3/19 epilepsy surgeries. After pathological examination, pathological diagnosis and subtype was made according to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD classification proposed by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission in 2011 and World Health Organization (WHO Classification of Tumors of Central Nervous System in 2007. Results The operation intervals were 1-10 years (average 4.24 years. The pathological diagnoses after first operation were FCDⅠb in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅡa in 2 cases (2/19, FCDⅢa in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in one case (1/19, 5 cases of tumor lesions [2 (2/19 of astrocytoma, one (1/19 of oligoastrocytoma, one (1/ 19 of mixed germ cell tumor, one (1/19 of hysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT], one case (1/19 of hamartoma, one case (1/19 of angioma, one case (1/19 of heterotopic gray matter, and 4 cases (4/19 of ulegyria. The last one (1/19 underwent corpus callosal incision. Pathological diagnoses after reoperation were FCDⅢa in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢb in 4 cases (4/19, FCDⅢc in one case (1/19, FCDⅢd in 8 cases (8/19, dual pathology (FCDⅢa with oligoastrocytoma and with glial scar and/or ulegyria in 2 cases (2/19. Patients were followed up for 0.50-5.00 years after second or third operation (average 2.34 years, and the results showed Engel Ⅰ in 10 patients (10/19, Engel Ⅱ in 6 patients (6/19 and Engel Ⅲ in 3 patients (3/19. The rate of good prognosis was 84.21%. Conclusions The pathological diagnoses of brain tissue resected from patients accepting several epilepsy surgeries are mainly FCD Ⅲ and dual pathology. It is suggested that the second or third operation would be effective for refractory epilepsy patients who underwent surgery already. DOI: 10

  7. Novel approaches to epilepsy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kokaia, Merab

    2013-01-01

    The aim of epilepsy treatment is to achieve complete seizure freedom. Nonetheless, numerous side effects and seizure resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) affecting about 30-40% of all patients are main unmet needs in today's epileptology. For this reason, novel approaches to treat epilepsy......, and inhibitory neurotransmitters. We also address new molecular-genetic approaches utilizing optogenetic technology. The therapeutic strategies presented herein are predominately aimed toward treatment of partial/focal epilepsies, but could also be envisaged for targeting key seizure propagation areas...... are highly needed. Herein, we highlight recent progress in stem-cell-based and gene transfer-based therapies in epilepsy according to findings in animal models and address their potential clinical application. Multiple therapeutic targets are described, including neuropeptides, neurotrophic factors...

  8. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  9. Experimental therapy of epilepsy with transcranial magnetic stimulation: lack of additional benefit with prolonged treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil-Neto Joaquim P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of three months of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment in intractable epilepsy. METHODS: Five patients (four males, one female; ages 6 to 50 years, were enrolled in the study; their epilepsy could not be controlled by medical treatment and surgery was not indicated. rTMS was performed twice a week for three months; patients kept records of seizure frequency for an equal period of time before, during, and after rTMS sessions. rTMS was delivered to the vertex with a round coil, at an intensity 5 % below motor threshold. During rTMS sessions, 100 stimuli (five series of 20 stimuli, with one-minute intervals between series were delivered at a frequency of 0.3 Hz. RESULTS: Mean daily number of seizures (MDNS decreased in three patients and increased in two during rTMS- one of these was treated for only one month; the best result was achieved in a patient with focal cortical dysplasia (reduction of 43.09 % in MDNS. In the whole patient group, there was a significant (p<0.01 decrease in MDNS of 22.8 %. CONCLUSION: Although prolonged rTMS treatment is safe and moderately decreases MDNS in a group of patients with intractable epilepsy, individual patient responses were mostly subtle and clinical relevance of this method is probably low. Our data suggest, however, that patients with focal cortical lesions may indeed benefit from this novel treatment. Further studies should concentrate on that patient subgroup.

  10. Mortality risk in children with epilepsy : The Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Westendorp, RGJ; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, VA; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O.F.

    Objective. Long-term follow-up studies of patients with epilepsy have revealed an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Mortality of children who have epilepsy in modern times is as yet unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine mortality of children

  11. Reduced Language Connectivity in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh N., Sepeta; Louise J., Croft; Lauren A., Zimmaro; Elizabeth S., Duke; Virginia K., Terwilliger; Benjamin E., Yerys; Xiaozhen., You; Chandan J., Vaidya; William D., Gaillard; Madison M., Berl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Functional connectivity (FC) among language regions is decreased in adults with epilepsy compared to controls, but less is known about FC in children with epilepsy. We sought to determine if language FC is reduced in pediatric epilepsy, and examined clinical factors that associate with language FC in this population. Methods We assessed FC during an age-adjusted language task in children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (n=19) compared to controls (n=19). Time series data were extracted for three left ROIs and their right homologues: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and Wernicke's area (WA) using SPM8. Associations between FC and factors such as cognitive performance, language dominance, and epilepsy duration were assessed. Results Children with epilepsy showed decreased interhemispheric connectivity compared to controls, particularly between core left language regions (IFG, WA) and their right hemisphere homologues, as well as decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. Increased intrahemispheric FC between left IFG and left WA was a positive predictor of language skills overall, and naming ability in particular. FC of language areas was not affected by language dominance, as the effects remained when only examining study participants with left language dominance. Overall FC did not differ according to duration of epilepsy or age of onset. Significance FC during a language task is reduced in children, similar to findings in adults. In specific, children with left focal epilepsy demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FC in temporal and frontal language connections and decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. These differences were present near the onset of epilepsy. Greater FC between left language centers is related to better language ability. Our results highlight that connectivity of language areas has a developmental pattern and is related to cognitive ability. PMID:25516399

  12. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1 Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL, (2 Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3 Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association.

  13. Epilepsy surgery in context of neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Chowdhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The association between neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy is well known and NCC is an important risk factor for epileptic seizures in many Taenia solium-endemic regions of the world. However, while the relationship between NCC and epilepsy is well known, the association between NCC and medically refractory (or surgically remediable epilepsy) has received little attention in the past. Our experience and review of the sparse literature available suggests that NCC is causally related to surgically remediable epilepsy albeit uncommonly so and that association derives its underpinnings from several different scenarios: (1) Medically refractory lesional epilepsy, in which seizures arise from the vicinity of the calcified neurocysticercus lesion (CNL), (2) Medically refractory epilepsy with dual pathology type of relationship between the hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and CNL in which both have been unequivocally demonstrated to give rise to independent seizures and (3) Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to HS with a distantly-located CNL, which is in itself not epileptogenic. A major point of controversy revolves around whether or not there exists a causal association between the CNL and HS. We believe that an association exists between NCC and HS and the most important factor influencing this association is the location of the CNL. Furthermore, NCC is a risk factor for medically-refractory epilepsy and that this might account for a considerable proportion of the intractable epilepsy population in endemic regions; the association has been largely ignored owing to the lack of availability of presurgical work-up facilities in these regions. Finally, from a clinical standpoint of presurgical evaluation, patients with CNL and HS should be evaluated on a case by case basis owing to disparate settings underlying the association. PMID:24791092

  14. Neurostimulation as a promising epilepsy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yicong; Wang, Yuping

    2017-12-01

    The revolution in theory, swift technological developments, and invention of new devices have driven tremendous progress in neurostimulation as a third-line treatment for epilepsy. Over the past decades, neurostimulation took its place in the field of epilepsy as an advanced treatment technique and opened up a new world. Numerous animal studies have proven the physical efficacy of stimulation of the brain and peripheral nerves. Based on this optimistic fundamental research, new advanced techniques are being explored in clinical practice. Over the past century, drawing on the benefits brought about by vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, various new neurostimulation modalities have been developed to control seizures. Clinical studies including case reports, case series, and clinical trials have been booming in the past several years. This article gives a comprehensive review of most of these clinical studies. In addition to highlighting the advantages of neurostimulation for the treatment of epilepsy, concerns with this modality and future development directions are also discussed. The biggest advantage of neurostimulation over pharmacological treatments for epilepsy is the modulation of the epilepsy network by delivering stimuli at a specific target or the "hub." Conversely, however, a lack of knowledge of epilepsy networks and the mechanisms of neurostimulation may hinder further development. Therefore, theoretical research on the mechanism of epileptogenesis and epilepsy networks is needed in the future. Within the multiple modalities of neuromodulation, the final choice should be made after full discussion with a multidisciplinary team at a presurgical conference. Furthermore, the establishment of a neurostimulation system with standardized parameters and rigorous guidelines is another important issue. To achieve this goal, a worldwide collaboration of epilepsy centers is also suggested in the future.

  15. Epilepsy informatics and an ontology-driven infrastructure for large database research and patient care in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The epilepsy community increasingly recognizes the need for a modern classification system that can also be easily integrated with effective informatics tools. The 2010 reports by the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) identified informatics as a critical resource to improve quality of patient care, drive clinical research, and reduce the cost of health services. An effective informatics infrastructure for epilepsy, which is underpinned by a formal knowledge model or ontology, can leverage an ever increasing amount of multimodal data to improve (1) clinical decision support, (2) access to information for patients and their families, (3) easier data sharing, and (4) accelerate secondary use of clinical data. Modeling the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system in the form of an epilepsy domain ontology is essential for consistent use of terminology in a variety of applications, including electronic health records systems and clinical applications. In this review, we discuss the data management issues in epilepsy and explore the benefits of an ontology-driven informatics infrastructure and its role in adoption of a “data-driven” paradigm in epilepsy research. PMID:23647220

  16. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annie E; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Wilson, Sarah J

    2017-04-01

    Richard, A.E., I.E. Scheffer and S.J. Wilson. Features of the broader autism phenotype in people with epilepsy support shared mechanisms between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016. To inform on mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we conducted meta-analyses to test whether impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) and theory of mind (ToM), key phenotypic traits of ASD, are more common in people with epilepsy (PWE) than controls. We contrasted these findings with those of relatives of individuals with ASD (ASD-relatives) compared to controls. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of demographic (age, IQ, sex) and epilepsy-related factors (epilepsy onset age, duration, seizure laterality and origin) to FER and ToM. Thirty-one eligible studies of PWE (including 1449 individuals: 77% with temporal lobe epilepsy), and 22 of ASD-relatives (N=1295) were identified by a systematic database search. Analyses revealed reduced FER and ToM in PWE compared to controls (p<0.001), but only reduced ToM in ASD-relatives (p<0.001). ToM was poorer in PWE than ASD-relatives. Only weak associations were found between FER and ToM and epilepsy-related factors. These findings suggest shared mechanisms between epilepsy and ASD, independent of intellectual disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Social Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population-based longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of social outcomes of children with epilepsy in different countries are reviewed by researchers at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.Epilepsy, Chronic Disease, Idiopathic Epilepsy.

  18. Parahippocampal epilepsy with subtle dysplasia: A cause of "imaging negative" partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Neelan; Fabinyi, Gavin C A; Myles, Terry S; Fitt, Gregory J; Berkovic, Samuel F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2009-12-01

    Lesion-negative refractory partial epilepsy is a major challenge in the assessment of patients for potential surgery. Finding a potential epileptogenic lesion simplifies assessment and is associated with good outcome. Here we describe imaging features of subtle parahippocampal dysplasia in five cases that were initially assessed as having imaging-negative frontal or temporal lobe epilepsy. We analyzed the clinical and imaging features of five patients with seizures from the parahippocampal region. Five patients had subtle but distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in the parahippocampal gyrus. This was a unilateral signal abnormality in the parahippocampal white matter extending into gray matter on heavily T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images with relative preservation of the gray-white matter boundary on T(1)-weighted volume sequences. Only one of these patients had typical electroclinical unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); one mimicked frontal lobe epilepsy, two showed bitemporal seizures, and one had unlocalized partial seizures. All have had surgery; four are seizure-free (one has occasional auras only, follow-up 6 months to 10 years), and one has a >50% seizure reduction. Histopathologic evaluation suggested dysplastic features in the surgical specimens in all. In patients with lesion-negative partial epilepsy with frontal or temporal semiology, or in cases with apparent bitemporal seizures, subtle parahippocampal abnormalities should be carefully excluded. Recognizing the MRI findings of an abnormal parahippocampal gyrus can lead to successful surgery without invasive monitoring, despite apparently incongruent electroclinical features.

  19. Epilepsy. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Epilepsy is a seizure disorder. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America, a seizure happens when a brief, strong surge of electrical activity affects part or all of the brain. About three million Americans have epilepsy. Of the 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year, nearly 45,000 are children and adolescents. Following a brief story of a…

  20. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epilepsy Genetics—Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Annapurna; Lowenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous condition in which genetics play an important etiological role. We begin by reviewing the past history of epilepsy genetics, a field that has traditionally included studies of pedigrees with epilepsy caused by defects in ion channels and neurotransmitters. We highlight important recent discoveries that have expanded the field beyond the realm of channels and neurotransmitters and that have challenged the notion that single genes produce single disorders. Finally, we project toward an exciting future for epilepsy genetics as large-scale collaborative phenotyping studies come face to face with new technologies in genomic medicine. PMID:21277190

  2. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  3. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  4. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy following resective epilepsy surgery in two patients withdrawn from anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Alhadid, Kenda; Valiante, Taufik A

    2015-09-01

    We report sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) following resective epilepsy surgery in two patients who had been documented as seizure free. One patient had been weaned off of anticonvulsants and was leading a normal life. The other patient had discontinued only one anticonvulsant but had recently started working night shifts. Following resective epilepsy surgery, one of the major objectives among patients, caregivers, and the healthcare team is to safely wean patients off anticonvulsant medications. The main concern regarding anticonvulsant withdrawal is seizure recurrence. While SUDEP following surgical resection has been reported, to our knowledge, there have been no confirmed cases in patients who have been seizure free. Considering the patients reported here, and given that there are no concrete guidelines for the safe withdrawal of anticonvulsants following epilepsy surgery, the discontinuation of anticonvulsants should be considered carefully and must be accompanied by close monitoring and counseling of patients regarding activities that lower seizure threshold, even after successful epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality risks in new-onset childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C; Geerts, Ada T; Callenbach, Petra M C; Arts, Willem F; Rios, Christina; Camfield, Peter R; Camfield, Carol S

    2013-07-01

    Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of newly diagnosed patients were combined. Causes of death were classified as seizure related (including sudden unexpected death [SUDEP]), natural causes, nonnatural causes, and unknown. Of 2239 subjects followed up for >30 000 person-years, 79 died. Ten subjects with lethal neurometabolic conditions were ultimately excluded. The overall death rate (per 100 000 person-years) was 228; 743 in complicated epilepsy (with associated neurodisability or underlying brain condition) and 36 in uncomplicated epilepsy. Thirteen deaths were seizure-related (10 SUDEP, 3 other), accounting for 19% of all deaths. Seizure-related death rates were 43 overall, 122 for complicated epilepsy, and 14 for uncomplicated epilepsy. Death rates from other natural causes were 159, 561, and 9, respectively. Of 48 deaths from other natural causes, 37 were due to pneumonia or other respiratory complications. Most excess death in young people with epilepsy is not seizure-related. Mortality is significantly higher compared with the general population in children with complicated epilepsy but not uncomplicated epilepsy. The SUDEP rate was similar to or higher than sudden infant death syndrome rates. In uncomplicated epilepsy, sudden and seizure-related death rates were similar to or higher than rates for other common causes of death in young people (eg, accidents, suicides, homicides). Relating the risk of death in epilepsy to familiar risks may facilitate discussions of seizure-related mortality with patients and families.

  6. Maternal Mortality in Women with Epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holohan, M

    2016-10-01

    It is estimated that, in Ireland, there are 10,000 women with epilepsy of childbearing potential1. In this paper the maternal mortality rate for women with epilepsy attending the Rotunda Hospital Epilepsy Clinic 2004 - 2013 was determined. There were 3 maternal deaths in women with epilepsy during this time, which represents a mortality rate of 0.8%. In those women who died, there were concerns in relation to risks to the foetus by taking Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) and also issues with access to neurology services before pregnancy, acceptance of specialist support and lack of consistency in advice from health care professionals outside of Ireland. Implementing the nationally agreed care plan for women with epilepsy will improve the quality of care given and potentially we will see a reduction in maternal mortality in these women.

  7. Epilepsy and art: Windows into complexity and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Steven C

    2016-04-01

    The views of artists with epilepsy as expressed through their art provide unique opportunities to gain understanding of the experiences of living with epilepsy and related comorbidities. This paper provides a glimpse into art collected from an international group of artists with epilepsy, focusing on ictal and postictal experiences, psychiatric comorbidities, and social aspects of epilepsy. The art serves to enhance understanding among clinicians and neuroscientists of what it means to have epilepsy as well as to reduce misunderstanding and stigma among the public. It may also inspire neuroscientists to further explore the underlying neurological basis to the rich tapestries of ictal, postictal, and interictal experiences of persons with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epilepsy and Sleep Disorders: a Clinical Review | Sunmonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with epilepsy (PWE) are at risk of developing sleep disorders and there is a complex inter-relationship between sleep disorders and epilepsy. Sleep disorders could be misdiagnosed as epilepsy and also worsen epilepsy. We searched Medline and Pubmed between 1962-2012, using the following search terms ...

  9. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Does Epilepsy Increase the Likelihood of Co-Morbid Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saadia; Winterhalder, Robert; Underwood, Lisa; Kelesidi, Katerina; Chaplin, Eddie; Kravariti, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability (ID) it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. We therefore investigated rates of mental health problems and other clinical characteristics in patients with ID and epilepsy (N=156) as compared to patients…

  10. BAD knockout provides metabolic seizure resistance in a genetic model of epilepsy with sudden unexplained death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jeannine; Burnham, Veronica; Tedoldi, Meghan; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic alteration, either through the ketogenic diet (KD) or by genetic alteration of the BAD protein, can produce seizure protection in acute chemoconvulsant models of epilepsy. To assess the seizure-protective role of knocking out (KO) the Bad gene in a chronic epilepsy model, we used the Kcna1 -/- model of epilepsy, which displays progressively increased seizure severity and recapitulates the early death seen in sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Beginning on postnatal day 24 (P24), we continuously video monitored Kcna1 -/- and Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- double knockout mice to assess survival and seizure severity. We found that Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- mice outlived Kcna1 -/- mice by approximately 2 weeks. Kcna1 -/- Bad -/- mice also spent significantly less time in seizure than Kcna1 -/- mice on P24 and the day of death, showing that BadKO provides seizure resistance in a genetic model of chronic epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Epilepsy and Education in developing countries: a survey of school teachers’ knowledge about epilepsy and their attitude towards students with epilepsy in Northwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Lukman Femi; Shehu, Naziru Muhammad; Owolabi, Shakirah Desola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Students living with epilepsy still find themselves confronted with social barriers that prevent them from academic achievements. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of school teachers and to determine the factors associated with good knowledge and positive attitude among nursery, primary and secondary school teachers in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Methods A 20-item validated semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered to 200 teachers, selected through multistage sampling technique, in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Results The respondents comprised 124 (62%) males and 76(38%) females. Their age ranged between 17 and 55 with a median age of 26 years. All the respondents have heard or read about epilepsy, 13% have had students with epilepsy in their classes before, fifty one (25.5%) of them would object to having an epileptic child in their class. To one hundred and seventy one (85.5%) all seizures were convulsive, 81% of them admitted to not havingadequate knowledge of the initial procedure should their student develop epileptic seizure, 60% believed that epileptic student should be separated from non-epileptic students in the classroom and 44.5% of them preferred alternative medicine. Overall, fifty nine (29.5%) teachers had fair to good knowledge about epilepsy. and one hundred and sixty four (82%) had positive attitude to students with epilepsy. Statistically significant association was found between level of education attained by the respondents and good knowledge about epilepsy as well as between female gender and good attitude. However, none of the variables was statistically significant predictor of knowledge or attitude among the respondents. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge and misconceptions about epilepsy but fair attitude towards epileptic students in Northwestern Nigeria. Higher level of education of the teachers was significantly associated with good attitude. PMID:25489360

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of mobile epilepsy educational system (MEES) for people with epilepsy in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Neni, Widiasmoro Selamat

    2012-12-01

    Telemedicine innovations, including short message service (SMS), have been used to address a range of health concerns in a variety of settings. Practical, safe, and cost-effective, this simple tool can also potentially improve patients' understanding toward their own diseases via knowledge enhancement. This study was designed to develop and assess the feasibility and acceptability of an SMS-based epilepsy educational program for epilepsy patients. This was a prospective randomized interventional study. Epilepsy outpatients from three general hospitals in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia received the SMS-based mobile epilepsy educational system (MEES) for a 3-month period. In total, 51 patients completed the study (median age, 25.0 years; 51.0% female; 92.2% Malay; 56.9% single; education level, 70.6% ≤SPM/Cambridge O-level equivalent; 25.5% supportive workers; monthly income, 58.8% ≤MYR 500.0/USD 158.5). Approximately 86.0% of the patients owned at least a mobile phone. The total cost of SMS delivery was economically affordable (MYR 3.08/USD 0.98 per patient). Overall, 74.0% agreed that MEES was either very or quite useful. It is encouraging that the majority of patients have offered positive comments and favorable opinions specifically toward epilepsy education (94.0%), drug-taking reminder (90.0%), and clinic appointment reminder (88.0%). It was also reported that 88.2% of the participants would recommend MEES to other people with epilepsy. The current study adds to the growing evidence suggesting that a greater investment in telemedicine programs involving SMS would be both feasible and well received by patients and could be a potentially valuable approach to increase access and effectiveness of epilepsy care.

  13. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  14. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  15. Gene expression profile in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.M.A.; Gorter, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) represents the most frequent epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with resistance to pharmacological treatment. In TLE, the origin of seizure activity typically involves the hippocampal formation, which displays

  16. Antiepileptogenic Effect of Subchronic Palmitoylethanolamide Treatment in a Mouse Model of Acute Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Post

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the antiepileptic effects of (endo-cannabinoids has remarkably progressed in the years following the discovery of fundamental role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in controlling neural excitability. Moreover, an increasing number of well-documented cases of epilepsy patients exhibiting multi-drug resistance report beneficial effects of cannabis use. Pre-clinical and clinical research has increasingly focused on the antiepileptic effectiveness of exogenous administration of cannabinoids and/or pharmacologically induced increase of eCBs such as anandamide (also known as arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA]. Concomitant research has uncovered the contribution of neuroinflammatory processes and peripheral immunity to the onset and progression of epilepsy. Accordingly, modulation of inflammatory pathways such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was pursued as alternative therapeutic strategy for epilepsy. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is an endogenous fatty acid amide related to the centrally and peripherally present eCB AEA, and is a naturally occurring nutrient that has long been recognized for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Neuroprotective and anti-hyperalgesic properties of PEA were evidenced in neurodegenerative diseases, and antiepileptic effects in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, maximal electroshock (MES and amygdaloid kindling models of epileptic seizures. Moreover, numerous clinical trials in chronic pain revealed that PEA treatment is devoid of addiction potential, dose limiting side effects and psychoactive effects, rendering PEA an appealing candidate as antiepileptic compound or adjuvant. In the present study, we aimed at assessing antiepileptic properties of PEA in a mouse model of acute epileptic seizures induced by systemic administration of kainic acid (KA. KA-induced epilepsy in rodents is assumed to resemble to different extents human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE depending on the route of KA administration; intracerebral (i

  17. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  18. Interview: the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke/American Epilepsy Society benchmarks and research priorities for epilepsy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    Daniel H Lowenstein, MD, is the Robert B and Ellinor Aird Professor and Vice-Chairman of Neurology, Director of the Epilepsy Center, and Director of Physician-Scientist Education and Training at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He received his BA in Mathematics from the University of Colorado and MD from Harvard Medical School. He completed his neurology residency training at UCSF. Dr Lowenstein is a clinician-scientist who has studied both basic science and clinical aspects of epilepsy. In recent years, he has been an organizer of a large-scale, international effort to study the complex genetics of epilepsy, known as the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. He has been actively involved in advancing the cause of epilepsy at the national and international level. Dr Lowenstein served as President of the American Epilepsy Society from 2003 to 2004 and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) Advisory Council from 2000 to 2004, and has overseen the development of the NINDS Epilepsy Research Benchmarks since their inception in 2000.

  19. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. 1035. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy ... watersrand, as well as with the Department of Psychiatry, .... Is the response to therapy different in the three groups? 6. .... epilepsy in the occupational and the social spheres and.

  20. Epilepsy, Regulation of Brain Energy Metabolism and Neurotransmission

    OpenAIRE

    Cloix, Jean-Fran?ois; H?vor, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are the result of a sudden and temporary synchronization of neuronal activity, the reason for which is not clearly understood. Astrocytes participate in the control of neurotransmitter storage and neurotransmission efficacy. They provide fuel to neurons, which need a high level of energy to sustain normal and pathological neuronal activities, such as during epilepsy. Various genetic or induced animal models have been developed and used to study epileptogenic mechanisms. Methionine su...

  1. Addressing the burden of epilepsy: Many unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghi, Ettore

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, their causes and complications. The incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy vary with age, place and time contributing to a variable extent to the burden of the disease. Diagnostic misclassification may have strong impact on personal and societal reflections of the disease in light of its clinical manifestations and the need for chronic treatment. Epilepsy accounts for a significant proportion of the world's disease burden ranking fourth after tension-type headache, migraine and Alzheimer disease. Among neurological diseases, it accounts for the highest disability-adjusted life year rates both in men and in women. Although epilepsy is self-remitting in up to 50% of cases, variable long-term prognostic patterns can be identified based on the response to the available treatments. Epilepsy carries an overall increased risk of premature mortality with variable estimates across countries. Premature mortality predominates in patients aged less than 50 years, with epilepsies due to structural/metabolic conditions, with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures not remitting under treatment. Among deaths directly attributable to epilepsy or seizures, included are sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus, accidents, drowning, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Somatic and psychiatric disorders prevail in patients with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. Asthma, migraine and cerebral tumors tend to occur more frequently in younger adults while cardiovascular disorders, stroke, dementia and meningioma predominate in the elderly. As being a fairly common clinical condition affecting all ages and requiring long-term (sometimes lifelong) treatment, epilepsy carries high health care costs for the society. Direct costs peak in the first year after diagnosis and then vary according to the severity of the disease, the response to treatment, and

  2. Diagnosing and treating depression in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Christian E; Johnston, Samantha A; Hoppe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    At least one third of patients with active epilepsy suffer from significant impairment of their emotional well-being. A targeted examination for possible depression (irrespective of any social, financial or personal burdens) can identify patients who may benefit from medical attention and therapeutic support. Reliable screening instruments such as the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) are suitable for the timely identification of patients needing help. Neurologists should be capable of managing mild to moderate comorbid depression but referral to mental health specialists is mandatory in severe and difficult-to-treat depression, or if the patient is acutely suicidal. In terms of the therapeutic approach, it is essential first to optimize seizure control and minimize unwanted antiepileptic drug-related side effects. Psychotherapy for depression in epilepsy (including online self-treatment programs) is underutilized although it has proven effective in ten well-controlled trials. In contrast, the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs for depression in epilepsy is unknown. However, if modern antidepressants are used (e.g. SSRI, SNRI, NaSSA), concerns about an aggravation of seizures and or problematic interactions with antiepileptic drugs seem unwarranted. Epilepsy-related stress ("burden of epilepsy") explains depression in many patients but acute and temporary seizure-related states of depression or suicidality have also been reported. Limbic encephalitits may cause isolated mood alteration without any recognizable psychoetiological background indicating a possible role of neuroinflammation. This review will argue that, overall, a bio-psycho-social model best captures the currently available evidence relating to the etiology and treatment of depression as a comorbidity of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  5. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  6. Lipoic acid increases glutathione peroxidase, Na+, K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase activities in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures? O ácido lipóico aumenta as atividades da glutationa peroxidase, da Na+, K+-ATPase e da acetilcolinesterase no hipocampo de ratos após convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Felix de Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effects of lipoic acid (LA on acetylcholinesterase (AChE, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat hippocampus during seizures. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group, lipoic acid (20 mg/kg, i.p., LA group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group, and the association of pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p. plus LA (20 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before of administration of P400 (LA plus P400 group. After the treatments all groups were observed for 1 h. In P400 group, there was a significant increase in GPx activity as well as a decrease in AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities after seizures. In turn, LA plus P400 abolished the appearance of seizures and reversed the decreased in AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities produced by seizures, when compared to the P400 seizing group. The results from the present study demonstrate that preadministration of LA abolished seizure episodes induced by pilocarpine in rat, probably by increasing AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat hippocampus.No presente estudo nós investigamos os efeitos do ácido lipóico (AL sobre as atividades da acetilcolinesterase (AChE, da glutationa peroxidase (GPx e da Na+, K+-ATPase no hipocampo de ratos durante crises convulsivas. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com solução salina a 0,9% (i.p., grupo controle, ácido lipóico (20 mg/kg, i.p., grupo AL, pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., grupo P400, e a associação de AL (20 mg/kg, i.p. com a pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min antes da administração de pilocarpina (grupo AL + P400. Após os tratamentos todos os grupos foram observados durante 1 h. No grupo P400, houve um aumento significativo na atividade da GPx, assim como uma diminuição das atividades da AChE e Na+, K+-ATPase. Por sua vez, o pré-tratamento com AL aboliu o aparecimento de convulsões e reverteu a diminuição das atividades da AChE e da Na+, K+-ATPase causadas pelas convulsões, quando

  7. Occipital lobe seizures and epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Jane E; Panayiotopoulos, Chrysostomos P

    2012-10-01

    Occipital lobe epilepsies (OLEs) manifest with occipital seizures from an epileptic focus within the occipital lobes. Ictal clinical symptoms are mainly visual and oculomotor. Elementary visual hallucinations are common and characteristic. Postictal headache occurs in more than half of patients (epilepsy-migraine sequence). Electroencephalography (EEG) is of significant diagnostic value, but certain limitations should be recognized. Occipital spikes and/or occipital paroxysms either spontaneous or photically induced are the main interictal EEG abnormalities in idiopathic OLE. However, occipital epileptiform abnormalities may also occur without clinical relationship to seizures particularly in children. In cryptogenic/symptomatic OLE, unilateral posterior EEG slowing is more common than occipital spikes. In neurosurgical series of symptomatic OLE, interictal EEG abnormalities are rarely strictly occipital. The most common localization is in the posterior temporal regions and less than one-fifth show occipital spikes. In photosensitive OLE, intermittent photic stimulation elicits (1) spikes/polyspikes confined in the occipital regions or (2) generalized spikes/polyspikes with posterior emphasis. In ictal EEG, a well-localized unifocal rhythmic ictal discharge during occipital seizures is infrequent. A bioccipital field spread to the temporal regions is common. Frequency, severity, and response to treatment vary considerably from good to intractable and progressive mainly depending on underlying causes.

  8. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  9. The experience of living with adult-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Stephanie; van Wersch, Anna; Campbell, Carol; Guy, Alison

    2017-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of adults diagnosed with epilepsy is higher compared to those diagnosed in childhood, yet the experience of living with adult-onset epilepsy has rarely been examined. Hence, the current study took a phenomenological approach to examining the experience of living with epilepsy following diagnosis in adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 people from across the UK, diagnosed with epilepsy between the ages of eighteen and sixty, at two points in time, six months apart. Phenomenological analysis identified three central themes: the unpredictability of seizure occurrence; the ripple effect; and re-evaluating the future. Despite the accepted consensus in the epilepsy literature that living and coping with epilepsy becomes more difficult the older a person is diagnosed, the current findings indicated that this is inadequate. Rather, it is more suitable to consider that those living with adult-onset epilepsy have a specific experience of the condition and particular support needs, given that they once lived their lives as people without epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Forms of Epilepsies and other Paroxysmal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather E.; Poduri, Annapurna; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms explain the pathophysiology of many forms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders such as alternating hemiplegia of childhood, familial hemiplegic migraine, and paroxysmal dyskinesias. Epilepsy is a key feature of well-defined genetic syndromes including Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and others. There is an increasing number of singe gene causes or susceptibility factors associated with several epilepsy syndromes, including the early onset epileptic encephalopathies, benign neonatal/infantile seizures, progressive myoclonus epilepsies, genetic generalized and benign focal epilepsies, epileptic aphasias, and familial focal epilepsies. Molecular mechanisms are diverse, and a single gene can be associated with a broad range of phenotypes. Additional features, such as dysmorphisms, head size, movement disorders, and family history may provide clues to a genetic diagnosis. Genetic testing can impact medical care and counseling. We discuss genetic mechanisms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders, tools and indications for genetic testing, known genotype-phenotype associations, the importance of genetic counseling, and a look towards the future of epilepsy genetics. PMID:25192505

  11. Autistic Characteristics in Adults with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeford, SallyAnn Rose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders [ASD] in epilepsy is approximately 20%-32%, with previous research reporting high rates of under-diagnosis of ASD in epilepsy. Current psychological assessments were adapted to provide epilepsy-specific measures of behaviour, which increased validity by addressing specific methodological problems highlighted by several researchers. The initial experiments provided a comprehensive investigation of autistic traits and characteristics in a heterogeneou...

  12. Epilepsy, E/I balance and GABAA receptor plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Fritschy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors mediate most of the fast inhibitory transmission in the CNS. They form heteromeric complexes assembled from a large family of subunit genes. The existence of multiple GABAA receptor subtypes differing in subunit composition, localization and functional properties underlies their role for fi ne-tuning of neuronal circuits and genesis of network oscillations. The differential regulation of GABAA receptor subtypes represents a major facet of homeostatic synaptic plasticity and contributes to the excitation/inhibition (E/I balance under physiological conditions and upon pathological challenges. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent fi ndings highlighting the signifi cance of GABAA receptor heterogeneity for the concept of E/I balance and its relevance for epilepsy. Specifi cally, we address the following issues: (1 role for tonic inhibition, mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, for controlling neuronal excitability; (2 signifi cance of chloride ion transport for maintenance of the E/I balance in adult brain; and (3 molecular mechanisms underlying GABAA receptor regulation (traffi cking, posttranslational modifi cation, gene transcription that are important for homoeostatic plasticity. Finally, the relevance of these fi ndings is discussed in light of the involvement of GABAA receptors in epileptic disorders, based on recent experimental studies of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and absence seizures and on the identifi cation of mutations in GABAA receptor subunit genes underlying familial forms of epilepsy.

  13. Diagnosis of Epilepsy and Related Episodic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    This review identifies the diverse and variable clinical presentations associated with epilepsy that may create challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy has recently been redefined as a disease characterized by one or more seizures with a relatively high recurrence risk (ie, 60% or greater likelihood). The implication of this definition for therapy is that antiepileptic drug therapy may be initiated following a first seizure in certain situations.EEG remains the most commonly used study in the evaluation of people with epilepsy. Routine EEG may assist in diagnosis, classification of seizure type(s), identification of treatment, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Video-EEG monitoring permits seizure classification, assessment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and evaluation of candidacy for epilepsy surgery. MRI is pivotal in elucidating the etiology of the seizure disorder and in suggesting the localization of seizure onset. This article reviews the new International League Against Epilepsy practical clinical definition for epilepsy and the differential diagnosis of other physiologic paroxysmal spells, including syncope, parasomnias, transient ischemic attacks, and migraine, as well as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. The initial investigational approaches to new-onset epilepsy are considered, including neuroimaging and neurophysiologic investigations with interictal and ictal video-EEG. Neurologists should maintain a high index of suspicion for epilepsy when children or adults present with a single paroxysmal spell or recurrent episodic events.

  14. Language recovery after epilepsy surgery of the Broca's area

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    Lilit Mnatsakanyan

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is indicated in select patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Seizure freedom or significant reduction of seizure burden without risking new neurological deficits is the expected goal of epilepsy surgery. Typically, when the seizure onset zone overlaps with eloquent cortex, patients are excluded from surgery.We present a patient with drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent successful surgery with resection of Broca's area, primarily involving the pars triangularis (BA 45. We report transient expressive aphasia followed by recovery of speech. This case provides new insights into adult neuroplasticity of the language network. Keywords: Epilepsy surgery, Eloquent cortex, Language and epilepsy, Refractory epilepsy, Electrocorticography

  15. Seizures and epilepsy in elderly patients of an urban area of Iran: clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis, etiology, and epilepsy subtypes.

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    Tabatabaei, Sayed Shahaboddin; Delbari, Ahmad; Salman-Roghani, Reza; Shahgholi, Leili; Fadayevatan, Reza; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Lokk, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The incidences of seizures and epilepsy in the population show a peak after 60 years of age. Due to the lack of reported clinical aspects of seizure and epilepsy in the older patients in our region in Iran, this study was conducted to describe the clinical manifestation, etiology, differential diagnosis, and epilepsy subtypes of epilepsy and seizure. A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed on all consecutively elderly seizure and epilepsy patients, referred to the Epilepsy Association in the city of Qom, Iran over a 10-year period. A total of 466 patients aged >60 years were admitted. 31 % of the patients had epilepsy or seizure and 69 % of them had non-epileptic events. The most prevalent differential diagnoses in the beginning were syncope and cardiovascular disorders. The most frequent clinical symptom of epilepsy was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (75 %). The most common cause of seizure was systemic metabolic disorder (27 %). In epileptic elderly patients, no cause was ascertained for 38 % and the most frequently observed pathological factors were cerebrovascular diseases, which accounted for 24 %. The most common type of epileptic seizure was generalized epileptic seizures (75 %). 10 % of elderly epileptic patients suffered from status epilepticus, which was primarily caused by anoxia. Despite the rising rate and potentially profound physical and psychosocial effects of seizures and epilepsy, these disorders have received surprisingly little research focus and attention in Iran. Referring older patients to a specialist or a specialist epilepsy center allows speedy assessment, appropriate investigation and treatment, and less likely to miss the diagnosis.

  16. Dentate gyrus progenitor cell proliferation after the onset of spontaneous seizures in the tetanus toxin model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Jiruska, Premysl; Shtaya, Anan B Y; Bodansky, David M S; Chang, Wei-Chih; Gray, William P; Jefferys, John G R

    2013-06-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy alters adult neurogenesis. Existing experimental evidence is mainly from chronic models induced by an initial prolonged status epilepticus associated with substantial cell death. In these models, neurogenesis increases after status epilepticus. To test whether status epilepticus is necessary for this increase, we examined precursor cell proliferation and neurogenesis after the onset of spontaneous seizures in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of tetanus toxin, which does not cause status or, in most cases, detectable neuronal loss. We found a 4.5 times increase in BrdU labeling (estimating precursor cells proliferating during the 2nd week after injection of toxin and surviving at least up to 7days) in dentate gyri of both injected and contralateral hippocampi of epileptic rats. Radiotelemetry revealed that the rats experienced 112±24 seizures, lasting 88±11s each, over a period of 8.6±1.3days from the first electrographic seizure. On the first day of seizures, their duration was a median of 103s, and the median interictal period was 23min, confirming the absence of experimentally defined status epilepticus. The total increase in cell proliferation/survival was due to significant population expansions of: radial glial-like precursor cells (type I; 7.2×), non-radial type II/III neural precursors in the dentate gyrus stem cell niche (5.6×), and doublecortin-expressing neuroblasts (5.1×). We conclude that repeated spontaneous brief temporal lobe seizures are sufficient to promote increased hippocampal neurogenesis in the absence of status epilepticus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with stigma in adults with epilepsy.

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    Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela L; Saunders, Lee L; Wagner, Janelle L; Wannamaker, Braxton B; Selassie, Anbesaw W

    2009-11-01

    Living Well with Epilepsy II called for further attention to stigma and its impact on people with epilepsy. In response, the South Carolina Health Outcomes Project on Epilepsy (SC HOPE) is examining the relationship between socioeconomic status, epilepsy severity, health care utilization, and quality of life in persons diagnosed with epilepsy. The current analysis quantifies perceived stigma reported by adults with epilepsy in relation to demographic, seizure-related, health, and psychosocial factors. It was found that reported levels of stigma were associated with interactions of seizure worry and employment status, self-efficacy and social support, and quality care and age at seizure onset. This information may be used to target and develop evidence-based interventions for adults with epilepsy at high risk for perceived stigma, as well as to inform epilepsy research in self-management.

  18. Moving the Self-Esteem of People with Epilepsy by Supportive Group: A Clinical Trial

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    Kritaya Sawangchareon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with epilepsy (PWE face physical and mental illness, and social stigma, which affect their self-esteem and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a support group on the self-esteem of PWE. Methods: A Quasi-experimental study was performed on 120 PWE in the Epilepsy Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital. The experimental group (N=60 attended the support group before receiving regular health care services. The control group (N=60 received only regular healthcare services. Data was collected by using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scoring before and after the experiment. The score was analyzed by using a paired t-test and an independent t-test. Results: The study showed that before the experiment, the self–esteem score of the control group was significantly higher than the experimental group. After the experiment, the scores of the control group and the experimental group showed a significant statistical difference. The score in the control group was significantly lower than the experimental group, while the score in the experimental group was significantly higher than before the experiment. Conclusion: The support group improves the self-esteem of PWE. Medical personnel should set up a support group for PWE to enhance their self-esteem.

  19. Global Health: Epilepsy.

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    Ali, Amza

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a frequently misunderstood and highly stigmatized condition. Major treatment gaps exist across the world, most so in areas of financial constraint. Classification permits the best approaches to treatment and to ascertaining prognosis. The International League Against Epilepsy's new classification system emphasizes clinical aspects and utilizes all available resources to determine whether it is a focal or generalized epilepsy. The most important tools are a careful history, clinical examination, electroencephalography, and appropriate neuroimaging. Inadequate, delayed, and incomplete evaluation may lead to misdiagnosis and costly mismanagement. Treatment is generally pharmacological, with approximately 20 to 30% of patients eventually proving refractory to medications and thus becoming potential surgical candidates. The type of epilepsy, age, gender, comorbidities, drug interactions, and drug cost are important factors in choosing an antiepileptic drug (AED). The teratogenic potential of some AEDs, weight gain, and menstrual hormone-related issues are important considerations in women. The impact of AEDs on bone health is critical in all age groups, particularly in the elderly. Psychiatric problems, mostly depression and anxiety, can have a great impact on seizure control and overall quality of life. Finally, effective partnerships and collaborations can bring resources, both human and financial, to regions that would otherwise find it impossible to effect change on their own. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise in Epilepsy and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise in Epilepsy Scales.

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    Dustin, Irene; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Michael, Kathleen; Wiggs, Edythe

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the revised Self-Efficacy for Exercise With Epilepsy (SEE-E) and Outcome Expectations for Exercise with Epilepsy (OEE-E) when used with people with epilepsy. The SEE-E and OEE-E were given in face-to-face interviews to 26 persons with epilepsy in an epilepsy clinic. There was some evidence of validity based on Rasch analysis INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. There was some evidence of reliability for the SEE-E and OEE-E based on person and item separation reliability indexes. These measures can be used to identify persons with epilepsy who have low self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise and guide design of interventions to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.

  1. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

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    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  2. Do people with epilepsy have a different lifestyle?

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    Aguirre, Clara; Quintas, Sonia; Ruiz-Tornero, Ana María; Alemán, Guadalupe; Gago-Veiga, Ana Betariz; de Toledo, María; Vivancos, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases. Its high prevalence, economic relevance and impact on daily life make it crucial that we study this condition in further detail. Our study seeks to investigate whether the lifestyle of people diagnosed with epilepsy is different to that of people without epilepsy, in order to better understand our patients. We designed and delivered a questionnaire about quality of life and daily habits to patients from our hospital's Epilepsy Unit. We also delivered the questionnaire to a control group with similar demographic characteristics. Lifestyle differences between patients and control group members were analyzed. Patients were further divided according to the type of epilepsy, time since diagnosis, seizure frequency and pharmacotherapy. A total of 278 people were interviewed (85 patients, 193 controls). There was no difference in educational level, marital status and healthy habits (sports, reading and diet) between the groups. However, patients with epilepsy were more often unemployed (pepilepsy. In terms of the type of epilepsy, patients with focal epilepsy exercised more than those with generalized epilepsy; no other statistically significant differences were found between the individuals studied. Epilepsy diagnosis does not seem to negatively alter the daily life of patients; in fact, many adopt a healthier lifestyle after diagnosis. The risk of antidepressant/anxiolytic intake is, however, higher, which could reflect the impact this chronic condition still has at a social level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epilepsy is associated with ventricular alterations following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

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    Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2017-12-01

    , especially those with epilepsy. These findings suggest that children with epilepsy may be particularly vulnerable to seizure-induced arrhythmias. Therefore postictal cardiac surveillance may be warranted in this population.

  4. Epilepsy beyond seizures: a review of the impact of epilepsy and its comorbidities on health-related quality of life in dogs.

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    Packer, Rowena M A; Volk, Holger A

    2015-09-26

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions in the dog, estimated to affect 0.6 to 0.75 per cent of dogs. Owners of dogs with epilepsy have previously indicated that their dog's quality of life (QoL) is of greatest importance to them above seizure frequency; however, much of the research into canine epilepsy to date has focussed on seizure frequency, and how to reduce it via antiepileptic drug treatment. In people, the impact of epilepsy upon QoL has been widely studied, exploring not only its impact on physical health, but also the psychological health and cognitive capabilities of affected individuals. This paper reviews the existing literature on canine epilepsy, identifies potential threats to QoL, and draws parallels from human epilepsy research. We suggest that canine epilepsy poses threats to both quality and quantity of life, with treatment interventions posing a fine balance of potential benefits and harms to the patient. At present, little is known about the neurobehavioural, emotional and cognitive effects of epilepsy upon affected dogs. Further studies are needed to establish the extent to which unknown QoL-inhibiting comorbidities exist in the dog, in order to avoid their undertreatment, and to objectively quantify the effects of epilepsy on canine QoL. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fi