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Sample records for pill count measure

  1. Effect of education and pill count on hemoglobin status during prenatal care in Nepalese women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kamala; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Pradhan, Neelam

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of an education program and/or pill count on the change in hemoglobin levels and the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A randomized, factorial design controlled trial was conducted at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 320 eligible pregnant women receiving prenatal care were randomized into four groups (control, education, pill count and education with pill count) by block randomization with allocation concealment. All recruited women received conventional routine prenatal care with a daily dose of 60 mg iron supplementation. In addition, the education group received an education program. Pill counting was done for the pill count group at their routine prenatal visits. The education with pill count group received both the education program plus pill counting. Baseline hemoglobin at the recruitment phase and follow-up hemoglobin after three months of recruitment were measured. Changes in hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence were analyzed and compared between groups. The education only and education with pill count groups had significantly higher hemoglobin changes (0.23 and 0.26 g/dL, respectively) than the control group (P control group (P control group. An education program along with routine iron supplementation can improve hemoglobin levels and reduce anemia prevalence in pregnant women. Pill count as a measure of compliance has no additional effect on improving hemoglobin status.

  2. Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations

  3. Unannounced telephone pill counts for assessing varenicline adherence in a pilot clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nia Thompson1, Niaman Nazir1, Lisa Sanderson Cox1,2, Babalola Faseru1,2, Kathy Goggin3, Jasjit S Ahluwalia4, Nicole L Nollen1,21University of Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Kansas City, KS, USA; 2University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Psychology, Kansas City, MO, USA; 4University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of Medicine and Center for Health Equity, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Despite consistent evidence linking smoking cessation pharmacotherapy adherence to better outcomes, knowledge about objective adherence measures is lacking and little attention is given to monitoring pharmacotherapy use in smoking cessation clinical trials.Objectives: To examine unannounced telephone pill counts as a method for assessing adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy.Research design: Secondary data analysis of a randomized pilot study.Participants: 46 moderate-to-heavy (>10 cigarettes per day African-American smokers.Main measures: Smokers received 1 month of varenicline (Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY in a pill box at baseline. Unannounced pill counts were completed by telephone 4 days prior to an in-person pill count conducted at Month 1. At both counts, each compartment of the pill box was opened and the number of remaining pills was recorded.Results: Participants were a mean age of 48 years (SD = 13, predominately female (59%, low income (60% < $1800 monthly family income, and smoked an average of 17 (SD = 7 cigarettes per day. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted by phone and in-person (rs = 0.94, P < 0.001. Participants with discordant counts (n = 7 had lower varenicline adherence (mean [SD] = 77% [18%] vs 95% [9%], P < 0.0005, but reported better medication adherence in the past (1.0 [0.8] vs 2.8 [1.0], P < 0.0004 than participants with matching phone and in

  4. Pharmaceutical Pill Counting and Inspection Using a Capacitive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan LETCHUMANAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive sensor for high-speed counting and inspection of pharmaceutical products is proposed and evaluated. The sensor is based on a patented Electrostatic Field Sensor (EFS device, previously developed by Sparc Systems Limited. However, the sensor head proposed in this work has a significantly different geometry and has been designed with a rectangular inspection aperture of 160mm × 21mm, which best meets applications where a larger count throughput is required with a single sensor. Finite element modelling has been used to simulate the electrostatic fields generated within the sensor, and as a design tool for optimising the sensor head configuration. The actual and simulated performance of the sensor is compared and analysed in terms of the sensor performance at discriminating between damaged products or detection of miscount errors.

  5. Impact of pill organizers and blister packs on adherence to pill taking in two vitamin supplementation trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H Y; Maguire, M G; Miller, E R; Appel, L J

    2000-10-15

    The impact of pill organizers on pill taking was determined in the Trial of Antioxidant Vitamins C and E (TRACE) Study, a factorial trial of vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation in 184 individuals. Participants were recruited in 1996-1997 and randomized to one of two groups (pill organizer or no organizer) and to one of four supplement groups for 2 months. The pill count (observed/expected X 100%) distribution was similar in the organizer and no organizer group for both vitamins. Mean differences in changes in serum vitamin levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by pill organizer use. The impact of pill organizers and blister packs was compared in another trial, the Vitamins, Teachers, and Longevity (VITAL) Study, in 297 individuals randomized in 1993-1994 to receive study pills either in blister packs or in pill organizers and to take one of two supplements. Among those with lower adherence, the pill count distribution in the blister-pack group exceeded that in the organizer group. Mean differences in serum vitamin E levels between active and placebo groups did not differ by types of pill packaging. In summary, use of blister packs, but not pill organizers, improved adherence as measured by pill counts among those with lower adherence. Neither pill delivery system improved adherence as measured by serum vitamin levels.

  6. Positive motivic measures are counting measures

    CERN Document Server

    Ellenberg, Jordan S

    2009-01-01

    Let K be a field. A positive motivic measure on the Grothendieck ring K_0(Var_K) is a homomorphism from K_0(Var_K) to the real numbers assigning a nonnegative value to every variety. In this note we show that the only positive motivic measures are the counting measures: measures on K_0(Var_{F_q}) which send a variety to its number of rational points over some fixed finite extension of F_q.

  7. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  8. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2016-10-18

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  9. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2015-08-11

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  10. Assessing medication adherence simultaneously by electronic monitoring and pill count in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kessels, A.G.; Kroon, A.A.; Neef, C.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication is one of the major problems in the treatment of hypertension. Electronic monitoring is currently considered to be the gold standard for assessing adherence, but it may trigger patients to open the pill bottle without taking medication or to

  11. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the mass/count distinction between two types of nominals has its direct correlate at the level of classifier phrases: classifier phrases like two bottles of wine are ambiguous between a counting, or individuating, reading and a measure reading. On the counting reading, this phrase has count semantics, on the measure reading it has mass semantics.ReferencesBorer, H. 1999. ‘Deconstructing the construct’. In K. Johnson & I. Roberts (eds. ‘Beyond Principles and Parameters’, 43–89. Dordrecht: Kluwer publications.Borer, H. 2008. ‘Compounds: the view from Hebrew’. In R. Lieber & P. Stekauer (eds. ‘The Oxford Handbook of Compounds’, 491–511. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Carlson, G. 1977b. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Carlson, G. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden.Carslon, G. 1977a. ‘Amount relatives’. Language 53: 520–542.Chierchia, G. 2008. ‘Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter”. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Danon, G. 2008. ‘Definiteness spreading in the Hebrew construct state’. Lingua 118: 872–906.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.012Gillon, B. 1992. ‘Toward a common semantics for English count and mass nouns’. Linguistics and Philosophy 15: 597–640.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628112Grosu, A. & Landman, F. 1998. ‘Strange relatives of the third kind

  12. Measuring perceptions of synergistic circulatory disease risk due to smoking and the oral contraceptive pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Gayton, Emma L; Burton, Jessica; Thorogood, Margaret; Marteau, Theresa M

    2002-12-01

    There is evidence that the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and smoking contribute independently to risk of circulatory disease. There is mixed evidence that the combined risk may be greater than the sum of these factors operating in isolation. Little is known about how the general population views the risks from OCP use, singly and in combination with smoking. Previous attempts at assessing whether the public views risks as operating synergistically have generally found evidence for subadditive models, where the combined risk is less than the sum of factors operating in isolation. However, concerns have been expressed over the validity of the measures of risk perception used. Therefore, this study used three distinct methods of measurement to assess the extent to which 241 undergraduate students perceive the risks of smoking and the OCP separately and combined, for circulatory disease. For all three methods, respondents read each of four vignettes describing information about a woman's risk factors (with high and low levels of both OCP and smoking), and then estimated risk of circulatory disease using one of the three risk measures. The three measures produced similar ratings. Consistent with the epidemiological evidence, information about smoking had more impact on estimates of overall risk than did information about the OCP For all three measures, responses were consistent with an additive model of risk from smoking and the OCP. This convergence of results from different methods suggests that all three methods of measurement employed, which all had a large number of response options, may be valid.

  13. Method for effective dead time measurement in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2001-04-21

    The counting losses introduced by the dead time of a counting system are a limiting factor in counting measurements. The purpose of this work is to report an efficient method for the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system and to characterize its dead time behavior, providing a way to investigate each experimental situation. The method, which we designate as Delayed and Mixed Pulses method, is based on the artificial piling-up of detector pulses with electronic pulses delayed by a specific time interval. It is applicable to the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system, including both pile-up effects and the dead time characteristics of the elements of the counting chain. With counting systems relying on gaseous radiation detectors, we achieved a standard uncertainty of about 5-10% in the dead times measured.

  14. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  15. A randomized-controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eStip

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR is about 49.5 % in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or Treatment As Usual group (TAU for six weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67 % after six weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen.

  16. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  17. Measuring adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Frey, M; Harris, M; Arfken, C

    2005-04-01

    Parent, child, physician report and pill counts were used to measure adherence in paediatric HIV. Relationships to viral load were assessed. Pill counts were considered invalid. Adherence measures did not correlate with one another. Physicians reported lower adherence than parents, but parent and physician report correlated with viral load. The clinical and research utility of the various measures are discussed.

  18. Which Measures Count for the Public Interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The "measure" of this article is a bit different from most--there are almost as many words in the notes as in the body of the text. Notes are a significant part of my writing, both in terms of recognizing the connections and complexities among issues, trying to capture the richness of interdisciplinary teaching, and in terms of…

  19. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  20. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurélien

    2009-01-01

    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum...

  1. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  3. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement In ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, William Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measure- ments of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster- counting method a...

  4. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, William Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measurements of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster-counting method are ...

  5. Nano-optomechanical measurement in the photon counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    de Lépinay, Laure Mercier; Rohr, Sven; Gloppe, Arnaud; Kuhn, Aurélien; Verlot, Pierre; Dupont-Ferrier, Eva; Besga, Benjamin; Arcizet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Optically measuring in the photon counting regime is a recurrent challenge in modern physics and a guarantee to develop weakly invasive probes. Here we investigate this idea on a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanowire hybridized to a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect. The vibrations of the nanoresonator grant a spatial degree of freedom to the quantum emitter and the photon emission event can now vary in space and time. We investigate how the nanomotion is encoded on the detected photon statistics and explore their spatio-temporal correlation properties. This allows a quantitative measurement of the vibrations of the nanomechanical oscillator at unprecedentedly low light intensities in the photon counting regime when less than one photon is detected per oscillation period, where standard detectors are dark-noise-limited. These results have implications for probing weakly interacting nanoresonators, for low temperature experiments and for investigating single moving markers.

  6. Measuring leadership: measuring what counts for succession planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, John A

    2002-12-01

    Organizations tend to favor measures of near-term, tangible achievement at the expense of long-term, intangible capacities such as leadership. Succession planning, which is intimately tied to measures of leadership competencies and leadership development, suffers as a result of this tendency. Effective planning requires senior managers to be willing to invest in the measurement needed to gauge where the organization stands with respect to future leadership requirements.

  7. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P. J.; Frederiksen, H.; Hvas, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary: Background: Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective: To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count......, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods: We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited...... platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 109 L-1; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27...

  8. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  9. A New Similarity measure for taxonomy based on edge counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shenoy.K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new similarity measure based on edge counting in a taxonomy like WorldNet orOntology. Measurement of similarity between text segments or concepts is very useful for manyapplications like information retrieval, ontology matching, text mining, and question answering and so on.Several measures have been developed for measuring similarity between two concepts: out of these we seethat the measure given by Wu and Palmer [1] is simple, and gives good performance. Our measure isbased on their measure but strengthens it. Wu and Palmer [1] measure has a disadvantage that it does notconsider how far the concepts are semantically. In our measure we include the shortest path between theconcepts and the depth of whole taxonomy together with the distances used in Wu and Palmer [1]. Also themeasure has following disadvantage i.e. in some situations, the similarity of two elements of an IS-Aontology contained in the neighbourhood exceeds the similarity value of two elements contained in thesame hierarchy. Our measure introduces a penalization factor for this case based upon shortest lengthbetween the concepts and depth of whole taxonomy.

  10. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  11. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  12. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y X Rachel; Waterman, Michael S; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-11-18

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the "big data" challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance.

  13. Exponential Martingales and Changes of Measure for Counting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2015-01-01

    We give sufficient criteria for the Doléans-Dade exponential of a stochastic integral with respect to a counting process local martingale to be a true martingale. The criteria are adapted particularly to the case of counting processes and are sufficiently weak to be useful and verifiable, as we i...... illustrate by several examples. In particular, the criteria allow for the construction of for example nonexplosive Hawkes processes, counting processes with stochastic intensities depending on diffusion processes as well as inhomogeneous finite-state Markov processes....

  14. Morning-After Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and within 120 hours. You can take emergency contraceptive pills anytime during your menstrual cycle. To use the ... to five weeks after taking the morning-after pill, contact him or her. These may ... B One-Step emergency contraceptive for use without a prescription for all women ...

  15. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral contraceptive pill is much more than a birth control pill. Adolescent girls and young women are frequently prescribed the ... Control Pills: General Information Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill PCOS: All ... Chat with us! Our PCOS chats are safe places for teens and young women who share a common condition ...

  16. Progestogen-only pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    Essential facts Oral contraception remains the most popular method of birth control for a majority of women in the UK. According to a 2012/13 report by the Health and Social Care Information Centre, it was chosen by 47% of women attending NHS community contraceptive clinics in England. An Office of National Statistics survey of 2008/09 shows that of the three quarters of UK women aged up to 49 using contraception, a third were prescribed the contraceptive pill. Of these, 6% used progestogen-only pills, also known as the mini-pill or POP.

  17. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  18. Tri voprossa / Pille Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Asula tänaval avati Tallinna perekeskus, mis hakkab tegutsema ülelinnalise koordineeriva asutusena, pakkudes lastele ja peredele nõustamist ja päevategevust. Küsimustele vastab juhataja Pille Teder

  19. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  20. Posttetanic count revisited: are measurements more reliable using the TOF-Watch accelerographic peripheral nerve stimulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert D; Brockwell, Russell C; Moreno, Michael C; Adkins, Shannon L

    2004-02-01

    Measurement of profound neuromuscular block using posttetanic count is among the most subjective measurements made in clinical anesthesia. The TOF-Watch accelerographic peripheral nerve stimulator provides objective measurements of neuromuscular block that may improve our ability to quantitate intense blockade. The TOF-Watch and Digi Stim III peripheral nerve stimulators were used to monitor onset and early recovery of neuromuscular response induced by rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg i.v. in 30 patients anesthetized with general anesthesia. After induction, train-of-four count (when present) was measured at one-min intervals. Subsequently, posttetanic count was measured at three-min intervals until the first response to train-of-four stimulation reappeared. Posttetanic count and train-of-four count measurements were determined to be consistently unreliable throughout the study in seven (23%) patients with the TOF-Watch stimulator and three (10%) patients with the Digi Stim III stimulator (p = NS). Among stimulators yielding reliable measurements, decreases in train-of-four count to 0/4 were noted earlier with the Digi Stim III monitor (median = 2 min) as compared with the TOF-Watch device (median = 4 min) (p Digi Stim III stimulator (p < 0.05). Both monitors were similar in their ability to predict return to TOFC = 1 as a function of PTC measurements. The TOF-Watch monitor is easy to apply even in inexperienced hands. However, the device yielded erroneous data in 23% of patients.

  1. Who's Counting? Legitimating Measurement in the Audit Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean, Jude; Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    What gives legitimacy to the numbers that constitute the measurement techniques of the audit culture? We argue that the audit culture's blind application of numbers to people as if there was no moral or ethical dimension to the calculation rests on a military discourse resident in mathematics. This argument is based on the genealogy presented in…

  2. Who's Counting? Legitimating Measurement in the Audit Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean, Jude; Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    What gives legitimacy to the numbers that constitute the measurement techniques of the audit culture? We argue that the audit culture's blind application of numbers to people as if there was no moral or ethical dimension to the calculation rests on a military discourse resident in mathematics. This argument is based on the genealogy presented in…

  3. Counting and measuring particles sized from soot to pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For number concentration measurements of superfine particles a condensation nucleus counter (CNC) is frequently used. The combination of a new CNC module with a white light aerosol spectrometer and a passive collector makes possible accurate time-resolved determination of particle number within the overall size range of 10 nm to 40 μm and at concentrations up to 105 particles/cm3. With the aerosol spectrometer a high time-resolved particle size determination is also possible in the size range of 0.3-40 μm up to the same high number concentrations of 105 particles/cm3.

  4. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  5. Thrombosis and the Pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, M P

    1970-02-01

    The results of 3 British and 1 American investigation of the risk of thromboembolism among women using oral contraceptives are reviewed. 1 British study conducted among general practitioners found the risk of developing superficial thrombophlebitis about 3 times greater among pill users. Neither of 2 other studies, in which hospital admissions and fatalities were analyzed, found any significant link between oral contraceptives and coronary thrombosis, but both indicated a 6 to 8-fold increase in risks of venous thromboembolism and of cerebral thrombosis. The findings of the American study were similar. None of the 4 studies discovered any evidence that the thromboembolic risk is greater early in the course of medication or, that it increases with duration of use. The American study obtained some evidence that sequential preparations might be more harmful than combined ones. The British Committee on Safety of Drugs has since determined, on the basis of analysis of routinely submitted reports of suspected adverse reactions, that the thromboembolic risk is higher with pills containing 75 mcg or more of estrogen than among those containing only 50 mcg. For the woman, who for any reason finds oral contraception to be the only satisfactory method of birth control, the risks may be considered acceptable provided medical supervision is adequate. Use of the pill entails other known major hazards (jaundice, hypertension) and knowledge of the longterm effects is very incomplete. Substantial evidence suggests that the estrogenic component of combined and sequential pills is responsible for the thromboembolic risks. The greater risks of pregnancy and menstrual disturbances accompanying progestogen-only oral contraceptives may limit their advantages.

  6. 45 CFR 2522.540 - Do the costs of performance measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? 2522.540 Section 2522.540 Public Welfare... measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? No, the costs of performance measurement and evaluation do not count towards the statutory five percent cap on administrative...

  7. Simple counting technique for measuring mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple counting technique to measure mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides is described. The method is based on elements of two liquid scintillation techniques that are widely used to measure single-radionuclide solutions, namely...

  8. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X George [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)], E-mail: xug2@rpi.edu

    2008-07-07

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms-a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs-does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  9. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X George

    2008-07-07

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms-a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs-does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  10. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  11. Effect of Measurement vs. Counting Errors on Parameters' Covariance in Neutron Tomography Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odyniec, Michał [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Blair, Jerome J. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We present here a method that estimates the relative effect of the counting uncertainty and of the instrument uncertainty on that of the parameters in a parametric model for neutron time of flight. The final result, obtained independently of calculation of the parameter values from measured data, presents explicitly the ratio of the two uncertainties in terms of the choice, settings, and placement of the detector and the oscilloscope. Consequently, the method can serve as a tool in planning a measurement setup.

  12. Physical phantoms for counting efficiency calibration at in vivo measurements; Physikalische Kalibrierphantome in der In-vivo-Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegenbart, Lars [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Abt. Strahlenschutzforschung; Schwabenland, Florian [Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Gruppe Strahlenschutz

    2011-07-01

    The in vivo Measurement Laboratory at the Karlsruher Institute of Technologie (KIT) has several physical phantoms for counting efficiency calibration of whole- and partial body counters. A head phantom from the 1980s containing {sup 241}Am is available for the determination of counting efficiency for skull measurements. A virtual model of this head phantom was created with the aim to replace conventional efficiency calibration methods by Monte Carlo simulations. The counting efficiencies obtained from simulations have been compared with real in vivo measurements. Absolute counting efficiency values obtained from the best simulations deviate between 4.1 % bis 16.0 % from the measured values. (orig.)

  13. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach.

  14. Extended-cycle oral contraceptive pills with 10 microg ethinyl estradiol pills in place of placebo pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita L

    2007-09-01

    The elimination of monthly withdrawal bleeding with use of extended-cycle (84 pills) monophasic birth-control pills has modernized oral contraceptives. The use of ethinyl estradiol 10 microg pills in place of the seven placebo pills addresses the problems posed by 21/7 formulations of low-dose birth-control pills, which allow early stimulation of ovarian follicles, and of the early 84/7 formulations, which had higher rates of unscheduled bleeding and spotting.

  15. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the ...

  16. Measurement of (90)Sr in environmental samples by cation-exchange and liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H; Yanase, N

    1990-06-01

    A new method for the measurement of (90)Sr in environmental samples by cation-exchange and liquid scintillation counting is described. Strontium carbonate is purified by precipitation and ion-exchange, weighed for the determination of chemical yield, dissolved in hydrochloric acid and mixed with the liquid scintillator, Aquasol-2. Two channels of a low-background liquid scintillation counter are used to determine (90)Sr, (90)Y and (89)Sr, free from the effects of environmental tritium. The values of (90)Sr obtained by this method are in good agreement with those from ordinary (90)Y milking and the gas proportional counting method. The concentration of (90)Sr in the air at Tokai-mura in Japan has been measured by the new method.

  17. Application of pulse decay discrimination liquid scintillation counting for indoor radon measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, H.; Ostrowska, M.; Bem, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The pulse decay discrimination (PDD) liquid scintillation technique has been applied to optimise radon counting by the Pico-Rad method. A dermination limit (with 10% relative error) of 4.8 Bqm-3 for indoor radon measurement has been achieved for optimal PDD setting with a radon elution cocktail containing 20% (v/v) of Ultima Gold AB in Instafluor. From a practical point of view this procedure allows a shortening of the counting time to 1 hour after 48 hours exposure to detectors. This method has been applied to indoor radon determinations in 626 places (municipal offices and private dwellings) in the Lódz region. These measureents resulted in an average concentration of 21.4 Bqm-3 and a median value of 15.1 Bqm-3. Analysis of the data indicates that most indoor radon comes from the underlying soil, which contains relatively little226Ra (10-20 Bqkg-1).

  18. Biocomponent determination in vinegars with the help of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, Konrad; Pawlyta, Jacek

    2014-02-15

    This article presents a method of carbon extraction from vinegar used in preparation of liquid scintillation counting cocktails for measurements of low (14)C radioactivity. The presented method is relatively fast and can be used to produce liquid scintillation cocktails e.g., via benzene synthesis. In this work we present specific radiocarbon radioactivity determinations and based on them estimation of bio product content for five commercially available vinegars. All investigated vinegars are likely produced from plants in fermentation process.

  19. Maximum-likelihood reconstruction of photon returns from simultaneous analog and photon-counting lidar measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Veberic, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for combining the analog and photon-counting measurements of lidar transient recorders into reconstructed photon returns. The method takes into account the statistical properties of the two measurement modes and estimates the most likely number of arriving photons and the most likely values of acquisition parameters describing the two measurement modes. It extends and improves the standard combining ("gluing") methods and does not rely on any ad hoc definitions of the overlap region nor on any ackground subtraction methods.

  20. Extended Measurement Capabilities of the Electron Proton Helium INstrument aboard SOHO - Understanding single detector count rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Terasa, C.

    Forbush (1937) was the first to observe intensity decreases lasting for a few days utilizing ionization chambers. A number of studies on Forbush decreases (FDs) have been performed since then utilizing neutron monitors and space instrumentation. The amplitude of these variations can be as low as a few permil. Therefore intensity measurements need to be of high statistical accuracy. Richardson et al. (1996) suggested therefore to utilize the single counter measurements of the guard counters of the IMP 8 and Helios E6 instruments. Like the above mentioned instruments the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) provides single counting rates. During the extended solar minimum in 2009 its guard detector counted about 25000~counts/minute, allowing to determine intensity variations of less than 2 permil using 30 minute averages. We performed a GEANT 4 simulation of the instrument in order to determine the energy response of all single detectors. It is shown here that their energy thresholds are much lower than the ones of neutron monitors and therefore we developed a criterion that allows to investigate FDs during quiet time periods.

  1. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  2. Measurement of accidental coincidences in beta-gamma coincidence counting using non-equal dead times

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, H Y; Cho, Y H; Byun, J I; Kim, T S; Park, T S; Lee, J M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) method is particularly suitable for the direct measurement of accidental coincidences even if the dead times of the two counting channels are of different length. We prepared five samples, with activities from 900 to 2100 s sup - sup 1. The dead time of the gamma channel was 12 mu s for all measurements, but for the beta channel it varied from 12 to 20 mu s. The true coincidence rates determined by the MCTS method are compared with those obtained by using conventional technique.

  3. Use of discrete Fourier transform to sum spectra in measurements with long counting times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar Rubio Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Sta. Teresa de Jornet 38, E-06800, Merida (Spain); Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: E.garciatorano@ciemat.es

    2007-07-11

    When measuring nuclear spectra for long counting times, it is usual to split the acquisition in a set of spectra of shorter duration that are later added after correcting by drift during the measurements. We describe a method to determine the shifting correction by using the properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The method does not require assuming a particular spectral shape and the implementation is essentially independent of the kind of spectra being analyzed. The drift correction is defined for an integer number of channels. We present the results of the application to alpha-particle spectroscopy of long-lived nuclides.

  4. [Usefulness of Determining Acquisition Time by True Count Rate Measurement Method for Delivery 18F-FDG PET/CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shota; Odashima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A stable quality of delivery 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires suitable acquisition time, which can be obtained from an accurate true count of 18F-FDG. However, the true count is influenced by body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of 18F-FDG. In order to remove these influences, we have developed a new method (actual measurement method) to measure the actual true count rate based on sub-pubic thigh, which allows us to calculate a suitable acquisition time. In this study, we aimed to verify the acquisition count through our new method in terms of two categories: (1) the accuracy of acquisition count and (2) evaluation of clinical images using physical index. Our actual measurement method was designed to obtain suitable acquisition time through the following procedure. A true count rate of sub-pubic thigh was measured through detector of PET, and used as a standard true count rate. Finally, the obtained standard count rate was processed to acquisition time. This method was retrospectively applied to 150 patients, receiving 18F-FDG administration from 109.7 to 336.8 MBq, and whose body weight ranged from 37 to 95.4 kg. The accuracy of true count was evaluated by comparing relationships of true count, relative to BMI or to administered dose of 18F-FDG. The PET/CT images obtained by our actual measurement method were assessed using physical index. Our new method resulted in accurate true count, which was not influenced by either BMI or administered dose of 18F-FDG, as well as satisfied PET/CT images with recommended criteria of physical index in all patients.

  5. Statistical Measurement of the Gamma-ray Source-count Distribution as a Function of Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zechlin, Hannes-S; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. We employ the 1-point probability distribution function of 6 years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 GeV and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of 50 GeV. The index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power law fits the data, with an index of 2.2^{+0.7}_{-0.3} in the energy band between 50 GeV and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point source populations probed by this method can explain 83^{+7}_{-13}% (81^{+52}_{-19}%) of the extrag...

  6. Pharmacy adherence measures to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy: review of the literature and implications for treatment monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James H; Jordan, Michael R; Kelley, Karen; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Wanke, Christine A; Lewin, Sharon R; Elliott, Julian H

    2011-02-15

    Prescription or pill-based methods for estimating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), pharmacy adherence measures (PAMs), are objective estimates calculated from routinely collected pharmacy data. We conducted a literature review to evaluate PAMs, including their association with virological and other clinical outcomes, their efficacy compared with other adherence measures, and factors to consider when selecting a PAM to monitor adherence. PAMs were classified into 3 categories: medication possession ratio (MPR), pill count (PC), and pill pick-up (PPU). Data exist to recommend PAMs over self-reported adherence. PAMs consistently predicted patient outcomes, but additional studies are needed to determine the most predictive PAM parameters. Current evidence suggests that shorter duration of adherence assessment (≤ 6 months) and use of PAMs to predict future outcomes may be less accurate. PAMs which incorporate the number of days for which ART was prescribed without the counting of remnant pills, are reasonable minimum-resource methods to assess adherence to ART.

  7. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Olofsson, Ida

    2011-03-04

    Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC) are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI) in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT) corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC). Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111), in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18%) of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81%) samples while 3 (1%) samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (72% of all isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates). Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000) associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a predictor of the SCC.

  8. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC by California Mastitis Test (CMT and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC. Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111, in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18% of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81% samples while 3 (1% samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (72% of all isolates, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates. Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000 associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a

  9. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  10. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  11. An automated image analysis system to measure and count organisms in laboratory microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mallard

    Full Text Available 1. Because of recent technological improvements in the way computer and digital camera perform, the potential use of imaging for contributing to the study of communities, populations or individuals in laboratory microcosms has risen enormously. However its limited use is due to difficulties in the automation of image analysis. 2. We present an accurate and flexible method of image analysis for detecting, counting and measuring moving particles on a fixed but heterogeneous substrate. This method has been specifically designed to follow individuals, or entire populations, in experimental laboratory microcosms. It can be used in other applications. 3. The method consists in comparing multiple pictures of the same experimental microcosm in order to generate an image of the fixed background. This background is then used to extract, measure and count the moving organisms, leaving out the fixed background and the motionless or dead individuals. 4. We provide different examples (springtails, ants, nematodes, daphnia to show that this non intrusive method is efficient at detecting organisms under a wide variety of conditions even on faintly contrasted and heterogeneous substrates. 5. The repeatability and reliability of this method has been assessed using experimental populations of the Collembola Folsomia candida. 6. We present an ImageJ plugin to automate the analysis of digital pictures of laboratory microcosms. The plugin automates the successive steps of the analysis and recursively analyses multiple sets of images, rapidly producing measurements from a large number of replicated microcosms.

  12. There's good news about birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Some scientists have shown that the oral contraceptive pill can cause breast cancer and heart disease. But no one is really quite sure about the negative side effects of the pill. Experts are sure that the pill can even prevent some forms of cancer. Studies have shown that users will be more protected from cancer of the ovaries than women who do not take the pill. And the protection lasts even after one stops taking the pill. Through the chemical hormones estrogen and progestogen, the pill sends a message to the ovaries not to produce an egg. When a woman is on the pill, her ovaries get a rest. For that reason, there is less chance for problems like cancer to develop. Also, a woman who takes the pill will be more protected from cancer of the endometrium, because the pill causes her to have lighter periods. In addition, with lighter periods, she will probably have less painful periods, too. Taking the pill also will decrease the risk for getting ovary and breast cysts. Pill users have less chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which, if left untreated, can cause damage to the reproductive organs. The best way to ease any concerns about taking the pill is to talk with health care providers about all the issues of birth control pills and other contraception.

  13. Identifying time measurement tampering in the traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) wormhole detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2013-05-17

    Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  14. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  15. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  16. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  17. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen.

  18. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  19. Rein Pill tegi fantastilise sõidu / Rein Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Septembris Chernjahovskis peetud CS14 taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel tegi Rein Pill ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  20. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  1. Rein Pill tegi fantastilise sõidu / Rein Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Septembris Chernjahovskis peetud CS14 taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel tegi Rein Pill ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  2. A New Method for Measuring Weak Lensing Magnification With Weighted Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new local method for optimally estimating the local effects of magnification from weak gravitational lensing, using a comparison of number counts in an arbitrary region of space to the expected unmagnified number counts. This method has equivalent statistical power to the optimally-weighted correlation function method previously employed to measure magnification, but has the potential to be used for purposes such as mass mapping, and is also significantly computationally faster. We present a proof-of-principle test of this method on data from the CFHTLenS, showing that its calculated magnification signals agree with predictions from model fits to shear data. Finally, we investigate how magnification data can be used to supplement shear data in determining the best-fit model mass profiles for galaxy dark matter haloes. We find that at redshifts greater than z~0.6, the inclusion of magnification can often significantly improve the constraints on the components of the mass profile which relate to ga...

  3. Neutron measurements with Time-Resolved Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, M.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Friedman, E.; Czasch, A.; Mardor, I.; Mor, I.; Weierganz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Results are presented from the latest experiment with a new neutron/gamma detector, a Time-Resolved, Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector. It is composed of a scintillating fiber-screen converter, bending mirror, lens and Event-Counting Image Intensifier (ECII), capable of specifying the position and time-of-flight of each event. TRECOR is designated for a multipurpose integrated system that will detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and explosives in cargo. Explosives are detected by Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography, and SNM by Dual Discrete-Energy gamma-Radiography. Neutrons and gamma-rays are both produced in the 11B(d,n+γ)12C reaction. The two detection modes can be implemented simultaneously in TRECOR, using two adjacent radiation converters that share a common optical readout. In the present experiment the neutron detection mode was studied, using a plastic scintillator converter. The measurements were performed at the PTB cyclotron, using the 9Be(d,n) neutron spectrum obtained from a thick Be-target at Ed ~ 13 MeV\\@. The basic characteristics of this detector were investigated, including the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF), Point Spread Function (PSF) and elemental discrimination capability.

  4. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  5. The Effect of Udder Measurements on Somatic Cell Count and Daily Milk Production in Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of udder measurements group on somatic cell count (SCC and daily milk production. Milk samples and udder measurements were collected monthly from 79 lactating Holstein cows on commercial dairy in the province of Niğde. In the study, front teat length (FTL, rear teat length (RTL, front teat diameter (FTD, rear teat diameter (RTD, distance between front teats (DBFT, distance between rear teats (DBRT, front udder height, (FTH, rear udder height (RUH, distance between front and rear teats (DBST were obtained in before afternoon milking. Udder measurements were divided into 5 groups according to the measurements. The effect of DBFT, DBRT, FTH, RTD, FTD and DBRT groups on daily milk production were statistically significant, while FTH, RUH and DBRT were found non-significant. The effect of udder measurements groups on SCC was found not significant, except rear teat diameter (RTD. Average daily milk production and SCC were estimated as 28.25 kg/day and 274.90 cell/ml, respectively. In conclusion, it can be said that the distance between teats, teat’s diameter and front udder height of Holstein cattle is important factor for milk yield of Holstein dairy cattle. Also, SCC is effected by rear teat diameter.

  6. Bayesian latent variable models for hierarchical clustered count outcomes with repeated measures in microbiome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhen; Paterson, Andrew D; Xu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the multivariate nature of microbiome data with hierarchical taxonomic clusters, counts that are often skewed and zero inflated, and repeated measures, we propose a Bayesian latent variable methodology to jointly model multiple operational taxonomic units within a single taxonomic cluster. This novel method can incorporate both negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial responses, and can account for serial and familial correlations. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that is built on a data augmentation scheme using Pólya-Gamma random variables. Hierarchical centering and parameter expansion techniques are also used to improve the convergence of the Markov chain. We evaluate the performance of our proposed method through extensive simulations. We also apply our method to a human microbiome study.

  7. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources Tools for K-12 Educators You are here: Home | Public Resources | Pet ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your pet can easily ingest dropped pills ...

  8. Kaks hiidlast poliitikas / Pille Shalamov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shalamov, Pille

    2008-01-01

    Katkendeid Pille Shalamovi uurimustööst "Kaks hiidlast poliitikas", kus käsitletakse Vaino Väljase ja Hillar Elleri rolle Eesti poliitikas. Järgneb: 11. nov. ; 18. nov. ; 21. nov. ; 25. nov. ; 28. nov. ; 2. dets. ; 9. nov ; 16. dets. ; 23. dets. ; 30. dets.

  9. Ultra-compact 32-channel system for time-correlated single-photon counting measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, S.; Cuccato, A.; Miari, L.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-05-01

    Modern Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting applications require to detect spectral and temporal fluorescence data simultaneously and from different areas of the analyzed sample. These rising quests have led the development of multichannel systems able to perform high count rate and high performance analysis. In this work we describe a new 32-channel TCSPC system designed to be used in modern setups. The presented module consists of four independent 8-channel TCSPC boards, each of them including two 4-channel Time-Amplitude Converter arrays. These TAC arrays are built-in 0.35 μm Si-Ge BiCMOS technology and are characterized by low crosstalk, high resolution, high conversion rate and variable full-scale range. The 8-channel TCSPC board implements an 8-channel ADC to sample the TAC outputs, an FPGA to record and organize the measurement results and a USB 2.0 interface to enable real-time data transmission to and from an external PC. Experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system ensures high performance TCSPC measurements, in particular: high conversion rate (5 MHz), good time resolution (down to 30 psFWHM with the full scale range set to 11 ns) and low differential non-linearity (rms value lower than 0.15% of the time bin width). We design the module to be very compact and, thanks to the reduced dimensions of the 8-channel TCSPC board (95×40 mm), the whole system can be enclosed in a small aluminum case (160×125×30 mm).

  10. In-flight measurements of space count in the AVHRR solar reflectance bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Cao, Changyong; Sullivan, Jerry T.; Levin, Robert H.; Wu, Xiangqian; Galvin, Roy P.

    2005-01-01

    The solar reflectance bands (SRB) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) flown onboard NOAA satellites are often referred to as non-calibrated in-flight. In contrast, the Earth emission bands (EEB) are calibrated using two reference points, deep space and the internal calibration target. In the SRBs, measurements of space count (SC) are also available, however, historically they are not used to specify the calibration offset ("zero count", ZC), which does not even appear in the calibration equation. A regression calibration formulation is used instead, equivalent to setting the ZC to a constant, whose value is specified from pre-launch measurements. Our analyses supported by a review of the instrument design and a wealth of historical SC information show that the SC varies in-flight and it differs from its pre-launch value. We therefore suggest that (1) the AVHRR calibration equation in the SRBs be re-formulated to explicitly use the ZC, consistently with the EEBs, and (2) the value of ZC be specified from the onboard measurements of SC. This study emphasizes the importance of clear discrimination between the SC (which is a measured quantity and therefore takes on a range of values, characterized by the empirical probability density function, PDF), from the ZC (which is a parameter in the calibration equation, i.e. a number whose value needs to be estimated from the measured SC as a mean, median or other statistic of the measured PDF). The ZC-formulation of the calibration equation is physically solid, and it minimizes human-induced calibration errors resulting from the use of a regression formulation with an un-constrained intercept. Specifying the calibration offset improves radiances, most notably at the low end of radiometric scale, and subsequently provides for more accurate vicarious determinations of the calibration slope (inverse gain). These calibration improvements are important for the products derived from the AVHRR low-radiances, such

  11. Feasibility of measuring total body carbon by counting neutron inelastic scatter gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyere, K.; Oldroyd, B.; Oxby, C.B.; Burkinshaw, L.; Ellis, R.E.; Hill, G.L. (Leeds Univ. (UK))

    1982-06-01

    A technique is examined for measuring the mass of carbon of both ambulatory and non-ambulatory subjects. The method is based upon the detection of the 4.43 MeV gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei when the body is irradiated with fast neutrons. The supine subject is irradiated laterally by a horizontal collimated beam of 14 MeV neutrons and the emitted gamma rays are counted by a shielded NaI(Tl) detector placed underneath the subject. The method has been calibrated for all sizes of subjects from 30 to 90 kg and there appears to be no significant interference from the other bulk elements of the body. Body carbon has been measured in six normal volunteers; body nitrogen was also determined by measuring the /sup 13/N induced in each subject in a second irradiation. Body fat was estimated from the measured carbon and nitrogen, and the values compared with those derived from skinfold thicknesses. The technique is proposed as a method of estimating long-term energy expenditure.

  12. On the performance of bioanalytical fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements in a multiparameter photon-counting microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazouchi, Amir; Liu Baoxu; Bahram, Abdullah [Department of Physics, Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd. N., Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6 (Canada); Gradinaru, Claudiu C., E-mail: claudiu.gradinaru@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd. N., Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data acquisition and analysis routines were developed and implemented in a home-built, multiparameter photon-counting microscope. Laser excitation conditions were investigated for two representative fluorescent probes, Rhodamine110 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Reliable local concentrations and diffusion constants were obtained by fitting measured FCS curves, provided that the excitation intensity did not exceed 20% of the saturation level for each fluorophore. Accurate results were obtained from FCS measurements for sample concentrations varying from pM to {mu}M range, as well as for conditions of high background signals. These experimental constraints were found to be determined by characteristics of the detection system and by the saturation behavior of the fluorescent probes. These factors actually limit the average number of photons that can be collected from a single fluorophore passing through the detection volume. The versatility of our setup and the data analysis capabilities were tested by measuring the mobility of EGFP in the nucleus of Drosophila cells under conditions of high concentration and molecular crowding. As a bioanalytical application, we studied by FCS the binding affinity of a novel peptide-based drug to the cancer-regulating STAT3 protein and corroborated the results with fluorescence polarization analysis derived from the same photon data.

  13. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p PILL versus PLA (p PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  14. An update on the pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The discussion traces the development of the oral contraceptive (OC) pill and presents the most recent medical findings on OC and its effects. In 1959 the 1st combined OC, Enovid, was officially approved for use in the US after clinical trials in Los Angeles and Puerto Rico. By 1975, OCs were being used in the US by more than 1/3 of married women who practiced family planning and by an even higher percentage of unmarried contraceptive users. Retail pharmacy sales of OCs have declined by 40% during the 1975-79 period. The major reason given for the decline was the side effects or fear of side effects arising from OC use. Many OCs are available today because of an increasing variety of chemical combinations and the rapid increase in product names, according to "Oral Contraceptives: A Guide for Programs and Clinics," a Pathfinder Fund handbook. The authors classified OCs into 2 general groups -- combined pills and the mini-pills. OCs used in the combined preparation each contain 2 synthetic hormones -- estrogen and progestin. The combined OC is 99% effective when taken properly. The most popular belief now is that OCs act by interfering with the normal menstrual cycle. The mini-pills, which contain small doses of synthetic progestins, have a contraceptive effect by altering the cervical mucus and by altering the lining of the womb or endometrium. Absolute, strong relative, and other relative contraindications to pill use are listed. Side effects that are possibly life threatening include blood clots in the legs, pelvis (lower abdomen), lungs, heart, or brain. Women OC users over 40 have a higher risk of heart attack than younger users, and users over 40 who smoke have the highest risk of heart attack. Benign tumors of the liver, which have been found to be more common in women who use OCs, may cause rupture of the capsule of the liver, extensive bleeding, and even death. Rare tumors of the liver, hepatocelluar adenomas, are more likely to occur in long term OC users

  15. Particle Count and Black Carbon Measurements at Schools in Las Vegas and in the Greater Salt Lake City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2016-12-23

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/s, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again. Particle count concentrations at two schools were shown to typically be independent of BC or other pollutants. At a school in close proximity to a major freeway, particle count concentrations were high during the midday and when wind speeds were low, regardless of wind direction, showing a large area of effect from roadway

  16. Antibiotics, the pill, and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrantonio, M; Minhas, H; Gammon, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish if advice concerning risks of pregnancy when taking oral contraceptive pill and antibiotics is being offered. METHOD: A retrospective audit of notes of 100 female patients aged 15-39 who were prescribed antibiotics. RESULTS: Documentation of use of contraception was noted in 3% of patients. Advice concerning risks and further precautions was noted in this 3% but not in any other records. CONCLUSION: The audit identified a gap in documentation and/or clinical practice ...

  17. The Pill and Marital Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Zuppann

    2012-01-01

    Better contraception will have competing impacts on marital stability and divorce rates. Preexisting marriages are likely to become less stable as better contraception raises the value of reentering the dating market. Subsequent marriages are likely to be more stable as couples delay marriages and use better contraception to search for better partners. Â I investigate this hypothesis using variation in access to the birth control pill by state and cohort as developed by Goldin and Katz (2002)...

  18. Association between birth control pills and voice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to extend our knowledge of the effect of birth control pills on voice quality in women based on various acoustic measures. A longitudinal comparative study of 14 healthy young women over a 36- to 45-day period. Voices of seven women who used birth control pills and seven women who did not were recorded repeatedly approximately 20 times. Voice samples were analyzed acoustically, using an extended set of frequency perturbation parameters (jitter, relative average perturbation, pitch period perturbation quotient), amplitude perturbation parameters (shimmer, amplitude average perturbation quotient), and noise indices (noise-to-harmonics ratio, voice turbulence index). Voice quality and stability were found to be better among the women who used birth control pills. Lower values were found for all acoustic measures with the exception of voice turbulence index. Results also provided preliminary indication for vocal changes associated with the days preceding ovulation. In contrast to the traditional view of oral contraceptives as a risk factor for voice quality, and in keeping with the authors' previous work, the data in the present study showed that not only did oral contraceptives have no adverse effect on voice quality but, in effect, most acoustic measures showed improved voice quality among women who used the birth control pill. The differences in the noise indices between groups may also shed light on the nature of the effect of sex hormones on vocal fold activity. It was suggested that hormonal fluctuations may have more of an effect on vocal fold regulation of vibration than on glottal adduction.

  19. Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, T.W.

    1980-03-01

    A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

  20. The Influence of Monitoring Interval on Data Measurement: An Analysis of Step Counts of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pedometer is a widely used research tool for measuring the level and extent of physical activity (PA within population subgroups. The sample used in this study was drawn from a population of university students to examine the influence of the monitoring interval and alternate starting days on step-count activity patterns. The study was part of a national project during 2008–2010. Eligible subjects (641 were selected from a sample of 906 university students. The students wore pedometers continuously for 7 days excluding time for sleep and personal hygiene. Steps per day were logged on record sheets by each student. Data gathering spanned an entire week, and the results were sorted by alternate starting days, by activity for an entire week, by activity for only the weekdays of the one-week monitoring interval and for the two-day weekend. The statistical analysis included ANOVA, intra-class correlation (ICC analysis, and regression analysis. The ICC analysis suggested that monitoring starting on Monday (ICC = 0.71; 95%CI (0.61–0.79, Tuesday (ICC = 0.67; 95%CI (0.59–0.75 or Thursday (ICC = 0.68; 95%CI (0.55–0.79 improved reliability. The results of regression analysis also indicated that any starting day except Sunday is satisfactory as long as a minimum of four days of monitoring are used.

  1. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  2. Are in-line measurements of somatic cell counts equally or more useful for genetic evaluations as those from DHI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to estimate and compare genetic parameters for logtransformed somatic cell counts (SCC) based on in-line measurements (OCC, DeLaval) in automatic milking systems with monthly test-day SCC from traditional herd testing schemes. Data was collected during a 29-mo interval from 6 herds an...

  3. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. E.; McCarthy, I. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Collins, C. A.; Schaye, J.; Bird, S.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g. X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, and optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, thus circumventing the main systematic bias in traditional cluster counts studies. With the aid of the BAHAMAS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the velocity dispersion counts for discriminating even similar Λ cold dark matter models. These predictions can be compared with the results from existing redshift surveys such as the highly complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, and upcoming wide-field spectroscopic surveys such as the Wide Area Vista Extragalactic Survey and the Dark Energy Survey Instrument.

  4. Connecting Pills and People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article explores the impact of intensive competition within the pharmaceutical industry and among private providers on health care in an Indian city. Methods: In-depth interviewing and clinical observation were used over a period of 18 months. Private practitioners and chemists, ...... services are urgently needed and a planned health insurance scheme should be linked to quality control measures......., who provided regular services to inhabitants of a poor neighborhood in central Bhubaneswar, were included. Results: Fierce competition in private health in Odisha, India, reduced quality of care for the poor. The pharmaceutical industry exploited weak links in the health system to push drugs...

  5. Oral Contraceptive Pill Alters Acute Dietary Protein-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhita, Maharani Retna; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal. There was no effect of menstrual phase or contraceptive pill use on fasting EE or NP response. However, HP increased EE significantly more than NP in women not taking the oral contraceptive pill and in men, but not in women taking the pill. This study shows an absence of the greater thermic effect of HP versus NP in women taking the oral contraceptive pill and has important implications regarding the effectiveness of HP for body weight regulation in women. With current obesity treatment/prevention strategies remaining largely ineffective, understanding the relationship between oral contraceptive pill use and protein-induced thermogenesis may enable the successful recalibration of existing dietary recommendations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  6. Numerical simulation of particle dynamics in an orifice-electrode system. Application to counting and sizing by impedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isèbe, Damien; Nérin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes how to numerically tackle the problem of counting and sizing particles by impedance measurement in an orifice-electrode system. The model allows to simulate the particle dynamics submitted to strong hydrodynamic stresses through a microorifice and to compute the voltage pulses generated by the modification of the inner dielectric medium. This approach gives important information about particles size distribution and allows to quantify the role of trajectory and orientation of particles on the size measurement.

  7. The Invention of Counting: The Statistical Measurement of Literacy in Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the invention of counting literacy on a national basis in nineteenth-century Britain. Through an analysis of Registrar Generals' reports, it describes how the early statisticians wrestled with the implications of their new-found capacity to describe a nation's communications skills in a single table and how they were unable…

  8. The Invention of Counting: The Statistical Measurement of Literacy in Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the invention of counting literacy on a national basis in nineteenth-century Britain. Through an analysis of Registrar Generals' reports, it describes how the early statisticians wrestled with the implications of their new-found capacity to describe a nation's communications skills in a single table and how they were unable…

  9. "HYPERTENSION RESULTING FROM USING BIRTHCONTROL PILLS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rostami

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study on 685 healthy women who have been using birth control pills for a period of about 27 months, the following results were found: 1.Blood pressure has been increased with a rate of 1.416%. 2. The increase in arterial Wood pressure is on both the systolicand diastolic blood pressures. 3. It seems that hypertension results from the Estrogen which is present in the Pills. 4. This hypertension is not grave I and with stopping, the Pills within a maximum period of 5 months, blood pressure will return to its control level, without having any effect on the cardiac or renal function. 5. When noticing the above mentioned points, we can conclude that if a woman had previous hypertension after using birth control pills, it is less dangerous than giving birth to a baby due to not using the pills.

  10. Improving Neutron Measurement Capabilities; Expanding the Limits of Correlated Neutron Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    A number of technical and practical limitations exist within the neutron correlated counting techniques used in safeguards, especially within the algorithms that are used to process and analyze the detected neutron signals. A multi-laboratory effort is underway to develop new and improved analysis and data processing algorithms based on fundamental physics principles to extract additional or more accurate information about nuclear material bearing items.

  11. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...

  12. Pill organizers and pill cutters: risks and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Oliveira, Caroline Ribeiro de

    2013-02-01

    In this essay, based on documental analysis, the limitations associated with the use of pill organizers and cutters are discussed and analyzed as a matter of public health. The use of the organizers for storing and carrying tablets and capsules exposes these medications to environmental factors from which their original packaging protected them, compromising their stability and safeness. Cutters also pose the additional risk of causing loss of efficacy, adverse reactions and overdose. On the other hand, the user carrying their own medication reflects the balance between autonomy and self-care, and splitting is sometimes required to comply with certain regimens. It can be concluded that healthcare professionals should observe and guide patients and caregivers in order to avoid risks.

  13. [Mamy-boom and baby-flop, pill and pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraud, R

    1989-05-01

    Data from France's National Institute of Demographic Studies indicate that in 1986, 778,859 infants were born in France, including 80,874 to foreign mothers. France's total fertility rate was 1.83, higher than the 1.40 of the Federal Republic of Germany or the 1.35 of Italy but not high enough to ensure replacement. A 1988 survey by the National Institute of Demographic Studies indicated that almost 2/3 of fertile-aged French women used pills or IUDs. 7% had undergone sterilization, 4% were infertile, 13% had no partners, and 10% were pregnant or desired to become pregnant. All the developed countries, regardless of their form of government, have low fertility rates. The complete explanations of the trend to low fertility are not known. Economic and sociological explanations probably carry less weight than psychological factors. The desire for material goods, greater freedom of women, changing roles of men in the family and society, and fragility of marriages probably all play a part. The pill and to a lesser extent abortion have been blamed for the declining fertility, but do not furnish the complete explanation. Greater availability of RU 486 may cause further decline, but nobody can predict with assurance. Falling nuptiality, increased nonmarital cohabitation with its low fertility rates, the low rate of remarriage after divorce, and the greater life expectancy of women all affect France's population structure and prospects. By 2010, some 20% of the European population will be aged 65 and over. By 2035 almost 10 million persons will be over 70 years old in France, and nearly 2/3 of them will be female. This large cohort of elderly will require expensive care that the smaller young cohorts will be expected to finance. Intergenerational solidarity, however, already shows signs of strain. Serious conflicts will inevitably arise over the care and maintenance of this large elderly population group and will be exacerbated by the uneven population structure resulting

  14. Vitamin nutritional status of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, N K; Vijaya, S

    1980-03-01

    A comparative study was conducted to assess the biochemical effects of a low-estrogen combined OC (oral contraceptive). The focus of the study was on possible biochemical effects indicative of altered nutritional status. Both low and high income women on pills were compared with others not on pills. The groups were further divided according to the duration of OC usage. Blood hemoglobin, serum Vitamin A, plasma ascorbic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, and aspartate transaminase levels were measured. Higher income women had better measures on all the indices than the low income women, indicating a better initial nutritional status. Deficiencies increased with duration of use. Results of the study show that OCs reduce the vitamin nutritional level in women. For poor women on OCs, special nutrition intervention programs should be instituted.

  15. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p exercise (p exercise.

  16. The Correlation of the N{sub A} Measurements by Counting {sup 28}Si Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mana, G., E-mail: g.mana@inrim.it; Massa, E.; Sasso, C. P. [INRIM—Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Str. delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Stock, M. [BIPM—Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM, Pavillon de Breteuil, 92312 Sèvres Cedex (France); Fujii, K.; Kuramoto, N.; Mizushima, S.; Narukawa, T. [NMIJ—National Metrology Institute of Japan, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Borys, M.; Busch, I.; Nicolaus, A.; Pramann, A. [PTB—Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    An additional value of the Avogadro constant was obtained by counting the atoms in isotopically enriched Si spheres. With respect to the previous determination, the spheres were etched and repolished to eliminate metal contaminations and to improve the roundness. In addition, all the input quantities—molar mass, lattice parameter, mass, and volume—were remeasured aiming at a smaller uncertainty. In order to make the values given in Andreas et al. [Metrologia 48, S1 (2011)] and Azuma et al. [Metrologia 52, 360 (2015)] usable for a least squares adjustment, we report about the estimate of their correlation.

  17. Longitudinal Bunch Pattern Measurements through Single Photon Counting at SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyi (Jack); /UC, San Diego

    2012-09-07

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a division of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is a synchrotron light source that provides x-rays for experimental use. As electrons are bent in the storage ring, they emit electromagnetic radiation. There are 372 different buckets which electrons can be loaded into. Different filling patterns produce different types of x-rays. What is the bunch pattern at a given time? Which filling pattern is better? Are there any flaws to the current injection system? These questions can be answered with this single photon counting experiment.

  18. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  19. The post-coital pills as over the counter drugs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Post-coital pill or emergency contraceptives are birth control measures that, if taken after sexual intercourse, may prevent pregnancy. High dose of postcoital contraceptives like diethylstilbestrol & other estrogens were being used for some time without any approval by FDA. Task force on postovulatory methods of fertility regulations 1998, conducted clinical trials leading to approval of two preparations for postcoital contraception by FDA namely levonorgestrel 0.75mg & combination of 0.25 l...

  20. PillCam ESO versus esophagogastroduodenoscopy in esophageal variceal screening: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2009-01-01

    PillCam ESO has been evaluated as a possible strategy to screen patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices, but current guidelines recommend patients undergo screening with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), as it is currently the gold standard. Although recent data have suggested that PillCam ESO may be an acceptable alternative for screening, there is limited data on its cost-effectiveness compared with other screening modalities. This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PillCam ESO versus EGD for esophageal variceal screening. Markov models were constructed to compare 2 screening strategies: PillCam ESO versus EGD. In each arm, patients were followed for a time horizon of 15 years in 1-year transition intervals. All variables, transition probabilities, and costs were derived from the medical literature, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the different variables in the model. Base-case analysis shows that PillCam ESO is associated with an average expected cost of $22,589 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.81 life-years. EGD is associated with an average expected cost of $23,083 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.67 life-years. PillCam ESO was found to dominate EGD as a screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis. Sensitivity analyses found several variables within the model to have influential effects on the results. PillCam ESO is the dominant strategy for screening patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices. However, based on a small difference in costs and effectiveness between each strategy, the results would suggest that PillCam ESO and EGD are essentially equivalent strategies.

  1. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Y; Hirone, T

    1994-05-01

    The present study investigated the phototoxic effect of bergamot oil and its photosensitive component, bergapten, on sunburn cell (SBC) production in guinea pig skin. The back skin was pretreated with bergamot oil or bergapten and exposed to monochromatic light under various conditions. After irradiation, skin specimens were excised, and histological sections were prepared. The number of sunburn cells in the interfollicular epidermis was counted. The SBC formation by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVB radiation was the same as that without pretreatment with any photosensitizer. In contrast, a significant number of SBCs were induced by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVA radiation, but no SBCs were found after the treatment with UVA alone. The result indicates that bergamot oil or bergapten was photosensitized by UVA irradiation. The SBCs were linearly increased in a UV-dose dependent manner. On the basis of the regression lines, an action spectrum and spectral peak for the photosensitizers plus UVA were obtained. The action spectrum for bergamot oil- and bergapten-induced SBC formation was in the ranges of 325-365 nm and 325-350 nm, and their spectral peaks were at 335-345 nm and 335-350 nm, respectively. The data are in good accordance with those estimated from skin erythema reactions. Therefore, counting SBCs is a very useful parameter for quantitative evaluation of phototoxicity.

  2. Fast identification of substance by measuring two Raman peaks with dual strip silicon photomultipliers and gated photon counting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Hu, Xiaobo; Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunling; Liu, Lina; Yang, Ru; Liang, Kun; Han, Dejun

    2011-08-20

    In this report, we use carbon tetrachloride as an example to demonstrate that substance can be quickly identified through the measurement of the two Raman peaks simply by an integrated module of dual strip silicon photomultipliers operating at room temperature in conjunction with a gated photon counting technique. Both the peak positions and the relative intensity ratio of the two Raman peaks are used to identify the substance with a reduced false acceptance rate. A complete Raman spectrum of the substance can also be measured by using this method combined with a scanning monochromator. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  4. The risks of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pymar, H C; Creinin, M D

    2001-12-01

    Oral contraceptive pills have been associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Studies have been published recently that suggest that these risks are minimal in appropriately chosen low-risk women. Stroke is a very uncommon event in childbearing women, occurring in approximately 11 per 100,000 women over 1 year. Thus, even a doubling of this risk with oral contraceptive pills would have minimal effect on attributable risk. The estimated risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive pill use in nonsmokers is 3 per million women over 1 year. The estimated risk of venous thromboembolism attributable to oral contraceptive pills is less than 3 per 10,000 women per year. Additionally, the literature suggests that there may be an increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term oral contraceptive pill use in women under the age of 35. However, because the incidence of breast cancer is so low in this population, the attributable risk of breast cancer from birth control pill use is small.

  5. Counting rate measurements for lifetime experiments using the RDDS method with the new generation γ-ray array AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasduff, A., E-mail: Alain.Goasduff@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Université de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); CSNSM, UMR 8609, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Lunardi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Haas, F. [Université de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València, E-46980 Valencia (Spain); Angelis, G. de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Courtin, S. [Université de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Farnea, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gottardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Michelagnoli, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-09-11

    The differential Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method after multinucleon transfer (MNT) reactions to measure lifetimes of excited states in neutron-rich nuclei requires the use of a thick energy degrader for the recoiling ejectiles that are then detected in a spectrometer. This type of measurements greatly benefits from the use of the new generation segmented γ-ray detectors, such as the AGATA demonstrator which offers unprecedented energy and angular resolutions. In order to make an optimized choice of the material and the thickness of the degrader for lifetime measurements using the RDDS method after MNT, an experiment has been performed with the AGATA demonstrator. Counting rate measurements for different degraders are presented.

  6. Photon counting performance measurements of transfer electron InGaAsP photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tubes at 1064 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Hasselbrack, William B.; La Rue, Ross A.

    2007-05-01

    We report the test results of a hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) with a transfer electron (TE) InGaAsP photocathode and GaAs Schottky avalanche photodiode (APD) anode. Unlike Geiger mode InGaAsP APDs, these HPMTs (also known as intensified photodiode (IPD), vacuum APD, or hybrid photodetector) operate in linear mode without the need for quenching and gating. Their greatest advantages are wide dynamic range, high speed, large photosensitive area, and potential for photon counting and analog detection dual mode operation. The photon detection efficiency we measured was 25% at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius. The output pulse width in response to a single photon detection is about 0.9 ns. The maximum count rate was 90 Mcts/s and was limited solely by the speed of the discriminator used in the measurement (10 ns dead time). The spectral response of these devices extended from 900 to 1300 nm. We also measured the HPMT response to 60 ps laser pulses. The average output pulse amplitude increased monotonically with the input pulse energy, which suggested that we can resolve photon number in an incident pulse. The jitter of the HPMT output was found to be about 0.5 ns standard deviation and depended on bias voltage applied to the TE photocathode. To our knowledge, these HPMTs are the most sensitive non gating photon detectors at 1064 nm wavelength, and they will have many applications in laser altimeters, atmospheric lidars, and free space laser communication systems.

  7. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  8. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  9. Arterial wall perfusion measured with photon counting spectral x-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Steven M.; Korinek, Mark J.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Anderson, Jill L.; Halaweish, Ahmed; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2016-10-01

    Early atherosclerosis changes perfusion of the arterial wall due to localized proliferation of the vasa vasorum. When contrast agent passes through the artery, some enters the vasa vasorum and increases radiopacity of the arterial wall. Technical challenges to detecting changes in vasa vasorum density include the thin arterial wall, partial volume averaging at the arterial lumen/wall interface and calcification within the wall. We used a photon-counting spectral CT scanner to study carotid arteries of anesthetized pigs and micro-CT of these arteries to quantify vasa vasorum density. The left carotid artery wall was injected with autologous blood to stimulate vasa vasorum angiogenesis. The scans were performed at 25-120 keV; the tube-current-time product was 550 mAs. A 60 mL bolus of iodine contrast agent was injected into the femoral vein at 5mL/s. Two seconds post injection, an axial scan was acquired at every 3 s over 60 s (i.e., 20 time points). Each time point acquired 28 contiguous transaxial slices with reconstructed voxels 0.16 x 0.16 x 1 mm3. Regions-of-interest in the outer 2/3 of the arterial wall and in the middle 2/3 of the lumen were drawn and their enhancements plotted versus time. Lumenal CT values peaked several seconds after injection and then returned towards baseline. Arterial wall CT values peaked concurrent to the lumen. The peak arterial wall enhancement in the left carotid arterial wall correlated with increased vasa vasorum density observed in micro-CT images of the isolated arteries.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2016-12-21

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the beta decay spectra. We present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  11. [Outcomes count: the importance of measuring the outcomes of hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Oliver; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A century ago the Boston surgeon Earnest A. Codman described in detail the requirements for monitoring quality of care and emphasized the importance of outcomes in evaluating care. At the time the medical societies were disconcerted by his ideas, which were perceived as revolutionary. After several decade of focusing on the structures and processes of care we are now witnessing a renaissance of measuring outcomes. This paper emphasizes the need for outcomes measurement monitor quality of care. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups in Germany is the most recent development that underlines the importance of outcomes measurement and benchmarking.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2017-08-01

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the isotope’s respective energy spectra. This activity makes direct dual-isotope measurements challenging without additional chemistry to concentrate the tritium in a sample. We present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120 mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  13. Validity of the SenseWear armband step count measure during controlled and free-living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Allen Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The SWA underestimates steps during treadmill walking and appears to overestimate steps during free-living compared to the DIGI pedometer. Caution is warranted when using the SWA to count steps. Modifications are needed to enhance step counting accuracy.

  14. Comparison of Photometer with Improved Neubauer Hemocytometer and Makler Counting Chamber for Sperm Concentration Measurement in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Atiq, Nemat Ullah1*, S. M. H. Andrabi2 and Shamim Akhter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare the photometer (Lp 300 SDM Minitüb GmHb with improved Neubauer hemocytometer and Makler counting chamber for sperm concentration measurement in cow bulls. Data were based on 35 cow bull semen samples. The average sperm concentrations (109/ml determined by photometer, hemocytometer and Makler chamber were 1.35±0.72, 1.17±0.53 and 1.49±0.60, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed that there was no difference among the three techniques of sperm concentration measurement of same semen samples in cow bulls. It was concluded that the use of photometer in semen evaluation for sperm concentration reduced chances of human error and time consumption effectively.

  15. Compositional variability across Mercury's surface revealed by MESSENGER measurements of variations in thermal neutron count rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, P. N.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements by MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) have revealed variations in the flux of thermal neutrons across Mercury's northern hemisphere. These variations are interpreted to originate from spatial variations in surface elemental composition. In particular, the measurements are sensitive to the near-surface abundances of elements that absorb thermal neutrons, including major rock-forming elements such as Fe and Ti, minor elements such as Mn and Cl, and rare-earth elements such as Gd and Sm. We have constructed a map of thermal neutron variability across the surface and compared it with known variations in elemental composition and with the distribution of geologic units. Development of the map included the derivation of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section across the surface, a quantity whose value and variability provides useful constraints on the formation and geochemical evolution of Mercury's crust. Finally, by combining the thermal neutron measurements with previously reported elemental measurements from the GRNS and MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer, we have derived constraints on the abundances of neutron-absorbing elements, including previously unreported limits for some minor and rare-earth elements.

  16. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, L.W.M.M.; Grooth, de B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  17. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis "No Pills Yet..." Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Robert Boston "There are no pills yet for osteoarthritis, but we're working on it," says Linda ...

  18. Relationship between the CMB, SZ Cluster Counts, and Local Hubble Parameter Measurements in a Simple Void Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between the amplitudes of matter fluctuations inferred from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster number counts, the primary temperature, and the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measured by the Planck satellite can be reconciled if the local universe is embedded in an under-dense region as shown by Lee, 2014. Here using a simple void model assuming the open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate how deep the local under-dense region needs to be to resolve this discrepancy. Such local void, if exists, predicts the local Hubble parameter value that is different from the global Hubble constant. We derive the posterior distribution of the local Hubble parameter from a joint fitting of the Planck CMB data and SZ cluster number counts assuming the simple void model. We show that the predicted local Hubble parameter value of $H_{\\rm loc}=70.1\\pm0.34~{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}Mpc^{-1}}$ is in better agreement with direct local Hub...

  19. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  20. Gamma spectrum, count rate, and dose rate measurements of the Columbia riverbank from Vernita to Sacajawea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, L.A.

    1966-01-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiological conditions that exist on the riverbank of the Columbia River. Included was a comparative study of the suitability of three instruments to measure the dose rates. These instruments were a NaI (T1) scintillation counter normally used for aerial monitoring, a bioplastic scintillation counter normally used as a road monitor, and a portable 40 liter ionization chamber normally used to measure very low gamma dose rates. The selection of representative sites for the comparative study was based on an initial GM survey of the general areas in question. Seven sites were studied--from Vernita Ferry Landing above the Hanford project to Sacajawea Park below Pasco.

  1. Improved sample preparation and counting techniques for enhanced tritium measurement sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Aalseth, C.; Bailey, V. L.; Mace, E. K.; Overman, C.; Seifert, A.; Wilcox Freeburg, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tritium (T) measurements offer insight to a wealth of environmental applications including hydrologic tracking, discerning ocean circulation patterns, and aging ice formations. However, the relatively short half-life of T (12.3 years) limits its effective age dating range. Compounding this limitation is the decrease in atmospheric T content by over two orders of magnitude (from 1000-2000 TU in 1962 to low background proportional counters which, when combined, offer improved T measurement sensitivity (~4.5 mmoles of H2 equivalent) and will help expand the application of T age dating to smaller sample sizes linked to persistent environmental questions despite the limitations above. For instance, this approach can be used to T date ~ 2.2 mmoles of CH4 collected from sample-limited systems including microbial communities, soils, or subsurface aquifers and can be combined with radiocarbon dating to distinguish the methane's formation age from C age in a system. This approach can also expand investigations into soil organic C where the improved sensitivity will permit resolution of soil C into more descriptive fractions and provide direct assessments of the stability of specific classes of organic matter in soils environments. We are employing a multiple step sample preparation system whereby organic samples are first combusted with resulting CO2 and H2O being used as a feedstock to synthesize CH4. This CH4 is mixed with Ar and loaded directly into an ultra-low background proportional counter for measurement of T β decay in a shallow underground laboratory. Analysis of water samples requires only the addition of geologic CO2 feedstock with the sample for methane synthesis. The chemical nature of the preparation techniques enable high sample throughput with only the final measurement requiring T decay with total sample analysis time ranging from 2 -5 weeks depending on T content.

  2. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask how the diffusion of oral contraception to young unmarried women affected the number and maternal characteristics of children born to these women. Using census data, we find that early pill access led to an increase in the share of children whose mothers were married, college-educated, and had professional occupations. The pill's effects on the average mother are different from the pill's effects on the average woman, and the effects of the pill on maternal characteristic...

  3. Isotope ratio measurements of pg-size plutonium samples using TIMS in combination with "multiple ion counting" and filament carburization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopic, Rozle; Richter, Stephan; Kühn, Heinz; Benedik, Ljudmila; Pihlar, Boris; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2009-01-01

    A sample preparation procedure for isotopic measurements using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was developed which employs the technique of carburization of rhenium filaments. Carburized filaments were prepared in a special vacuum chamber in which the filaments were exposed to benzene vapour as a carbon supply and carburized electrothermally. To find the optimal conditions for the carburization and isotopic measurements using TIMS, the influence of various parameters such as benzene pressure, carburization current and the exposure time were tested. As a result, carburization of the filaments improved the overall efficiency by one order of magnitude. Additionally, a new "multi-dynamic" measurement technique was developed for Pu isotope ratio measurements using a "multiple ion counting" (MIC) system. This technique was combined with filament carburization and applied to the NBL-137 isotopic standard and samples of the NUSIMEP 5 inter-laboratory comparison campaign, which included certified plutonium materials at the ppt-level. The multi-dynamic measurement technique for plutonium, in combination with filament carburization, has been shown to significantly improve the precision and accuracy for isotopic analysis of environmental samples with low-levels of plutonium.

  4. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  5. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  7. A Bayesian model for repeated measures zero-inflated count data with application to outpatient psychiatric service use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Brian H.; O’Malley, A. James; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

    2009-01-01

    In applications involving count data, it is common to encounter an excess number of zeros. In the study of outpatient service utilization, for example, the number of utilization days will take on integer values, with many subjects having no utilization (zero values). Mixed-distribution models, such as the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB), are often used to fit such data. A more general class of mixture models, called hurdle models, can be used to model zero-deflation as well as zero-inflation. Several authors have proposed frequentist approaches to fitting zero-inflated models for repeated measures. We describe a practical Bayesian approach which incorporates prior information, has optimal small-sample properties, and allows for tractable inference. The approach can be easily implemented using standard Bayesian software. A study of psychiatric outpatient service use illustrates the methods. PMID:21339863

  8. Digital encoding of cellular mRNAs enabling precise and absolute gene expression measurement by single-molecule counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Glenn K; Wilhelmy, Julie; Stern, David; Fan, H Christina; Fodor, Stephen P A

    2014-03-18

    We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification.

  9. The effects of gender and birth control pill use on spontaneous blink rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolton, D P; Yolton, R L; López, R; Bogner, B; Stevens, R; Rao, D

    1994-11-01

    Two major reference works suggest that men and women blink spontaneously at different rates, but they disagree with regard to which gender blinks faster. Spontaneous blink rates of 59 males and 86 females, 44 of whom were taking birth control (BC) pills, were measured for 5 consecutive minutes. Schirmer test results and tear break-up times (TBUTs) were also obtained. Females taking BC pills blinked at a mean rate of 19.6 times per minute, females not taking birth control pills blinked 14.9 times per minute, and males blinked 14.5 times per minute. There were very large differences between blink rates for individuals in each of the groups. No strong associations were found between spontaneous blink rates and a history of contact lens use, tear break-up time, Schirmer test results, temperature or humidity in the examination room, subject age, or menstrual cycle phase. The 32 percent increase in mean blink rate for females taking BC pills suggests that the pills affect at least one of the mechanisms that control spontaneous blinking, but it is unclear how they accomplish this.

  10. Platelet function studies in women on oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, R; Mohamed, A B; Hassan, K

    1990-06-01

    A study was conducted on a total of 100 women attending the Family Planning Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. 50 took combined low-dose estrogen and progesterone pills for a year or more and the other 50 used different methods of birth control. Platelet aggregation, ATP release, Thromboxane B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha estimations were made to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on platelet function and prostanoid production. The results showed no significant differences in the parameters measured in the 2 groups investigated. These findings are comparable to those reported by other studies, suggesting relatively low risk, if any, of thrombosis in OC users.

  11. The Pill and Partnerships: The impact of the birth control pill on cohabitation

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on cohabitation behavior of the introduction and dispersion of the birth control pill in the US during the 1960s and early 1970s. A theoretical model generates several predictions that are tested using the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. Empirically, the causal effect is identified by exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in state laws granting access to the pill to unmarried women under age 21. The evidence shows that the pi...

  12. Image Analysis of Fabric Pilling Based on Light Projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 黄秀宝

    2003-01-01

    The objective assessment of fabric pilling based on light projection and image analysis has been exploited recently.The device for capturing the cross-sectional images of the pilled fabrics with light projection is elaborated.The detection of the profile line and integration of the sequential cross-sectional pilled image are discussed.The threshold based on Gaussian model is recommended for pill segmentation.The results show that the installed system is capable of eliminating the interference with pill information from the fabric color and pattern.

  13. Vertex counting as a luminosity measure at ATLAS and determination of the electroweak Zjj production cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00358758

    This thesis presents two analyses of data recorded by the ATLAS detector during proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The first is the implementation of a vertex counting algorithm to measure the luminosity recorded by ATLAS during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=$8 TeV in 2012. This comprises a Monte Carlo closure test for validation of the method and its corrections, the calibration of the method using the van der Meer scans performed in 2012 and the application of the method to physics runs. It also includes tests of the internal and external consistency of the algorithm and the potential to use this algorithm to measure the luminosity of data collected during proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV. \\par The second analysis is the measurement of the inclusive and purely electroweak production of dijets in association with a $Z$ boson, performed using the 3.2 $\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV in 2015. Cross-section ...

  14. A technique for the absolute measurement of the W-value for X-rays in counting gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2000-08-11

    A technique was developed for the absolute measurement of the W-value (the mean energy for the production of an electron-ion pair) for low-energy X-rays in a wide range of gases at atmospheric pressures, with a standard uncertainty better than 1%. This technique is based on the absolute measurement of the primary ionization charge produced by X-ray photons from a constant intensity monoenergetic X-ray source, e.g. a long lifetime radioactive source. The ionization charge is calibrated by the number of X-ray photons absorbed in the gas, counted with a photon detector. For this purpose, a hybrid detector system was tested and its use in W-value measurements was investigated. The technique was applied to pure xenon at 825 Torr with 5.9 keV X-rays and a W-value of 21.61{sub -0.10}{sup +0.14} eV was obtained for a 68% confidence level. The required corrections and the different factors contributing to the accuracy of the results are discussed. The advantages and limitations of this technique are explored and future developments are discussed.

  15. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women.

  16. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I still get pregnant?There is no contraceptive method that is perfect, even when used correctly. Two or 3 out of every 100 women who use the progestin-only pill correctly, could still get pregnant. The risk of pregnancy is almost the same as the ...

  17. Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Scott; Baron, Julianne L; Wagener, Marilyn M; Vidic, Radisav D; Stout, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0.90, p ATP and HPC were much weaker but statistically significant (make-up water: R = 0.37, p = 0.005; cooling tower 1: R = 0.52, p ATP. However, ATP measurements showed higher microbial concentrations than HPC measurements. Following chlorination of the cooling towers, ATP measurements indicated very low bacterial concentrations (1000 CFU/mL) which consisted primarily of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. HPC concentrations have been suggested to be predictive of Legionella presence, although this has not been proven. Our evaluation showed that HPC or ATP demonstrated a fair predictive capacity for Legionella positivity in potable water (HPC: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.70; ATP: ROC = 0.78; p = 0.003). However, HPC or ATP correctly classified sites as positive only 64 and 62% of the time, respectively. No correlation between HPC or ATP and Legionella colonization in non-potable water samples was found (HPC: ROC = 0.28; ATP: ROC = 0.44; p = 0.193).

  18. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  19. Measured count-rate performance of the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in 2D, 3D and partial collimation acquisition modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, L R; Schmitz, R E; Alessio, A M; Wollenweber, S D; Stearns, C W; Ganin, A; Harrison, R L; Lewellen, T K; Kinahan, P E

    2008-07-21

    We measured count rates and scatter fraction on the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in conventional 2D and 3D acquisition modes, and in a partial collimation mode between 2D and 3D. As part of the evaluation of using partial collimation, we estimated global count rates using a scanner model that combined computer simulations with an empirical live-time function. Our measurements followed the NEMA NU2 count rate and scatter-fraction protocol to obtain true, scattered and random coincidence events, from which noise equivalent count (NEC) rates were calculated. The effect of patient size was considered by using 27 cm and 35 cm diameter phantoms, in addition to the standard 20 cm diameter cylindrical count-rate phantom. Using the scanner model, we evaluated two partial collimation cases: removing half of the septa (2.5D) and removing two-thirds of the septa (2.7D). Based on predictions of the model, a 2.7D collimator was constructed. Count rates and scatter fractions were then measured in 2D, 2.7D and 3D. The scanner model predicted relative NEC variation with activity, as confirmed by measurements. The measured 2.7D NEC was equal or greater than 3D NEC for all activity levels in the 27 cm and 35 cm phantoms. In the 20 cm phantom, 3D NEC was somewhat higher ( approximately 15%) than 2.7D NEC at 100 MBq. For all higher activity concentrations, 2.7D NEC was greater and peaked 26% above the 3D peak NEC. The peak NEC in 2.7D mode occurred at approximately 425 MBq, and was 26-50% greater than the peak 3D NEC, depending on object size. NEC in 2D was considerably lower, except at relatively high activity concentrations. Partial collimation shows promise for improved noise equivalent count rates in clinical imaging without altering other detector parameters.

  20. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  1. A beta-alpha coincidence counting system for measurement of trace quantities of 238U and 232Th in aqueous samples at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M.; Doucas, G.; Fergani, H.; Jelley, N. A.; Majerus, S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Perry, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment was built to measure the total flux of 8B solar neutrinos via the neutral current disintegration deuterium nuclei. This process can be mimiced by daughter isotopes of 232Th and 238U which can photodisintegrate the deuterium nucleus. Measurement of the concentration of such radioisotopes in the heavy water was critical to the success of the experiment. A radium assay technique using Hydrous Titanium Oxide coated filters was developed for this purpose and it was used in conjunction with a delayed beta-alpha coincidence counting system. The design, calibration and operation of this counting system are described in this paper. The counting efficiency for 232Th (224Ra) and 238U (226Ra) were measured to be 50 ± 5% and 62 ± 7%

  2. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  3. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  4. Evaluation of Tip Surface Collision Count as a Measure of Fibreoptic Scope Handling Skills: A Randomized, Cross-Over Manikin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari H. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this pilot study, we evaluated tip collisions against three commonly used measures of fibreoptic scope handling skills. Methods. Seventy-seven anaesthetists were recruited to perform a standardized task on an Oxford Box and a modified AirSim manikin. Collision count was correlated against time to scope placement, a global rating scale score, and up-to-date fibreoptic experience. Results. Strong and moderate correlations were found between collision count and task completion time for the Oxford Box (ρ = 0.730, P < 0.0001 and AirSim manikin (ρ = 0.405, P < 0.0001, respectively. Moderate correlation was found between collision count and global rating scale score for the Oxford Box (ρ = −0.545, P < 0.0001 and AirSim manikin (ρ = −0.500, P < 0.0001. Mild and moderate correlations were found between collision count and fibreoptic experience on the Oxford Box (ρ = −0.240, P = 0.041 and AirSim manikin (ρ = −0.423, P < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions. This study infers that collision count may be used as a measure of fibreoptic scope handling skills in simulation training. Using this outcome in addition to other measures of performance may improve accuracy and precision of fibreoptic scope placement.

  5. The misunderstood pill: thirty years of testing and development have reduced pill's major, minor side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Many users of oral contraceptives (OCs) and potential users misunderstand the risks and benefits of OCs. A recent poll in the US revealed that 3 out of 4 women thought the pill carried substantial health risks. Nearly 2/3 of the women surveyed believe using OCs is at least as risky as childbearing. Family Health International (FHI) recently conducted a world survey of perceptions of OCs. It shows that women in many other countries share US womens negative image of the pill. Women believe in pill-related dangers scientists have never even suspected, much less proven, such as an increased risk of stomach cancer. Yet, many women, especially women in developing countries, are unaware of problems such as cardiovascular disease that are related to OC use, and they are ignorant of the proven health benefits of OCs, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer. Despite the persistence of negative perceptions of the pill, research conducted over the past 30 years has shown that the pill is safe for the great majority of women and, in fact, provides significant health benefits for many users. With the contraceptive effectiveness of the pill established through the early tests, drug companies began steadily lowering the hormone dosages. By 1983, more than half of the OCs sold in the US contained less than 0.5 mg estrogen. Many of the combination OCs now sold have only 0.2 to 0.4 mg estrogen. Eventually, pill researchers learned that OCs containing only progestogen, even in comparatively small doses, also could effectively prevent pregnancy, though not as effectively as pills containing estrogen. The first progestogen-only pills received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1973. Continued research on OCs shows that the increased risks of cardiovascular diseases actually were almost entirely confined to specific groups women who were over 35 or who both were over 30 and smoked. For the great majority of women, studies showed, the risk of cardiovascular

  6. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenaël; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel; Brogniez, Colette; Herman, Maurice; Verwaerde, Christian; Balois, Jean-Yves; Ovarlez, Joëlle; Ovarlez, Henri; Crespin, Jacques; Deshler, Terry

    2002-12-20

    The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January-February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one band, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurement of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect ofthe presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.

  7. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  8. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  9. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  10. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  11. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  12. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  13. Happy-People-Pills for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    It is argued that we have a moral duty to create, and make available, advanced pharmacological agents to boost the happiness of those in the normal, i.e., the non-depressed, range of happiness. Happiness, conceived as a propensity to positive moods, is a quantitative trait with a sizeable genetic component. One means to boost the happiness of those in the normal range is to test the efficacy of antidepressants for enhancement. A second possibility is to model new pharmacologicals based on the genetics of the happiest amongst us, that is, the hyperthymic. The suggestion, in other words, is to “reverse engineer” the hyperthymic: to investigate what makes the hyperthymic genetically and physiologically different and then put what they have into pill form. To the ‘Brave New World’ objection, that there is more to wellbeing than happiness and that taking happy-people-pills will require the sacrifice of these other aspects of wellbeing, it is countered that contemporary social science research supports the view that happiness promotes achievement in the ‘higher’ endeavors of humanity, including work, love and virtue. In other words, happiness promotes acquisition of traits valued by perfectionists. Those born with genes for hyperthymia, on average, tend to be doubly blessed: they are happier and achieve more than the rest of the population. Happy-people-pills are a means to allow everyone else to share in this good

  14. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  15. Measuring the Social Recreation Per-Day Net Benefit of the Wildlife Amenities of a National Park: A Count-Data Travel-Cost Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be €194 (range €116 to €448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  16. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  17. Divorce and the birth control pill

    OpenAIRE

    MARCÉN, MIRIAM

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the birth control pill on divorce. To identify its effect, we use a quasi experiment exploiting the differences in the language of the Comstock anti-obscenity statutes approved in the 1800s and early 1900s in the US. Results suggest that banning the sales of oral contraceptive methods has a negative impact on divorce. These findings are robust to alternative specifications and controls for observed (such as female labour force participation, or changes in the e...

  18. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  19. Oral contraceptive use and protective behavior after missed pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Potter, L; de Leon-Wong, E; Visness, C

    1997-01-01

    A three-month prospective study of 103 women initiating oral contraceptive use examined how consistently the women took their pills and whether those who missed pills employed other means to avoid pregnancy. The results showed that 52% took each active pill or never missed more than one pill at a time after the first week of the initial cycle, according to electronic devices that recorded the date and time each pill was removed from the blister pack. Another 21% were protected by behaviors that reduce the risk of pregnancy when two or more consecutive pills have been missed: avoiding coitus for the next seven days (18%) or using backup contraception during that period (3%). The remaining 27% were at increased risk of pregnancy. Predictors of increased risk were receiving low partner support for effective pill use, being unmarried and not considering it especially important to avoid pregnancy. Increased risk was most likely during the first seven days and during the third cycle of pill use.

  20. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  1. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  2. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  3. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T cell count on clinical measures of periodontal disease in HIV+ adults before and during immune reconstitution on HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance T Vernon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD is poorly understood. We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART 0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL ≥ 4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP at ≥ 4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. RESULTS: Forty (40 subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001 and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001; concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001. Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04 and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001. Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027, and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively. Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. CONCLUSION: Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count differentially influences periodontal disease both before and after HAART in HIV-infected adults.

  4. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  5. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  6. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  7. Fast bedside measurement of blood count and C-reactive protein in newborns compared with conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, F; Rongioletti, M; Majolini, M B; Collegiani, V; Vaccarella, C; Notarmuzi, M L; Cortesi, M; Pasqualetti, P; Cicchese, M; Agostino, R; Liumbruno, G M

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal complete blood count (CBC) and high plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with neonatal infections and could be helpful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and to monitor the antibiotic treatment. The aim of this work is to evaluate and compare the performance of a bedside analyzer for blood count and C-reactive protein (CRP) with a conventional analyzer in a neonatal population. 150 capillary or venous blood samples of term and preterm newborns were processed on an ABX-MicrosCRP200 analyzer and on a SysmexXE2100 (conventional hematology analyzer) for CBC, leukocyte differential, reticulocytes, and nucleated red blood cells (NRBC); high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was performed on a ModularPE. The differences between complete blood count and CRP were regressed against their means and assessed by means of intra-class-correlation. The intra-class-correlation for white blood cell (WBC) was 0.98, for hemoglobin 0.97, for hematocrit 0.96, for mean corpuscular volume 0.95, and for platelet 0.98. ABX-MicrosCRP200 overestimated the WBC (+1.27 x 10(3)/microL; p < 0.001), hematocrit (+1.80%; p < 0.001), and platelet (+13.55 x 10(3)/microL; p < 0.001). The intra-class-correlation for CRP was high (0.97), without systematic difference between the two values (p = 0.64). The agreement between the two methods was high for both tests. However, the SD of the difference for WBC and platelet could be clinically important in leukopenic or thrombocytopenic newborns.

  8. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Stason, William B; Davis, Roger B; Legedza, Anna R T; Schnyer, Rosa N; Kerr, Catherine E; Stone, David A; Nam, Bong Hyun; Kirsch, Irving; Goldman, Rose H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial created from the two week placebo run-in periods for two nested trials that compared acupuncture and amitriptyline with their respective placebo controls. Comparison of participants who remained on placebo continued beyond the run-in period to the end of the study. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 270 adults with arm pain due to repetitive use that had lasted at least three months despite treatment and who scored ≥3 on a 10 point pain scale. Interventions Acupuncture with sham device twice a week for six weeks or placebo pill once a day for eight weeks. Main outcomemeasures Arm pain measured on a 10 point pain scale. Secondary outcomes were symptoms measured by the Levine symptom severity scale, function measured by Pransky's upper extremity function scale, and grip strength. Results Pain decreased during the two week placebo run-in period in both the sham device and placebo pill groups, but changes were not different between the groups (-0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.52 to 0.25, P = 0.49). Changes in severity scores for arm symptoms and grip strength were similar between groups, but arm function improved more in the placebo pill group (2.0, 0.06 to 3.92, P = 0.04). Longitudinal regression analyses that followed participants throughout the treatment period showed significantly greater downward slopes per week on the 10 point arm pain scale in the sham device group than in the placebo pill group (-0.33 (-0.40 to -0.26) v -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.09), P = 0.0001) and on the symptom severity scale (-0.07 (-0.09 to -0.05) v -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.03), P = 0.02). Differences were not significant, however, on the function scale or for grip strength. Reported adverse effects were different in the two groups. Conclusions The sham device had greater

  9. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  10. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  11. Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) continue to be the most commonly used form of prescription contraceptives used by adolescents in the United States. With proper use, oral contraceptives provide safe and effective birth control. Broad categories of OCPs include progestin-only pills (POPs) and combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). Certain types of progestins have more potent antiandrogenic properties and are more effective in treating acne, hirsutism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. This article reviews types of OCPs, discusses risks and benefits of OCPs, and provides guidance for how to choose the most beneficial and appropriate OCP for individual adolescent patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  13. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  14. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  15. Effects of Naotan Pill on repair of neural cells and cognitive disorders in juvenile rats following hypoxia and ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang Wei; Huiqing Zhang; Shenglu Lu; Bingrong Dang; Jianping Hong; Qingxiang Gao

    2009-01-01

    following model induction,rats in the Naotan Pill group were administered Naotan Pill suspension for 21 days.In the model and sham operation groups,rats received an equal volume of saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Neural cell morphology was observed using an inverted phase contrast microscope.Survival rate of neural cells was measured by MTT assay.Synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase expression was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of juvenile rats using immunohistochemistry.Cognitive function was tested by the Morris water maze.RESULTS:Pathological changes were detected in glutamate-treated neural cells.Neural cell morphology remained normal after Naotan Pill intervention.Absorbance and survival rate of neural cells were significantly greater following Naotan Pill intervention,compared to glutamate-treated neural cells (P<0.05).Synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase expression was lowest in the hippocampal CA1 region in the model group and highest in the sham operation group.Significant differences among groups were observed (P<0.05).Escape latency and swimming distance were significantly longer in the model group compared to the Naotan Pill group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Naotan Pill exhibited protective and repair effects on glutamate-treated neural cells.Naotan Pill upregulated synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase expression in the hippocampus and improved cognitive function in rats following hypoxia-ischemia.

  16. Assessment and measurement of adherence to oral antineoplastic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Given, Charles W

    2011-05-01

    The increase in oral anticancer medications with complex regimens creates a need to assure that patients are taking therapeutic dosages as prescribed. This article reviews the assessment and measurement of adherence to oral antineoplastic agents. Research and journal articles from CINAHL and PubMed. Assessing and measuring adherence to oral antineoplastics should include three dimensions: the percentage of medications taken, the duration, and the timing of taking the medication. Clinicians need to conduct ongoing assessment and measurement of adherence to oral antineoplastic agents. This includes eliciting patient report of adherence, pill counts, drug diaries, and pharmacy or medical record audits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  18. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  19. Veevillad - hollandlaste väljakutse ja paratamatus / Pille Nagel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nagel, Pille

    2005-01-01

    Arhitekt Pille Nagel veele ehitatud elumajadest Hollandis. Paatmajadest, Veersche Poorti elurajoonist (1999-2004) Middelburgis, "Gewild Wonen" elurajoonist (1999-2001) Eilandenbuurti linnajaos Almeres, kanaliäärsetest linnavilladest Sheepstimmermanstraatil Amsterdamis jm. 9 värv. ill

  20. Ulatuslik näitus Eesti arhitektuurifoto ajaloost / Pille Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Pille

    2003-01-01

    Näitus "Kahemõõtmelised pildid : arhitektuurifoto arengust Eestis 1860. aastatest tänapäevani" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Koostasid Pille Epner Ja Liina Jänes, kujundasid Kristjan Holm ja August Künnapu

  1. in vivo cytogenotoxic and haematotoxic screening of a triherbal pill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is unprecedented increase in the use of medicinal plants as source of ... The tri-herbal pill induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in A. cepa and mice, and ... Keywords: Allium Test, Cytogenotoxicity, Haematology, Herbal Drugs, Mice, ...

  2. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  3. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The p

  4. The Birth Control Pill: Popular Discourse and Personal Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vogels, Shannon Claire

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of the birth control pill from contraceptive technology to a lifestyle drug over the past fifty years. Drawing from biomedicalization theory, I suggest that contraception is one of many areas of life that have become subject to medical intervention, and use the pill to illustrate how contemporary health is characterized by a shifting landscape of privatization and commodification, new sources of information and knowledge, and an emphasis on optimization of t...

  5. A proposed three-phase counting system for the in vivo measurement of the major elements using pulsed 14 MeV neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S; Sutcliffe, J F; Hill, G L

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to employ a pulsed source of 14 MeV neutrons for in vivo activation analysis. This would permit the differentiation, with time, of the resulting gamma ray emission into three separate spectra, according to the type of nuclear reaction and mode of decay. The three-phase counting has been divided into approximately 10 microseconds during "beam-on," and 200 and 800 microseconds during "beam-off." Measurements of the major elements, C, N, O, Cl, and P, to give nutritionally-important body compartments of total body fat, protein, water, minerals, and extracellular water, thus is expected with a single scan.

  6. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...

  7. An automated and highly efficient method for counting and measuring fluorescent foci in rod-shaped bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2010-01-01

    P>Direct measurements of cells from photo micrographs are becoming increasingly used when investigating the position and/or distribution of chromosomal loci in bacteria. In general, these measurements have been done manually, and without clear definition of how they are made. Here we present...... a procedure for standardizing the measurement of cell properties from phase contrast images. Furthermore, we present a program using these standardized methods that can measure the intracellular positions of fluorescent foci in bacterial cells faster and with more precision than manual measurement....

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  9. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahila Iftikhar, Bahaa Abdulrahman Aba Al Khail Family and Community Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software.Results: A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002 and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001. Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2. Monthly incomes (P=0.2 and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2 were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores.Conclusion: Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. Keywords: oral contraception, oral contraceptive, Saudi Arabia, OCP

  10. Pile-up corrections for high-precision superallowed {beta} decay half-life measurements via {gamma}-ray photopeak counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyer, G.F. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: ggrinyer@physics.uoguelph.ca; Svensson, C.E.; Andreoiu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Andreyev, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, St. Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bandyopadhyay, D. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chakrawarthy, R.S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Finlay, P. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hyland, B. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0430 (United States); Leach, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leslie, J.R. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morton, A.C.; Pearson, C.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sarazin, F. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Schumaker, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)] (and others)

    2007-09-11

    A general technique that corrects {gamma}-ray gated {beta} decay-curve data for detector pulse pile-up is presented. The method includes corrections for non-zero time-resolution and energy-threshold effects in addition to a special treatment of saturating events due to cosmic rays. This technique is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data using radioactive beams of {sup 26}Na implanted at the center of the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Na obtained from counting 1809-keV {gamma}-ray photopeaks emitted by the daughter {sup 26}Mg was determined to be T{sub 1/2}=1.07167{+-}0.00055s following a 27{sigma} correction for detector pulse pile-up. This result is in excellent agreement with the result of a previous measurement that employed direct {beta} counting and demonstrates the feasibility of high-precision {beta}-decay half-life measurements through the use of high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detectors. The technique presented here, while motivated by superallowed-Fermi {beta} decay studies, is general and can be used for all half-life determinations (e.g. {alpha}-, {beta}-, X-ray, fission) in which a {gamma}-ray photopeak is used to select the decays of a particular isotope.

  11. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR. As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases, 9% (2 cases and 32% (7 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases versus 10% (2 cases, respectively (P < 0.05. Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively. In conclusion, diffuse

  12. [Identification of yougui and jisheng shenqi pills with FTIR and EDS fingerprint spectra by new visual comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Shuang; Zou, Hua-Bin; Tian, Fang; Du, Ai-Qin; Dong, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Xin-Ling

    2011-09-01

    FTIR combined with EDS fingerprint spectra was first applied to the identification of two kind of traditional Chinese compound formulae-Yougui pill and Jisheng shenqi pills, which have the similar composition The IR FPS of extraction of two kinds of pills extracted with chloroform were measured by liquid membrane method. The exclusively characteristic peak groups of these two kinds of formulae were theoretically established based on the Shapiro-Wilk W testing method,and the characteristic radicals and compound species corresponding to each characteristic peak were determined. Meanwhile, EDS fingerprint spectra of the two kinds of original powders were also measured which can reflect the element species and content information. Based on the three kinds of information (characteristic peak groups, radicals and compound species, different elements), Yougui and Jisheng shenqi pills were identified quickly, precisely and reliably. In this method, infrared fingerprint spectra possess the similar ability with chromatograph fingerprint spectra in identification of traditional Chinese compound formulae. The results show that the new visual comparison method is suitable for identifying traditional Chinese compound formulae with the same dosage-form and similar composition.

  13. Biomass burning impact on PM 2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Weber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  14. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the

  15. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE BEHAVIOUR OF FABRICS USED FOR ANTIMIS PRODUCTION TO PILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRILĂ Mihai Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study about the behaviour of plain textiles used for the production of antimis (Christian-orthodox liturgical item used in the liturgy to pilling explores the functional classification of different types of antimis as a textile product made out the following different types of fabrics: natural silk, flax, viscose, polyamide 6.6. Pilling is a phenomenon which consists of the formation of small balls made out of fibre congeries on the textile’s surface due to attrition and fatigue. For textiles used as liturgical items, the process of pilling formation includes the following stages: the emergence of the pilling surfaces (the formation of fuzzy, fibre tangle (appearance of small balls, and the detachment of small balls from the fabric’s surface. The analysis method of pilling for liturgical items made out the four types of fabrics mentioned above consists of stereoscopic microscopy techniques and electronic microscopy methods (SEM. The images of textiles samples (yarns and fabrics will be captured using a video microscope. Quantitative tests have been done to determine the metric number and the tex title of the above-mentioned fabrics. The increased resistance of silk to pilling compared to nylon, flax, and viscose can be attributed to the chemical properties of fibres and structural characteristics of silk fabric. The structural compactness of the same fiber mixture of natural silk fabric with bonded fabric will have a higher resistance coefficient to pilling compared to the other mentioned fabrics. Through this, the value of use and durability of the antimis will increase.

  17. Comparing Social Network Analysis of Posts with Counting of Posts as a Measurement of Learners' Participation in Facebook Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Woo

    2016-01-01

    With the currently growing interest in social network services, many college courses use social network services as platforms for discussions, and a number of studies have been conducted on the use of social network analysis to measure students' participation in online discussions. This study aims to demonstrate the difference between counting…

  18. The post-coital pills as over the counter drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbir Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-coital pill or emergency contraceptives are birth control measures that, if taken after sexual intercourse, may prevent pregnancy. High dose of postcoital contraceptives like diethylstilbestrol & other estrogens were being used for some time without any approval by FDA. Task force on postovulatory methods of fertility regulations 1998, conducted clinical trials leading to approval of two preparations for postcoital contraception by FDA namely levonorgestrel 0.75mg & combination of 0.25 levonorgestrel & 0.05 mg of ethinyl estradiol. Levonorgestrel is more popular in India because it is more effective & has fewer side effects. The first dose of levonorgestrel 0.75mg should be taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse followed by a second dose after 12 hours. This treatment reduces the risk of pregnancy by approximately 75%. Oral levonorgestrel acts as an emergency contraceptive principally by preventing ovulation or fertilization by altering tubal transport of sperm and/or ova. In addition, it may inhibit implantation by altering the endometrium. It is not effective once the process of implantation has begun. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 227-228

  19. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  20. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K., E-mail: katerina_bas@abv.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Lagunov, O. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimov, K. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-06-15

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  1. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Mi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.

  2. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  3. 用小波变换法自动测量机织物经纬密度%Automatic Measurement of Weave Count with Wavelet Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯毅力; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    研究用小波变换方法对机织物图像处理,实现织物经纬密度的自动测量。提出了确定小波分解层次的方法、对分解图像进行二值化和平滑处理的方法。实验证明用coiflets小波处理织物图像是有效的。%This paper studies the application of the wavelet transfer technique to the weave image treatment for automatic measurement of the thread count of the fabric. The ways of ascertaining the wavelet dimension and binary image convention are discussed. It is convinced that to transfer the weave image with coiflets wavelet answer the purpose well is successful

  4. First detective quantum efficiency measurement of 500 {mu}m silicon hybrid pixel sensor with photon counting readout for X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surre, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. E-mail: Benjamin.surre@u-clermontl.fr; Caria, Mario [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaput, Julien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hassoun, Thierry [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laverroux, Fabien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Sarry, Laurent [Equipe de Recherche en Signal et Imagerie Medicale, EA3295, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-07-01

    We report the performances of a 500 {mu}m pixellated silicon sensor bonded to the photon counting chip Medipix2 [1]. In order to perform an absolute characterization of our detector, we measured both the pre-sampling MTF and NPS with respect to the International standard IEC-62220-1. From those data we have been able to extract the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and hence to assess the suitability of our detector for X-ray medical imaging purpose. Due to poor absorption of the Si at 70 kV the DQE peaked at 0.06 for null frequency. Nevertheless, these results are very promising since thicker Si or more absorbing material such as GaAs will soon be available.

  5. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils;

    2009-01-01

    of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population...... that a population of L. monocytogenes cells, whether planktonic or attached, is homogenous with respect to sensitivity to an acidic disinfectant studied on the single-cell level. Hence a major subpopulation more tolerant to disinfectants, and hence more persistent, does not appear to be present....

  6. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  7. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  8. [Adequacy of contraceptive pill use among women in union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E E; de Moraes, T M; Faúndes, A; Vera, S; Pinotti, J A

    1991-04-01

    A total of 2,364 women in marital union, 15 to 49 years of age, were interviewed at home. They lived in poor neighbourhoods in the metropolitan area and in the interior of S. Paulo State, Brazil. The prevalence of contraceptive pill use and the association between socio-demographic characteristics of users and the presence or not of risk factors for pill use were studied. One fourth (25.8 percent) of the women interviewed were using contraceptive pills. Prevalence was higher among younger women, those with no more than one live child and those who had completed between three and eight grades of schooling. Over 40 percent of the users referred having risk factors for pill use at the time they initiated the method. No association was found between age and the percentage of women with risk factors. This percentage increased with number of children and decreased with women's schooling. The fact that pills were prescribed or obtained through the health system was not associated with the proportion of users with risk factors. The percentage of users with risk factors was similar when comparing women who did not consult any health service before initiating use with those who had consulted a public service. The prevalence of use observed in this study is similar to that described by other authors. Results show that the health system in the State of S. Paulo played no role in the improvement in the prescription of hormonal contraceptive pills. Central policy seemed not to have filtered down to the peripheral areas of the system.

  9. Frequency and severity of premenstrual symptoms in women taking birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, V J; Cumming, C E; Fox, E E; Cumming, D C

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective study of a wide range of premenstrual symptomatology using the Premenstrual Assessment Form found little difference between women taking a low-dose birth control pill and non-pill-takers. These data are in keeping with older, but narrower, studies of women taking high-dose pills and raise questions about mechanisms of symptomatic and subclinical premenstrual changes.

  10. Berlex introduces new 20 mcg birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Another low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), Levlite, has received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Levlite, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, contains 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 100 mcg levonorgestrel. Alesse, an OC manufactured by Wyeth-Ayerst, has the same components. Two other OCs--Loestrin and Mircette--contain 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol, but differ in their progestin component or dose. A pill containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol provides women with 33% less estrogen than a 30-mcg pill. Clinical trials involving 755 US women confirmed that Levlite provides high contraceptive efficacy with good cycle control. Headache, reported by 17.3% of study participants, was the most common side effect.

  11. MONTE CARLO CALIBRATION OF THE WHOLE-BODY COUNTING DETECTION SYSTEM FOR IN VIVO MEASUREMENT OF PEOPLE INTERNALLY CONTAMINATED WITH 90SR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinova, Karin; Fojtik, Pavel; Malatova, Irena

    2017-04-01

    This work is focused on numerical calibrations of the body counter for in vivo measurement of pure beta emitters through the produced bremsstrahlung radiation. Calibrations were performed using the UPh-02T block whole-body phantom and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) realistic torso phantom. Neither of these physical phantoms is appropriate for such calibrations; therefore, specific 90Sr sources have been manufactured to be used with the UPh-02T phantom for experimental measurement followed with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Calibrations with the LLNL torso phantom were carried out solely using MC technique. Different scenarios of the 90Sr distribution in the human tissues were considered for the spectrometer calibrations. MC simulations with the LLNL confirmed the applicability of the UPh-02T with specific 90Sr/90Y sources for experimental calibrations of the body counters for measurement of pure beta emitters. Differences in count rates in 50-200 keV for UPh-02T and LLNL were not >25% for all considered scenarios. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed....... This property distinguishes this new-generation oestrogen-free pill from traditional POPs by allowing the same "safety window" or flexibility in intake as combined oral contraceptives without compromising contraceptive reliability. IMPLICATIONS: Delayed or forgotten pill intake is very common. Ovulation...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  14. Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC Drugs: Time to Take a Bitter Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Mani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Substandard, Spurious, Falsely-Labelled, Falsified and Counterfeit (SSFFC drugs are an emerging public health concern in India. With one of the huge pharmaceutical sectors in the world, India has a varied prevalence of SSSFC drugs ranging from 0.04% to 34% according to various studies. Apart from severe health consequences, SSSFC drugs also weaken community's trust in the health care system. India is tackling the epidemic of SSSFC drugs through various existing and new regulatory measures. Considering the calamitous consequences of this silent epidemic, it is time to prescribe a bitter pill.

  15. Prognostic value of single measurements of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin A in HIV disease after controlling for CD4 lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV RNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Lepri, A Cozzi; Katzenstein, T L

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationships between the CD4 lymphocyte count, plasma viral load [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA], beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-M) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the mortality risk was explored in 234 HIV-infected individuals (median CD4 count 230 cells/mm3, range 1-1,247). Produ...

  16. Extra-galactic background light measurements from the far-UV to the far-IR from deep ground and space-based galaxy counts

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P; Davies, Luke J; Robotham, Aaron S G; Wright, Angus H; Windhorst, Rogier A; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from GAMA, COSMOS/G10, HST ERS, HST UVUDF and various near-, mid- and far- IR datasets from ESO, Spitzer and Herschel. The combined data range from the far-UV (0.15microns) to far-IR (500microns), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated-IGL in all bands. We argue undetected low surface brightness galaxies and intra-cluster/group light is modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extra-galactic background light. Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far-IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC), suggest that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the ad...

  17. The influence of sample volume applied to the Makler sperm counting chamber upon the measured concentration of latex beads:A multi-centre study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie Walls; Cherise Mooy; Patrick Mohan; Sally Catt; Matthew Wiltshire; Hassan W Bakos; Mary Whyte; Phillip Matson; Emily Zuvela; Cheryl Ayres; Deborah Sherrin; Asma Chhotani; Liz Butler; Kelli Peirce; Jenny Krapez; Renae Parker

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To undertake a multi-centre study to maximize the number ofMakler chambers used.Methods:A total of15 laboratories participated with31Makler chambers.A suspension of latex beads was prepared to a concentration of20 millions per milliliter, and0.5 mL aliquots distributed to each participating laboratory.They measured the concentration on theirMakler chamber(s) used for routine semen analysis by adding3,4,5,7 and10µL volumes of bead suspension to the chamber.Results:There was no difference in within-chamber analysis of the bead concentration according to the volume of bead suspension applied within the range of 3-10µL(F4,14=2.634,P=0.056).However, the between-chamber effects were significantly different (F30,124=4.937,P=0.000), and24/31(77.5%) chambers tested had an average bias>10% compared to the target bead concentration.Conclusions:A volume of3-10µL added toMakler counting chambers does not influence the concentration measured of latex beads, but the between-chamber variability and positive bias seen would suggest that other sources of error are present which are yet to be identified.

  18. Pharmaceutical effect of contraceptive pills on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldes, E G

    1988-07-01

    Described are the various effects of birth control methods on the skin-mainly those of the contraceptive pill. The equilibrium of healthy skins and mucosa might be affected by these chemicals or pharmaceutical agents, causing different manifestations. The skin and mucosa should be looked upon as integral parts of the human body and its functions even where localized symptoms arise.

  19. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  20. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  1. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  2. A METABOLIC STUDY ON CHINESE NO. 1 CONTRACEPTIVE PILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJun-Kang; SONGSi; YANGPei-Juan; HEMei-Li; LILa-Mei; GUIYou-Lun; FotherbyK

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study of Chinese No. I pill (ethinyl estradio] 35 ,μg/ norethisterone 600 ,μg) taken for six months was carried out in 20 healthy women. Blood samples for various analyses were taken in pretreatment cycle, during the first and sixth treatment cycle and three

  3. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  4. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  5. The effect of the oral contraceptive pill on the passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C I; Spencer, J; Hussain, A W; Onambele, G L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of sustained monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP) use on the in vivo passive stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle-tendon unit. Twenty four females volunteered for this study (age range 20-25 yrs); twelve participants had been taking the combined MOCP for a minimum of 12 months, and twelve participants, who had never taken the MOCP, formed a control group. Distal displacement of the GM myotendinous junction (MTJ) was measured during passive dorsiflexion at 2 Nm increments to 20 Nm, and at end range of motion using ultrasonography. In addition, GM MTJ displacement was measured at passive torques equivalent to 5, 10 and 15% of plantarflexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and relative to GM length. MOCP users had significantly greater GM MTJ displacement at all passive torques (PMTJ displacement, passive muscle stiffness is less in MOCP using females, compared to non-pill users.

  6. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  7. Counting losses due to saturation effects of scintillation counters at high count rates

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    1999-01-01

    The counting statistics of a scintillation counter, with a preamplifier saturated by an overloading input, are investigated. First, the formulae for the variance and the mean number of counts, accumulated within a given gating time, are derived by considering counting-loss effects originating from the saturation and a finite resolving time of the electronic circuit. Numerical examples based on the formulae indicate that the saturation makes a positive contribution to the variance-to-mean ratio and that the contribution increases with count rate. Next the ratios are measured under high count rates when the preamplifier saturation can be observed. By fitting the present formula to the measured data, the counting-loss parameters can be evaluated. Corrections based on the parameters are made for various count rates measured in a nuclear reactor. As a result of the corrections, the linearity between count rate and reactor power can be restored.

  8. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  9. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  10. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf eBrand; Helen Maria Koch

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical, non-addictive use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors in...

  11. Time-resolved non-contact fluorescence diffuse optical tomography measurements with ultra-fast time-correlated single photon counting avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Robichaud, Vincent; Lapointe, Éric

    2007-07-01

    The design and fabrication of time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and associated quenching circuits have made significant progresses in recent years. APDs with temporal resolutions comparable to microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs) are now available. MCP-PMTs were until these progresses the best TCSPC detectors with timing resolutions down to 30ps. APDs can now achieve these resolutions at a fraction of the cost. Work is under way to make the manufacturing of TCSPC APDs compatible with standard electronics fabrication practices. This should allow to further reduce their cost and render them easier to integrate in complex multi-channel TCSPC electronics, as needed in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) systems. Even if their sensitive area is much smaller than that of the ubiquitous PMT used in TCSPC, we show that with appropriate selection of optical components, TCSPC APDs can be used in time-domain DOT. To support this, we present experimental data and calculations clearly demonstrating that comparable measurements can be obtained with APDs and PMTs. We are, to our knowledge, the first group using APDs in TD DOT, in particular in non-contact TD fluorescence DOT.

  12. Some Suggestions and Measures for Computerized Ac- counting Teaching Reform%关于会计电算化课程教学改革的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦晓岚

    2014-01-01

    会计电算化是以培养具备扎实会计理论和会计电算化操作技术的应用型人才为教学目标的实践性学科。本文针对目前会计电算化课程中存在的课程结构设置不合理、教学模式落后、教学内容单调、讲师综合素质等方面问题进行分析,并提出了会计电算化课程教学改革的相关思考。%Accounting computerization is a practical discipline with the teaching goal of cultivating applied talents with solid ac-counting theory and accounting computerization operation tech-nology. This paper analyzed the problems of this course in cur-riculum structure setting, teaching model, teaching content and instructors' comprehensive quality, and then put forward some suggestions and measures for computerized accounting teaching reform.

  13. Measurements of Ultra-Fast single photon counting chip with energy window and 75 μm pixel pitch with Si and CdTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Kasinski, K.; Koziol, A.; Krzyzanowska, A.; Kmon, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Single photon counting pixel detectors become increasingly popular in various 2-D X-ray imaging techniques and scientific experiments mainly in solid state physics, material science and medicine. This paper presents architecture and measurement results of the UFXC32k chip designed in a CMOS 130 nm process. The chip consists of about 50 million transistors and has an area of 9.64 mm × 20.15 mm. The core of the IC is a matrix of 128 × 256 pixels of 75 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a CSA, a shaper with tunable gain, two discriminators with correction circuits and two 14-bit ripple counters operating in a normal mode (with energy window), a long counter mode (one 28-bit counter) and a zero-dead time mode. Gain and noise performance were verified with X-ray radiation and with the chip connected to Si (320 μm thick) and CdTe (750 μ m thick) sensors.

  14. Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kong

    Full Text Available Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol, sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for "placebo responders." However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non

  15. Are All Placebo Effects Equal? Placebo Pills, Sham Acupuncture, Cue Conditioning and Their Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Cook, Amanda; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2013-01-01

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for “placebo responders.” However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of

  16. The use of computed neutron coincidence counting with time interval analysis for the analysis of Fork-measurements on a fresh MOX-LWR fuel assembly under water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Carchon, R

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different important parameters on measurement results for various fork-detectors. Computed Neutron Coincidence Counting (CNCC) with Time Interval Analysis (TIA) was used for this study. The performance of the electronics for the different fork-detectors was studied by investigating the deadtime perturbed zone of the Rossi-alpha distribution in TIA. The measurement revealed anomalies in the performance of the electronics of the IAEA BWR and LANL fork-detector. The IAEA PWR fork-detector functioned well and the deadtime parameter was calculated. The optimal setting for the pre delay was investigated and it was found that a pre delay of 10 micro seconds should be considered as an optimum between excluding from analysis data in the deadtime perturbed zone and keeping a high signal-to-noise ratio. For the shift register electronics used with the fork-detectors, a pre delay of only 4.5 micro seconds was used. The study of the pre delay and the deadtime showed that the calculated triples-rate is strongly dependent on these parameters. An accurate determination of the triple-rate in this type of measurements has proven to be quite difficult and requires proper operation of the electronics, a correct pre delay and an accurate deadtime correction formalism. By varying the boron concentration in water, the change of the decay time of the Rossi-alpha distribution was clearly observed. This change is due to the variation of the thermal multiplication. The variation of this decay time with the boron concentration proves that Boehnel's model for fast neutron multiplication is not valid under these measurement conditions and that a model for fast and thermal multiplication should be used in order to obtain unbiased measurement results. CNCC with TIA has proved to be a valuable tool in which parameter settings can be varied a posterori and the optimal setting can be determined for each measurement. Moreover, the

  17. Validity of Garmin Vívofit and Polar Loop for measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Šimůnek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wrist activity trackers (WATs are becoming popular and widely used for the monitoring of physical activity. However, the validity of many WATs in measuring steps remains unknown. Objective: To determine the validity of the following WATs: Garmin Vívofit (Vívofit and Polar Loop (Loop, by comparing them with well-validated devices, Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 pedometer (Yamax and hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (ActiGraph, in healthy adults. Methods: In free-living conditions, adult volunteers (N = 20 aged 25 to 52 years wore two WATs (Vívofit and Loop with Yamax and ActiGraph simultaneously over a 7 day period. The validity of Vívofit and Loop was assessed by comparing each device with the Yamax and ActiGraph, using a paired samples t-test, mean absolute percentage errors, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The differences between average steps per day were significant for all devices, except the difference between Vívofit and Yamax (p = .06; d = 0.2. Compared with Yamax and ActiGraph, the mean absolute percentage errors of Vívofit were -4.0% and 12.5%, respectively. For Loop the mean absolute percentage error was 8.9% compared with Yamax and 28.0% compared with ActiGraph. Vívofit showed a very strong correlation with both Yamax and ActiGraph (ICC = .89. Loop showed a very strong correlation with Yamax (ICC = .89 and a strong correlation with ActiGraph (ICC = .70. Conclusions: Vívofit showed higher validity than Loop in measuring daily step counts in free-living conditions. Loop appears to overestimate the daily number of steps in individuals who take more steps during a day.

  18. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  19. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J; Chu, Edward R; Wang, Michelle Y; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements.

  20. Pioneering Studies of the “Morning-After” Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjappu, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Yale School of Medicine produced the first proof-of-concept study on the viability of a “morning-after” pill for human use. This study was a result of a fruitful collaboration between a pair of Yale scientists, Drs. John M. Morris and Gertrude van Wagenen, who sought a non-abortion, post-coital contraceptive. They tested a variety of hormones, hormone-based synthetic drugs, and other compounds in monkeys in an effort to uncover a compound that was non-toxic but highly effective. Unfortunately, although they were unable to identify such a drug, their initial studies inspired other scientists to further pursue the concept of a “morning-after” pill, leading to the development of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved emergency contraceptives. PMID:21698041

  1. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  2. Randomized and Controlled Clinical Study of Modified Prescriptions of Simiao Pill(四妙丸) in the Treatment of Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xin-de; LI Guo-chun; QIAN Zu-xi; JIN Ze-qiu; SONG Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the compatibility of a modified prescription of Simiao Pill (四妙丸) in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug through a clinical trial. Methods: A randomized and controlled clinical trial was designed based on clinical epidemiological principles, A total of 107 patients with acute gouty arthritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (Group Ⅰ) included 27 patients taking gout prescription Ⅰ ; the second group (Group Ⅱ) included 27 patients taking gout prescription Ⅱ ; the third group (Group Ⅲ) included 28 patients taking gout prescription Ⅲ; and the fourth group (control group) included 25 patients taking indomethacin and Benzobromarone as a control group. The duration of the treatment in all 4 groups was two weeks. After the treatment, the index of blood uric acid, blood leukocyte count, score of clinical symptoms, etc. were observed and measured. Results: The total clinical effective rate of the three different modified prescriptions of the Simiao Pill was above 96%,significantly superior to that of the control group (68%, P<0.05). In terms of the improvement of main symptoms, the scores of four symptoms in all TCM treatment and control groups decreased after treatment, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Moreover, the scores markedly fell more so in the three Chinese herb groups than in the control group, and especially in Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood uric acid values before and after the treatment in the same group but no significant inter-group difference was seen. Conclusion: The modified prescriptions, based on the clinical research, clinical experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, did show a better effect than Western medicine in this clinical study. Moreover, the prescriptions were precise, with the herbs inexpensive and readily available. The

  3. [Psychodiagnostic findings in anorexia nervosa and post-pill amenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehle, G; Wahlstab, A; Ott, J

    1982-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa is originated from disturbances at various points of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. 65 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa or post-pill-amenorrhea were classified by cluster-analysis with 174 marks of the social, psychodynamic and biological levels. The different psychodiagnostic characteristics (470-F-Test, Hamilton-Depression-Scale, Beck-Depression-Scale, Giessen-test) are discussed according to the 3 clusters.

  4. The aftermath of a pill scare: regression to reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W O

    1999-01-01

    In October 1995, following confidential exchanges of findings among investigators in several epidemiological studies, the UK Medicines Control Agency sent a 'Dear Doctor' letter to all clinical practitioners in the country. The letter alerted them to the possibility of an excess risk of venous thromboembolism among women taking combined oral contraceptives (OC) with the 'newer' progestins, notably desogestrel and gestodene. The communication provoked a major pill scare, not just in the United Kingdom but in other countries. The preliminary and unpublished findings from the four initial 1995-96 studies reported odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.5 to 23 in the point estimates. These are very low relative risks but were communicated in a way that the public perceived as a 'doubling of the risks'. In the 3 years since the pill scare, additional research has been done. First, deliberate and careful analysis of some of the studies and replication of others have shown that the epidemiological investigations were affected by unavoidable systematic error. Three types of bias were demonstrated empirically, namely, prescription bias, referral bias and healthy user effect or attrition of susceptibles. All those biases would tend to drive OR spuriously upwards. Additional epidemiological studies have progressively shown lower ORs, some of them under the threshold of 1.0, i.e. 'no association'. Two major consensus assessments, one carried out by a World Health Organization Scientific Group and another undertaken by the International Federation of Fertility Societies, both attach little importance to differences between older (second generation) combined OC and newer ones (third generation). This paper is a synthesis of all published evidence since October 1995, at the time of the pill scare and in the 3 years since. In conclusion, all combined oral contraceptive pills are equally safe.

  5. Putting teenagers on the pill: The consequences of subsidized contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the consequences of a series of Swedish policy changes beginning in 1989 where different regions started subsidizing the birth control pill. The reforms were significant and applied to all types of oral contraceptives. My identification strategy takes advantage of the fact that the reforms were implemented successively over time and targeted specific cohorts of young women, in particular teenagers. This generates plausibly exogenous variation in access to the subsidy. ...

  6. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  7. Optimization of sampling and counting times for gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of short-lived gamma-ray emitters in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korun, M

    2008-01-01

    A method to determine the optimal sampling and counting regimes for water monitoring is presented. It is assumed that samples are collected at a constant rate. The collection time is followed by a sample preparation time that is proportional to the sample quantity collected, and then by the counting time. In the optimal regime these times are chosen in such a way that the minimum detectable concentration is the lowest. Two cases are presented: the case when the background originates from the spectrometer background, which is constant in time and independent of the sample properties, and the case when the background originates from the radioactivity present in the sample.

  8. Using caffeine pills for performance enhancement. An experimental study on university students’ willingness and their intention to try neuroenhancements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eBrand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical, non-addictive use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience, especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%, low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5% or control condition (no information about peer prevalence. Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40 45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  9. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  10. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  11. Zuogui pills for myelinolysis in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongping Fan; Kelong Chen; Kangning Li; Jianping Zhou; Yan Shao; Hongyan Liu; Wenjing Yang

    2011-01-01

    Zuogui pills have been shown to attenuate the inflammatory reaction in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The present study attempted to investigate the pathology underlying the influence of Zuogui pills on myelinolysis in EAE rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining showed that the myelinolysis foci in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and the spinal cord of EAE rats were significantly decreased, along with serum myelin basic protein content following treatment with Zuogui pills.

  12. Knowledge and attitude towards the use of emergency contraceptive pills among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash R. Shelat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is applied to prevent pregnancy after 72-120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraceptive (EC pill is used to reduce unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion. EC pill is available as OTC in India since 2005. As EC pill highly used among adolescents we carried out to this study among college students. Methods: The study was conducted among female college students. A pre-validated questionnaire was used as tool for the study. It contains consent form and questions knowledge and attitude regarding EC pill. Results: We divided students into group A (medical, paramedical and pharmacy colleges and group B (nonmedical colleges like science, arts and engineering. In group A 470 and group B 280 students were participated. Knowledge about appropriate time of taking EC pill (within 72 hours after sexual intercourse was 44% in group A which is significant than 15% in group B. Knowledge about brand name, availability cost and side effects were more in group A than group B. Electronic media was the most common source of information mentioned by both the groups. Attitude regarding advice to use of EC pill to other was more in group A than group B. Conclusions: Knowledge about use of EC pill was higher in group A than group B. Attitude was not positive regarding availability of EC pill as OTC. So education about EC pill among young population is necessary. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 77-84

  13. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  14. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  15. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  16. Development of an algorithm for analysing the electronic measurement of medication adherence in routine HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzinger, Aurélie; Cavassini, Matthias; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie Paule

    2016-10-01

    Background Medication adherence is crucial for successful treatment. Various methods exist for measuring adherence, including electronic drug monitoring, pharmacy refills, pill count, and interviews. These methods are not equivalent, and no method can be considered as the gold standard. A combination of methods is therefore recommended. Objective To develop an algorithm for the management of routinely collected adherence data and to compare persistence and implementation curves using post-algorithm data (reconciled data) versus raw electronic drug monitoring data. Setting A community pharmacy located within a university medical outpatient clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods The algorithm was developed to take advantage of the strengths of each available adherence measurement method, with electronic drug monitoring as a cornerstone to capture the dynamics of patient behaviour, pill count as a complementary objective method to detect any discrepancy between the number of openings measured by electronic monitoring and the number of pills ingested per opening, and annotated interviews to interpret the discrepancy. The algorithm was tested using data from patients taking lopinavir/r and having participated in an adherence-enhancing programme for more than 3 months. Main outcome measure Adherence was calculated as the percentage of persistent patients (persistence) and the proportion of days with correct dosing over time (implementation) from inclusion to the end of the median follow-up period. Results A 10-step algorithm was established. Among 2041 analysed inter-visit periods, 496 (24 %) were classified as inaccurate, among which 372 (75 %) could be reconciled. The average implementation values were 85 % (raw data) and 91 % (reconciled data) (p setting of a medication adherence clinic. Electronic drug monitoring underestimates medication adherence, affecting subsequent analysis of routinely collected adherence data. To ensure a set of reliable electronic

  17. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  18. THE IDENTIFICATION OF PILL USING FEATURE EXTRACTION IN IMAGE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hema

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the help of image mining techniques, an automatic pill identification system was investigated in this study for matching the images of the pills based on its several features like imprint, color, size and shape. Image mining is an inter-disciplinary task requiring expertise from various fields such as computer vision, image retrieval, image matching and pattern recognition. Image mining is the method in which the unusual patterns are detected so that both hidden and useful data images can only be stored in large database. It involves two different approaches for image matching. This research presents a drug identification, registration, detection and matching, Text, color and shape extraction of the image with image mining concept to identify the legal and illegal pills with more accuracy. Initially, the preprocessing process is carried out using novel interpolation algorithm. The main aim of this interpolation algorithm is to reduce the artifacts, blurring and jagged edges introduced during up-sampling. Then the registration process is proposed with two modules they are, feature extraction and corner detection. In feature extraction the noisy high frequency edges are discarded and relevant high frequency edges are selected. The corner detection approach detects the high frequency pixels in the intersection points. Through the overall performance gets improved. There is a need of segregate the dataset into groups based on the query image’s size, shape, color, text, etc. That process of segregating required information is called as feature extraction. The feature extraction is done using Geometrical Gradient feature transformation. Finally, color and shape feature extraction were performed using color histogram and geometrical gradient vector. Simulation results shows that the proposed techniques provide accurate retrieval results both in terms of time and accuracy when compared to conventional approaches.

  19. Oral contraceptive pills: considerations for the adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, P F; Daley, A M

    2000-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most commonly prescribed method of birth control for adolescents. This article presents an overview of OCP pharmacology and summarizes the different types of OCPs. The initial patient evaluation and subsequent care are described, with a focus on management plans specific to adolescents. Emergency contraception, an alternative use of OCPs, is described as well. A thorough knowledge of OCPs and an appreciation of adolescent-specific management plans will enhance nurse practitioners' skills in preventing pregnancy in their adolescent patients.

  20. Pioneering Studies of the “Morning-After” Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Kunjappu, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Yale School of Medicine produced the first proof-of-concept study on the viability of a “morning-after” pill for human use. This study was a result of a fruitful collaboration between a pair of Yale scientists, Drs. John M. Morris and Gertrude van Wagenen, who sought a non-abortion, post-coital contraceptive. They tested a variety of hormones, hormone-based synthetic drugs, and other compounds in monkeys in an effort to uncover a compound that was non-toxic but highly effective. Unfortunately...

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the Oral Contraceptive Pill and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N Allan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our current knowledge of the role of the oral contraceptive pill in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBO, followed by a review of fertility in women and men. IBD and pregnancy, including the impact on the fetus and the mother with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, is considered. The safety of drug treatment during pregnancy, the outcome of surgical treatment during pregnancy and the problems that may be encountered during pregnancy in patients with an ileostomy or ileo-anal pouch are discussed, followed by a review of the short and long term prognosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease partition.

  2. Toward a Constitutional Review of the Poison Pill

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Jackson, Robert J. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the state-law rules governing poison pills are vulnerable to challenges based on preemption by the Williams Act. Such challenges, we show, could well have a major impact on the corporate-law landscape. The Williams Act established a federal regime regulating unsolicited tender offers, but states subsequently developed a body of state antitakeover laws that impose additional impediments to such offers. In a series of well-known cases during the 1970s and 1980s, the federal c...

  3. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  4. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  5. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  6. Access to the Birth Control Pill and the Career Plans of Young Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...

  7. Sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe - Tallinna töö- ja toidukultuuri looja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Omanimelise arhitektuuribüroo omanik sisearhitekt Pille Lausmäe oma elust ja tööst, isast sisearhitekt Väino Tammest. Eesti Kunstiakadeemias õpib sisearhitektuuri ka Pille poeg Ville Lausmäe ja töötab ema büroos. Pillet iseloomustavad Priit Põldme, Riina Sildots, Rein Tallermo, Mari Kaljuste

  8. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  9. Kino Kosmos Imax = Kosmos Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe ; kommenteerinud Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45. 1964. aastal valminud hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi. Renoveeritud interjööri autorid Pille Lausmäe, Kerli Lepp (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuri büroo). Projekti autorid Urmas Lõoke, Riina Poopuu (Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo)

  10. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  11. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  12. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  13. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  14. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  15. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  16. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  17. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  18. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  19. Pill swallowing by adults with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate differences in swallowing physiology and safety in patients with dysphagia between conventional tablets and a new method of tablet transportation, orally disintegrating technology (ODT) (RapiTab; Schwarz Pharma Inc, Milwaukee, Wis). The study observed a single group, crossover design. Outpatient clinic within an academic teaching hospital. A total of 36 adult dysphagic patients referred to the clinic. All subjects underwent simultaneous nasopharyngeal endoscopic evaluation, surface electromyographic (sEMG) measurement, and respiratory monitoring during swallowing. Subjects were evaluated swallowing the ODT and a conventional tablet formulation. Tablets were randomly and blindly presented to each subject. Subjects completed a preference survey subsequent to swallowing both tablets. Significant differences included greater sEMG amplitude and longer apneic duration when swallowing a conventional tablet compared with the ODT (Pswallow durations (Pswallows per tablet (Pswallow. On a postevaluation survey, patients reported that they preferred the ODT preparation for most of the parameters assessed. Patients with dysphagia frequently complain of trouble swallowing medication. In this study, an ODT formulation provided a method of delivery that required less effort to swallow, did not result in increased levels of airway compromise, and was preferred by dysphagic patients. The ODT medication delivery technology may provide benefit to adults with dysphagia in convenience, compliance, and accuracy of dosing.

  20. Menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent abuse of the birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J E

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the physiology of menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent and suggests a management protocol based on this pathophysiological framework. Initial discussion covers the physiology of puberty and menstruation. Menstrual abnormalities occur often in the adolescent. Excessive bleeding is the most dramatic symptom, but the most common complaints concern the frequency, duration, and variability of menstrual flow. Often the oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the panacea for the patient, her family, and the physician. This solution has several advantages. It is attractive, inexpensive, easy to use, and regulates the menstrual cycle. Although menstrual abnormalities are seemingly corrected, the treatment is not physiological. This use of the OC pill may mask the underlying problem and delay the diagnosis of a medical disorder and will interfere with the normal maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which is necessary for regular menses to occur. The diagnosis of anovulatory bleeding is one of exclusion. Both local and systemic problems can mimic dysfunctional bleeding. Pregnancy must always be considered but is often overlooked in the young teenager. A satisfactory history and physical examination, including a vaginal and/or rectal examination, is paramount to rule out other causes. Coagulation defects may play a significant role in adolescent bleeding abnormalities. Endocrine disorders, including thyroid disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypoprolactinemia, and acromegaly, can result in menstrual abnormalities. After a meticulous history and physical examination, any teenager presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding should not exhibit any physical abnormality other than the signs and symptoms of blood loss. The initial laboratory tests need not be extensive but must include a hemoglobin estimation, blood smear, platelet count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thyroid function tests. Only the simplest

  1. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  2. Medicolegal file. Tell everything you know about birth control pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelaar, P G

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a case in Quebec in 1976 concerning the alleged failure of the doctor to divulge everything he knew about the use of birth control pills to the patient. Nearly every oral contraceptive monograph in the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties contains a statement that the pill should be stopped for a month before a major elective surgery. This information was available to the doctor, but evidence revealed he did not pass it on to the patient. The judge found that the doctor had failed to meet the standard required of him when did not advise the patient about this warning. The doctrine of informed consent requires that patients be given all the reasonable information a person would want in order to decide on a course of action. The case did not raise new issues of law, but should serve to raise awareness of the need to inform patients fully not only about the specific procedures patients would undergo but also about the effects that coexist with the conditions or medications.

  3. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  4. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  5. Cloxacillin: A New Cause of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Zezos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of medications can cause pill-induced esophagitis. Herein we present a case of cloxacillin-induced esophagitis. A 66-year-old male presented with an acute onset of epigastric and retrosternal pain on the 5th day of a course of oral cloxacillin prescribed for erysipelas. Initial clinical and imaging assessment was negative and he was sent home. A few days later, he returned with persistent severe retrosternal pain; endoscopy at the same day revealed a normal upper esophagus, several small stellate erosions in the midesophagus, and a normal squamocolumnar junction with a small hiatus hernia. Treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg bid and MucaineR suspension resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Pill-induced esophagitis may be underreported by patients, when symptoms are mild and unrecognized and/or underdiagnosed by the clinicians as a cause of retrosternal pain, odynophagia, or dysphagia. Failure of early recognition may result in unnecessary diagnostic investigations and prolongation of the patient’s discomfort. This case signifies the importance of enhancing clinician awareness for drug-associated esophageal injury when assessing patients with retrosternal pain, as well as the value of prophylaxis against this unpleasant condition by universally recommending drinking enough water in an upright position during ingestion of any oral medication.

  6. Treatment of hirsutism with combined pill containing drospirenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoriou, Odisseas; Papadias, Kostantinos; Konidaris, Sokratis; Bakalianou, Kostantina; Salakos, Nikolaos; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Creatsas, George

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical and clinical effects of the combined pill consisting of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) in hirsute patients. Fifty-two adolescents or young women from Greece were treated with 30 mug EE and 3 mg DRSP for 1 year. Hirsutism was evaluated by the Ferriman-Gallway (FG) score in the initial visit and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, etradiol, free and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were determined at the same intervals. Hirsutism improved and FG scores reduced to 77.4%, 67.2% and 51.8% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Plasma SHBG levels rose, while free and total T levels reduced from the third month onwards. In conclusion, the EE/DRSP pill improves hirsutism in women via antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid action. The biochemical manifestations of hyperandrogenism are also improved.

  7. Low-cost, high-performance nonevaporable getter pumps using nonevaporable getter pills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Hiraku; Ohno, Shinya; Tanaka, Masatoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Masato; Okudaira, Koji K. [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku 263-8522 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko, E-mail: mase@post.kek.jp; Kikuchi, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps are widely used for maintaining a clean ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) of ≤10{sup −8 }Pa because of their high pumping speeds for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and active gases in the UHV region. In addition, they are oil free, evaporation free, sputtering free, sublimation free, magnetic field free, vibration free, economical, compact, lightweight, and energy saving. In the present paper, the authors report a new NEG pump which is composed of commercial 60 NEG pills (ϕ10 × 3 mm; 70 wt. % Zr, 24.6 wt. % V, and 5.4 wt. % Fe), titanium parts, a DN 40 conflat flange, and a tantalum heater. The NEG pills are vertically and radially aligned around the heater to maximize the effective area for pumping. After activation at 400 °C for 30 min, the pumping speeds of the NEG pump were measured with the orifice method. Pumping speeds of 140–130, 200–140, 190–130, and 35–17 l/s were estimated for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} gasses, respectively, in a pumped-quantity range of 0.01–0.1 Pa l. Since the NEG pump is composed of a heating unit and a NEG module, the pumping speeds can be improved by increasing the number of NEG modules. These NEG pumps are favorable alternatives to sputtering ion pumps or titanium sublimation pumps.

  8. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has a remarkable ability to survive and persist in food production environments. The purpose of the present study was to determine if cells in a population of L. monocytogenes differ in sensitivity to disinfection agents as this could be a factor explaining persistence...... of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... was homogenous; hence, subpopulations were not detected. However, pregrowth with NaCl protected the planktonic bacterial cells during disinfection with Incimaxx (0.0015%) since pHi was higher (6 to 6.5) for the bacterial population pregrown with NaCl than for cells grown without NaCl (pHi 5 to 5.5) (P

  9. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  10. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  11. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  12. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  13. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pallavee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between oral contraceptive (OC pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  14. [Literature review of post-marketing clinical evaluation of Xiaoke pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The literatures of clinical application showed that Xiaoke pill has exact effect on type 2 diabetes. Because Xiaoke pills contain glyburide, most adverse reactions are resulted from inappropriate use. Clinical scientific and medical treatment can be guided by strengthening the mission, improving the instructions of medicines, improving pharmaceutical production technology, strengthening clinical research to further explore the relationship between blood glucose levels and dose, and clearing indications and contraindications. These also can improve security together with the good economy, and will benefit the sustainable development of Xiaoke pill.

  15. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  16. Muljeid ja mõtteid kristliku kasvatuse suurfoorumilt / Pille Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Pille, 1959-2009

    2001-01-01

    7.-13.05.2001 toimus Itaalias Santa Severas järjekordne Euroopa Kristliku Kasvatuse Konverents - ECCE 2001. ECCE on Euroopa suurim kristliku kasvatuse temaatikale pühendatud oikumeeniline foorum. Eestit esindasid pedagoogikamagistrid Lii Lilleoja ja Einike Pilli ning religioonipedagoogika doktorant Pille Valk. Osavõtjaid oli 19 riigist. Konverentsi üldteema oli "Läbi lapse silmade", mida lahati kolmest vaatenurgast : lapse spiritualiteet ning selle eripära ja areng, lapsed perekonnas ja ühiskonnas, lapsed Jeesuse silme läbi. Loengutest ning rühmatöödest. Konverentsi peaesineja oli dr David Hay, Oxfordi ülikooli zooloogia professor ja Usulise Kogemuse Uurimiskeskuse direktor, kes on juhtinud Nottinghami ülikooli juures lapse spiritualiteedi uurimise projekti

  17. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind.

  18. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M E; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW).

  19. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvita Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. Materials and Methods: This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP′s easy access for potential users from (i a cross-sectional survey of providers′ attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii evidence from scientific literature. Results: The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users including influential gynecologists. Conclusion: For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW.

  20. Development of Photon-Counting Laser-Light- Scattering Method for Size- and Density-Measurements of Nano-Particles Forme d in Processing Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Fukuzawa, T.; Shiratani, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    1998-10-01

    A high sensitive photon-counting laser-light-scattering (PCLLS) method for detection of nano-particles formed in processing plasmas is developed to get information on nucleation and subsequent initial growth of particles. Two different methods are employed to deduce particle-size and -density from time evolution of LLS intensity after turning off the discharge. In one method, size of particles is deduced from their diffusion after turning off the discharge and their density is obtained using the size and absolute LLS intensity.^1. In the other method, density of particles is deduced from their coagulation after turning off the discharge and their size is obtained using the density and absolute LLS intensity. Results obtained by both the methods agree fairly well with each other. Using the developed method, we demonstrate detection of small particles down to a few nm in size and find the corresponding particle density is above 10^10 cm-3 even in low pressure silane rf discharges of low rf power, which are commonly used to deposit high quality a-Si:H films^1M. Shiratani and Y. Watanabe, Rev. Laser Eng. Vol. 26, No. 6 (1998) in press.

  1. 新人参二醇滴丸制备及体外溶出度研究%Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of Neopanaxadiol Dropping Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管清香; 孙士淋; 张广远; 张少园; 王悦; 瞿珊珊; 刘昕

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current stuty is to make neopanaxadiol (NPD ) dropping pills and evaluate its dissolution rate in vitro .Neopanaxadiol dropping pills were prepared by solvent -melting method with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000 ) and poloxamer 188 (PF68 ) as combined carriers and a mass ratio of PEG6000 and PF68 was 1∶4 .X-ray power diffraction method was applied to investigate the state of neopanaxadiol in dropping pills and the dissolution test was performed to study the dissolution rate in vitro .The concentration of neopanaxadiol was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) .The results of X-ray power diffraction showed that some neopanaxadiols existed as molec-ular state and others existed as crystallite .The cumulative release percent of NPD -dropping pills was 67.67% at 60min and the dissolution rate of neopanaxadiol dropping pills was obviously faster than that of the drug substance and physical mixtures .Preparing neopanaxadiol Drop-ping pills could obviously enhance its dissolution rate .%制备新人参二醇滴丸,并探讨其体外溶出速率。以PEG 6000和泊洛沙姆188为联合载体,采用溶剂-熔融法制备新人参二醇与载体质量比为1∶4的新人参二醇滴丸。采用X-射线衍射法观察滴丸中新人参二醇的分散状态,以高效液相色谱法测定新人参二醇含量,考察其体外溶出速率。结果表明,固体分散体中新人参二醇一部分呈分子状态分散,另一部分呈微晶状态分散;新人参二醇滴丸60min时体外累积溶出为67.67%,明显快于原料药及物理混合物。新人参二醇制成滴丸后体外溶出速率明显增加。

  2. Does pleural fluid appearance really matter? The relationship between fluid appearance and cytology, cell counts, and chemical laboratory measurements in pleural effusions of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcakar Bulent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the appearance of pleural effusions (i.e., the presence or absence of blood might help to establish the etiology of the effusions. This study explores the relationship between pleural fluid appearance and the results of chemical and cytological analyses in a group of patients with recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions and a diagnosis of cancer. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all 390 patients who were diagnosed with cancer, who underwent thoracentesis before placement of an intrapleural catheter (IPC between April 2000 and January 2006. Adequate information for data analysis was available in 365 patients. The appearance of their pleural fluid was obtained from procedure notes dictated by the pulmonologists who had performed the thoracenteses. The patients were separated into 2 groups based on fluid appearance: non-bloody and bloody. Group differences in cytology interpretation were compared by using the chi square test. Cellular counts, chemical laboratory results, and survival after index procedure were compared by using the student's t test. Results Pleural fluid cytology was positive on 82.5% of the non-bloody effusions and on 82.4% of the bloody ones. The number of red blood cells (220.5 × 103/μL vs. 12.3 × 103/μL and LDH values (1914 IU/dl vs. 863 IU/dl were statistically higher in bloody pleural effusions. Conclusion The presence or absence of blood in pleural effusions cannot predict their etiology in patients with cancer and recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions.

  3. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Dispensing Practices, Knowledge and Attitudes of South Dakota Pharmacists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristi K. Van Riper; Wendy L. Hellerstedt

    2005-01-01

    ..., especially in areas with large rural populations. Pharmacists' knowledge about and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills may affect whether pharmacies carry the medication and whether individual pharmacists dispense it. Methods...

  4. Foreign body ingestion of blister pill pack causing small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Angela W; Sodickson, Aaron

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of foreign body ingestion of a blister pill pack, causing small bowel obstruction. A 76-year-old woman on multiple medications presented with 3 days of progressive abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated small bowel obstruction with a distinctive metallic foreign body in the distal ileum with associated wall thickening and mesenteric inflammatory changes. At exploratory laparotomy, an impacted, intact blister pill pack was removed from the distal ileum. The ingestion of blister pill packs has been associated with a range of clinical and imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction caused by blister pack ingestion. Early recognition of the imaging findings of an ingested blister pill pack is important to expedite appropriate management.

  5. A new estradiol-dienogest oral contraceptive marks "The Pill's" 50th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keder, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration 50 years ago. Discovery of the physiology of reproduction and demonstration of the ability to inhibit ovulation with ovarian extracts laid the early groundwork for the development of contraceptives. Later, characterization of the hormones controlling ovulation and synthesis of progestins allowed production of oral contraceptives. Modern estrogen and progestin pills have undergone significant changes since their initial introduction. New formulations have been developed, doses have been lowered, and extended use introduced. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved a new oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest. This pill contains an orally active estradiol in combination with a progestin with strong endometrial activity. The decreasing estrogen dose combined with an increasing progestin dose decreases the risk of break through bleeding when compared to previous estradiol valerate formulations. The contraceptive efficacy and a tolerability of this new pill are similar to currently marketed low dose combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

  6. Relative Weight, Smoking and Contraceptive Pills: Interrelations to Blood Pressure in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Aapo; Perasalo, Juhani

    1982-01-01

    The relationships among weight, cigarette smoking, use of contraceptive pills, and blood pressure were investigated in over 1,500 college students who underwent physical examinations in their first and third academic years. Results of the study are discussed. (PP)

  7. Tallinna lasteaiad arenevad / Imbi Viisma, Anne Targem, Marika Pettai, Pille Kibur...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna lasteaianduse hetkeseisu arutasid vestlusringis linna haridusameti alushariduse peaspetsialist Imbi Viisma, vanemspetsialistid Anne Targem ja Marika Pettai, Tallinna Mahtra Lasteaia juhataja Pille Kibur ning Kadrioru Lasteaia juhataja Larissa Kot℗تatova / vahendas Anu Mõttus.

  8. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  9. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran G Piparva; Buch, Jatin G.

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  10. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Choi A; Dempsey A

    2014-01-01

    Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review out...

  11. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Azar Pirdehghan; Mahnoosh Davoodi

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopa...

  12. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, K; Rolland, R; Brosens, I; Moorrees, M; Deprest, J; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    1998-07-01

    The hypothesis that omission of the first three pills of the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle leads to ovulation by extending further the pill-free period was investigated in 107 healthy women 18-35 years of age recruited from family planning programs in Finland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Study participants were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: 1) monophasic gestodene--75 mcg of gestodene and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; 2) triphasic gestodene--6 days of 50 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol, 5 days of 70 mcg gestodene and 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol, and 10 days of 100 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol; or 3) monophasic desogestrel--150 mcg desogestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Noncompliance with OC taking was simulated by extending the pill-free period from 7 to 10 days. During or after the extended pill-free interval, follicular growth exceeding 18 mm occurred in 24% of women in the monophasic gestodene group, 24% in the triphasic gestodene group, and 40% in the monophasic desogestrel group. Follicle-stimulating hormone reached a maximum serum concentration in most women during the first 7 pill-free days, indicating complete pituitary recovery. No normal ovulation was observed after either a 7- or 10-day pill-free period as evaluated by ultrasonography of follicles and serum progesterone assays. Since normal ovulation did not occur when pill omissions were limited to 3 days, OC users who forget to take these three tablets can be safely advised to start the pill cycle on day 11.

  13. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  14. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part IV: meta-analysis comparison of effect sizes of vibratory stimulation sham pads and placebo pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: To determine whether sham pads used as controls in randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation to treat patients with sleep loss associated with restless legs syndrome perform differently than placebo pills used in comparable restless legs syndrome drug trials. Patients and methods: Sham pad effect sizes from 66 control patients in two randomized clinical trials of vibratory stimulation were compared with placebo responses from 1,024 control patients in 12 randomized clinical drug trials reporting subjective sleep measurement scales. Control patient responses were measured as the standardized difference in means corrected for correlation between beginning and ending scores and for small sample sizes. Results: For parallel randomized clinical trials, sham effects in vibratory stimulation trials were not significantly different from placebo effects in drug trials (0.37 and 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =0.25, PQ≥0.62. Placebo effect sizes were significantly smaller in crossover drug trials than sham effect sizes in parallel vibratory stimulation trials (0.07 versus 0.37, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =4.59, PQ≤0.03 and placebo effect sizes in parallel drug trials (0.07 versus 0.31, respectively, Qbetween subgroups =5.50, PQ≤0.02. Conclusion: For subjective sleep loss assessments in parallel trials, sham pads in vibratory stimulation trials performed similarly to placebo pills in drug trials. Trial design (parallel versus crossover had a large influence on control effect sizes. Placebo pills in crossover drug trials had significantly smaller effect sizes than sham pads in parallel vibratory stimulation trials or placebo pills in parallel drug trials. Keywords: sham effect, placebo effect, trial design, crossover study, parallel study, counterstimulation

  15. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  16. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  17. Pill formulations and their effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P G

    1984-07-01

    Recent data on oral contraceptives (OCs) employing new low-dose formulations appear to indicate that most of the previously reported metabolic effects are minimized, particularly when a product is neigher ovverly estrogenic nor progestational. Evidence suggests that elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma are correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic students have indicated a correlation between elevation of low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease, and a correlation between decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and arterial disease. Epidemiologic evidence seems to suggest that combination OCs are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially risks of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. There is some debate as to whether OCs themselves are an independent risk factor or whether they increase the effects of other risk factors. Women using combination OCs have been reported to have higher total serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, related primarily to the estrogen dose. While most of the earlier literature associated estrogens with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, recent studies have increasingly implicated the progestin component. Increasing potencies of progestin have been found to proportionally lower the HDL-cholesterol level. There is a positive association between the estrogen dose and HDL-cholesterol level. Among combination pill users, HDL levels gevverally depend on the relative amounts and potencies of both components. It is generally agreed that there are some high-risk women who should be carefully monitored while using the pill or who should not use it at all. Steroid type and dosage both play a role in affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), the estrogen component in most OCs, does not seem to have the same biphasic effect on carbohydrate metaolism as most other estrogens. Most of the recent

  18. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  19. Early History of Oral Contraceptive Pill in Finland: The Diffusion of the New Contraceptive and Fertility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Pasila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s is often characterized as a decade of outstanding social and demographic changes in Western societies. The introduction of the contraceptive pill is assumed to have contributed to these changes. Yet the social as well as the demographic significance of the pill is ambiguous. This article has two aims: 1 to describe the early history of the pill in Finland in the 1960s and in the early 1970s and 2 to explore relationships between fertility and the pill. Surveys, pharmaceutical market data, and estimations are used to depict the diffusion of the pill. Based on calculated user percentages, the pill was adopted neither instantly nor extremely widely in Finland during the period under study. The results show that the diffusion coincided with fertility decline and other changes in fertility patterns. However, a causal connection of any kind cannot be established due to a lack of sufficient data.

  20. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  1. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  2. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  3. Absolute activity measurement of the electron-capture-based radionuclides Ce-139, I-125, Ir-192 and Zn-65 by liquid scintillation coincidence counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available measurements formed part of a regional comparison organized by the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP). Since Ce-139 decays simply by electron-capture to the 166 keV excited state of 139La. This state de-excites through the emission of conversion electrons...

  4. Single particle counting diagnostic system for measuring fine particulates at high number densities in research and industrial applications. Final report summarizing instrument development, validation and operating instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holve, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments have achieved feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. The present report describes a mobile electro-optical system which has been designed for general use in a wide range of research and industrial environments. Specific features of this system include a method of providing in situ alignment and incorporation of an extinction measurement for application to optically thick aerosol flows. The instrument has demonstrated capability for measuring individual particles in the size range 0.25 to 100 microns at number densities up to 10/sup 12//m/sup 3/. In addition to demonstration of the system's wide dynamic range, we show the utility of the in situ alignment method in hot (1100 K) turbulent flows where beam steering can be a problem. As an example of the instrument's application, number and mass frequency distribution measurements of flyash and pulverized coal obtained in an atmospheric combustion exhaust simulator show that the raw pulverized coal contains large numbers of submicron particles similar to the flyash formed after combustion.

  5. 不确定度评定在赤砂糖菌落总数检验中的应用%Evaluation of Uncertainty for Measurement Bacteria Aerobic Count Examination in Brown Granulated Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅慧; 陈海宁; 邓倩南; 刘学文

    2016-01-01

    通过不确定度评定对赤砂糖中菌落总数测量结果临界值进行判断。采用GB 4789.2-2010《食品微生物学检验菌落总数的测定》对某一特定样品和同类样品进行不确定度分析。某品牌赤砂糖中菌落总数的扩展不确定度为0.030,取值范围为 lgX±0.030;20份赤砂糖的扩展不确定度为0.186,取值范围为 lgXj±0.186。样品平行测量结果取对数的方法表示菌落总数的测定可用于检测数据处于临界值时的判定;合并样本标准差的评定方法比单一样本平均值标准差评定方法实用性更强,更适合于每一个样本的检测结果。%The critical value of uncertainty evaluation of measurement results for bacteria aerobic count was judged in thebrown granulated sugar. The bacteria aerobic count of a certain sample and the similar samples was tested according to the method of GB4789.2-2010 “Food Microbiology Examination: Aerobic Plate Count”, and then the uncertainty of testing data was analyzed. The extended uncertainty value of aerobic bacterial count was 0.030 for one certain brand of brown granulated sugar, the lgX ranged from±0.030. While the expanded uncertainty value was 0.186 for 20 different samples, the lgXj ranged from±0.186. The study showed that the exponential methodprocessing the results of bacteria aerobic count could judge the data at the critical value. Evaluation method of merging sample standard deviation was more practical than the single sample average standard deviation, which was more suitable for each sample test results.

  6. Japanese government takes steps toward approving birth control pill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-27

    On September 12, 1995, the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council of Japan recommended approval of low-dose oral contraceptives as a method of family planning. Doctors should be able to prescribe the pills after the standing members of the Council, part of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, meet next March. High-dose oral contraceptives can be obtained currently to treat menstrual irregularities, although many of the 200,000 prescriptions written annually are used for family planning. Approval for the low-dose contraceptives has been slow because of concerns regarding a possible relaxation of sexual mores (1965); adverse side effects (until 1987 when the Japanese Ministry of Health initiated clinical trials that established the safety and efficacy of the contraceptives); increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1992); a higher number of drug reimbursement claims under the national health insurance system; and a decline in Japan's birthrate. Japan's birthrate fell from 4.5 children per woman in 1947 to 1.5 in 1993. 80% of contraceptive users rely on condom; 22% use the rhythm method, usually in conjunction with the condom; 7% use the IUD; and less than 2% use sterilization. Sterilization is only permitted for married couples and only when the woman's life or health is in danger, or either spouse has a mental illness, leprosy, or a hereditary disorder.

  7. Gastroretentive Accordion Pill: Enhancement of riboflavin bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Leonid; Lapidot, Noa; Afargan, Michel; Kirmayer, David; Moor, Eytan; Mardor, Yael; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2006-07-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Accordion Pill (AP), a novel controlled release gastroretentive unfolding dosage form (DF), to increase the bioavailability of riboflavin (RF) in humans. Three formulations containing 75 mg of RF and differing in release rate (immediate release (IR) capsule, AP#1, and AP#2) were administered with a low-calorie meal. Gastric residence time (GRT) of the AP was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Serial blood and urine samples were taken and assayed for RF. The AP demonstrated prolonged (up to 10.5 h) GRT in humans. Significant elevation in RF bioavailability (209+/-37%, mean+/-S.E.) was achieved by the AP#1 in comparison to the IR capsule. A correlation was established between the in-vitro release rates from DF and bioavailability of RF in humans, and it was modeled taking into account the saturable nature of RF absorption transport and its narrow absorption window (NAW) in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. It is anticipated that the AP will provide a valuable pharmaceutical solution to enhance therapy with NAW drugs.

  8. [Impact of media alerts on contraceptive pills medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi-Gaudin, S; Deffieux, X; Davitian, C; Guerre, N; Faucher, P; Bacle, F; Teboul, M; Larmignat, P; Hatchuel, M; Benachi, A

    2015-09-01

    The end of 2012 was marked by some media alerts regarding combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) and lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies selling these birth control pills. In this study, we analyzed whether these information had an impact on the number of abortion. Prospective study determining the number of women asking for abortion and who spontaneously declare that the contraception defect was due to an abandon of their oral contraception as they were scared of some information they received from media about the medication. Eleven centers out of 16 did participate to the study, allowing the study of 2300 abortion during this time frame. Ninety-eight of these pregnancies (4.2%) were due to an interruption of the contraceptive treatment as a consequence of media alerts. Average age was 26 years old. Within these pregnancies, 4 (6%) started in December 2012, 3 months after the beginning of the alerts, 11 (16%) in January, 24 (36%) in February and 18 (27%) in March 2013 (4-6 months later). In 7 cases (10%) CHC stopped by fear of information reported by media were of 2nd generation, in 17 cases (25%) of 3rd generation, in 32 cases (48%) of 4th generation and microprogestative in 2 cases (3%). Women who declared that they stopped their birth control medication by fear of information reported in media, represented 4% of the number of abortions performed between 2013 February 18th and 2013 April 30th. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sequential contraceptive pills in the immediate postabortion period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, P; Viala, J L

    1982-05-01

    2637 abortions were done during 1980 at the Bionne Orthogenic Center in Montpellier, France. 12.83% of women treated were not using contraception at the time of conception; 61.89% had been using OC (oral contraception); reasons for not using contraception were lack of information, negligence, 1st sexual relation, and fear. 8.9% of women had undergone a previous induced abortion; 47.26% were unmarried, 35.52% were married, and 52.12% had no children. A sequential combination pill, 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days, and 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 2.5 mg of lynestrenol for the next 15 days, was prescribed beginning the day after abortion for 2320 women, or 88% of the total. Purpose of this treatment was to prevent hemorrhage, the formation of synechiae, and to favor an early return to normal endometrial physiology. Sequential OCs have the advantage of simulating a regular biphasic cycle, thus allowing the cicatrization of the placental scar, the return to normal of the uterine mucosa, and the hypervascularization of the endometrium; all these factors contribute to decreasing the risk of infection, such as endometritis. Effectiveness and acceptability of this method were excellent. After 3 months of this treatment a more specific type of contraception may be advisable.

  10. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  11. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-01-01

    .... This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills...

  12. Effect of educational leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Griffin, S; Kelly, J; Dickson, N; Sadler, C

    1998-06-27

    To assess whether provision of educational leaflets or questions on contraception improves knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill. Randomisation of women into three groups according to type of educational leaflet on contraceptive information. These groups were subdivided into two on the basis of questions on contraception asked by the doctor or practice nurse. The women were followed up by postal questionnaire 3 months later. 15 general practices in South and West region. 636 women attending check up appointment for repeat prescription of the combined contraceptive pill. Knowledge of: factors causing pill failure, subsequent action, emergency contraception, and all the rules (pill rules) that apply to the contraceptive pill. 523 women returned completed questionnaires (response rate 82%). Knowledge of contraception with no intervention was low with only 10 (12%) women knowing all the pill rules. Educational intervention had a highly significant effect on knowledge of: factors causing pill failure (likelihood ratio chi2=22); subsequent action (21); emergency contraception (24); and all the pill rules (22) (PWomen attending check ups for repeat prescriptions of the contraceptive pill should be provided with educational leaflets on contraception or asked relevant questions to help improve their knowledge of contraception. Asking questions in addition to providing a summary leaflet is time consuming, but results in the most knowledge gained.

  13. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  14. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burr, Tom [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), MS E540, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nicholson, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar – Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of {sup 235}U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  15. Effects of Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill on Expression of Apoptosis Protein Fas and Bax of Brain Tissue in Rat with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis%左归丸和右归丸对自身免疫性脑脊髓炎大鼠脑组织中凋亡蛋白Fas、 Bax表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇爽; 王义周; 李明; 齐放; 郑琦; 赵晖; 王蕾

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill on the expression of apoptosis protein Fas and Bax of brain tissue in rat with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis ( EAE ) .Methods: The Lewis rat were immunized with myelin basic protein ( MBP ) 68-86 to be made EAE model. The animals were measured the body weight, temperature, volume of food and drink as well as graded daily for clinical disability. The rats were observed the incidence, incubation period, mortality rate and the change of disease course. Brain and spinal cord of the rats were harvested and the pathological changes were studied after dying by HE staining. The expression of Fas and Bax in brain and spinal cord of rats were detected by the method by immunohistochemisty. Results: Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill can relieve the infiltrated inflammatory cells around focal zone, and inhibited the expression of Fas and Bax, similarly the hormone. Conclusion: Zuogui Pill and Yougui Pill have the effects on prevent and treatment the rats with EAE, the mechanism may be related with regulating expression of apoptosis protein Fas and Bax.%目的:观察左、右归丸对实验性自身免疫性脑脊髓炎(experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,EAE )大鼠脑组织中凋亡蛋白Fas、Bax表达的影响.方法:用髓鞘碱性蛋白(myelin basic proteir68-86,MBP68-86)免疫Lewis 大鼠建立EAE模型.观察各组大鼠体重体温变化,饮食和饮水变化,神经功能评分,发病率、死亡率、潜伏期及病程变化.取脑和脊髓,HE染色后进行病理观察;用免疫组化法检测大鼠脑组织中Fas、Bax的表达情况.结果:左归丸组和右归丸组明显减轻病灶区域的炎性细胞浸润,对Fas、Bax的表达均有一定的抑制作用,与激素组类似.结论:左、右归丸均有防治小鼠EAE的作用,其作用机制可能与调节细胞凋亡蛋白Fas、Bax的表达有关.

  16. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Erica; Kleiboer, Annet; van Straten, Annemieke; Hollon, Steven D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are many proven treatments (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or their combination) for the treatment of depression. Although there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) over pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone or psychotherapy plus pill placebo, for depression, little is known about which specific groups of patients may respond best to combined treatment versus monotherapy. Conventional meta-analyses techniques have limitations when tasked with examining whether specific individual characteristics moderate the effect of treatment on depression. Therefore, this protocol outlines an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to explore which patients, with which clinical characteristics, have better outcomes in combined treatment compared with psychotherapy (alone or with pill placebo), pharmacotherapy and pill placebo. Methods and Analysis Study searches are completed using an established database of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of adult depression that has previously been reported. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs comparing combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) with psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for the treatment of adult depression will be included. Study authors of eligible trials will be contacted and asked to contribute IPD. Conventional meta-analysis techniques will be used to examine differences between studies that have contributed data and those that did not. Then, IPD will be harmonised and analysis using multilevel regression will be conducted to examine effect moderators of treatment outcomes. Dissemination Study results outlined above will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Study results will contribute to better understanding whether certain patients respond best to combined

  17. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  18. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers; Methode du bilan des taux de comptage d'indicateurs radioactifs pour la determination du debit de charriage des lits sableux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauzay, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-11-01

    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author) [French] Les indicateurs radioactifs sont appliques a la mesure directe du debit de charriage des lits sableux. On etablit la formule theorique de mesure: le bilan des taux de comptage varie en sens inverse de l'epaisseur de charriage. Parallelement on fait une etude critique de la representativite de l'indicateur, puis on determine la quantite minimale de traceur qu'il faut immerger pour que les taux de comptage fournis pour un faible nombre de grains 'vus' par le detecteur aient une definition statistique correcte. Une experience de terrain a permis d'etudier les conditions technologiques de cette methode: seul le depouillement des resultats est nouveau. L'experimentation in-situ se fait suivant les procedes classiques avec un tres grand soin. (auteur)

  19. Repeatability of measurements of packed cell volume and egg count as indicators of endoparasite load and their relationship with sheep productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Kasali, O B; Rege, J E

    1991-12-01

    Monthly measurements of packed cell volume (PCV) and nematode and trematode eggs per gram (EPG) were made in Ethiopian highland sheep at Debre Berhan, Dejen, Deneba, Tulu Meko and Wereilu from June 1988 to December 1989. High frequencies of low PCV, high nematode EPG and high trematode EPG were found at Tulu Meko. Among the productivity traits examined, body condition scores and live-weights were significantly (P less than 0.05) associated with differences in PCV and nematode and trematode EPG levels at most sites. The lambing interval was, however, not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by these variables. Monthly repeatabilities of PCV, body weight and body condition scores were 0.44 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.01 and 0.35 +/- 0.01, respectively, while those of nematode (0.09 +/- 0.01) and trematode EPGs (0.20 +/- 0.02) were much lower. The high repeatability for PCV indicates that it was less affected by the variable factors influencing egg output, and hence it could be utilized in conjunction with nematode and trematode EPG levels for endoparasite monitoring. Repeatability of the lambing interval across parities was 0.43 +/- 0.14.

  20. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  1. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  2. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  3. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  4. Research on the Progeny Volume Activity Measuring Method of 222 Rn with Liquid Scintillation Counting%氡子体体积活度的液体闪烁计数方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志杰; 李则书; 侯胜利; 刘皓然; 张明; 梁珺成

    2015-01-01

    Based on liquid scintillation counting,a measuring method of 222 Rn progeny volume activity is established. Using this kind of method,measurements are executed in NIM’s radon chamber when 222 Rn and its progenies get to the secure equilibrium,and a typically expanded uncertainty of 1. 5%(k = 2)for the potential alpha energy concentration is obtained. Comparative measurements based on the alpha energy spectrum are also executed and the results of the two methods agree within the estimated uncertainty limit.%基于液体闪烁计数原理和滤膜采样技术,建立了一种氡(222 Rn)子体体积活度和α潜能浓度的测量方法。应用该方法对氡室中处于放射性平衡状态的氡子体体积活度进行了取样测量,氡子体α潜能浓度测量结果的扩展不确定度小于1.5%(k =2);用α能谱法对氡子体液体闪烁计数测量方法进行了旁证,两种方法的测量结果在不确定度范围内一致。

  5. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  6. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  7. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  8. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  9. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  10. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  11. The use of birth control pills in women with medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decherney, A H

    1981-09-01

    Since little absolute data exist in the form of large prospective studies in patients with specific illnesses who are on oral contraceptives, the clinician must rely on well-founded empiric decisions in prescribing the pill for these patients. The decision should be based on a firm understanding of the pathophysiology and laboratory effects of the oral contraceptives. This must be juxtaposed with an understanding of the efficacy and effects of the estrogen and progestational components of the birth control pill and their interactions with maintenance medications. In the final analysis, though, the clinician must rely on a trial and error method in treating these patients. It must be stressed, however, that these women require careful monitoring, both clinically and biochemically. It is comforting to note that in all diseases studied to date, the use of birth control pills has not precipitated a catastrophic change.

  12. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  13. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys. PMID:21686346

  14. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  15. Phosphate binder pill burden, patient-reported non-adherence, and mineral bone disorder markers: Findings from the DOPPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissell, Rachel B; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Because of multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high "pill burden." Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills per day in the United States to 3.9 pills per day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills per day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills per day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the United States. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills per day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (>600 pg/mL). Adherence to PB is a challenge for many HD patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Kino Kosmos Imax restaureerimine = Restoration of the Kino Kosmos as an Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45, hoone valminud 1964, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi, restaureerimisprojekt Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo, sisearhitektid Kerli Lepp, Pille Lausmäe (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuribüroo). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  17. Kino Kosmos Imax restaureerimine = Restoration of the Kino Kosmos as an Imax cinema / Pille Lausmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausmäe, Pille, 1958-

    2015-01-01

    Kino Kosmos Imax Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 45, hoone valminud 1964, restaureeritud 2014. Hoone arhitekt Ilmar Laasi, restaureerimisprojekt Urmas Lõokese Arhitektibüroo, sisearhitektid Kerli Lepp, Pille Lausmäe (Pille Lausmäe Sisearhitektuuribüroo). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  18. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  19. Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Martínez Rosendo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC. The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. Methods Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico. Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. Results Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1% and negative predictive value (82.2%, the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58 and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16. Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4% and positive predictive value (40.1% as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8 and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39. Conclusion Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher

  20. Performance of two questionnaires to measure treatment adherence in patients with Type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Martínez, Yolanda V; Segovia-Bernal, Yolanda; Reyes-Martínez, Rosendo; Arias-Ulloa, Raul

    2009-01-26

    Most valid methods to measure treatment adherence require time and resources, and they are not easily applied in highly demanding Primary Health Care Clinics (PHCC). The objective of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities of two novel questionnaires as proxy measurements of treatment adherence in Type-2 diabetic patients. Two questionnaires were developed by a group of experts to identify the patient's medical prescription knowledge (knowledge) and their attitudes toward treatment adherence (attitudes) as proxy measurements of adherence. The questionnaires were completed by patients receiving care in PHCC pertaining to the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Aguascalientes (Mexico). Pill count was used as gold standard. Participants were selected randomly, and their oral hypoglycemic prescriptions were studied. The main outcome measures for each questionnaire were sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities, all as an independent questionnaire test and in a serial analysis. Adherence prevalence was 27.0% using pill count. Knowledge questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (68.1%) and negative predictive value (82.2%), the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.58) and post-test probability for a negative result (0.16). Serial analysis showed the highest specificity (77.4%) and positive predictive value (40.1%) as well as the highest positive likelihood ratio (1.8) and post-test probability for a positive result (0.39). Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire showed the best performance as proxy measurement to identify non-adherence in type 2 diabetic patients regarding negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio, and post-test probability for a negative result. However, Medical Prescription Knowledge questionnaire performance may change in contexts with higher adherence prevalence. Therefore, more research is needed

  1. Electrical counting redux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2013-12-15

    Measuring the energy of particle emission from radioactive substances accurately has been a crucial endeavour in nuclear science. Quantitative measurement began with the electroscope, galvanometer and zinc sulphide screen. Because the detector signals were very small, progress in measurement accelerated with their amplification by means of the vacuum tube. In turn this enabled the use of digital techniques and then computers. Today the measurement process is completely automated with digital signal processing and software run on personal computers. Although the measurement processes now appear to be straightforward, they have had a long and interesting history of development which can be divided into three eras for discussion: early, middle and modern. (author)

  2. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  3. Use of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenage girls in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iklaki CU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Christopher U Iklaki,1 John E Inaku,2 John E Ekabua,1 Patience O Odusolu,1 Charles O Njoku11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, NigeriaAbstract: The objective of this study was to find out about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by women in Calabar, Nigeria, with a particular interest in single nulliparous teenage women. During the period from 2006 to 2010, a total of 1980 women seen in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital's family planning unit used various methods of contraception. Of these, 316 (15.96% used combined oral contraceptive pills. Twenty girls aged between 13 and 19 years accounted for 6.3% of those who used combined oral contraceptive pills. There were 296 (93.6% women between the ages of 20 and 34 years who accounted for the remaining users. Of these women, 195 (61.5% were educated to the secondary level, and 34 (10.8% were educated to primary level. No women without formal education used combined oral contraceptive pills during the period of study. The majority of the users were nulliparous (128; 40.4%; the rest had parity values of at least one to more than four. One hundred thirty-seven (43.4% of the users were single, 112 (35.4% were married, and the remaining 67 (21.1% were separated, divorced, or widowed. There is a growing need to educate young Nigerian women about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills; this medication is suitable and effective for most young women, and it also has additional noncontraceptive health benefits.Keywords: combined, oral, contraception, pills

  4. Comparative study between ormeloxifene and oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimitkumar Jamanadas Chhatrala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. It can cause anemia, reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare costs. The present study was carried out to study the efficacy of ormeloxifene and compare it to combined oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Methods: 140 patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups of 70 each. Group A was given ormeloxifene tablet 60 mg twice a week for 12 weeks followed by 60 mg once a week for next 12 weeks. Group B was given low dose oral contraceptive pills containing 30 and #956;g of ethinyl estradiol and 150 and #956;g levonorgestrel from day 1 of the menstrual cycle to day 21 for 6 consecutive cycles. Follow up for six months on every cycle was done to assess the symptoms in the form of amount of bleeding (which was assessed by pictorial blood loss assessment chart score, recurrence of symptoms and also the side effects of each drug. Patient's improvement was assessed by performing blood hemoglobin level. Patient's level of satisfaction was judged by general health, limitation of social activity, sexual life and patient's wish to continue treatment with the same drug. Results: The reduction in mean pictorial blood loss assessment score with ormeloxifene (174 to 75 was significantly more than with oral contraceptive pills (171 to 106 at 6 months (P 0.05. Recurrence of symptoms was 11% with ormeloxifene and 24% with oral contraceptive pills. The side effects were minimal in both the groups. 68.6% patients with ormeloxifene and 47.2% with oral contraceptive pills were highly satisfied with their treatment. Conclusions: Ormeloxifene is more effective, with convenient dose schedule, well tolerated, with better compliance and shows less recurrence rate in treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding than oral contraceptive pills. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol

  5. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  6. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  7. Strategies to improve compliance among oral contraceptive pill users: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Choi, Angela DempseyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs remain the most commonly used reversible birth control method. Failure to adhere to daily pill taking and gaps in use are common and contribute to the risk of unintended pregnancy among OCP users. OCP compliance is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive, behavioral, logistic, clinical, and social factors. This review outlines the evidence base for strategies that have been studied for their impact on OCP compliance.Keywords: adherence, continuation, unintended pregnancy, reminder system

  8. A case of oesophageal ulcer developed after taking homeopathic pill in a young woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vito D Corleto; Lidia D'Alonzo; Ermira Zykaj; Antonella Carnuccio; Francesca Chiesara; Cristiano Pagnini; Salvatore Di Somma; Gianfranco Delle Fave

    2007-01-01

    Oesophageal ulcers occur mainly as a result of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, pillinduced oesophageal ulcers are a fairly common event.The lesion is mainly due to entrapment of the pill and/or its chemical composition thereof. This case report describes an oesophageal mucosa ulcer occurred in a healthy 35-year old woman who had no previous history of oesophageal disorders and received homeopathic medication. The present case reveals that pill entrapment can occur even in the oesophagus of healthy young individuals and that oesophageal mucosal ulcer can be triggered by substances generally thought devoid of any potentially mucosal aggressive effect.

  9. Kinematic Kevlar suspension system for the HAWC and SAFIRE ADR salt pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-03-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar® suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  10. The Power of the Pill: Oral Contraceptives and Women's Career and Marriage Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Lawrence; Goldin, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of U.S. college graduate women entering professional programs increased substantially around 1970 and the age at first marriage among all U.S. college graduate women soared just after 1972. We explore the relationship between these two changes and how each was shaped by the diffusion of the birth control pill among young, single college educated women. Although the pill' was approved in 1960 by the FDA and diffused rapidly among married women, it did not diffuse among young singl...

  11. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  12. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  13. Relationship between leukocyte count and angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Zhi-jian YANG; Biao YUAN; Xiao-ling ZANG; Rong-hu WANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Bo CHEN; Wen-zhu MA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: The study population consisted of 507 consecutive patients (376 male and 131 female) who underwent coronary angiography for suspected or known coronary atherosclerosis. The patients' smoking and drinking habits were investigated, and anthropometric measurements, serum measurements, and hematological measurements were conducted for every patient.The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was defined by using Gensini' s score system. One-way ANOVA, Spearman's correlation analysis, and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were employed to explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Results: Oneway ANOVA indicated that the diastolic blood pressure, glucose, urea, creatinine,leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, hemoglobin, and platelet count differed among the groups according to Gensini's score, the tertile values of which were used as cutoff points. Spearman's correlation analysis suggested that Gensini's score was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure,glucose, urea, creatinine, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count,hemoglobin, and erythrocyte count, respectively. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis show that neutrophil count (β=0.247, P=0.000), age (β=0.141,P=0.001), glucose (β=0.173, P=0.000), creatinine (β=0.088, P=0.063), hemoglobin (β=-0.168, P=0.013) and sex (men were coded as 1 and women were coded as 2;β=-0.121, P=0.012) were significantly independently associated with the Gensini's score. Conclusion: The independent association of neutrophil count with the angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis, as estimated by Gensini's score, strongly suggests that granulocytosis may play a role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  15. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  16. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  17. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A

    2012-07-11

    Acne is a common skin disorder among women. Although no uniform approach to the management of acne exists, combination oral contraceptives (COCs), which contain an estrogen and a progestin, often are prescribed for women. To determine the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for the treatment of facial acne compared to placebo or other active therapies. In January 2012, we searched for randomized controlled trials of COCs and acne in the computerized databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for clinical trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Aug 2011). For the initial review, we wrote to researchers to seek any unpublished or published trials that we might have missed. We considered randomized controlled trials reported in any language that compared the effectiveness of a COC containing an estrogen and a progestin to placebo or another active therapy for acne in women. We extracted data on facial lesion counts, both total and specific (i.e., open or closed comedones, papules, pustules and nodules); acne severity grades; global assessments by the clinician or the participant, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Data were entered and analyzed in RevMan. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For dichotomous data, we calculated the Peto odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. The review includes 31 trials with 12,579 participants. Of 24 comparisons made, 6 compared a COC to placebo, 17 different COCs, and 1 compared a COC to an antibiotic. Of nine placebo-controlled trials with data for analysis, all showed COCs reduced acne lesion counts, severity grades and self-assessed acne compared to placebo. A levonorgestrel-COC group had fewer total lesion counts (MD -9.98; 95% CI -16.51 to -3.45), inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, and were more likely to

  18. Measuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy in northern Tanzania: feasibility and acceptability of the Medication Event Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyimo, R.A.; Boogaard, van den J.; Msoka, E.; Hospers, H.J.; Ven, van der A.A.; Mushi, D.; Bruin, de M.

    2011-01-01

    An often-used tool to measure adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), an electronic pill-cap that registers date and time of pill-bottle openings. Despite its strengths, MEMS-data can be compromised by inaccurate use and acceptability problems due

  19. Absolute regularity and ergodicity of Poisson count processes

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of observation-driven Poisson count processes where the current value of the accompanying intensity process depends on previous values of both processes. We show under a contractive condition that the bivariate process has a unique stationary distribution and that a stationary version of the count process is absolutely regular. Moreover, since the intensities can be written as measurable functionals of the count variables, we conclude that the bivariate process is ergodic. As an important application of these results, we show how a test method previously used in the case of independent Poisson data can be used in the case of Poisson count processes.

  20. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  1. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinase, S

    2003-01-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

  2. Counting the Minutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Sternberg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    How truck drivers spend their time is crucial to the profitability of motor carriers. However, the aspect of time has been marginally addressed in industry practice and academic literature on motor-carrier strategies and operations. Given the importance of the drivers in transport operations......, the purpose of this article is to outline how driver time in motor-carrier operations can be measured using various methods. The underlying empirical data related to transport efficiency have been collected over five years throughout numerous projects in Europe. The article summarizes the experiences from...... the measurements carried out in these projects. In total, 80 drivers from 22 motor carriers were measured using different types of participant observations and driver self-observation. Practitioners addressing drivers’ time use will find important principles to guide their work in measuring drivers’ activities...

  3. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  4. Validation of a self-administered instrument to measure adherence to anticholinergic drugs in women with overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy, UU; Harvie, HS; Smith, AL; Propert, KJ; Bogner, HR; Arya, LA

    2015-01-01

    Aim To validate a self-administered instrument, the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) for measuring adherence to anti-cholinergic medication for overactive bladder (OAB). Methods Prospective study in 131 women with OAB treated with fesoterodine. Adherence was measured at 8 and 12 weeks using an interviewer administered Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ) that assesses barriers to adherence (criterion standard), the MASRI, and pill count. Construct, concurrent and discriminant validity of the MASRI was assessed. We hypothesized that women who were non-adherent as measured by the MASRI would be more likely to have a belief barrier than women who were adherent to medication. Results Women diagnosed as non-adherent by the MASRI were more likely to report a belief barrier to taking medication as compared to adherent women at 8weeks (80 v 38%, p<0.001) and at 12 weeks (70% v. 40%, p=0.003). Significant correlations were noted between adherence rates measured by the MASRI and the BMQ at 8 weeks (r=0.87, p<0.001) and 12 weeks (r=0.90, p<0.001). Moderate correlation was noted between the adherence rate as measured by the MASRI and pill count at 8 weeks (r=0.49, p=0.02) but not at 12 weeks (r=0.05, p=0.87). The MASRI correctly identified 93% and 96% of non-adherent women at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the MASRI for predicting non-adherence was 91%, 82%, and 5.1 at 8 weeks and 90%, 85% and 6.1 at 12 weeks. Conclusions The MASRI is a valid self-administered tool for measuring adherence to anti-cholinergic medication in women with OAB. PMID:24719232

  5. Ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation who had discordant anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count measurements: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC). This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate.

  6. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Cheviri N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invertebrates have an unexpected nutraceutical potential and are of nutritional or ethnomedicinal significance to many tribals throughout the world. The giant pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera are traditionally used as natural medicines by tribals in the Western Ghats of India. In this study, two species of pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera fumosa and A. magna were subjected to proximate and biochemical analysis to ascertain their nutritional potential. Bodies of A. fumosa and A. magna (after removal of their intestines had a low protein content (8-15% and high quantity of carbohydrates (40-41%. They were rich in many essential elements, especially in calcium. The essential amino acids of pillmillipedes were in high quantities. The level of glycine was the highest, followed by lysine and serine. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs of males and females consist of high quantities of unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were more abundant than poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Palmitic and oleic acids were dominant saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The study has revealed for the first time that pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India constitute a good source of essential minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Being valuable contributors of organic manure by processing recalcitrant plant lignocellulosic wastes, pill-millipedes become part and parcel of organic farming as well as future nutraceutical sources.

  8. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  9. [Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Ru; Kang, Shuai; Hou, Jian-Zhong; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills was discussed. First, microscopic characteristics specified by the statutory standard of Niuhuang Qingxin pills were summarized. Then new identification method was established for Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Saigae Tataricae Cornu, Cinnamomi Cortex and Saposhnikoviae Radix. Finally, microscopic spectroscopy was used for test of Dioscoreae Rhizoma's adulterant Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma.It was the first time for this technology being applied in adulteration test of Chinese patent medicine.The results showed that Saigae Tataricae Cornu was not detected in 2 batches of Niuhuang Qingxin pills from 1 manufacturer while Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma was detected in 3 batches of samples from 2 manufacturers. The proposed methods were accurate, simple, rapid, objective and economic, which offered a more comprehensive approach for quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills. It was indicated that conventional technology such as microscopic spectroscopy could play an important role in identification of traditional Chinese medicine whose index ingredient was deficient or tiny. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Pille Lausmäe : 22 korrust betooni, klaasi ja terast / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2004-01-01

    Büroohoone City Plaza Tallinnas. Arhitektuurne lahend: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Üldsisearhitekt: Pille Lausmäe. City Cafe ja LHV büroo kujundusest. City Cafe seintel on Jaan Elkeni maalid. Büroomööbel on tehtud Thulemas. 12 värv. ill

  11. Rein Pill võitis Venemaal kõrgetasemelise võistluse / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Ratsutaja Rein Pill tegi Venemaal Tsherjahovskis CS14* taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix' 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites seega Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  12. How to illustrate science - a lesson from the 1970s / Pille-Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Pille-Triin

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna IV rakenduskunsti triennaali Pille-Riin Männiku ja Anneli Porri kureeritud satelliitnäitusest "Teadus ja tänapäev" A-galeriis, Draakoni galeriis ja Hobusepea galeriis. Suure osa näitusest moodustavad Tõnis Vindi illustratsioonid 1979. a. ilmunud Juhan Kivi raamatule "Teadus ja tänapäev". Fotod Ene Kull

  13. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  14. ORMELOXIFEN HCL VS. COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILL IN TREATMENT OF DUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : DUB is defined as a state of abnormal uterine bleeding without any clinically detectable organic pelvic pathology - tumor , inflammation or pregnancy. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of ormeloxifene HCL ( SERM and combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB. MATERIAL & METHOD: This study is based on 100 cases of DUB from age group of 20 to 50 years , out of which fifty cases were prescribed Ormeloxifen HCL (Drug A and another 50 cases were given Combined Contrac eptive pills. (Drug B Ormeloxifen HCL was given in doses of 60mg biweekly for 12 weeks and from 13 th week one tablet weekly for another 12 weeks. CC pills (Levonorgestrel 0.15mg & Ethinyloestradiol 0.03mg – One tablet from 5th day of menses for 21 days g iven cyclically for six months. Regular cyclic follow - up was done to assess response , compliance tolerance and recurrence of the symptoms and side effects of every patient. RESULT : The study revealed marked decrease in PBAC score 82% vs. 35% , reduction in percentage of bleeding 100%vs 68% , regularization of menstrual cycle100%vs74% , recurrence of symptoms in the form of excessive bleeding 4% vs. 64% and irregular cycle 0%vs 68% in drug A vs. drug B and side effects were comparable in both the groups. CONCL USION : Ormeloxifen HCL is more effective , well tolerated with superior compliance than combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB.

  15. Rein Pill võitis Venemaal kõrgetasemelise võistluse / Maarja Värv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Värv, Maarja

    2008-01-01

    Ratsutaja Rein Pill tegi Venemaal Tsherjahovskis CS14* taseme rahvusvahelistel ratsutamise takistussõiduvõistlustel ajalugu, võites hobusel A Big Boy võistluste Grand Prix' 160 cm kõrgusel parkuuril ja täites seega Euroopa meistrivõistluste kvalifikatsiooninormi

  16. Pille Lausmäe : 22 korrust betooni, klaasi ja terast / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2004-01-01

    Büroohoone City Plaza Tallinnas. Arhitektuurne lahend: Alver Trummal Arhitektid. Üldsisearhitekt: Pille Lausmäe. City Cafe ja LHV büroo kujundusest. City Cafe seintel on Jaan Elkeni maalid. Büroomööbel on tehtud Thulemas. 12 värv. ill

  17. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  18. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  19. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.. Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, diabetic nephropathy (DN and diabetic retinopathy (DR prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P0.05. Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  20. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  1. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  2. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  3. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nmeasurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  4. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  5. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement. PMID:28042350

  6. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation.Results: The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation.Conclusion: The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis, fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women’s desires for fewer and shorter menses and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding. Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.Keywords: extended-cycle oral contraceptives, low-dose extended-cycle pills, Lo Seasonique

  7. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  8. Adherence in HIV-positive patients treated with single-tablet regimens and multi-pill regimens: findings from the COMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Antinori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of Combination AntiRetroviral Therapy (cART has decreased the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with HIV. However, adherence to cART remains crucial to prevent virological failure and disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to treatment among patients treated with Single Tablet Regimen (STR or with multi-pill regimens based on Protease Inhibitors (PI, Non-Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTI, or raltegravir (RAL. An observational retrospective cohort analysis based on administrative and clinical databases was conducted at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (Rome, Italy. HIV-positive patients treated with a cART between Jan 1st, 2008–Dec 31st, 2010 were included. Patients were followed-up for one year since the first prescription during the inclusion period or up to death or switch of at least one drug of the regimen. Adherence and selective non-adherence (days without backbone or 3rd drug were calculated using pharmacy refill compliance [1]. cART regimens were classified based on number of daily pills (STR vs multi-pill regimen and on type of third drug. Viral Load (VL and CD4 cell counts at the end of the follow-up were evaluated. A total of 1,604 patients were analyzed, 70.0% male, age 45.0±8.7, 14.3% newly treated. Patients on STR were 159 (9.9%, PI 878 (54.7%, NNRTI 523 (32.6%, RAL 44 (2.7%. Presence of at least one AIDS-defining conditions (according to Centers for Disease Control classification was 30% in the STR group, 34% PI, 26% NNRTI, 34% RAL (p=n.s.. Adherence was 80.4±14.7% for STR, 71.8±21.8% PI, 77.1±20.3% NNRTI, 74.0±22.4% RAL. Selective non-adherence was 5.5% (18 days PI, 2.8% (8 days NNRTI, 12.5% (43 days RAL (Figure 1. At the end of the follow-up, VL/CD4 values were available among 709 patients (44%; CD4 count >500 cell/mm3 was observed among 61% of patients on STR, 44% PI, 48% NNRTI, 42% RAL and VL < 50 copies/ml was observed among 96% of patients

  9. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical tri...

  10. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical tri...

  11. Differences in Effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and Its Similar Formulas on Wei Cold Model in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳玲; 史文丽; 山丽梅; 王伽伯; 赵海平; 肖小河

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and its similar formulas on the stomach cold syndrome in a Wei cold model in rats.Methods:The rat Wei cold model was established by intragastric administration of glacial NaOH,and the gastric mucosa injury indices,together with the levels of motilin and gastrin in the stomach,were determined.The preventive and curative effects of Zuojin Pills and its similar formulas on gastric mucosa injury were investigated.Results:Zuojin Pills and its similar formul...

  12. Power of the Pill or Power of Abortion? Re-Examining the Effects of Young Women's Access to Reproductive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Caitlin Knowles

    2012-01-01

    Recent research postulating that the diffusion of confidential access to the birth control pill to young women in the United States contributed to the dramatic social changes of the late 1960s and 1970s has not adequately accounted for the largely contemporaneous diffusion of access to abortion. Estimates using a new panel of data on state policies related to access to the pill and abortion indicate that while access to the pill may have played a role in the sexual revolution, it had little e...

  13. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  14. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  15. Electromagnetism from counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which fields'' are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.

  16. Electromagnetism from counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which ``fields`` are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.

  17. HPLC法测定补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷含量%HPLC Determination of Amygdalin Content in Bupi Yichang Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左力

    2013-01-01

    目的:为了更好的控制补脾益肠丸质量,对补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷的含量进行测定.方法:采用Zorbax SB-C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8:92);检测波长为210 nm;柱温35℃.结果:苦杏仁苷在10.25~512.5μg范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率98.91%,RSD=0.48%.结论:此方法操作简便、准确、重现性好,可有效的控制补脾益肠丸的质量.%Objective:In order to better control quality of Bupi Yichang pill,amygdalin content in Bupi Yichang pill was measured.Method:A Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μ m); mobile phase:acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid (8:92); detection wavelength was 210 nm ; column temperature of 35 ℃.Results:The amygdalin linear in the range of 10.25 ~ 512.5 μ g had good relationship (r=-0.9999),the average recovery rate was 98.91% (RSD=0.48%).Conclusion:This method is simple,accurate with good reproducibility,and can effectively control the quality of Bupi Yichang pill.

  18. Do We Count?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Alexander M

    2016-09-01

    In the article "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship," Debra Mathews and her colleagues want to apply to bioethics various translational concepts developed for biomedical research. According to experts in translational science, this would mean evaluating not only the extent to which research produces the "changes in thinking, practice, and policy" that interest Mathews et al. but also the appropriateness of bioethics training and the level of competency of people working in the field. Their proposal thus raises two sets of questions. The first, which the authors recognize must be the starting point for their argument, is, what precisely is the field in question? The second is whether the tools of translational science provide the right means of measuring the achievements of bioethics.

  19. 100 and counting!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN working group on administrative procedures (GTPA) held its 100th meeting last month. Here we take a look at the activities of this valuable and important administrative body.   Current and past members of the GTPA celebrate the group's 100th meeting. The working group on administrative procedures, set up in 1993 as a kind of discussion forum, held its 100th meeting on 26 April. Chaired by Gabriele Thiede, the group comprises departmental administrative officers (DAOs), a representative of the Users Office, a representative of the GS-AIS group and members of the Administrative Processes Section of the DG RPC Group (see box). "The working group meets five times a year to discuss measures to simplify and improve CERN's administrative procedures," explains Gabriele Thiede, head of the Administrative Processes section. "We also use these meetings to share our experience of administrative practices, which may differ from one department to anothe...

  20. Application Research of Developed Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The application researches such as variety of factors affecting the measurement, calibrating etc. are need before the drummed nuclear waste neutron counting system (WNC) can be really put into use after installed at the site.

  1. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  2. The comparative study of side effect of the two kinds of LD combined oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate and Levonorgestrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazizade Sh

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the new generation of oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate (NGM with currently available pills containing levonorgestrel (LNG a clinical trial was conducted. 413 women (age 18-35 years with no contrainindication to pill use entered the study and randomly received one type of pills. Premenstrual syndrome and depression were significantly decreased in NGM group (P=0.00016, P=0.005, on the other hand, breast tenderness, mood changes and hair loss were significantly increased in LNG group (P=0.001, P=0.042, P=0.011. Comparing two groups with each other, following variables were significantly lower in NGM group: headache (P<0.05, vertigo (P<0.05, cloasma (P<0.05, acne (P<0.04, depression (P<0.05, appetite change (P<0.03. Overall patient satisfaction was similar in two groups.

  3. Fixed combinations in the pragmatic management of hypertension: focus on aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide as a single pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Burnier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Michel BurnierService of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: A majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive drug to control their blood pressure. For this reason, most guidelines have introduced the possibility of prescribing fixed-dose combination therapies as first-line treatment in hypertension. Today, the concept of fixed-dose combinations has evolved and the term single pill combination might become more appropriate to reflect the large choice of drug combinations available on the market. Recently, a new single pill combination has been launched which combines the first direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and low doses of hydrochlorothiazide. This paper reviews the potential advantages of single pill combinations and presents the first results obtained with the aliskiren/HCTZ single pill combination in hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, drug adherence, combination therapies, diuretics, renin inhibition

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  5. Muusajüngrid pühitsesid Kreutzwaldi 200. sünnipäeva / Toomas Pill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pill, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    13. dets. 2003 Sydneys toimunud tähtpäevaüritusel esines Toomas Pill referaadiga "Kalevipoja" retseptsioonist, loeti ette katkendeid Kreutzwaldi ja Koidula kirjavahetusest ning deklameeriti Heidi Aedma poolt valitud katkendeid "Kalevipojast"

  6. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-01-01

    .... I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s...

  7. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  8. Estimating the Count Error in the Australian Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipperfield James

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people. Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES, shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

  9. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  11. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Sultan Mir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ′evil′ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher′s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  12. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  13. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  14. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  15. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  16. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  17. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparva, Kiran G; Buch, Jatin G

    2011-07-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  18. The Pill and Men’s Disappearance from the Teaching Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis

    In this paper I look at the relationship between increased access to reliable fertility controls and men’s disappearance from teaching. As the pill has been found to have a substantial effect on women’s family responsibilities, career investments and labor market outcomes, men’s bargaining position...... control pill bears a negative relation to the likelihood that men plan to teach, while changes in the strength of teacher unions and relative wages of teachers have limited effect on their career plans. Men’s aspirations shift away from teaching towards occupations that are associated with higher average...... and 1980, the ratio of male college freshmen planning to become a teacher fell from 12.4% to 2.4% and the share of males among those who aspired to teach dropped from 30.6% to 19.7%. Using nationally representative data on the career plans of college freshmen I find that unrestricted access to the birth...

  19. How can a state control swallowing? The home use of abortion pills in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Sally

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that there is widespread home use of abortion pills in Ireland and that ending a pregnancy in this way is potentially safer than the alternatives available to many women. This paper argues that there is a strong case for women with unwanted pregnancies to be offered truthful and objective information regarding the use of abortion pills by trusted local professionals and, further, that this is possible within existing law. A move in this direction would not, however, negate the need for legal reform to address the fundamental moral incoherence of a law that treats women who terminate pregnancies within Ireland as criminals but those who travel to access services overseas as victims in need of support. In support of these arguments, the paper draws on both library research and a small number of interviews with government officials, service providers and activists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Swallowable smart pills for local drug delivery: present status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Rosa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Smart pills were originally developed for diagnosis; however, they are increasingly being applied to therapy - more specifically drug delivery. In addition to smart drug delivery systems, current research is also looking into localization systems for reaching the target areas, novel locomotion mechanisms and positioning systems. Focusing on the major application fields of such devices, this article reviews smart pills developed for local drug delivery. The review begins with the analysis of the medical needs and socio-economic benefits associated with the use of such devices and moves onto the discussion of the main implemented technological solutions with special attention given to locomotion systems, drug delivery systems and power supply. Finally, desired technical features of a fully autonomous robotic capsule for local drug delivery are defined and future research trends are highlighted.

  1. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran G Piparva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT. A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  2. Simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Wang, Yue; Sun, Yuqing

    2007-09-03

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents (morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin and paeonal) in the Chinese patent medicine Liuwei Dihuang Pills is established. A carrier composed of 0.2M boric acid, 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% acetonitrile (pH was adjusted to 10.5 with 0.1 M NaOH) is found to be the most suitable electrolyte for this separation. The four constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills can be easily determined within 16 min. Optimization of separation is realized with the univariate approach by studying the effects of four factors relevant to run buffer on migration times.

  3. Resection and radiofrequency ablation of multiple liver adenomas secondary to anti-conceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Luis; Dabbs, Andy; Sewell, Patrick; Doherty, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A case of multiple hepatic adenomas associated with birth control pills in a 25-year-old female is presented. Her only complaint was abdominal pain, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase was the only laboratory abnormality. The largest adenoma was located in the caudate lobe and was resected. The other two were small, located deep in the right lobe, and treated with radiofrequency ablation. Currently, the patient is asymptomatic and her alkaline phosphatase has returned to normal levels.

  4. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Bruno, Raimondo; Ezard, Nadine; Ritter, Alison

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%. Most (80%) were willing to wait an hour for their result. Almost all (94%) would not use a service if there was a possibility of arrest, and a majority (64%) would not use a service that did not provide individual feedback of results. Drug-checking results were only slightly more attractive if they provided comprehensive quantitative results compared with qualitative results of key ingredients. Most (93%) were willing to pay up to $5, and 68% up to $10, per test. One-third (33%) reported willingness to donate a whole dose for testing: they were more likely to be male, younger, less experienced, use drugs more frequently and attend venues/festivals less frequently. In this sample, festival- or club-based drug-checking services with low wait times and low cost appear broadly attractive under conditions of legal amnesty and individualised feedback. Quantitative analysis of ecstasy pills requiring surrender of a whole pill may appeal to a minority in Australia where pills are more expensive than elsewhere. [Barratt MJ, Bruno R, Ezard N, Ritter A. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Offering extended use of the combined contraceptive pill: a survey of specialist family planning services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Sue Mann,2 Nataliya Brima,3 Judith Stephenson21Reproductive and Sexual Health, Enfield Community Service, Enfield, 2Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Group, Institute for Women’s Health, 3Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes to, and provision of, extended regimens for taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC by specialist contraception practitioners from three contrasting specialist contraception services in London.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was administered to all doctors and nurses, who counsel, provide, or prescribe the oral contraceptive pill at each clinic.Results: A total of 105 clinicians received the questionnaire and 67 (64% responded. Only one of three clinics initiated and maintained guidelines for extended COC use. In that service, 60% of staff prescribing COC advised more than 50% of patients regarding alternative COC regimens. In the other two services, this was discussed with 20% and 6% of patients, respectively (P < 0.001. The reasons for prescribing extended use included cyclic headaches, menorrhagia, patient request, menstrual-related cramps, and endometriosis, and did not differ between the three different settings. The most common extended regimens were 63 pills or continuous use until bleeding occurs, followed by a hormone-free interval. Concerns highlighted by providers and patients were “unhealthy not to have a monthly bleed”, “future fertility”, and “breakthrough bleeding”. Such comments highlight the need for further information for providers and patients.Conclusion: There is growing evidence, backed by national guidance, about extended COC use, but routine provision of this information is patchy and varies ten-fold, even within specialist family planning services. Targeted training, use of service guidelines, and implementation research will be

  6. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control.There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic.Here,the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill.General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  8. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  9. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    OpenAIRE

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some st...

  10. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger-Mark De Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article by Potts et al, “The Pill is Mightier than the Sword,” points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight.

  11. Effects of Modified Qing'e Pill () on expression of adiponectin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and coagulation-related factors in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Gang; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Shuai, Bo; Ma, Chen

    2017-03-01

    To observe the regulation of Chinese herbal medicine, Modifified Qing'e Pill (, MQEP), on the expression of adiponectin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and other potentially relevant risk factors in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 96 patients with nontraumatic ONFH were unequal randomly divided into treatment group (60 cases) and control group (36 cases). The treatment group were treated with MQEP while the control group were treated with simulated pills. Both groups were given caltrate D. Six months were taken as a treatment course. Patients were followed up every 2 months. The levels of plasma adiponectin, BMP2, OPG, von Willebrand factor (vWF), von Willebrand factor cleaving protease (vWF-cp), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood rheology, bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral head and Harris Hip Score were measured before and after treatment. After 6 months of treatment, compared with the control group, patients in the treatment group had signifificantly higher adiponectin and BMP2 levels (Padiponectin showed a positive association with BMP2 (r=0.231, P=0.003) and a negative association with PAI-1 (r=-0.159, Padiponectin, regulating bone metabolism and improving the hypercoagulation state, which may provide an experimental base for its clinical effects.

  12. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  13. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p birth control pill use was higher (p birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  14. Can pill placebo augment cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchill Rachel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of drug and psychotherapy comparative trials, psychotherapy-placebo combination has been assumed to represent psychotherapy. Whether psychotherapy plus pill placebo is the same as psychotherapy alone is an empirical question which however has to date never been examined systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs that directly compared cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT alone against CBT plus pill placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Results Extensive literature search was able to identify three relevant RCTs. At the end of the acute phase treatment, patients who received CBT plus placebo had 26% (95%CI: 2 to 55% increased chances of responding than those who received CBT alone. At follow-up the difference was no longer statistically significant (22%, 95%CI: -10% to 64%. Conclusion The act of taking a pill placebo may enhance the placebo effect already contained in the effective psychotherapeutic intervention during the acute phase treatment. Theoretically this is an argument against the recently claimed null hypothesis of placebo effect in general and clinically it may point to some further room for enhancing the psychotherapeutic approach for panic disorder.

  15. Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhi, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

  16. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  17. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  18. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  19. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  20. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  1. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  2. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  3. Photon counts modulation in optical time domain reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Bo; Wang Jing-Jing; Zhang Guo-Feng; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    The quantum fluctuation of photon counting limits the field application of optical time domain reflection. A method of photon counts modulation optics time domain reflection with single photon detection at 1.55 un is presented. The influence of quantum fluctuation can be effectively controlled by demodulation technology since quantum fluctuation shows a uniform distribution in the frequency domain. Combined with the changing of the integration time of the lock-in amplifier, the signal to noise ratio is significantly enhanced. Accordingly the signal to noise improvement ratio reaches 31.7 dB compared with the direct photon counting measurement.

  4. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  5. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 μm × 15 μm measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results.

  6. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  7. A Comparison of Galaxy Counting Techniques in Spectroscopically Undersampled Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of galactic overdensities are invaluable for precision cosmology. Obtaining these measurements is complicated when members of one’s galaxy sample lack radial depths, most commonly derived via spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we utilize the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Main Galaxy Sample to compare seven methods of counting galaxies in cells when many of those galaxies lack redshifts. These methods fall into three categories: assigning galaxies discrete redshifts, scaling the numbers counted using regions’ spectroscopic completeness properties, and employing probabilistic techniques. We split spectroscopically undersampled regions into three types—those inside the spectroscopic footprint, those outside but adjacent to it, and those distant from it. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the preferred counting techniques are a function of region type, cell size, and redshift. We conclude by reporting optimal counting strategies under a variety of conditions.

  8. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  9. Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Gyorgy

    1998-08-01

    The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

  10. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-01-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  11. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  12. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  13. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  14. Investigation of the effects of 'piperazine-containing party pills' and dexamphetamine on interhemispheric communication using electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HeeSeung; Wang, Grace Y; Curley, Louise E; Kydd, Rob R; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of an acute dose of these compounds on the interhemispheric transfer of information (IHTT) using the Poffenberger task. Reaction time data were also collected. Healthy, right-handed males were given an oral dose of either BZP (n = 13) (200 mg), TFMPP (n = 15) (60 mg), a combination of BZP + TFMPP (n = 15) (100 mg/30 mg), dexamphetamine (n = 16) (20 mg), or placebo (n = 23) and tested both before and 120 min after drug administration. A mixed factorial repeated measures analysis of variance of absolute N160 latency and contrast analysis revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) significantly reduced the absolute N160 latency. Analysis of the IHTT revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 5.266, p ≤ 0.02) significantly reduced the IHTT, while BZP, BZP + TFMPP and dexamphetamine had no effect. Contrast analysis revealed that both TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) and placebo (F (1,77) = 15.08, p ≤ 0.001) preserved the laterality of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Reaction time (p > 0.05) was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments. The usual directional asymmetry (i.e. faster R-to-L transfer relative to L-to-R) observed in healthy control group was absent following the administration of either BZP, BZP + TFMPP or dexamphetamine. Surprisingly, lateralised hemispheric function was not

  15. Treatment with iodine pills - not only in Switzerland. Judgement for the assumption on costs; Jodtablettenverteilung auf dem Pruefstand - nicht nur in der Schweiz. Zum Urteil des Schweizer Bundesverwaltungsgerichts zur Kostentragung fuer die Jodtablettenverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-02-15

    During a severe accident in a nuclear power plant the release of radioactive iodine is possible. A precautionary measure to prevent man from the reception of radioactive iodine is an early and right taking of non-radioactive iodine pills. After the accident in Fukushima iodine tablets have been stored by authorities as an precautionary measures. In the case of an accident, a quick distribution should be possible. One question which arises are the costs bearers of such a storage. Are nuclear power plant operators responsible for such measures, carried out by the authorities?.

  16. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  17. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  18. Signatures of synchrony in pairwise count correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Tchumatchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerted neural activity can reflect specific features of sensory stimuli or behavioral tasks. Correlation coefficients and count correlations are frequently used to measure correlations between neurons, design synthetic spike trains and build population models. But are correlation coefficients always a reliable measure of input correlations? Here, we consider a stochastic model for the generation of correlated spike sequences which replicate neuronal pairwise correlations in many important aspects. We investigate under which conditions the correlation coefficients reflect the degree of input synchrony and when they can be used to build population models. We find that correlation coefficients can be a poor indicator of input synchrony for some cases of input correlations. In particular, count correlations computed for large time bins can vanish despite the presence of input correlations. These findings suggest that network models or potential coding schemes of neural population activity need to incorporate temporal properties of correlated inputs and take into consideration the regimes of firing rates and correlation strengths to ensure that their building blocks are an unambiguous measures of synchrony.

  19. B Decay Charm Counting Via Topological Vertexing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Aaron Sze Ting

    2002-01-01

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97–98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB→0D X=3.7±1.1 stat±2.1 syst% BRB→2D X=17.9±1.4 stat±3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 ± 0.010 ± 0.040 ± 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  20. B Decay Charm Counting via Topological Vertexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S

    2001-10-15

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97-98 run. The method takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BR(B {yields} (0D)X) = (3.7{+-}1.1(stat) {+-} 2.1(syst))%; and BR(B {yields} (2D)X) = (17.9{+-}1.4(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst))% where B and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, N{sub c} = 1.188 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.